WorldWideScience

Sample records for holes gravity nuclear

  1. Holographic Lovelock gravities and black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Kulaxizi, M.; Parnachev, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study holographic implications of Lovelock gravities in AdS spacetimes. For a generic Lovelock gravity in arbitrary spacetime dimensions we formulate the existence condition of asymptotically AdS black holes. We consider small fluctuations around these black holes and determine the constraint on

  2. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  3. Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2015-05-22

    We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent.

  4. Black holes in pure Lovelock gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Lovelock gravity is a fascinating extension of general relativity, whose action consists of dimensionally extended Euler densities. Compared to other higher order derivative gravity theories, Lovelock gravity is attractive since it has a lot of remarkable features such as the fact that there are no more than second order derivatives with respect to the metric in its equations of motion, and that the theory is free of ghosts. Recently, in the study of black strings and black branes in Lovelock gravity, a special class of Lovelock gravity is considered, which is named pure Lovelock gravity, where only one Euler density term exists. In this paper we study black hole solutions in the special class of Lovelock gravity and associated thermodynamic properties. Some interesting features are found, which are quite different from the corresponding ones in general relativity

  5. Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Rachwał, Lesław [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Porey, Shiladitya, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: lmodesto@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: shilp@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rachwal@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, 208016 Kanpur (India)

    2017-09-01

    We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.

  6. Testing quantum gravity through dumb holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhassan, Behnam, E-mail: b.pourhassan@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ”Frederico II” Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Via F. Crispi 7, I-67100 L’ Aquila (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    We propose a method to test the effects of quantum fluctuations on black holes by analyzing the effects of thermal fluctuations on dumb holes, the analogs for black holes. The proposal is based on the Jacobson formalism, where the Einstein field equations are viewed as thermodynamical relations, and so the quantum fluctuations are generated from the thermal fluctuations. It is well known that all approaches to quantum gravity generate logarithmic corrections to the entropy of a black hole and the coefficient of this term varies according to the different approaches to the quantum gravity. It is possible to demonstrate that such logarithmic terms are also generated from thermal fluctuations in dumb holes. In this paper, we claim that it is possible to experimentally test such corrections for dumb holes, and also obtain the correct coefficient for them. This fact can then be used to predict the effects of quantum fluctuations on realistic black holes, and so it can also be used, in principle, to experimentally test the different approaches to quantum gravity.

  7. Black holes in higher derivative gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S

    2015-05-01

    Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.

  8. Light, Gravity and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, David

    2012-01-01

    The nature of light and how it is affected by gravity is discussed. Einstein's prediction of the deflection of light as it passes near the Sun was verified by observations made during the solar eclipse of 1919. Another prediction was that of gravitational redshift, which occurs when light emitted by a star loses energy in the gravitational field…

  9. Black holes in loop quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    This is a review of results on black hole physics in the context of loop quantum gravity. The key feature underlying these results is the discreteness of geometric quantities at the Planck scale predicted by this approach to quantum gravity. Quantum discreteness follows directly from the canonical quantization prescription when applied to the action of general relativity that is suitable for the coupling of gravity with gauge fields, and especially with fermions. Planckian discreteness and causal considerations provide the basic structure for the understanding of the thermal properties of black holes close to equilibrium. Discreteness also provides a fresh new look at more (at the moment) speculative issues, such as those concerning the fate of information in black hole evaporation. The hypothesis of discreteness leads, also, to interesting phenomenology with possible observational consequences. The theory of loop quantum gravity is a developing program; this review reports its achievements and open questions in a pedagogical manner, with an emphasis on quantum aspects of black hole physics.

  10. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect

  11. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: acd@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jha@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu [Centre for Particle Theory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  12. Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models

  13. Charged black holes in quadratic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyjasek, Jerzy; Tryniecki, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Iterative solutions to fourth-order gravity describing static and electrically charged black holes are constructed. The obtained solutions are parametrized by two integration constants which are related to the electric charge and the exact location of the event horizon. Special emphasis is put on the extremal black holes. It is explicitly demonstrated that in the extremal limit the exact location of the (degenerate) event horizon is given by r + =|e|. Similarly to the classical Reissner-Nordstroem solution, the near-horizon geometry of the charged black holes in quadratic gravity, when expanded into the whole manifold, is simply that of Bertotti and Robinson. Similar considerations have been carried out for boundary conditions of the second type which employ the electric charge and the mass of the system as seen by a distant observer. The relations between results obtained within the framework of each method are briefly discussed

  14. The Black Hole Radiation in Massive Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Arraut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We apply the Bogoliubov transformations in order to connect two different vacuums, one located at past infinity and another located at future infinity around a black hole inside the scenario of the nonlinear theory of massive gravity. The presence of the extra degrees of freedom changes the behavior of the logarithmic singularity and, as a consequence, the relation between the two Bogoliubov coefficients. This has an effect on the number of particles, or equivalently, on the black hole temperature perceived by observers defining the time arbitrarily.

  15. Black holes as quantum gravity condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2018-03-01

    We model spherically symmetric black holes within the group field theory formalism for quantum gravity via generalized condensate states, involving sums over arbitrarily refined graphs (dual to three-dimensional triangulations). The construction relies heavily on both the combinatorial tools of random tensor models and the quantum geometric data of loop quantum gravity, both part of the group field theory formalism. Armed with the detailed microscopic structure, we compute the entropy associated with the black hole horizon, which turns out to be equivalently the Boltzmann entropy of its microscopic degrees of freedom and the entanglement entropy between the inside and outside regions. We recover the area law under very general conditions, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking formula. The result is also shown to be generically independent of any specific value of the Immirzi parameter.

  16. Black holes, strings and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldacena, Juan

    2001-01-01

    Most physical phenomena can be explained by 'Quantum Mechanics' and 'Einstein Theory of Gravity'. Quantum mechanics is needed for descriptions involving small objects (atoms, nuclei, molecules, etc.) whereas gravity is required for understanding big objects (planets, galaxies). Since, usually small objects are light while big ones are heavy, when one theory is called for, the other is not relevant. Interestingly enough, if we pretend to use both theories simultaneously, for instance when small and very heavy objects are considered (as those in the beginning of our universe), we find that they are mutually inconsistent. Thus, a new theory, so called 'Quantum Gravity', is needed. This works comments on above inconsistencies and indicates how the string theory, rather than a pointlike particle theory, could provide us with a quantum theory of gravity. Though a discussion of black holes it shows us how a string theory on certain space, ca be equivalently described by a particle theory on its boundary, like a sort of hologram. (author)

  17. Loop quantum gravity and black hole entropy quantization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using the spin networks and the asymptotic quasinormal mode frequencies of black holes given by loop quantum gravity,the minimum horizon area gap is obtained.Then the quantum area spectrum of black holes is derived and the black hole entropy is a realized quantization.The results show that the black hole entropy given by loop quantum gravity is in full accord with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy with a suitable Immirzi.

  18. Action growth for black holes in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio

    2018-02-01

    The general form of the action growth for a large class of static black hole solutions in modified gravity which includes F (R ) -gravity models is computed. The cases of black hole solutions with nonconstant Ricci scalar are also considered, generalizing the results previously found and valid only for black holes with constant Ricci scalar. An argument is put forward to provide a physical interpretation of the results, which seem tightly connected with the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics.

  19. Gapless topological order, gravity, and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Alex; Jermyn, Adam S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we demonstrate that linearized gravity exhibits gapless topological order with an extensive ground state degeneracy. This phenomenon is closely related both to the topological order of the pyrochlore U (1 ) spin liquid and to recent work by Hawking and co-workers, who used the soft-photon and graviton theorems to demonstrate that the vacuum in linearized gravity is not unique. We first consider lattice models whose low-energy behavior is described by electromagnetism and linearized gravity, and then argue that the topological nature of these models carries over into the continuum. We demonstrate that these models can have many ground states without making assumptions about the topology of spacetime or about the high-energy nature of the theory, and show that the infinite family of symmetries described by Hawking and co-workers is simply the different topological sectors. We argue that in this context black holes appear as topological defects in the infrared theory, and that this suggests a potential approach to understanding both the firewall paradox and information encoding in gravitational theories. Finally, we use insights from the soft-boson theorems to make connections between deconfined gauge theories with continuous gauge groups and gapless topological order.

  20. The loop quantum gravity black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Jorge; Gambini, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    We study the quantization of vacuum spherically symmetric space-times. We use variables adapted to spherical symmetry but do not fix the gauge further. One is left with a diffeomorphism constraint and a Hamiltonian constraint. Rescaling the latter turns the constraint algebra into a true Lie algebra and allows to implement the Dirac quantization procedure. We find exactly the physical states annihilated by all constraints using loop quantum gravity techniques. The space-time metric can be recovered as an evolving constant of the motion in terms of Dirac observables. The singularity is resolved as was anticipated in previous semiclassical studies. The quantum theory has new observables with respect to the classical theory that may play a role in discussions of ``firewalls'' during black hole evaporation.

  1. Scale-Invariant Rotating Black Holes in Quadratic Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Cognola

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Black hole solutions in pure quadratic theories of gravity are interesting since they allow the formulation of a set of scale-invariant thermodynamics laws. Recently, we have proven that static scale-invariant black holes have a well-defined entropy, which characterizes equivalent classes of solutions. In this paper, we generalize these results and explore the thermodynamics of rotating black holes in pure quadratic gravity.

  2. Stability issues of black hole in non-local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai

    2018-04-01

    We discuss stability issues of Schwarzschild black hole in non-local gravity. It is shown that the stability analysis of black hole for the unitary and renormalizable non-local gravity with γ2 = - 2γ0 cannot be performed in the Lichnerowicz operator approach. On the other hand, for the unitary and non-renormalizable case with γ2 = 0, the black hole is stable against the metric perturbations. For non-unitary and renormalizable local gravity with γ2 = - 2γ0 = const (fourth-order gravity), the small black holes are unstable against the metric perturbations. This implies that what makes the problem difficult in stability analysis of black hole is the simultaneous requirement of unitarity and renormalizability around the Minkowski spacetime.

  3. Quantum-gravity fluctuations and the black-hole temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-05-15

    Bekenstein has put forward the idea that, in a quantum theory of gravity, a black hole should have a discrete energy spectrum with concomitant discrete line emission. The quantized black-hole radiation spectrum is expected to be very different from Hawking's semi-classical prediction of a thermal black-hole radiation spectrum. One naturally wonders: Is it possible to reconcile the discrete quantum spectrum suggested by Bekenstein with the continuous semi-classical spectrum suggested by Hawking? In order to address this fundamental question, in this essay we shall consider the zero-point quantum-gravity fluctuations of the black-hole spacetime. In a quantum theory of gravity, these spacetime fluctuations are closely related to the characteristic gravitational resonances of the corresponding black-hole spacetime. Assuming that the energy of the black-hole radiation stems from these zero-point quantum-gravity fluctuations of the black-hole spacetime, we derive the effective temperature of the quantized black-hole radiation spectrum. Remarkably, it is shown that this characteristic temperature of the discrete (quantized) black-hole radiation agrees with the well-known Hawking temperature of the continuous (semi-classical) black-hole spectrum. (orig.)

  4. Quantum-gravity fluctuations and the black-hole temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    Bekenstein has put forward the idea that, in a quantum theory of gravity, a black hole should have a discrete energy spectrum with concomitant discrete line emission. The quantized black-hole radiation spectrum is expected to be very different from Hawking's semi-classical prediction of a thermal black-hole radiation spectrum. One naturally wonders: Is it possible to reconcile the discrete quantum spectrum suggested by Bekenstein with the continuous semi-classical spectrum suggested by Hawking? In order to address this fundamental question, in this essay we shall consider the zero-point quantum-gravity fluctuations of the black-hole spacetime. In a quantum theory of gravity, these spacetime fluctuations are closely related to the characteristic gravitational resonances of the corresponding black-hole spacetime. Assuming that the energy of the black-hole radiation stems from these zero-point quantum-gravity fluctuations of the black-hole spacetime, we derive the effective temperature of the quantized black-hole radiation spectrum. Remarkably, it is shown that this characteristic temperature of the discrete (quantized) black-hole radiation agrees with the well-known Hawking temperature of the continuous (semi-classical) black-hole spectrum. (orig.)

  5. A black hole with torsion in 5D Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, B.; Simić, D.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze static spherically symmetric solutions of five dimensional (5D) Lovelock gravity in the first order formulation. In the Riemannian sector, when torsion vanishes, the Boulware–Deser black hole represents a unique static spherically symmetric black hole solution for the generic choice of the Lagrangian parameters. We show that a special choice of the Lagrangian parameters, different from the Lovelock Chern–Simons gravity, leads to the existence of a static black hole solution with torsion, the metric of which is asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). We calculate the conserved charges and thermodynamical quantities of this black hole solution.

  6. Black holes in massive gravity as heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.; Liu, H.; Meng, X.-H.

    2018-06-01

    The paper at hand studies the heat engine provided by black holes in the presence of massive gravity. The main motivation is to investigate the effects of massive gravity on different properties of the heat engine. It will be shown that massive gravity parameters modify the efficiency of engine on a significant level. Furthermore, it will be pointed out that it is possible to have a heat engine for non-spherical black holes in massive gravity, and therefore, we will study the effects of horizon topology on the properties of heat engine. Surprisingly, it will be shown that the highest efficiency for the heat engine belongs to black holes with the hyperbolic horizon, while the lowest one belongs to the spherical black holes.

  7. Strong Gravity Effects of Rotating Black Holes: Quasiperiodic Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Aliev, Alikram N.; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir

    2012-01-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: The orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which ...

  8. Thermodynamic phase transition of a black hole in rainbow gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Wen Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, using the rainbow functions that were proposed by Magueijo and Smolin, we investigate the thermodynamics and the phase transition of rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. First, we calculate the rainbow gravity corrected Hawking temperature. From this modification, we then derive the local temperature, free energy, and other thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Finally, we analyze the critical behavior, thermodynamic stability, and phase transition of the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. The results show that the rainbow gravity can stop the Hawking radiation in the final stages of black holes' evolution and lead to the remnants of black holes. Furthermore, one can observe that the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole has one first-order phase transition, two second-order phase transitions, and three Hawking–Page-type phase transitions in the framework of rainbow gravity theory.

  9. Black hole mass and angular momentum in topologically massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchareb, Adel; Clement, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    We extend the Abbott-Deser-Tekin approach to the computation of the Killing charge for a solution of topologically massive gravity (TMG) linearized around an arbitrary background. This is then applied to evaluate the mass and angular momentum of black hole solutions of TMG with non-constant curvature asymptotics. The resulting values, together with the appropriate black hole entropy, fit nicely into the first law of black hole thermodynamics

  10. Black hole mass and angular momentum in topologically massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchareb, Adel; Clement, Gerard [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France)

    2007-11-21

    We extend the Abbott-Deser-Tekin approach to the computation of the Killing charge for a solution of topologically massive gravity (TMG) linearized around an arbitrary background. This is then applied to evaluate the mass and angular momentum of black hole solutions of TMG with non-constant curvature asymptotics. The resulting values, together with the appropriate black hole entropy, fit nicely into the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  11. Astrophysical flows near [Formula: see text] gravity black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayyesha K; Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Jamil, Mubasher

    In this paper, we study the accretion process for fluids flowing near a black hole in the context of f ( T ) teleparallel gravity. Specifically, by performing a dynamical analysis by a Hamiltonian system, we are able to find the sonic points. After that, we consider different isothermal test fluids in order to study the accretion process when they are falling onto the black hole. We find that these flows can be classified according to the equation of state and the black hole features. Results are compared in f ( T ) and f ( R ) gravity.

  12. Astrophysical flows near f(T) gravity black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Baglica Campus, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we study the accretion process for fluids flowing near a black hole in the context of f(T) teleparallel gravity. Specifically, by performing a dynamical analysis by a Hamiltonian system, we are able to find the sonic points. After that, we consider different isothermal test fluids in order to study the accretion process when they are falling onto the black hole. We find that these flows can be classified according to the equation of state and the black hole features. Results are compared in f(T) and f(R) gravity. (orig.)

  13. Noncommutative geometry inspired black holes in Rastall gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Meng-Sen [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Datong (China); Shanxi Datong University, Department of Physics, Datong (China); Zhao, Ren [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Datong (China)

    2017-09-15

    Under two different metric ansatzes, the noncommutative geometry inspired black holes (NCBH) in the framework of Rastall gravity are derived and analyzed. We consider the fluid-type matter with the Gaussian-distribution smeared mass density. Taking a Schwarzschild-like metric ansatz, it is shown that the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole (NCSBH) in Rastall gravity, unlike its counterpart in general relativity (GR), is not a regular black hole. It has at most one event horizon. After showing a finite maximal temperature, the black hole will leave behind a point-like massive remnant at zero temperature. Considering a more general metric ansatz and a special equation of state of the matter, we also find a regular NCBH in Rastall gravity, which has a similar geometric structure and temperature to that of NCSBH in GR. (orig.)

  14. A Lifshitz black hole in four dimensional R2 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Liu Yan; Sun Yawen

    2009-01-01

    We consider a higher derivative gravity theory in four dimensions with a negative cosmological constant and show that vacuum solutions of both Lifshitz type and Schroedinger type with arbitrary dynamical exponent z exist in this system. Then we find an analytic black hole solution which asymptotes to the vacuum Lifshitz solution with z = 3/2 at a specific value of the coupling constant. We analyze the thermodynamic behavior of this black hole and find that the black hole has zero entropy while non-zero temperature, which is very similar to the case of BTZ black holes in new massive gravity at a specific coupling. In addition, we find that the three dimensional Lifshitz black hole recently found by E. Ayon-Beato et al. has a negative entropy and mass when the Newton constant is taken to be positive.

  15. Low-scale gravity black holes at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Regos, E; Gamsizkan, H; Trocsanyi, Z

    2009-01-01

    We search for extra dimensions by looking for black holes at LHC. Theoretical investigations provide the basis for the collider experiments. We use black hole generators to simulate the experimental signatures (colour, charge, spectrum of emitted particles, missing transverse energy) of black holes at LHC in models with TeV scale quantum gravity, rotation, fermion splitting, brane tension and Hawking radiation. We implement the extra-dimensional simulations at the CMS data analysis and test further beyond standard models of black holes too.

  16. Thermodynamics of black-holes in Brans-Dicke gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.

    1997-01-01

    It is recently been argued that non-trivial Brans-Dicke black-hole solutions different from the usual Schwarzschild solution could exist. The authors attempt here to 'censor' these non-trivial Brans-Dicke black-hole solutions by examining their thermodynamics properties. Quantities like Hawking temperature and entropy of the black holes are computed. The analysis of the behaviors of these thermodynamic quantities appears to show that even in Brans-Dicke gravity, the usual Schwarzschild space-time turns out to be the only physically relevant uncharged black-hole solution

  17. Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.

  18. Charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir [University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Panah, B.E. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we present charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We study the geometric and thermodynamic properties of black hole solutions. We also investigate the effects of rainbow functions on different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. Then we demonstrate that the first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. After that, we investigate thermal stability of the solutions using the canonical ensemble and analyze the effects of different rainbow functions on the thermal stability. In addition, we present some arguments regarding the bound and phase transition points in context of geometrical thermodynamics. We also study the phase transition in extended phase space in which the cosmological constant is treated as the thermodynamic pressure. Finally, we use another approach to calculate and demonstrate that the obtained critical points in extended phase space represent a second order phase transition for these black holes. (orig.)

  19. Probing loop quantum gravity with evaporating black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, A; Cailleteau, T; Cao, X; Diaz-Polo, J; Grain, J

    2011-12-16

    This Letter aims at showing that the observation of evaporating black holes should allow the usual Hawking behavior to be distinguished from loop quantum gravity (LQG) expectations. We present a full Monte Carlo simulation of the evaporation in LQG and statistical tests that discriminate between competing models. We conclude that contrarily to what was commonly thought, the discreteness of the area in LQG leads to characteristic features that qualify evaporating black holes as objects that could reveal quantum gravity footprints. © 2011 American Physical Society

  20. Notes on black holes and three dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados, Maximo

    1999-01-01

    In these notes we review some relevant results on 2+1 quantum gravity. These include the Chern-Simons formulation and its affine Kac-Moody symmetry, the asymptotic algebra of Brown and Henneaux, and the statistical mechanics description of 2+1 black holes. A brief introduction to the classical and semiclassical aspects of black holes is also included. The level of the notes is basic assuming only some knowledge on Statistical Mechanics, General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory

  1. Black hole state degeneracy in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agullo, Ivan; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    The combinatorial problem of counting the black hole quantum states within the isolated horizon framework in loop quantum gravity is analyzed. A qualitative understanding of the origin of the band structure shown by the degeneracy spectrum, which is responsible for the black hole entropy quantization, is reached. Even when motivated by simple considerations, this picture allows to obtain analytical expressions for the most relevant quantities associated to this effect

  2. Topologically nontrivial black holes in Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangkhah, N.

    2018-04-01

    We present the black hole solutions possessing horizon with nonconstant-curvature and additional scalar restrictions on the base manifold in Lovelock gravity coupled to Born-Infeld (BI) nonlinear electrodynamics. The asymptotic and near origin behavior of the metric is presented and we analyze different behaviors of the singularity. We find that, in contrast to the case of black hole solutions of BI-Lovelock gravity with constant curvature horizon and Maxwell-Lovelock gravity with non constant horizon which have only timelike singularities, spacelike, and timelike singularities may exist for BI-Lovelock black holes with nonconstant curvature horizon. By calculating the thermodynamic quantities, we study the effects of nonlinear electrodynamics via the Born-Infeld action. Stability analysis shows that black holes with positive sectional curvature, κ , possess an intermediate unstable phase and large and small black holes are stable. We see that while Ricci flat Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes having exotic horizons are stable in the presence of Maxwell field or either Born Infeld field with large born Infeld parameter β , unstable phase appears for smaller values of β , and therefore nonlinearity brings in the instability.

  3. Black holes in Lorentz-violating gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, Enrico; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry and the notion of light cones play a central role in the definition of horizons and the existence of black holes. Current observations provide strong indications that astrophysical black holes do exist in Nature. Here we explore what happens to the notion of a black hole in gravity theories where local Lorentz symmetry is violated, and discuss the relevant astrophysical implications. Einstein-aether theory and Hořava gravity are used as the theoretical background for addressing this question. We review earlier results about static, spherically symmetric black holes, which demonstrate that in Lorentz-violating theories there can be a new type of horizon and, hence, a new notion of black hole. We also present both known and new results on slowly rotating black holes in these theories, which provide insights on how generic these new horizons are. Finally, we discuss the differences between black holes in Lorentz-violating theories and in General Relativity, and assess to what extent they can be probed with present and future observations. (paper)

  4. Charged black holes in Hořava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiszewski, Stefan; Karch, Andreas; Robinson, Brandon; Sommer, David

    2014-01-01

    We explore static spherically symmetric black hole solutions allowing a bulk U(1) vector field in the khronometric formulation of Hořava gravity by way of Einstein-Æther. We examine analytic solutions and study numerical results in the limit that the khronon does not backreact on the metric

  5. Six-dimensional Yang black holes in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Lowe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the six-dimensional dilaton gravity Yang black holes of Bergshoeff, Gibbons and Townsend, which carry (1,-1) charge in SU(2)xSU(2) gauge group. We find what values of the asymptotic parameters (mass and scalar charge) lead to a regular horizon, and show that there are no regular solutions with an extremal horizon

  6. A rotating charged black hole solution in f (R) gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the context of f (R) theories of gravity, we address the problem of finding a rotating charged black hole solution in the case of constant curvature. A new metric is obtained by solving the field equations and we show that its behaviour is typical of a rotating charged source. In addition, we analyse the ...

  7. Black holes in quasi-topological gravity and conformal couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fierro, Octavio; Giribet, Gaston; Oliva, Julio

    2017-02-01

    Lovelock theory of gravity provides a tractable model to investigate the effects of higher-curvature terms in the context of AdS/CFT. Yielding second order, ghost-free field equations, this theory represents a minimal setup in which higher-order gravitational couplings in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces, including black holes, can be solved analytically. This however has an obvious limitation as in dimensions lower than seven, the contribution from cubic or higher curvature terms is merely topological. Therefore, in order to go beyond quadratic order and study higher terms in AdS5 analytically, one is compelled to look for other toy models. One such model is the so-called quasi-topological gravity, which, despite being a higher-derivative theory, provides a tractable setup with R 3 and R 4 terms. In this paper, we investigate AdS5 black holes in quasi-topological gravity. We consider the theory conformally coupled to matter and in presence of Abelian gauge fields. We show that charged black holes in AdS5 which, in addition, exhibit a backreaction of the matter fields on the geometry can be found explicitly in this theory. These solutions generalize the black hole solution of quasi-topological gravity and exist in a region of the parameter spaces consistent with the constraints coming from causality and other consistency conditions. They have finite conserved charges and exhibit non-trivial thermodynamical properties.

  8. Black holes in quasi-topological gravity and conformal couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fierro, Octavio; Giribet, Gaston; Oliva, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Lovelock theory of gravity provides a tractable model to investigate the effects of higher-curvature terms in the context of AdS/CFT. Yielding second order, ghost-free field equations, this theory represents a minimal setup in which higher-order gravitational couplings in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces, including black holes, can be solved analytically. This however has an obvious limitation as in dimensions lower than seven, the contribution from cubic or higher curvature terms is merely topological. Therefore, in order to go beyond quadratic order and study higher terms in AdS 5 analytically, one is compelled to look for other toy models. One such model is the so-called quasi-topological gravity, which, despite being a higher-derivative theory, provides a tractable setup with R 3 and R 4 terms. In this paper, we investigate AdS 5 black holes in quasi-topological gravity. We consider the theory conformally coupled to matter and in presence of Abelian gauge fields. We show that charged black holes in AdS 5 which, in addition, exhibit a backreaction of the matter fields on the geometry can be found explicitly in this theory. These solutions generalize the black hole solution of quasi-topological gravity and exist in a region of the parameter spaces consistent with the constraints coming from causality and other consistency conditions. They have finite conserved charges and exhibit non-trivial thermodynamical properties.

  9. Quantum gravity effects in black holes at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghi, G L; Casadio, R; Tronconi, A

    2007-01-01

    We study possible back-reaction and quantum gravity effects in the evaporation of black holes which could be produced at the LHC through a modification of the Hawking emission. The corrections are phenomenologically taken into account by employing a modified relation between the black hole mass and temperature. The usual assumption that black holes explode around 1 TeV is also released, and the evaporation process is extended to (possibly much) smaller final masses. We show that these effects could be observable for black holes produced with a relatively large mass and should therefore be taken into account when simulating micro-black hole events for the experiments planned at the LHC

  10. Gravity, quantum theory and the evaporation of black holes. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, D C [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India)

    1977-06-01

    Recent developments in blackhole physics are reviewed. It is pointed out that black hole thermodynamics is a theory of exceptional unity and elegance. Starting from the discovery of thermal emission from black holes (evaporation process) by Hawking, the four thermodynamic laws they obey, the nonzero temperature and entropy, angular momentum and charge of the black holes are dealt with. The influence of this thermodynamics on quantum theory and gravitation is discussed in relation to particle creation and quantum gravity. The formation and basic properties of black holes are described in terms of significant milestones. The decade-long development of black hole thermodynamics from 1963-73 is highlighted. The fundamental issues arising in particle physics as a result of these discoveries are discussed.

  11. Hoffmann-Infeld black-hole solutions in Lovelock gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, MatIas [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Giribet, Gaston [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-07-07

    Five-dimensional black holes are studied in Lovelock gravity coupled to Hoffmann-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics. It is shown that some of these solutions present a double peak behaviour of the temperature as a function of the horizon radius. This feature suggests that the evaporation process, though drastic for a period, leads to an eternal black-hole remnant. In fact, the form of the caloric curve corresponds to the existence of a plateau in the evaporation rate, which implies that black holes of intermediate scales turn out to be unstable. The geometrical aspects, such as the absence of conical singularity, the structure of horizons, etc are also discussed. In particular, solutions that are asymptotically AdS arise for special choices of the parameters, corresponding to charged solutions of five-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity.

  12. Hoffmann-Infeld black-hole solutions in Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, MatIas; Ferraro, Rafael; Giribet, Gaston

    2005-01-01

    Five-dimensional black holes are studied in Lovelock gravity coupled to Hoffmann-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics. It is shown that some of these solutions present a double peak behaviour of the temperature as a function of the horizon radius. This feature suggests that the evaporation process, though drastic for a period, leads to an eternal black-hole remnant. In fact, the form of the caloric curve corresponds to the existence of a plateau in the evaporation rate, which implies that black holes of intermediate scales turn out to be unstable. The geometrical aspects, such as the absence of conical singularity, the structure of horizons, etc are also discussed. In particular, solutions that are asymptotically AdS arise for special choices of the parameters, corresponding to charged solutions of five-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity

  13. Black hole production in particle collisions and higher curvature gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of black hole production in trans-Planckian particle collisions is revisited, in the context of large extra dimensions scenarios of TeV-scale gravity. The validity of the standard description of this process (two colliding Aichelburg-Sexl shock waves in classical Einstein gravity) is questioned. It is observed that the classical spacetime has large curvature along the transverse collision plane, as signaled by the curvature invariant (R μνλσ ) 2 . Thus quantum gravity effects, and in particular higher curvature corrections to the Einstein gravity, cannot be ignored. To give a specific example of what may happen, the collision is reanalyzed in the Einstein-Lanczos-Lovelock gravity theory, which modifies the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian by adding a particular 'Gauss-Bonnet' combination of curvature squared terms. The analysis uses a series of approximations, which reduce the field equations to a tractable second order nonlinear PDE of the Monge-Ampere type. It is found that the resulting spacetime is significantly different from the pure Einstein case in the future of the transverse collision plane. These considerations cast serious doubts on the geometric cross section estimate, which is based on the classical Einstein gravity description of the black hole production process

  14. Strong gravity effects in accreting black-hole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    I briefly review current status of studying effects of strong gravity in X-ray astronomy. Matter accreting onto a black hole probes the relativistic region of space-time and the high-energy radiation it produces should contain signatures of strong gravity effects. Current X-ray observations provide the evidence that the observed emission originates, in some cases, at a distance of a few gravitational radii from a black hole. Moreover, certain observations invoke interpretations favouring rapid rotation of the black hole. Some observational properties of black hole systems are supposed to result from the lack of a material surface in these objects. I consider further effects, specific for the black hole environment, which can be studied in X-ray data. Bulk motion Comptonization, which would directly reveal converging flow of matter plunging into a black hole, is unlikely to be important in formation of X-ray spectra. Similarly, Penrose processes are unlikely to give observational effects, although this issue has not been thoroughly studied so far for all plausible radiative mechanisms. (author)

  15. Delocalization of brane gravity by a bulk black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seahra, Sanjeev S; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the analogue of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld in the case when the bulk contains a black hole. Instead of the static vacuum Minkowski brane of the RS model, we have an Einstein static vacuum brane. We find that the presence of the bulk black hole has a dramatic effect on the gravity that is felt by brane observers. In the RS model, the 5D graviton has a stable localized zero mode that reproduces 4D gravity on the brane at low energies. With a bulk black hole, there is no such solution-gravity is delocalized by the 5D horizon. However, the brane does support a discrete spectrum of metastable massive bound states, or quasinormal modes, as was recently shown to be the case in the RS scenario. These states should dominate the high frequency component of the bulk gravity wave spectrum on a cosmological brane. We expect our results to generalize to any bulk spacetime containing a Killing horizon. (letter to the editor)

  16. Hairy black holes in cubic quasi-topological gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykaar, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, McGill University,3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hennigar, Robie A.; Mann, Robert B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-05-09

    We construct a class of five dimensional black hole solutions to cubic quasi-topological gravity with conformal scalar hair and study their thermodynamics. We find these black holes provide the second example of black hole λ-lines: a line of second order (continuous) phase transitions, akin to the fluid/superfluid transition of {sup 4}He. Examples of isolated critical points are found for spherical black holes, marking the first in the literature to date. We also find various novel and interesting phase structures, including an isolated critical point occurring in conjunction with a double reentrant phase transition. The AdS vacua of the theory are studied, finding ghost-free configurations where the scalar field takes on a non-zero constant value, in notable contrast to the five dimensional Lovelock case.

  17. Thermodynamic geometry of black holes in f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroushfar, Saheb; Saffari, Reza; Kamvar, Negin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider three types (static, static charged, and rotating charged) of black holes in f(R) gravity. We study the thermodynamical behavior, stability conditions, and phase transition of these black holes. It is shown that the number and type of phase transition points are related to different parameters, which shows the dependency of the stability conditions to these parameters. Also, we extend our study to different thermodynamic geometry methods (Ruppeiner, Weinhold, and GTD). Next, we investigate the compatibility of curvature scalar of geothermodynamic methods with phase transition points of the above black holes. In addition, we point out the effect of different values of the spacetime parameters on the stability conditions of mentioned black holes. (orig.)

  18. Black-hole decay and topological stability in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.M.C.S.; Soares, I.D.; Zanelli, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the context of Quantum Gravity, the evolution of Schwarzschild black-holes is studied. The superspace of the theory is restricted to a class of geometries that contains the Schwarzschild solution for different masses as well as other geometries with different topologies. It is shown that, black-holes are topologically stable under quantum fluctuations but unstable under quantum processes of emission and absorption of gravitons. It is found that, the probability of emission behaves as exp (- α (M f - M i ), where M i and M f are the masses associated to the initial and final states, respectively and α is a positive constant of the order of 1. As the black-hole looses mass it evolves towards a state corresponding to a black-hole of very small that cannot be distinguished from a pure graviton state. (author) [pt

  19. Toward explaining black hole entropy quantization in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlmann, Hanno

    2007-01-01

    In a remarkable numerical analysis of the spectrum of states for a spherically symmetric black hole in loop quantum gravity, Corichi, Diaz-Polo and Fernandez-Borja found that the entropy of the black hole horizon increases in what resembles discrete steps as a function of area. In the present article we reformulate the combinatorial problem of counting horizon states in terms of paths through a certain space. This formulation sheds some light on the origins of this steplike behavior of the entropy. In particular, using a few extra assumptions we arrive at a formula that reproduces the observed step length to a few tenths of a percent accuracy. However, in our reformulation the periodicity ultimately arises as a property of some complicated process, the properties of which, in turn, depend on the properties of the area spectrum in loop quantum gravity in a rather opaque way. Thus, in some sense, a deep explanation of the observed periodicity is still lacking

  20. Spacetime structure of an evaporating black hole in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, A.; Reuter, M.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of the leading quantum gravity effects on the dynamics of the Hawking evaporation process of a black hole is investigated. Its spacetime structure is described by a renormalization group improved Vaidya metric. Its event horizon, apparent horizon, and timelike limit surface are obtained by taking the scale dependence of Newton's constant into account. The emergence of a quantum ergosphere is discussed. The final state of the evaporation process is a cold, Planck size remnant

  1. Production of black holes in TeV-scale gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2002-12-01

    Copious production of microscopic black holes is one of the least model-dependent predictions of TeV-scale gravity scenarios. We review the arguments behind this assertion and discuss opportunities to track the striking associated signatures in the near future. These include searches at neutrino telescopes, such as AMANDA and RICE, at cosmic ray air shower facilities, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory, and at colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider. (orig.)

  2. Production of black holes in TeV-scale gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2003-01-01

    Copious production of microscopic black holes is one of the least model-dependent predictions of TeV-scale gravity scenarios. We review the arguments behind this assertion and discuss opportunities to track the striking associated signatures in the near future. These include searches at neutrino telescopes, such as AMANDA and RICE, at cosmic ray air shower facilities, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory, and at colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Coloured Black Holes in Higher Curvature String Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kanti, Panagiota

    1997-01-01

    We consider the combined Yang Mills-Dilaton-Gravity system in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet term as it appears in the $4D$ Effective Superstring Action. We give analytical arguments and demonstrate numerically the existence of black hole solutions with non-trivial dilaton and Yang Mills hair for the particular case of SU(2) gauge fields. The thermodynamical properties of the solutions are also discussed.

  4. Three-dimensional massive gravity and the bigravity black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados, Maximo; Theisen, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We study three-dimensional massive gravity formulated as a theory with two dynamical metrics, like the f-g theories of Isham-Salam and Strathdee. The action is parity preserving and has no higher derivative terms. The spectrum contains a single massive graviton. This theory has several features discussed recently in TMG and NMG. We find warped black holes, a critical point, and generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions.

  5. Black holes in quasi-topological gravity and conformal couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernicoff, Mariano [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Fierro, Octavio [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas,Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción,Alonso de Rivera 2850, Concepción (Chile); Giribet, Gaston [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University,Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliva, Julio [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2017-02-02

    Lovelock theory of gravity provides a tractable model to investigate the effects of higher-curvature terms in the context of AdS/CFT. Yielding second order, ghost-free field equations, this theory represents a minimal setup in which higher-order gravitational couplings in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces, including black holes, can be solved analytically. This however has an obvious limitation as in dimensions lower than seven, the contribution from cubic or higher curvature terms is merely topological. Therefore, in order to go beyond quadratic order and study higher terms in AdS{sub 5} analytically, one is compelled to look for other toy models. One such model is the so-called quasi-topological gravity, which, despite being a higher-derivative theory, provides a tractable setup with R{sup 3} and R{sup 4} terms. In this paper, we investigate AdS{sub 5} black holes in quasi-topological gravity. We consider the theory conformally coupled to matter and in presence of Abelian gauge fields. We show that charged black holes in AdS{sub 5} which, in addition, exhibit a backreaction of the matter fields on the geometry can be found explicitly in this theory. These solutions generalize the black hole solution of quasi-topological gravity and exist in a region of the parameter spaces consistent with the constraints coming from causality and other consistency conditions. They have finite conserved charges and exhibit non-trivial thermodynamical properties.

  6. Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Che-Yu [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Stanford University, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite. (orig.)

  7. Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Yu; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite.

  8. The Weak Gravity Conjecture and the axionic black hole paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Soler, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    In theories with a perturbatively massless 2-form (dual to an axion), a paradox may arise in the process of black hole evaporation. Schwarzschild black holes can support a non-trivial Wilson-line-type field, the integral of the 2-form around their horizon. After such an `axionic black hole' evaporates, the Wilson line must be supported by the corresponding 3-form field strength in the region formerly occupied by the black hole. In the limit of small axion decay-constant f, the energy required for this field configuration is too large. Thus, energy cannot be conserved in the process of black hole evaporation. The natural resolution of this paradox is through the presence of light strings, which allow the black hole to "shed" its axionic hair sufficiently early. This gives rise to a new Weak-Gravity-type argument in the 2-form context: small coupling, in this case f , enforces the presence of light strings or a low cutoff. We also discuss how this argument may be modified in situations where the weak coupling regime is achieved in the low-energy effective theory through an appropriate gauging of a model with a vector field and two 2-forms.

  9. Thermodynamics of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes in rainbow gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the charged three-dimensional Einstein's theory coupled to a dilatonic field has been considered in the rainbow gravity. The dilatonic potential has been written as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Four new classes of charged dilatonic rainbow black hole solutions, as the exact solution to the coupled field equations of the energy dependent space time, have been obtained. Two of them are correspond to the Coulomb's electric field and the others are consequences of a modified Coulomb's law. Total charge and mass as well as the entropy, temperature and electric potential of the new charged black holes have been calculated in the presence of rainbow functions. Although the thermodynamic quantities are affected by the rainbow functions, it has been found that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is still valid for all of the new black hole solutions. At the final stage, making use of the canonical ensemble method and regarding the black hole heat capacity, the thermal stability or phase transition of the new rainbow black hole solutions have been analyzed.

  10. Thermodynamics of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes in rainbow gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dehghani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the charged three-dimensional Einstein's theory coupled to a dilatonic field has been considered in the rainbow gravity. The dilatonic potential has been written as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Four new classes of charged dilatonic rainbow black hole solutions, as the exact solution to the coupled field equations of the energy dependent space time, have been obtained. Two of them are correspond to the Coulomb's electric field and the others are consequences of a modified Coulomb's law. Total charge and mass as well as the entropy, temperature and electric potential of the new charged black holes have been calculated in the presence of rainbow functions. Although the thermodynamic quantities are affected by the rainbow functions, it has been found that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is still valid for all of the new black hole solutions. At the final stage, making use of the canonical ensemble method and regarding the black hole heat capacity, the thermal stability or phase transition of the new rainbow black hole solutions have been analyzed.

  11. Quasinormal modes of black holes in Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Daiske; Soda, Jiro

    2016-02-01

    We study quasinormal modes of black holes in Lovelock gravity. We formulate the WKB method adapted to Lovelock gravity for the calculation of quasinormal frequencies (QNFs). As a demonstration, we calculate various QNFs of Lovelock black holes in seven and eight dimensions. We find that the QNFs show remarkable features depending on the coefficients of the Lovelock terms, the species of perturbations, and spacetime dimensions. In the case of the scalar field, when we increase the coefficient of the third order Lovelock term, the real part of QNFs increases, but the decay rate becomes small irrespective of the mass of the black hole. For small black holes, the decay rate ceases to depend on the Gauss-Bonnet term. In the case of tensor type perturbations of the metric field, the tendency of the real part of QNFs is opposite to that of the scalar field. The QNFs of vector type perturbations of the metric show no particular behavior. The behavior of QNFs of the scalar type perturbations of the metric field is similar to the vector type. However, available data are rather sparse, which indicates that the WKB method is not applicable to many models for this sector.

  12. Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2014-01-01

    We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermodynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the s-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This shows that the Gubser-Mitra conjecture holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity

  13. Quantum gravity removes classical singularities and shortens the life of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Vilkovisky, G.A.

    1979-07-01

    The problem of the gravitational collapse is considered in the framework of the quantum gravity effective action. It is shown that quantum gravity removes classical singularity and possibly shortens the lifetime of the black hole. (author)

  14. Semiclassical Loop Quantum Gravity and Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Dasgupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explore the origin of black hole thermodynamics using semiclassical states in loop quantum gravity. We re-examine the case of entropy using a density matrix for a coherent state and describe correlations across the horizon due to SU(2 intertwiners. We further show that Hawking radiation is a consequence of a non-Hermitian term in the evolution operator, which is necessary for entropy production or depletion at the horizon. This non-unitary evolution is also rooted in formulations of irreversible physics.

  15. Black supernovae and black holes in non-local gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen,72076 Tübingen (Germany); Malafarina, Daniele [Department of Physics, Nazarbayev University,010000 Astana (Kazakhstan); Modesto, Leonardo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-22

    In a previous paper, we studied the interior solution of a collapsing body in a non-local theory of gravity super-renormalizable at the quantum level. We found that the classical singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the body starts expanding. A black hole, strictly speaking, never forms. The gravitational collapse does not create an event horizon but only an apparent one for a finite time. In this paper, we solve the equations of motion assuming that the exterior solution is static. With such an assumption, we are able to reconstruct the solution in the whole spacetime, namely in both the exterior and interior regions. Now the gravitational collapse creates an event horizon in a finite comoving time, but the central singularity is approached in an infinite time. We argue that these black holes should be unstable, providing a link between the scenarios with and without black holes. Indeed, we find a non catastrophic ghost-instability of the metric in the exterior region. Interestingly, under certain conditions, the lifetime of our black holes exactly scales as the Hawking evaporation time.

  16. Topological black holes in Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Alinejadi, N.; Hendi, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present topological black holes of third order Lovelock gravity in the presence of cosmological constant and nonlinear electromagnetic Born-Infeld field. Depending on the metric parameters, these solutions may be interpreted as black hole solutions with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black hole or naked singularity. We investigate the thermodynamics of asymptotically flat solutions and show that the thermodynamic and conserved quantities of these black holes satisfy the first law of thermodynamic. We also endow the Ricci flat solutions with a global rotation and calculate the finite action and conserved quantities of these class of solutions by using the counterterm method. We compute the entropy through the use of the Gibbs-Duhem relation and find that the entropy obeys the area law. We obtain a Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of the entropy, the angular momenta, and the charge, and compute temperature, angular velocities, and electric potential and show that these thermodynamic quantities coincide with their values which are computed through the use of geometry. Finally, we perform a stability analysis for this class of solutions in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensemble and show that the presence of a nonlinear electromagnetic field and higher curvature terms has no effect on the stability of the black branes, and they are stable in the whole phase space

  17. Complexity growth rates for AdS black holes in massive gravity and f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wen-Di; Wei, Shao-Wen; Li, Yan-Yan; Liu, Yu-Xiao [Lanzhou University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-12-15

    The ''complexity = action'' duality states that the quantum complexity is equal to the action of the stationary AdS black hole within the Wheeler-DeWitt patch at late time approximation. We compute the action growth rates of the neutral and charged black holes in massive gravity and the neutral, charged and Kerr-Newman black holes in f(R) gravity to test this conjecture. Besides, we investigate the effects of the massive graviton terms, higher derivative terms and the topology of the black hole horizon on the complexity growth rate. (orig.)

  18. Effect of nuclear stars gravity on quasar radiation feedback on the parsec-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Hong; Bu, De-Fu

    2018-05-01

    It is often suggested that a super massive black hole is embedded in a nuclear bulge of size of a few 102 parsec . The nuclear stars gravity is not negligible near ˜10parsec. In order to study the effect of nuclear stars gravity on quasar radiation feedback on the parsec scale, we have simulated the parsec scale flows irradiated by a quasar by taking into account the gravitational potential of both the black hole and the nuclear star cluster. We find that the effect of nuclear stars gravity on the parsec-scale flows is related to the fraction of X-ray photons in quasar radiation. For the models in which the fraction of X-ray photons is not small (e.g. the X-ray photons contribute to 20% of the quasar radiation), the nuclear stars gravity is very helpful to collimate the outflows driven by UV photons, significantly weakens the outflow power at the outer boundary and significantly enhances the net accretion rate onto the black hole. For the models in which X-ray photons are significantly decreased (e.g. the X-ray photons contribute to 5% of the quasar radiation), the nuclear stars gravity can just slightly change properties of outflow and slightly enhance the net accretion rate onto the black hole.

  19. Spherical perturbations of hairy black holes in designer gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battarra, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    We study the spectrum of the scalar l = 0 quasi-normal frequencies of anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in four- and five-dimensional designer gravity theories of the Einstein-scalar type, arising as consistent truncations of N= 8 gauged supergravity. In the dual field theory, such hairy black holes represent thermal states in which the operator corresponding to the bulk scalar field is condensed, due to the multi-trace deformation associated with non-standard boundary conditions. We show that, in a particular class of models, the effective potential describing the vacua of the deformed dual theory can be identified, at large values of the condensate, with the deformation plus the conformal coupling of the condensate to the curvature of the boundary geometry. In this limit, we show that the least damped quasi-normal frequency of the corresponding hairy black holes can be accurately predicted by the curvature of the effective potential describing the field theory at finite entropy. (paper)

  20. Analytic continuation of black hole entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibril, Ben Achour; Mouchet, Amaury; Noui, Karim

    2015-01-01

    We define the analytic continuation of the number of black hole microstates in Loop Quantum Gravity to complex values of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ. This construction deeply relies on the link between black holes and Chern-Simons theory. Technically, the key point consists in writing the number of microstates as an integral in the complex plane of a holomorphic function, and to make use of complex analysis techniques to perform the analytic continuation. Then, we study the thermodynamical properties of the corresponding system (the black hole is viewed as a gas of indistinguishable punctures) in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble where the energy is defined à la Frodden-Gosh-Perez from the point of view of an observer located close to the horizon. The semi-classical limit occurs at the Unruh temperature T U associated to this local observer. When γ=±i, the entropy reproduces at the semi-classical limit the area law with quantum corrections. Furthermore, the quantum corrections are logarithmic provided that the chemical potential is fixed to the simple value μ=2T U .

  1. Computing black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity from a conformal field theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agulló, Iván; Borja, Enrique F.; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the analogy proposed by Witten between Chern-Simons and conformal field theories, we explore an alternative way of computing the entropy of a black hole starting from the isolated horizon framework in loop quantum gravity. The consistency of the result opens a window for the interplay between conformal field theory and the description of black holes in loop quantum gravity

  2. Quasinormal modes of modified gravity (MOG) black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Luciano; Mureika, Jonas; Moffat, John

    2018-04-01

    The Quasinormal modes (QNMs) for gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations are calculated in a Scalar-Tensor-Vector (Modified Gravity) spacetime, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without the need for dark matter. It is found that for the increasing model parameter α, both the real and imaginary parts of the QNMs decrease compared to those for a standard Schwarzschild black hole. On the other hand, when taking into account the 1 / (1 + α) mass re-scaling factor present in MOG, Im (ω) matches almost identically that of GR, while Re (ω) is higher. These results can be identified in the ringdown phase of massive compact object mergers, and are thus timely in light of the recent gravitational wave detections by LIGO.

  3. Black holes production in self-complete quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spallucci, Euro, E-mail: spallucci@ts.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Smailagic, Anais, E-mail: anais@ts.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2012-03-19

    A regular black hole model, which has been proposed by Hayward (2006) in , is reconsidered in the framework of higher dimensional TeV unification and self-complete quantum gravity scenario (Dvali and Gomez (2010) , Dvali, Folkerts and Germani (2010) , Spallucci and Ansoldi (2011) ). We point out the 'quantum' nature of these objects and compute their cross section production by taking into account the key role played by the existence of a minimal lengthl{sub 0}. We show that the threshold energy is related to l{sub 0}. We recover, in the high energy limit, the standard 'black-disk' form of the cross section, while it vanishes, below threshold, faster than any power of the invariant mass energy {radical}(-s).

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Canonical Gravity and Applications: Cosmology, Black Holes, and Quantum Gravity Canonical Gravity and Applications: Cosmology, Black Holes, and Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Viqar

    2012-03-01

    researchers in other areas who wish to learn about the canonical approach to gravity. However, given the brief chapter on quantization, the book would go well with a review paper, or parts of the other three quantum gravity books cited above. References [1] Kiefer C 2006 Quantum Gravity 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press) [2] Rovelli C 2007 Quantum Gravity (Cambridge University Press) [3] Thiemann T 2008 Modern Canonical Quantum Gravity (Cambridge University Press) [4] Posson E 2004 A Relativist's Toolkit: The Mathematics of Black-Hole Mechanics (Cambridge University Press) [5] Ryan M P and Shepley L C 1975 Homogeneous Relativistic Cosmology (Princeton University Press)

  5. Hawking radiation from a spherical loop quantum gravity black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    We introduce quantum field theory on quantum space-times techniques to characterize the quantum vacua as a first step toward studying black hole evaporation in spherical symmetry in loop quantum gravity and compute the Hawking radiation. We use as quantum space-time the recently introduced exact solution of the quantum Einstein equations in vacuum with spherical symmetry and consider a spherically symmetric test scalar field propagating on it. The use of loop quantum gravity techniques in the background space-time naturally regularizes the matter content, solving one of the main obstacles to back-reaction calculations in more traditional treatments. The discreteness of area leads to modifications of the quantum vacua, eliminating the trans-Planckian modes close to the horizon, which in turn eliminates all singularities from physical quantities, like the expectation value of the stress–energy tensor. Apart from this, the Boulware, Hartle–Hawking and Unruh vacua differ little from the treatment on a classical space-time. The asymptotic modes near scri are reproduced very well. We show that the Hawking radiation can be computed, leading to an expression similar to the conventional one but with a high frequency cutoff. Since many of the conclusions concern asymptotic behavior, where the spherical mode of the field behaves in a similar way as higher multipole modes do, the results can be readily generalized to non spherically symmetric fields. (paper)

  6. Extremal black holes in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNees, Robert; Stein, Leo C; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly rotating black hole (BH) solutions in theories beyond general relativity (GR) play a key role in experimental gravity, as they allow us to compute observables in extreme spacetimes that deviate from the predictions of GR. Such solutions are often difficult to find in beyond-general-relativity theories due to the inclusion of additional fields that couple to the metric nonlinearly and non-minimally. In this paper, we consider rotating BH solutions in one such theory, dynamical Chern–Simons (dCS) gravity, where the Einstein–Hilbert action is modified by the introduction of a dynamical scalar field that couples to the metric through the Pontryagin density. We treat dCS gravity as an effective field theory and work in the decoupling limit, where corrections are treated as small perturbations from GR. We perturb about the maximally rotating Kerr solution, the so-called extremal limit, and develop mathematical insight into the analysis techniques needed to construct solutions for generic spin. First we find closed-form, analytic expressions for the extremal scalar field, and then determine the trace of the metric perturbation, giving both in terms of Legendre decompositions. Retaining only the first three and four modes in the Legendre representation of the scalar field and the trace, respectively, suffices to ensure a fidelity of over 99% relative to full numerical solutions. The leading-order mode in the Legendre expansion of the trace of the metric perturbation contains a logarithmic divergence at the extremal Kerr horizon, which is likely to be unimportant as it occurs inside the perturbed dCS horizon. The techniques employed here should enable the construction of analytic, closed-form expressions for the scalar field and metric perturbations on a background with arbitrary rotation. (paper)

  7. UNIVERSE IN A BLACK HOLE IN EINSTEIN–CARTAN GRAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popławski, Nikodem, E-mail: NPoplawski@newhaven.edu [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of New Haven, 300 Boston Post Road, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The conservation law for the angular momentum in curved spacetime, consistent with relativistic quantum mechanics, requires that the antisymmetric part of the affine connection (torsion tensor) is a variable in the principle of least action. The coupling between the spin of elementary particles and torsion in the Einstein–Cartan theory of gravity generates gravitational repulsion at extremely high densities in fermionic matter, approximated as a spin fluid, and thus avoids the formation of singularities in black holes. The collapsing matter in a black hole should therefore bounce at a finite density and then expand into a new region of space on the other side of the event horizon, which may be regarded as a nonsingular, closed universe. We show that quantum particle production caused by an extremely high curvature near a bounce can create enormous amounts of matter, produce entropy, and generate a finite period of exponential expansion (inflation) of this universe. This scenario can thus explain inflation without a scalar field and reheating. We show that, depending on the particle production rate, such a universe may undergo several nonsingular bounces until it has enough matter to reach a size at which the cosmological constant starts cosmic acceleration. The last bounce can be regarded as the big bang of this universe.

  8. Isolated Horizons and Black Hole Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Diaz-Polo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the black hole entropy calculation in the framework of Loop Quantum Gravity based on the quasi-local definition of a black hole encoded in the isolated horizon formalism. We show, by means of the covariant phase space framework, the appearance in the conserved symplectic structure of a boundary term corresponding to a Chern-Simons theory on the horizon and present its quantization both in the U(1 gauge fixed version and in the fully SU(2 invariant one. We then describe the boundary degrees of freedom counting techniques developed for an infinite value of the Chern-Simons level case and, less rigorously, for the case of a finite value. This allows us to perform a comparison between the U(1 and SU(2 approaches and provide a state of the art analysis of their common features and different implications for the entropy calculations. In particular, we comment on different points of view regarding the nature of the horizon degrees of freedom and the role played by the Barbero-Immirzi parameter. We conclude by presenting some of the most recent results concerning possible observational tests for theory.

  9. Universe in a Black Hole in Einstein-Cartan Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popławski, Nikodem

    2016-12-01

    The conservation law for the angular momentum in curved spacetime, consistent with relativistic quantum mechanics, requires that the antisymmetric part of the affine connection (torsion tensor) is a variable in the principle of least action. The coupling between the spin of elementary particles and torsion in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravity generates gravitational repulsion at extremely high densities in fermionic matter, approximated as a spin fluid, and thus avoids the formation of singularities in black holes. The collapsing matter in a black hole should therefore bounce at a finite density and then expand into a new region of space on the other side of the event horizon, which may be regarded as a nonsingular, closed universe. We show that quantum particle production caused by an extremely high curvature near a bounce can create enormous amounts of matter, produce entropy, and generate a finite period of exponential expansion (inflation) of this universe. This scenario can thus explain inflation without a scalar field and reheating. We show that, depending on the particle production rate, such a universe may undergo several nonsingular bounces until it has enough matter to reach a size at which the cosmological constant starts cosmic acceleration. The last bounce can be regarded as the big bang of this universe.

  10. Black hole thermodynamics in Lovelock gravity's rainbow with (A)dS asymptote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein, E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, Ali, E-mail: ali.dehghani.phys@gmail.com [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we combine Lovelock gravity with gravity's rainbow to construct Lovelock gravity's rainbow. Considering the Lovelock gravity's rainbow coupled to linear and also nonlinear electromagnetic gauge fields, we present two new classes of topological black hole solutions. We compute conserved and thermodynamic quantities of these black holes (such as temperature, entropy, electric potential, charge and mass) and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. In order to study the thermal stability in canonical ensemble, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix and show in what regions there are thermally stable phases for black holes. Also, we discuss the dependence of thermodynamic behavior and thermal stability of black holes on rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the critical behavior of black holes in the extended phase space and study their interesting properties.

  11. Black hole thermodynamics in Lovelock gravity's rainbow with (AdS asymptote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hendi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we combine Lovelock gravity with gravity's rainbow to construct Lovelock gravity's rainbow. Considering the Lovelock gravity's rainbow coupled to linear and also nonlinear electromagnetic gauge fields, we present two new classes of topological black hole solutions. We compute conserved and thermodynamic quantities of these black holes (such as temperature, entropy, electric potential, charge and mass and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. In order to study the thermal stability in canonical ensemble, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix and show in what regions there are thermally stable phases for black holes. Also, we discuss the dependence of thermodynamic behavior and thermal stability of black holes on rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the critical behavior of black holes in the extended phase space and study their interesting properties.

  12. Black hole thermodynamics in Lovelock gravity's rainbow with (A)dS asymptote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Dehghani, Ali; Faizal, Mir

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we combine Lovelock gravity with gravity's rainbow to construct Lovelock gravity's rainbow. Considering the Lovelock gravity's rainbow coupled to linear and also nonlinear electromagnetic gauge fields, we present two new classes of topological black hole solutions. We compute conserved and thermodynamic quantities of these black holes (such as temperature, entropy, electric potential, charge and mass) and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. In order to study the thermal stability in canonical ensemble, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix and show in what regions there are thermally stable phases for black holes. Also, we discuss the dependence of thermodynamic behavior and thermal stability of black holes on rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the critical behavior of black holes in the extended phase space and study their interesting properties.

  13. Mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2018-05-01

    We perform the stability analysis of Schwarzschild-AdS (SAdS) black hole in the Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity. It shows that the Ricci tensor perturbations exhibit unstable modes for small black holes. We call this the mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole because the instability of small black holes arises from the massiveness in the linearized Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity, but not a feature of higher-order derivative theory giving ghost states. Also, we point out that the correlated stability conjecture holds for the SAdS black hole by computing the Wald entropy of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity.

  14. ADM mass and quasilocal energy of black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole, we introduce the isolated horizon to study the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity. This is because the KS black hole is more close to the Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole than the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We find the horizon and ADM masses by using the first law of thermodynamics and the area-law entropy. The mass parameter m is identified with the quasilocal energy at infinity. Accordingly, we discuss the phase transition between the KS and Schwarzschild black holes by considering the heat capacity and free energy.

  15. Black holes of dimensionally continued gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kun; Yang, Da-Bao

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, for dimensionally continued gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electromagnetic field, we construct topological black holes in diverse dimensions and construct dyonic black holes in general even dimensions. We study thermodynamics of the black holes and obtain first laws. We study thermal phase transitions of the black holes in T-S plane and find van der Waals-like phase transitions for even-dimensional spherical black holes, such phase transitions are not found for other types of black holes constructed in this paper.

  16. Energetics and optical properties of 6-dimensional rotating black hole in pure Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Atamurotov, Farruh; Dadhich, Naresh; Stuchlik, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    We study physical processes around a rotating black hole in pure Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity. In pure GB gravity, the gravitational potential has a slower fall-off as compared to the corresponding Einstein potential in the same dimension. It is therefore expected that the energetics of a pure GB black hole would be weaker, and our analysis bears out that the efficiency of energy extraction by the Penroseprocess is increased to 25.8 % and the particle acceleration is increased to 55.28 %; the optical shadow of the black hole is decreased. These are in principle distinguishing observable features of a pure GB black hole. (orig.)

  17. Absence of black holes at LHC due to gravity's rainbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed Farag; Faizal, Mir; Khalil, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of Planckian deformation of quantum gravity on the production of black holes at colliders using the framework of gravity's rainbow. We demonstrate that a black hole remnant exists for Schwarzschild black holes in higher dimensions using gravity's rainbow. The mass of this remnant is found to be greater than the energy scale at which experiments were performed at the LHC. We propose this as a possible explanation for the absence of black holes at the LHC. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible for black holes in six (and higher) dimensions to be produced at energy scales that will be accessible in the near future

  18. Absence of black holes at LHC due to gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Khalil, Mohammed M., E-mail: moh.m.khalil@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)

    2015-04-09

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of Planckian deformation of quantum gravity on the production of black holes at colliders using the framework of gravity's rainbow. We demonstrate that a black hole remnant exists for Schwarzschild black holes in higher dimensions using gravity's rainbow. The mass of this remnant is found to be greater than the energy scale at which experiments were performed at the LHC. We propose this as a possible explanation for the absence of black holes at the LHC. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible for black holes in six (and higher) dimensions to be produced at energy scales that will be accessible in the near future.

  19. Horizons of radiating black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Deshkar, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    A Vaidya-based model of a radiating black hole is studied in a 5-dimensional Einstein gravity with Gauss-Bonnet contribution of quadratic curvature terms. The structure and locations of the apparent and event horizons of the radiating black hole are determined

  20. Phenomenology of bouncing black holes in quantum gravity: a closer look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrau, Aurélien; Bolliet, Boris; Weimer, Celine; Vidotto, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    It was recently shown that black holes could be bouncing stars as a consequence of quantum gravity. We investigate the astrophysical signals implied by this hypothesis, focusing on primordial black holes. We consider different possible bounce times and study the integrated diffuse emission

  1. Gravity's Relentless Pull : An interactive, multimedia website about black holes for Education and Public Outreach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, R. P. van der; Schaller, D.; Kleijn, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We have created a website, called "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull", which explains the physics and astronomy of black holes for a general audience. The site emphasizes user participation and is rich in animations and astronomical imagery. It won the top prize of the 2005 Pirelli

  2. Phase transition and thermodynamic stability of topological black holes in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Liu, Yan-Song

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of horizon thermodynamics, we study the thermodynamic stability and P-V criticality of topological black holes constructed in Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity without the detailed-balance condition (with general ɛ). In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, we do not need the concrete black hole solution (the metric function) and the concrete matter fields. It is shown that the HL black hole for k=0 is always thermodynamically stable. For k=1 , the thermodynamic behaviors and P-V criticality of the HL black hole are similar to those of RN-AdS black hole for some \

  3. Taub-NUT black holes in third order Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Dehghani, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the existence of Taub-NUT solutions in third order Lovelock gravity with cosmological constant, and obtain the general form of these solutions in eight dimensions. We find that, as in the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity and in contrast with the Taub-NUT solutions of Einstein gravity, the metric function depends on the specific form of the base factors on which one constructs the circle fibration. Thus, one may say that the independence of the NUT solutions on the geometry of the base space is not a robust feature of all generally covariant theories of gravity and is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We find that when Einstein gravity admits non-extremal NUT solutions with no curvature singularity at r=N, then there exists a non-extremal NUT solution in third order Lovelock gravity. In 8-dimensional spacetime, this happens when the metric of the base space is chosen to be CP 3 . Indeed, third order Lovelock gravity does not admit non-extreme NUT solutions with any other base space. This is another property which is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We also find that the third order Lovelock gravity admits extremal NUT solution when the base space is T 2 xT 2 xT 2 or S 2 xT 2 xT 2 . We have extended these observations to two conjectures about the existence of NUT solutions in Lovelock gravity in any even-dimensional spacetime

  4. Scalar hair around charged black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Nicolás; Landea, Ignacio Salazar

    2018-02-01

    We explore charged black hole solutions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in five dimensions, with a charged scalar hair. We interpret such hairy black holes as the final state of the superradiant instability previously reported for this system. We explore the relation of the hairy black hole solutions with the nonbackreacting quasibound states and scalar clouds, as well as with the boson star solutions.

  5. Formation and evaporation of an electrically charged black hole in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany); Modesto, Leonardo [Southern University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Shenzhen (China); Porey, Shiladitya [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Rachwal, Leslaw [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    Extending previous work on the formation and the evaporation of black holes in conformal gravity, in the present paper we study the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric and electrically charged thin shell of radiation. The process creates a singularity-free black hole. Assuming that in the evaporation process the charge Q is constant, the final product of the evaporation is an extremal remnant with M = Q, which is reached in an infinite amount of time. We also discuss the issue of singularity and thermodynamics of black holes in Weyl's conformal gravity. (orig.)

  6. MicroBlack Holes Thermodynamics in the Presence of Quantum Gravity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Black hole thermodynamics is corrected in the presence of quantum gravity effects. Some phenomenological aspects of quantum gravity proposal can be addressed through generalized uncertainty principle (GUP which provides a perturbation framework to perform required modifications of the black hole quantities. In this paper, we consider the effects of both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum on the thermodynamics of TeV-scale black holes. We then extend our study to the case that there are all natural cutoffs as minimal length, minimal momentum, and maximal momentum simultaneously. We also generalize our study to the model universes with large extra dimensions (LED. In this framework existence of black holes remnants as a possible candidate for dark matter is discussed. We study probability of black hole production in the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC and we show this rate decreasing for sufficiently large values of the GUP parameter.

  7. Anomalies and Hawking fluxes from the black holes of topologically massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porfyriadis, Achilleas P. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: apporfyr@mit.edu

    2009-05-11

    The anomaly cancellation method proposed by Wilczek et al. is applied to the black holes of topologically massive gravity (TMG) and topologically massive gravito-electrodynamics (TMGE). Thus the Hawking temperature and fluxes of the ACL and ACGL black holes are found. The Hawking temperatures obtained agree with the surface gravity formula. Both black holes are rotating and this gives rise to appropriate terms in the effective U(1) gauge field of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional theory. It is found that the terms in this U(1) gauge field correspond exactly to the correct angular velocities on the horizon of both black holes as well as the correct electrostatic potential of the ACGL black hole. So the results for the Hawking fluxes derived here from the anomaly cancellation method, are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution.

  8. The current ability to test theories of gravity with black hole shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Porth, Oliver; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Olivares, Hector; Falcke, Heino; Kramer, Michael; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2018-04-01

    Our Galactic Centre, Sagittarius A*, is believed to harbour a supermassive black hole, as suggested by observations tracking individual orbiting stars1,2. Upcoming submillimetre very-long baseline interferometry images of Sagittarius A* carried out by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration (EHTC)3,4 are expected to provide critical evidence for the existence of this supermassive black hole5,6. We assess our present ability to use EHTC images to determine whether they correspond to a Kerr black hole as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity or to a black hole in alternative theories of gravity. To this end, we perform general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations and use general-relativistic radiative-transfer calculations to generate synthetic shadow images of a magnetized accretion flow onto a Kerr black hole. In addition, we perform these simulations and calculations for a dilaton black hole, which we take as a representative solution of an alternative theory of gravity. Adopting the very-long baseline interferometry configuration from the 2017 EHTC campaign, we find that it could be extremely difficult to distinguish between black holes from different theories of gravity, thus highlighting that great caution is needed when interpreting black hole images as tests of general relativity.

  9. Gauge-Gravity Duality and the Black Hole Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolf, Donald; Polchinski, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    We present a further argument that typical black holes with field theory duals have firewalls at the horizon. This argument makes no reference to entanglement between the black hole and any distant system, and so is not evaded by identifying degrees of freedom inside the black hole with those outside. We also address the Einstein-Rosen=Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen conjecture of Maldacena and Susskind, arguing that the correlations in generic highly entangled states cannot be geometrized as a smooth wormhole.

  10. Classical and quantum gravity of brane black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Ross, Simon F.; Zegers, Robin

    2008-01-01

    We test the holographic conjecture of brane black holes: that a full classical 5D solution will correspond to a quantum corrected 4D black hole. Using the Schwarzschild-AdS black string, we compare the braneworld back reaction at strong coupling with the calculation of the quantum stress tensor on Schwarzschild-AdS 4 at weak coupling. The two calculations give different results and provide evidence that the stress tensor at strong coupling is indeed different to the weak coupling calculations, and hence does not conform to our notion of a quantum corrected black hole. We comment on the implications for an asymptotically flat black hole.

  11. Planckian charged black holes in ultraviolet self-complete quantum gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the role of the charge within the self-complete quantum gravity paradigm. By studying the classicalization of generic ultraviolet improved charged black hole solutions around the Planck scale, we showed that the charge introduces important differences with respect to the neutral case. First, there exists a family of black hole parameters fulfilling the particle-black hole condition. Second, there is no extremal particle-black hole solution but quasi extremal charged particle-black holes at the best. We showed that the Hawking emission disrupts the condition of particle-black hole. By analyzing the Schwinger pair production mechanism, the charge is quickly shed and the particle-black hole condition can ultimately be restored in a cooling down phase towards a zero temperature configuration, provided non-classical effects are taken into account.

  12. Planckian charged black holes in ultraviolet self-complete quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Piero

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of the role of the charge within the self-complete quantum gravity paradigm. By studying the classicalization of generic ultraviolet improved charged black hole solutions around the Planck scale, we showed that the charge introduces important differences with respect to the neutral case. First, there exists a family of black hole parameters fulfilling the particle-black hole condition. Second, there is no extremal particle-black hole solution but quasi extremal charged particle-black holes at the best. We showed that the Hawking emission disrupts the condition of particle-black hole. By analyzing the Schwinger pair production mechanism, the charge is quickly shed and the particle-black hole condition can ultimately be restored in a cooling down phase towards a zero temperature configuration, provided non-classical effects are taken into account.

  13. Hawking Tunneling Radiation of Black Holes in Deformed Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xiaoxiong; Li Ling

    2011-01-01

    Tunneling of scalar particles and Dirac particles from a black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity is discussed in this paper. We consider the case that the dynamical coupling constant λ =1, when it reduces to Einstein's General Relativity at large scales and the black hole behaves like the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. The result shows that though the black hole entropy bears logarithmic correction, the tunneling probability is still related to its differences for the scalar particles and Dirac particles. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  14. Nature of Microscopic Black Holes and Gravity in Theories with Particle Species

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2010-01-01

    Relying solely on unitarity and the consistency with large-distance black hole physics, we derive model-independent properties of the microscopic black holes and of short-distance gravity in theories with N particle species. In this class of theories black holes can be as light as M_{Planck}/\\sqrt{N} and be produced in particle collisions above this energy. We show, that the micro black holes must come in the same variety as the species do, although their label is not associated with any conserved charge measurable at large distances. In contrast with big Schwarzschildian ones, the evaporation of the smallest black holes is maximally undemocratic and is biased in favor of particular species. With an increasing mass the democracy characteristic to the usual macro black holes is gradually regained. The lowest possible mass above which black holes become Einsteinian is \\sqrt{N} M_{Planck}. This fact uncovers the new fundamental scale (below the quantum gravity scale) above which gravity changes classically, and ...

  15. Exponential fading to white of black holes in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Quantization of the gravitational field may allow the existence of a decay channel of black holes into white holes with an explicit time-reversal symmetry. The definition of a meaningful decay probability for this channel is studied in spherically symmetric situations. As a first nontrivial calculation, we present the functional integration over a set of geometries using a single-variable function to interpolate between black-hole and white-hole geometries in a bounded region of spacetime. This computation gives a finite result which depends only on the Schwarzschild mass and a parameter measuring the width of the interpolating region. The associated probability distribution displays an exponential decay law on the latter parameter, with a mean lifetime inversely proportional to the Schwarzschild mass. In physical terms this would imply that matter collapsing to a black hole from a finite radius bounces back elastically and instantaneously, with negligible time delay as measured by external observers. These results invite to reconsider the ultimate nature of astrophysical black holes, providing a possible mechanism for the formation of black stars instead of proper general relativistic black holes. The existence of both this decay channel and black stars can be tested in future observations of gravitational waves. (paper)

  16. Regular black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Singh, Dharm Veer; Maharaj, Sunil D.

    2018-05-01

    Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory, a natural generalization of general relativity to a higher dimension, admits a static spherically symmetric black hole which was obtained by Boulware and Deser. This black hole is similar to its general relativity counterpart with a curvature singularity at r =0 . We present an exact 5D regular black hole metric, with parameter (k >0 ), that interpolates between the Boulware-Deser black hole (k =0 ) and the Wiltshire charged black hole (r ≫k ). Owing to the appearance of the exponential correction factor (e-k /r2), responsible for regularizing the metric, the thermodynamical quantities are modified, and it is demonstrated that the Hawking-Page phase transition is achievable. The heat capacity diverges at a critical radius r =rC, where incidentally the temperature is maximum. Thus, we have a regular black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and evaporation leads to a thermodynamically stable double-horizon black hole remnant with vanishing temperature. The entropy does not satisfy the usual exact horizon area result of general relativity.

  17. Black-hole horizons in modified spacetime structures arising from canonical quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Paily, George M; Reyes, Juan D; Tibrewala, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Several properties of canonical quantum gravity modify spacetime structures, sometimes to the degree that no effective line elements exist to describe the geometry. An analysis of solutions, for instance in the context of black holes, then requires new insights. In this paper, standard definitions of horizons in spherical symmetry are first reformulated canonically, and then evaluated for solutions of equations and constraints modified by inverse-triad corrections of loop quantum gravity. When possible, a spacetime analysis is performed which reveals a mass threshold for black holes and small changes to Hawking radiation. For more general conclusions, canonical perturbation theory is developed to second order to include back-reaction from matter. The results shed light on the questions of whether renormalization of Newton's constant or other modifications of horizon conditions should be taken into account in computations of black-hole entropy in loop quantum gravity.

  18. Hawking, fiducial, and free-fall temperature of black hole on gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    On gravity's rainbow, the energy of test particles deforms the geometry of a black hole in such a way that the corresponding Hawking temperature is expected to be modified. It means that the fiducial and free-fall temperatures on the black hole background should also be modified according to deformation of the geometry. In this work, the probing energy of test particles is assumed as the average energy of the Hawking particle in order to study the particle back reaction of the geometry by using the advantage of gravity's rainbow. We shall obtain the modified fiducial and free-fall temperatures, respectively. The behaviors of these two temperatures on the horizon tell us that black hole complementarity is still well defined on gravity's rainbow. (orig.)

  19. Scattering of Ricci scalar perturbations from Schwarzschild black holes in modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibandze, Dan B.; Goswami, Rituparno; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Nzioki, Anne Marie [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag X54001, Durban (South Africa); Dunsby, Peter K.S. [University of Cape Town, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics and ACGC, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2017-06-15

    It has already been shown that the gravitational waves emitted from a Schwarzschild black hole in f(R) gravity have no signatures of the modification of gravity from General Relativity, as the Regge-Wheeler equation remains invariant. In this paper we consider the perturbations of Ricci scalar in a vacuum Schwarzschild spacetime, which is unique to higher order theories of gravity and is absent in General Relativity. We show that the equation that governs these perturbations can be reduced to a Volterra integral equation. We explicitly calculate the reflection coefficients for the Ricci scalar perturbations, when they are scattered by the black hole potential barrier. Our analysis shows that a larger fraction of these Ricci scalar waves are reflected compared to the gravitational waves. This may provide a novel observational signature for fourth order gravity. (orig.)

  20. Thermal fluctuations of dilaton black holes in gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, thermodynamics and phase transition of some new dilaton black hole solutions have been explored in the presence of the rainbow functions. By introducing an energy dependent space time, the dilaton potential has been obtained as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials and three new classes of black hole solutions have been constructed. The conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the new dilaton black holes have been calculated in the energy dependent space times. It has been shown that, even if some of the thermodynamic quantities are affected by the rainbow functions, the thermodynamical first law still remains valid. Also, the impacts of rainbow functions on the stability or phase transition of the new black hole solutions have been investigated. Finally, the quantum gravitational effects on the thermodynamics and phase transition of the solutions have been studied through consideration of the thermal fluctuations.

  1. Thermodynamics of hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennigar, Robie A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tjoa, Erickson [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences,Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371 (Singapore); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Mann, Robert B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-02-14

    We perform a thorough study of the thermodynamic properties of a class of Lovelock black holes with conformal scalar hair arising from coupling of a real scalar field to the dimensionally extended Euler densities. We study the linearized equations of motion of the theory and describe constraints under which the theory is free from ghosts/tachyons. We then consider, within the context of black hole chemistry, the thermodynamics of the hairy black holes in the Gauss-Bonnet and cubic Lovelock theories. We clarify the connection between isolated critical points and thermodynamic singularities, finding a one parameter family of these critical points which occur for well-defined thermodynamic parameters. We also report on a number of novel results, including ‘virtual triple points’ and the first example of a ‘λ-line’ — a line of second order phase transitions — in black hole thermodynamics.

  2. Thermodynamics of hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A.; Tjoa, Erickson; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-02-01

    We perform a thorough study of the thermodynamic properties of a class of Lovelock black holes with conformal scalar hair arising from coupling of a real scalar field to the dimensionally extended Euler densities. We study the linearized equations of motion of the theory and describe constraints under which the theory is free from ghosts/tachyons. We then consider, within the context of black hole chemistry, the thermodynamics of the hairy black holes in the Gauss-Bonnet and cubic Lovelock theories. We clarify the connection between isolated critical points and thermodynamic singularities, finding a one parameter family of these critical points which occur for well-defined thermodynamic parameters. We also report on a number of novel results, including `virtual triple points' and the first example of a `λ-line' — a line of second order phase transitions — in black hole thermodynamics.

  3. Thermodynamic stability of modified Schwarzschild-AdS black hole in rainbow gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-Wan [Chonbuk National University, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Seonam University, Department of Physical Therapy, Namwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Jai [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we have extended the previous study of the thermodynamics and phase transition of the Schwarzschild black hole in the rainbow gravity to the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole where metric depends on the energy of a probe. Making use of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the modified dispersion relation, we have obtained the modified local Hawking temperature and thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Moreover, we carry out the analysis of constant temperature slices of a black hole. As a result, we have shown that there also exists another Hawking-Page-like phase transition in which case a locally stable small black hole tunnels into a globally stable large black hole as well as the standard Hawking-Page phase transition from a hot flat space to a black hole. (orig.)

  4. Quantum gravity effects on scalar particle tunneling from rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitei, I. Ablu; Singh, T. Ibungochouba; Devi, S. Gayatri; Devi, N. Premeshwari; Singh, K. Yugindro

    2018-04-01

    Tunneling of scalar particles across the event horizon of rotating BTZ black hole is investigated using the Generalized Uncertainty Principle to study the corrected Hawking temperature and entropy in the presence of quantum gravity effects. We have determined explicitly the various correction terms in the entropy of rotating BTZ black hole including the logarithmic term of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (SBH), the inverse term of SBH and terms with inverse powers of SBH, in terms of properties of the black hole and the emitted particles — mass, energy and angular momentum. In the presence of quantum gravity effects, for the emission of scalar particles, the Hawking radiation and thermodynamics of rotating BTZ black hole are observed to be related to the metric element, hence to the curvature of space-time.

  5. Phase space and black-hole entropy of higher genus horizons in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, S; Brannlund, J; DeBenedictis, A

    2008-01-01

    In the context of loop quantum gravity, we construct the phase space of isolated horizons with genus greater than 0. Within the loop quantum gravity framework, these horizons are described by genus g surfaces with N punctures and the dimension of the corresponding phase space is calculated including the genus cycles as degrees of freedom. From this, the black-hole entropy can be calculated by counting the microstates which correspond to a black hole of fixed area. We find that the leading term agrees with the A/4 law and that the sub-leading contribution is modified by the genus cycles

  6. Thermodynamic properties of charged three-dimensional black holes in the scalar-tensor gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2018-02-01

    Making use of the suitable transformation relations, the action of three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory has been obtained from that of scalar-tensor modified gravity theory coupled to the Maxwell's electrodynamics as the matter field. Two new classes of the static three-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational field equations, have been obtained in the Einstein frame. Also, it has been found that the scalar potential can be written in the form of a generalized Liouville-type potential. The conserved black hole charge and masses as well as the black entropy, temperature, and electric potential have been calculated from the geometrical and thermodynamical approaches, separately. Through comparison of the results arisen from these two alternative approaches, the validity of the thermodynamical first law has been proved for both of the new black hole solutions in the Einstein frame. Making use of the canonical ensemble method, a black hole stability or phase transition analysis has been performed. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, with the black hole charge as a constant, the points of type-1 and type-2 phase transitions have been determined. Also, the ranges of the black hole horizon radius at which the Einstein black holes are thermally stable have been obtained for both of the new black hole solutions. Then making use of the inverse transformation relations, two new classes of the string black hole solutions have been obtained from their Einstein counterpart. The thermodynamics and thermal stability of the new string black hole solutions have been investigated. It has been found that thermodynamic properties of the new charged black holes are identical in the Einstein and Jordan frames.

  7. Black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity: a number-theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló, Iván; Barbero G, J Fernando; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S

    2008-05-30

    We give an efficient method, combining number-theoretic and combinatorial ideas, to exactly compute black hole entropy in the framework of loop quantum gravity. Along the way we provide a complete characterization of the relevant sector of the spectrum of the area operator, including degeneracies, and explicitly determine the number of solutions to the projection constraint. We use a computer implementation of the proposed algorithm to confirm and extend previous results on the detailed structure of the black hole degeneracy spectrum.

  8. Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)

  9. Stability analysis of black holes via a catastrophe theory and black hole thermodynamics in generalized theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Torii, Takashi; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2003-01-01

    We perform a linear perturbation analysis for black hole solutions with a 'massive' Yang-Mills field (the Proca field) in Brans-Dicke theory and find that the results are quite consistent with those via catastrophe theory where thermodynamic variables play an intrinsic role. Based on this observation, we show the general relation between these two methods in generalized theories of gravity which are conformally related to the Einstein-Hilbert action

  10. Black holes in the gravity/gauge theory correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, J.P.

    2002-06-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence provides a microscopic description of black hole thermodynamics. In this thesis, I study the relation between the classical physics of black holes and this microscopic description. I first consider the gauge theory's holographic encoding of non-trivial global causal structure, by studying various probes of the black hole. I study the charged black hole, so that the thermal scale is separated from the horizon scale, to demonstrate which relates to the field theory scale size. I find that, when probing the horizon, both Wilson loops and the duals of static supergravity probes have a scale size determined by the horizon, but the field theory scale size is divergent for a time-dependent probe. I also use the bulk black hole geometry to study the physics of the boundary theory. If we consider a dynamical boundary, a braneworld cosmology is induced from the bulk. However, the presence of matter on the brane introduces unconventional quadratic terms in the FRW equations of this braneworld. I find that bulk black holes induce identical unconventional terms on a matterless brane, therefore providing an alternative description of the same cosmology. A new conjecture relating classical and thermodynamic stability of black branes has emerged from the AdS/CFT correspondence. I make progress in proving this for the case of Schwarzschild black holes in a finite cavity. I also extend the conjecture to the supergravity backgrounds of the direct product form Schwarzschild-AdS x Sphere, which are relevant to my study of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (author)

  11. Scalar QNMs for higher dimensional black holes surrounded by quintessence in Rastall gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graca, J.P.M.; Lobo, Iarley P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    The spacetime solution for a black hole, surrounded by an exotic matter field, in Rastall gravity, is calculated in an arbitrary d-dimensional spacetime. After this, we calculate the scalar quasinormal modes of such solution, and study the shift on the modes caused by the modification of the theory of gravity, i.e., by the introduction of a new term due to Rastall. We conclude that the shift strongly depends on the kind of exotic field one is studying, but for a low density matter that supposedly pervades the universe, it is unlikely that Rastall gravity will cause an instability for the probe field. (orig.)

  12. A class of black holes in dRGT massive gravity and their thermodynamical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Suchant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre of Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of Kwazulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa); Tannukij, Lunchakorn [Mahidol University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Wongjun, Pitayuth [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Ministry of Education, Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-03-15

    We present an exact spherical black hole solution in de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity for a generic choice of the parameters in the theory, and also discuss the thermodynamical and phase structure of the black hole in both the grand canonical and the canonical ensembles (for the charged case). It turns out that the dRGT black hole solution includes other known solutions to the Einstein field equations, such as the monopole-de Sitter-Schwarzschild solution with the coefficients of the third and fourth terms in the potential and the graviton mass in massive gravity naturally generates the cosmological constant and the global monopole term. Furthermore, we compute the mass, temperature and entropy of the dRGT black hole, and also perform thermodynamical stability analysis. It turns out that the presence of the graviton mass completely changes the black hole thermodynamics, and it can provide the Hawking-Page phase transition which also occurs for the charged black holes. Interestingly, the entropy of a black hole is barely affected and still obeys the standard area law. In particular, our results, in the limit m{sub g} → 0, reduced exactly to the results of general relativity. (orig.)

  13. Black Hole Entropy with and without Log Correction in Loop Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, P.

    2014-01-01

    Earlier calculations of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity have given a term proportional to the area with a correction involving the logarithm of the area when the area eigenvalue is close to the classical area. However the calculations yield an entropy proportional to the area eigenvalue with no such correction when the area eigenvalue is large compared to the classical area

  14. Space, time, and gravity. The theory of the big bang and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    In Einstein's theory of gravity, gravitation is described in terms of the curved geometry of space--time. The implications of these ideas for the universe: its origin, evolution, and large-scale structure are considered. Also discussed are gravitational collapse and black holes. (JFP)

  15. Magnetized black holes and black rings in the higher dimensional dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider magnetized black holes and black rings in the higher dimensional dilaton gravity. Our study is based on exact solutions generated by applying a Harrison transformation to known asymptotically flat black hole and black ring solutions in higher dimensional spacetimes. The explicit solutions include the magnetized version of the higher dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black holes, Myers-Perry black holes, and five-dimensional (dipole) black rings. The basic physical quantities of the magnetized objects are calculated. We also discuss some properties of the solutions and their thermodynamics. The ultrarelativistic limits of the magnetized solutions are briefly discussed and an explicit example is given for the D-dimensional magnetized Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black holes

  16. Thermodynamic instability of nonlinearly charged black holes in gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panah, B.E.; Momennia, M. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Motivated by the violation of Lorentz invariance in quantum gravity, we study black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow in the context of Einstein gravity coupled with various models of nonlinear electrodynamics. We regard an energy dependent spacetime and obtain the related metric functions and electric fields. We show that there is an essential singularity at the origin which is covered by an event horizon. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamical quantities and examine the validity of the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the thermal stability conditions for these black hole solutions in the context of canonical ensemble. We show that the thermodynamical structure of the solutions depends on the choices of nonlinearity parameters, charge, and energy functions. (orig.)

  17. Black holes and asymptotics of 2+1 gravity coupled to a scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, Marc; Martinez, Cristian; Troncoso, Ricardo; Zanelli, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    We consider 2+1 gravity minimally coupled to a self-interacting scalar field. The case in which the fall-off of the fields at infinity is slower than that of a localized distribution of matter is analyzed. It is found that the asymptotic symmetry group remains the same as in pure gravity (i.e., the conformal group). The generators of the asymptotic symmetries, however, acquire a contribution from the scalar field, but the algebra of the canonical generators possesses the standard central extension. In this context, new massive black hole solutions with a regular scalar field are found for a one-parameter family of potentials. These black holes are continuously connected to the standard zero mass black hole

  18. Strong gravity effects of rotating black holes: quasi-periodic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Alikram N; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir

    2013-01-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: the orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which the radial epicyclic frequency attains its highest value. We find that the values of the epicyclic frequencies for a class of stable orbits exhibit good qualitative agreement with the observed frequencies of the twin peaks quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in some black hole binaries. We also find that at the characteristic stable circular orbits, where the radial (or the vertical) epicyclic frequency has maxima, the vertical and radial epicyclic frequencies exhibit an approximate 2:1 ratio even in the case of near-extreme rotation of the black hole. Next, we perform a similar analysis of the fundamental frequencies for a rotating braneworld black hole and argue that the existence of such a black hole with a negative tidal charge, whose angular momentum exceeds the Kerr bound in general relativity, does not confront with the observations of high-frequency QPOs. (paper)

  19. Mechanism of the generation of black hole entropy in Sakharov's induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Fursaev, D.V.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the generation of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S BH of a black hole in the Sakharov's induced gravity is proposed. It is suggested that the physical degrees of freedom, which explain the entropy S BH , form only a finite subset of the standard Rindler-like modes defined outside the black hole horizon. The entropy S R of the Rindler modes, or entanglement entropy, is always ultraviolet divergent, while the entropy of the physical modes is finite and coincides in the induced gravity with S BH . The two entropies S BH and S R differ by a surface integral Q interpreted as a Noether charge of nonminimally coupled scalar constituents of the model. We demonstrate that energy E and Hamiltonian H of the fields localized in a part of space-time, restricted by the Killing horizon Σ, differ by the quantity T H Q, where T H is the temperature of a black hole. The first law of black hole thermodynamics enables one to relate the probability distribution of fluctuations of the black hole mass, caused by the quantum fluctuations of the fields, to the probability distribution of physical modes over energy E. The latter turns out to be different from the distribution of the Rindler modes. We show that the probability distribution of the physical degrees of freedom has a sharp peak at E=0 with the width proportional to the Planck mass. The logarithm of number of physical states at the peak coincides exactly with the black hole entropy S BH . This enables us to argue that the energy distribution of the physical modes and distribution of the black hole mass are equivalent in induced gravity. Finally it is shown that the Noether charge Q is related to the entropy of the low-frequency modes propagating in the vicinity of the bifurcation surface Σ of the horizon. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. Energy conditions of non-singular black hole spacetimes in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshmatov, Bobir [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic); Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany); Ahmedov, Bobomurat [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Tashkent University of Information Technologies, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Stuchlik, Zdenek [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-08-15

    Conformal gravity can elegantly solve the problem of spacetime singularities present in Einstein's gravity. For every physical spacetime, there is an infinite family of conformally equivalent singularity-free metrics. In the unbroken phase, every non-singular metric is equivalent and can be used to infer the physical properties of the spacetime. In the broken phase, a Higgs-like mechanism should select a certain vacuum, which thus becomes the physical one. However, in the absence of the complete theoretical framework we do not know how to select the right vacuum. In this paper, we study the energy conditions of non-singular black hole spacetimes obtained in conformal gravity assuming they are solutions of Einstein's gravity with an effective energy-momentum tensor. We check whether such conditions can be helpful to select the vacuum of the broken phase. (orig.)

  1. Energy conditions of non-singular black hole spacetimes in conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Bambi, Cosimo; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Stuchlik, Zdenek

    2017-01-01

    Conformal gravity can elegantly solve the problem of spacetime singularities present in Einstein's gravity. For every physical spacetime, there is an infinite family of conformally equivalent singularity-free metrics. In the unbroken phase, every non-singular metric is equivalent and can be used to infer the physical properties of the spacetime. In the broken phase, a Higgs-like mechanism should select a certain vacuum, which thus becomes the physical one. However, in the absence of the complete theoretical framework we do not know how to select the right vacuum. In this paper, we study the energy conditions of non-singular black hole spacetimes obtained in conformal gravity assuming they are solutions of Einstein's gravity with an effective energy-momentum tensor. We check whether such conditions can be helpful to select the vacuum of the broken phase. (orig.)

  2. Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  3. Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (Hong Kong); Lobo, Francisco S N, E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk, E-mail: zkovacs@hku.hk, E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-08-21

    In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  4. Features and stability analysis of non-Schwarzschild black hole in quadratic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Zhang, Hezi; Liu, Junyu; Cheng, Gong; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are found to exist in gravitational theories with the presence of quadratic curvature terms and behave differently from the Schwarzschild solution. We present an exhaustive analysis for determining the quasinormal modes of a test scalar field propagating in a new class of black hole backgrounds in the case of pure Einstein-Weyl gravity. Our result shows that the field decay of quasinormal modes in such a non-Schwarzschild black hole behaves similarly to the Schwarzschild one, but the decay slope becomes much smoother due to the appearance of the Weyl tensor square in the background theory. We also analyze the frequencies of the quasinormal modes in order to characterize the properties of new back holes, and thus, if these modes can be the source of gravitational waves, the underlying theories may be testable in future gravitational wave experiments. We briefly comment on the issue of quantum (in)stability in this theory at linear order.

  5. Brown-York quasilocal energy in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and black hole horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; Dadhich, Naresh

    2015-12-01

    A standard candidate for quasilocal energy in general relativity is the Brown-York energy, which is essentially a two dimensional surface integral of the extrinsic curvature on the two-boundary of a spacelike hypersurface referenced to flat spacetime. Several years back one of us had conjectured that the black hole horizon is defined by equipartition of gravitational and non-gravitational energy. By employing the above definition of quasilocal Brown-York energy, we have verified the equipartition conjecture for static charged and charged axi-symmetric black holes in general relativity. We have further generalized the Brown-York formalism to all orders in Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity and have verified the conjecture for pure Lovelock charged black hole in all even d = 2 m + 2 dimensions, where m is the degree of Lovelock action. It turns out that the equipartition conjecture works only for pure Lovelock, and not for Einstein-Lovelock black holes.

  6. Brown-York quasilocal energy in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and black hole horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; Dadhich, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    A standard candidate for quasilocal energy in general relativity is the Brown-York energy, which is essentially a two dimensional surface integral of the extrinsic curvature on the two-boundary of a spacelike hypersurface referenced to flat spacetime. Several years back one of us had conjectured that the black hole horizon is defined by equipartition of gravitational and non-gravitational energy. By employing the above definition of quasilocal Brown-York energy, we have verified the equipartition conjecture for static charged and charged axi-symmetric black holes in general relativity. We have further generalized the Brown-York formalism to all orders in Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity and have verified the conjecture for pure Lovelock charged black hole in all even d=2m+2 dimensions, where m is the degree of Lovelock action. It turns out that the equipartition conjecture works only for pure Lovelock, and not for Einstein-Lovelock black holes.

  7. Late inspiral and merger of binary black holes in scalar–tensor theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, James; Bode, Tanja; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Haas, Roland; Pazos, Enrique; Yunes, Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational wave observations will probe nonlinear gravitational interactions and thus enable strong tests of Einstein’s theory of general relativity. We present a numerical relativity study of the late inspiral and merger of binary black holes in scalar–tensor theories of gravity. We consider binaries inside a scalar field bubble, including in some cases a potential. We demonstrate how an evolving scalar field is able to trigger detectable differences between gravitational waves in scalar–tensor gravity and the corresponding waves in general relativity. (fast track communication)

  8. Ricci cubic gravity in d dimensions, gravitons and SAdS/Lifshitz black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodsi, Ahmad; Najafi, Farzaneh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    A special class of higher curvature theories of gravity, Ricci cubic gravity (RCG), in general d dimensional space-time has been investigated in this paper. We have used two different approaches, the linearized equations of motion and the auxiliary field formalism to study the massive and massless graviton propagating modes of the AdS background. Using the auxiliary field formalism, we have found the renormalized boundary stress tensor to compute the mass of the Schwarzschild-AdS and Lifshitz black holes in RCG theory. (orig.)

  9. Critical phenomena of static charged AdS black holes in conformal gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The extended thermodynamics of static charged AdS black holes in conformal gravity is analyzed. The P–V criticality of these black holes has some unusual features. There exists a single critical point with critical temperature Tc and critical pressure Pc. At fixed T>Tc (or at fixed P>Pc, there are two zeroth order phase transition points but no first order phase transition points. The systems favors large pressure states at constant T, or high temperature states at constant P.

  10. Fast radio bursts and the stochastic lifetime of black holes in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, Aurélien; Moulin, Flora; Martineau, Killian

    2018-03-01

    Nonperturbative quantum gravity effects might allow a black-to-white hole transition. We revisit this increasingly popular hypothesis by taking into account the fundamentally random nature of the bouncing time. We show that if the primordial mass spectrum of black holes is highly peaked, the expected signal can in fact match the wavelength of the observed fast radio bursts. On the other hand, if the primordial mass spectrum is wide and smooth, clear predictions are suggested and the sensitivity to the shape of the spectrum is studied.

  11. Thermodynamics of (2 +1 )-dimensional black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the linearly charged three-dimensional Einstein's theory coupled to a dilatonic field has been considered. It has been shown that the dilatonic potential must be considered in a form of generalized Liouville-type potential. Two new classes of charged dilatonic black hole solutions, as the exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMd) gravity, have been obtained and their properties have been studied. The conserved charge and mass related to both of the new EMd black holes have been calculated. Through comparison of the thermodynamical extensive quantities (i.e., temperature and entropy) obtained from both, the geometrical and the thermodynamical methods, the validity of first law of black hole thermodynamics has been investigated for both of the new black holes we just obtained. At the final stage, making use of the canonical ensemble method and regarding the black hole heat capacity, the thermal stability or phase transition of the new black hole solutions have been analyzed. It has been shown that there is a specific range for the horizon radius in such a way that the black holes with the horizon radius in that range are locally stable. Otherwise, they are unstable and may undergo type one or type two phase transitions to be stabilized.

  12. Puzzles in quantum gravity : what can black hole microstates teach us about quantum gravity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Showk, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we review two independent lines of research directed towards helping us construct a theory of Quantum Gravity. While, in string/M-theory, we already enjoy a potential theory of this type there remain many unanswered foundational questions and missing precepts. By probing the

  13. First law of AdS black holes in higher curvature gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Jun-ichirou

    2005-01-01

    We consider the first law of black hole thermodynamics in an asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime in the class of gravitational theories whose gravitational Lagrangian is an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar. We first show that the conserved quantities in this class of gravitational theories constructed through conformal completion remain unchanged under the conformal transformation into the Einstein frame. We then prove that the mass and the angular momenta defined by these conserved quantities, along with the entropy defined by the Noether charge, satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics, not only in Einstein gravity but also in the higher curvature gravity within the class under consideration. We also point out that it is naturally understood in the symplectic formalism that the mass satisfying the first law should be necessarily defined associated with the timelike Killing vector nonrotating at infinity. Finally, a possible generalization into a wider class of gravitational theories is discussed

  14. A no-hair theorem for black holes in f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañate, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present a no-hair theorem which discards the existence of four-dimensional asymptotically flat, static and spherically symmetric or stationary axisymmetric, non-trivial black holes in the frame of f(R) gravity under metric formalism. Here we show that our no-hair theorem also can discard asymptotic de Sitter stationary and axisymmetric non-trivial black holes. The novelty is that this no-hair theorem is built without resorting to known mapping between f(R) gravity and scalar–tensor theory. Thus, an advantage will be that our no-hair theorem applies as well to metric f(R) models that cannot be mapped to scalar–tensor theory.

  15. Sectors of solutions in three-dimensional gravity and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjelstad, Jens; Hwang, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We examine the connection between three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant and two-dimensional CFT via the Chern-Simons formulation. A set of generalized spectral flow transformations are shown to yield new sectors of solutions. One implication is that the microscopic calculation of the entropy of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is corrected by a multiplicative factor with the result that it saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking expression

  16. Sectors of solutions in three-dimensional gravity and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjelstad, Jens E-mail: jens.fjelstad@kau.se; Hwang, Stephen E-mail: stephen.hwang@kau.se

    2002-04-29

    We examine the connection between three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant and two-dimensional CFT via the Chern-Simons formulation. A set of generalized spectral flow transformations are shown to yield new sectors of solutions. One implication is that the microscopic calculation of the entropy of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is corrected by a multiplicative factor with the result that it saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking expression.

  17. Evaporation Spectrum of Black Holes from a Local Quantum Gravity Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, Aurélien

    2016-12-30

    We revisit the hypothesis of a possible line structure in the Hawking evaporation spectrum of black holes. Because of nonperturbative quantum gravity effects, this would take place arbitrarily far away from the Planck mass. We show, based on a speculative but consistent hypothesis, that this naive prediction might in fact hold in the specific context of loop quantum gravity. A small departure from the ideal case is expected for some low-spin transitions and could allow us to distinguish several quantum gravity models. We also show that the effect is not washed out by the dynamics of the process, by the existence of a mass spectrum up to a given width, or by the secondary component induced by the decay of neutral pions emitted during the time-integrated evaporation.

  18. Equilibrium configuration of perfect fluid orbiting around black holes in some classes of alternative gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior of perfect fluid orbiting around black holes in spherically symmetric spacetime for various alternative gravity theories has been investigated. For this purpose we have assumed a uniform distribution for the angular momentum density of the rotating perfect fluid. The contours of equipotential surfaces are illustrated in order to obtain the nature of inflow and outflow of matter. It has been noticed that the marginally stable circular orbits originating from decreasing angular momentum density lead to closed equipotential surfaces along with cusps, allowing the existence of accretion disks. On the other hand, the growing part of the angular momentum density exhibits central rings for which stable configurations are possible. However, inflow of matter is prohibited. Among the solutions discussed in this work, the charged F(R) gravity and Einstein–Maxwell–Gauss–Bonnet solutions exhibit inflow and outflow of matter with central rings present. These varied accretion disk structures of perfect fluid attribute astrophysical importance to these spacetimes. The effect of higher curvature terms predominantly arises from the region near the black hole horizon. Hence the structural difference of the accretion disk in modified gravity theories in comparison to general relativity may act as an experimental probe for these alternative gravity theories. (paper)

  19. Vector theory of gravity: Universe without black holes and solution of dark energy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svidzinsky, Anatoly A.

    2017-12-01

    We propose an alternative theory of gravity which assumes that background geometry of the Universe is fixed four dimensional Euclidean space and gravity is a vector field A k in this space which breaks the Euclidean symmetry. Direction of A k gives the time coordinate, while perpendicular directions are spatial coordinates. Vector gravitational field is coupled to matter universally and minimally through the equivalent metric f ik which is a functional of A k . We show that such assumptions yield a unique theory of gravity, it is free of black holes and, to the best of our knowledge, passes all available tests. For cosmology our theory predicts the same evolution of the Universe as general relativity with cosmological constant and zero spatial curvature. However, the present theory provides explanation of the dark energy as energy of longitudinal gravitational field induced by the Universe expansion and yields, with no free parameters, the value of {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }}=2/3≈ 0.67 which is consistent with the recent Planck result {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }}=0.686+/- 0.02. Such close agreement with cosmological data indicates that gravity has a vector, rather than tensor, origin. We demonstrate that gravitational wave signals measured by LIGO are compatible with vector gravity. They are produced by orbital inspiral of massive neutron stars which can exist in the present theory. We also quantize gravitational field and show that quantum vector gravity is equivalent to QED. Vector gravity can be tested by making more accurate measurement of the time delay of radar signal traveling near the Sun; by improving accuracy of the light deflection experiments; or by measuring propagation direction of gravitational waves relative to laser interferometer arms. Resolving the supermassive object at the center of our Galaxy with VLBA could provide another test of gravity and also shed light on the nature of dark matter.

  20. On the computation of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando Barbero G, J; Villasenor, Eduardo J S

    2009-01-01

    We discuss some issues related to the computation of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity from the novel point of view provided by the recent number-theoretical methods introduced by the authors and their collaborators. In particular we give exact expressions, in the form of integral transforms, for the black hole entropy in terms of the area. We do this by following several approaches based both on our combinatorial techniques and on functional equations similar to those employed by Meissner in his pioneering work on this subject. To put our results in perspective, we compare them with those of Meissner. We will show how our methods confirm some of his findings, extend the validity of others and correct some mistakes. At the end of the paper, we will discuss the delicate issue of the asymptotics of black hole entropy.

  1. Are Nuclear Star Clusters the Precursors of Massive Black Holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new upper limits for black hole masses in extremely late type spiral galaxies. We confirm that this class of galaxies has black holes with masses less than 106M⊙, if any. We also derive new upper limits for nuclear star cluster masses in massive galaxies with previously determined black hole masses. We use the newly derived upper limits and a literature compilation to study the low mass end of the global-to-nucleus relations. We find the following. (1 The MBH-σ relation cannot flatten at low masses, but may steepen. (2 The MBH-Mbulge relation may well flatten in contrast. (3 The MBH-Sersic n relation is able to account for the large scatter in black hole masses in low-mass disk galaxies. Outliers in the MBH-Sersic n relation seem to be dwarf elliptical galaxies. When plotting MBH versus MNC we find three different regimes: (a nuclear cluster dominated nuclei, (b a transition region, and (c black hole-dominated nuclei. This is consistent with the picture, in which black holes form inside nuclear clusters with a very low-mass fraction. They subsequently grow much faster than the nuclear cluster, destroying it when the ratio MBH/MNC grows above 100. Nuclear star clusters may thus be the precursors of massive black holes in galaxy nuclei.

  2. Charged vector particle tunneling from a pair of accelerating and rotating and 5D gauged super-gravity black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Wajiha; Ali, Riasat [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the quantum tunneling process for charged vector particles through the horizons of more generalized black holes by using the Proca equation. For this purpose, we consider a pair of charged accelerating and rotating black holes with Newman-Unti-Tamburino parameter and a black hole in 5D gauged super-gravity theory, respectively. Further, we study the tunneling probability and corresponding Hawking temperature for both black holes by using the WKB approximation. We find that our analysis is independent of the particles species whether or not the background black hole geometries are more generalized. (orig.)

  3. Reissner–Nordström Anti-de Sitter Black Holes in Mimetic F(R Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Oikonomou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study under which conditions the Reissner–Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole can be a solution of the vacuum mimetic F ( R gravity with Lagrange multiplier and mimetic scalar potential. As the author demonstrates, the resulting picture in the mimetic F ( R gravity case is a trivial extension of the standard F ( R approach, and in effect, the metric perturbations in the mimetic F ( R gravity case, for the Reissner–Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole metric, at the first order of the perturbed variables are the same at the leading order.

  4. Black hole bound on the number of species and quantum gravity at CERN LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele

    2008-01-01

    In theories with a large number N of particle species, black hole physics imposes an upper bound on the mass of the species equal to M Planck /√(N). This bound suggests a novel solution to the hierarchy problem in which there are N≅10 32 gravitationally coupled species, for example 10 32 copies of the standard model. The black hole bound forces them to be at the weak scale, hence providing a stable hierarchy. We present various arguments, that in such theories the effective gravitational cutoff is reduced to Λ G ≅M Planck /√(N) and a new description is needed around this scale. In particular, black holes smaller than Λ G -1 are already no longer semiclassical. The nature of the completion is model dependent. One natural possibility is that Λ G is the quantum gravity scale. We provide evidence that within this type of scenarios, contrary to the standard intuition, micro-black-holes have a (slowly fading) memory of the species of origin. Consequently, the black holes produced at LHC will predominantly decay into the standard model particles, and negligibly into the other species

  5. Thermodynamics of AdS black holes in Einstein-Scalar gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, H. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Pope, C.N. [George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom); Wen, Qiang [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China,Beijing 100872 (China)

    2015-03-31

    We study the thermodynamics of n-dimensional static asymptotically AdS black holes in Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field with a potential admitting a stationary point with an AdS vacuum. Such black holes with non-trivial scalar hair can exist provided that the mass-squared of the scalar field is negative, and above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We use the Wald procedure to derive the first law of thermodynamics for these black holes, showing how the scalar hair (or “charge”) contributes non-trivially in the expression. We show in general that a black hole mass can be deduced by isolating an integrable contribution to the (non-integrable) variation of the Hamiltonian arising in the Wald construction, and that this is consistent with the mass calculated using the renormalised holographic stress tensor and also, in those cases where it is defined, with the mass calculated using the conformal method of Ashtekar, Magnon and Das. Similar arguments can also be given for the smooth solitonic solutions in these theories. Neither the black hole nor the soliton solutions can be constructed explicitly, and we carry out a numerical analysis to demonstrate their existence and to provide approximate checks on some of our thermodynamic results.

  6. RECONNECTION-DRIVEN CORONAL-HOLE JETS WITH GRAVITY AND SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States); Pariat, E. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2017-01-01

    Coronal-hole jets occur ubiquitously in the Sun's coronal holes, at EUV and X-ray bright points associated with intrusions of minority magnetic polarity. The embedded-bipole model for these jets posits that they are driven by explosive, fast reconnection between the stressed closed field of the embedded bipole and the open field of the surrounding coronal hole. Previous numerical studies in Cartesian geometry, assuming uniform ambient magnetic field and plasma while neglecting gravity and solar wind, demonstrated that the model is robust and can produce jet-like events in simple configurations. We have extended these investigations by including spherical geometry, gravity, and solar wind in a nonuniform, coronal hole-like ambient atmosphere. Our simulations confirm that the jet is initiated by the onset of a kink-like instability of the internal closed field, which induces a burst of reconnection between the closed and external open field, launching a helical jet. Our new results demonstrate that the jet propagation is sustained through the outer corona, in the form of a traveling nonlinear Alfvén wave front trailed by slower-moving plasma density enhancements that are compressed and accelerated by the wave. This finding agrees well with observations of white-light coronal-hole jets, and can explain microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. We also use our numerical results to deduce scaling relationships between properties of the coronal source region and the characteristics of the resulting jet, which can be tested against observations.

  7. Black hole formation and space-time fluctuations in two dimensional dilaton gravity and complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Mukherji, S.

    1994-01-01

    We study black hole formation in a model of two dimensional dilaton gravity and 24 massless scalar fields with a boundary. We find the most general boundary condition consistent with perfect reflection of matter and the constraints. We show that in the semiclassical approximation and for the generic value of a parameter which characterizes the boundary conditions, the boundary starts receding to infinity at the speed of light whenever the total energy of the incoming matter flux exceeds a certain critical value. This is also the critical energy which marks the onset of black hole formation. We then compute the quantum fluctuations of the boundary and of the rescaled scalar curvature and show that as soon as the incoming energy exceeds this critical value, and asymptotic observer using normal time resolutions will always measure large quantum fluctuations of space-time near the horizon, even though the freely falling observer does not. This is an aspect of black hole complementarity relating directly to quantum gravity effects. (author). 30 refs, 4 figs

  8. Charged black holes in a generalized scalar–tensor gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Brihaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study 4-dimensional charged and static black holes in a generalized scalar–tensor gravity model, in which a shift symmetry for the scalar field exists. For vanishing scalar field the solution corresponds to the Reissner–Nordström (RN solution, while solutions of the full scalar-gravity model have to be constructed numerically. We demonstrate that these black holes support Galilean scalar hair up to a maximal value of the scalar–tensor coupling that depends on the value of the charge and can be up to roughly twice as large as that for uncharged solutions. The Hawking temperature TH of the hairy black holes at maximal scalar–tensor coupling decreases continuously with the increase of the charge and reaches TH=0 for the highest possible charge that these solutions can carry. However, in this limit, the scalar–tensor coupling needs to vanish. The limiting solution hence corresponds to the extremal RN solution, which does not support regular Galilean scalar hair due to its AdS2×S2 near-horizon geometry.

  9. Borehole gravity meter survey in drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, D.L.; Clutsom, F.G.; Glover, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-4 was logged with the US Geological Survey borehole gravity meter (BHGM) BH-6 as part of a detailed study of the lithostratigraphic units penetrated by this hole. Because the BHGM measures a larger volume of rock than the conventional gamma-gamma density tool, it provides an independent and more accurate measurement of the in situ average bulk density of thick lithologic units. USW G-4 is an especially important hole because of its proximity to the proposed exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain. The BHGM data were reduced to interval densities using a free-air gradient (F) of 0.3083 mGal./m (0.09397 mGal/ft) measured at the drill site. The interval densities were further improved by employing an instrument correction factor of 1.00226. This factor was determined from measurements obtained by taking gravity meter BH-6 over the Charleston Peak calibration loop. The interval density data reported herein, should be helpful for planning the construction of the proposed shaft

  10. Quantum gravity of Kerr-Schild spacetimes and the logarithmic correction to Schwarzschild black hole entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-05-05

    In the context of effective field theory, we consider quantum gravity with minimally coupled massless particles. Fixing the background geometry to be of the Kerr-Schild type, we fully determine the one-loop effective action of the theory whose finite non-local part is induced by the long-distance portion of quantum loops. This is accomplished using the non-local expansion of the heat kernel in addition to a non-linear completion technique through which the effective action is expanded in gravitational curvatures. Via Euclidean methods, we identify a logarithmic correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of Schwarzschild black hole. Using dimensional transmutation the result is shown to exhibit an interesting interplay between the UV and IR properties of quantum gravity.

  11. Prospects for Probing Strong Gravity with a Pulsar-Black Hole System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, N.; Liu, K.; Eatough, R. P.; Kramer, M.; Cordes, J. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a pulsar (PSR) in orbit around a black hole (BH) is expected to provide a superb new probe of relativistic gravity and BH properties. Apart from a precise mass measurement for the BH, one could expect a clean verification of the dragging of space-time caused by the BH spin. In order to measure the quadrupole moment of the BH for testing the no-hair theorem of general relativity (GR), one has to hope for a sufficiently massive BH. In this respect, a PSR orbiting the super-massive BH in the center of our Galaxy would be the ultimate laboratory for gravity tests with PSRs. But even for gravity theories that predict the same properties for BHs as GR, a PSR-BH system would constitute an excellent test system, due to the high grade of asymmetry in the strong field properties of these two components. Here we highlight some of the potential gravity tests that one could expect from different PSR-BH systems.

  12. Fermionic field perturbations of a three-dimensional Lifshitz black hole in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko; Villalobos, Ruth Noemi [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-09-15

    We study the propagation of massless fermionic fields in the background of a three-dimensional Lifshitz black hole, which is a solution of conformal gravity. The black-hole solution is characterized by a vanishing dynamical exponent. Then we compute analytically the quasinormal modes, the area spectrum, and the absorption cross section for fermionic fields. The analysis of the quasinormal modes shows that the fermionic perturbations are stable in this background. The area and entropy spectrum are evenly spaced. In the low frequency limit, it is observed that there is a range of values of the angular momentum of the mode that contributes to the absorption cross section, whereas it vanishes in the high frequency limit. In addition, by a suitable change of variables a gravitational soliton can also be obtained and the stability of the quasinormal modes are studied and ensured. (orig.)

  13. Conservation laws and two-dimensional black holes in dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R. B.

    1993-05-01

    A very general class of Lagrangians which couple scalar fields to gravitation and matter in two spacetime dimensions is investigated. It is shown that a vector field exists along whose flow lines the stress-energy tensor is conserved, regardless of whether or not the equations of motion are satisfied or if any Killing vectors exist. Conditions necessary for the existence of Killing vectors are derived. A new set of two-dimensional (2D) black-hole solutions is obtained for one particular member within this class of Lagrangians, which couples a Liouville field to 2D gravity in a novel way. One solution of this theory bears an interesting resemblance to the 2D string-theoretic black hole, yet contains markedly different thermodynamic properties.

  14. Fine-grained state counting for black holes in loop quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Mitra, P

    2009-04-10

    A state of a black hole in loop quantum gravity is given by a distribution of spins on punctures on the horizon. The distribution is of the Boltzmann type, with the area playing the role of the energy. In investigations where the total area was kept approximately constant, there was a kind of thermal equilibrium between the spins which have the same analogue temperature and the entropy was proportional to the area. If the area is precisely fixed, however, multiple constraints appear, different spins have different analogue temperatures and the entropy is not strictly linear in the area, but is bounded by a linear rise.

  15. Constant curvature black holes in Einstein AdS gravity: Euclidean action and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminot, Pablo; Olea, Rodrigo; Petrov, Alexander N.

    2018-03-01

    We compute the Euclidean action for constant curvature black holes (CCBHs), as an attempt to associate thermodynamic quantities to these solutions of Einstein anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity. CCBHs are gravitational configurations obtained by identifications along isometries of a D -dimensional globally AdS space, such that the Riemann tensor remains constant. Here, these solutions are interpreted as extended objects, which contain a (D -2 )-dimensional de-Sitter brane as a subspace. Nevertheless, the computation of the free energy for these solutions shows that they do not obey standard thermodynamic relations.

  16. Gravitational waves from quasicircular black-hole binaries in dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2012-12-21

    Dynamical Chern-Simons gravity cannot be strongly constrained with current experiments because it reduces to general relativity in the weak-field limit. This theory, however, introduces modifications in the nonlinear, dynamical regime, and thus it could be greatly constrained with gravitational waves from the late inspiral of black-hole binaries. We complete the first self-consistent calculation of such gravitational waves in this theory. For favorable spin orientations, advanced ground-based detectors may improve existing solar system constraints by 6 orders of magnitude.

  17. Q ‑ Φ criticality and microstructure of charged AdS black holes in f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gao-Ming; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2017-12-01

    The phase transition and critical behaviors of charged AdS black holes in f(R) gravity with a conformally invariant Maxwell (CIM) source and constant curvature are further investigated. As a highlight, this research is carried out by employing new state parameters (T,Q, Φ) and contributes to deeper understanding of the thermodynamics and phase structure of black holes. Our analyses manifest that the charged f(R)-CIM AdS black hole undergoes a first-order small-large black hole phase transition, and the critical behaviors qualitatively behave like a Van der Waals liquid-vapor system. However, differing from the case in Einstein’s gravity, phase structures of the black holes in f(R) theory exhibit an interesting dependence on gravity modification parameters. Moreover, we adopt the thermodynamic geometry to probe the black hole microscopic properties. The results show that, on the one hand, both the Ruppeiner curvature and heat capacity diverge exactly at the critical point, on the other hand, the f(R)-CIM AdS black hole possesses the property as ideal Fermi gases. Of special interest, we discover a microscopic similarity between the black holes and a Van der Waals liquid-vapor system.

  18. On static black holes solutions in Einstein and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with topology [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Naresh; Pons, Josep M

    We study static black hole solutions in Einstein and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the topology of the product of two spheres, [Formula: see text], in higher dimensions. There is an unusual new feature of the Gauss-Bonnet black hole: the avoidance of a non-central naked singularity prescribes a mass range for the black hole in terms of [Formula: see text]. For an Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black hole a limited window of negative values for [Formula: see text] is also permitted. This topology encompasses black strings, branes, and generalized Nariai metrics. We also give new solutions with the product of two spheres of constant curvature.

  19. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  20. Thermodynamics and gauge/gravity duality for Lifshitz black holes in the presence of exponential electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehyadegari, A. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University,Eram Square, Shiraz, P.O. Box 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M.H. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University,Eram Square, Shiraz, P.O. Box 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM),P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we construct a new class of topological black hole Lifshitz solutions in the presence of nonlinear exponential electrodynamics for Einstein-dilaton gravity. We show that the reality of Lifshitz supporting Maxwell matter fields exclude the negative horizon curvature solutions except for the asymptotic AdS case. Calculating the conserved and thermodynamical quantities, we obtain a Smarr type formula for the mass and confirm that thermodynamics first law is satisfied on the black hole horizon. Afterward, we study the thermal stability of our solutions and figure out the effects of different parameters on the stability of solutions under thermal perturbations. Next, we apply the gauge/gravity duality in order to calculate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy for a three-dimensional hydrodynamic system by using the pole method. Furthermore, we study the behavior of holographic conductivity for two-dimensional systems such as graphene. We consider linear Maxwell and nonlinear exponential electrodynamics separately and disclose the effect of nonlinearity on holographic conductivity. We indicate that holographic conductivity vanishes for z>3 in the case of nonlinear electrodynamics while it does not in the linear Maxwell case. Finally, we solve perturbative additional field equations numerically and plot the behaviors of real and imaginary parts of conductivity for asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz cases. We present experimental results match with our numerical ones.

  1. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hendi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  2. Holes in the US nuclear safety net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1987-01-01

    Contrary to popular perception, the NRC has neither the authority nor the resources to comprehensively regulate the authority nor the resources to comprehensively regulate the nuclear power industry: it cannot check and monitor every nuclear plant in detail to assure reasonable reactor safety. This is widely understood within the power industry. After the Three Mile Island accident, the nuclear industry formed a group called the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), based in Atlanta, Georgia. Its self-proclaimed mandate is to pick up the safety initiative where NRC regulations and reviews leave off; to make sure that each nuclear plant in the United States goes beyond compliance with minimum regulations and achieves excellence in safe and efficient performance. INPO's 1986 budget was $44 million, paid to the institute by electricity ratepayers via the nuclear utilities. Among other things, the money funds INPO's development of nuclear plant operating criteria and pays for plant inspections to determine if the standards are being met. INPO has deliberately maintained a low profile. INPO does not become involved in public or media activities on behalf of the industry or in the role of promoting the nuclear power option, the organization's formal institutional plan declares. A key aspect of INPO's public noninvolvement is keeping to itself and its members the results of its nuclear plant safety evaluations. Although consumers fund INPO activities and have a stake in nuclear plant safety, the press and the public are denied access to INPO safety investigation reports. 8 references

  3. Relaxation of nuclear spin on holes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gr'ncharova, E.I.; Perel', V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The longitudienal relaxation time T 1 of nuclear spins due to dipole-dipole interaction with holes in semiconductors is calculated. Expressions for T 1 in cubic and uniaxial semiconductors are obtained for non-degenerate and degenerate cases. On the basis of comparison with available experimental data for silicon the agreement with the theoretical results is obtained. It is demonstrated that in uniaxial semiconductors the time of relaxation on holes for a nuclear spin directed along the c axis is considerably greater than that for a spin in the normal direction

  4. OPG nuclear - deaerator gravity flow test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, E.; Sanchez, R.; Misra, A.; Vecchiarelli, J.

    2013-01-01

    Following a total loss of all AC power, preexisting SG and SGECS are consumed to maintain fuel cooling. These inventories last ~3.5 hours. Additional time is needed to establish offsite Emergency Mitigating Equipment (EME). EME are portable generators/pumps which pump screened lake water directly to boilers, moderator, HTS, vault, etc., as required. Deaerator storage tank inventory can provide water to SGs by gravity draining (additional ~5.5 hours). Deaerator and deaerator storage tank are the highest points in the feedwater system and are normally used to remove air and impurities from the secondary side and store demineralized water. Calculations were done to determine minimum flow requirements to steam generators in a Beyond Design Basis Accident (BDBA). Additional calculations were performed to determine how long deaerator water can achieve this minimum flow rate. A validation test was required to demonstrate that the required flow rates could be achieved, and interim heat sink could be established. Tests were performed on shut-down units during planned outages. Tests successfully demonstrated capability of the interim deaerator gravity drain heat sink. Tests results were very close to analytical predictions. As expected, actual flow rate was slightly higher than predicted since conservative assumptions were used.

  5. Perturbed black holes in Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity: stability, ringdown, and gravitational-wave emission

    CERN Document Server

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational waves emitted by distorted black holes---such as those arising from the coalescence of two neutron stars or black holes---carry not only information about the corresponding spacetime but also about the underlying theory of gravity. Although general relativity remains the simplest, most elegant and viable theory of gravitation, there are generic and robust arguments indicating that it is not the ultimate description of the gravitational universe. Here we focus on a particularly appealing extension of general relativity, which corrects Einstein's theory through the addition of terms which are second order in curvature: the topological Gauss-Bonnet invariant coupled to a dilaton. We study gravitational-wave emission from black holes in this theory, and (i) find strong evidence that black holes are linearly (mode) stable against both axial and polar perturbations; (ii) discuss how the quasinormal modes of black holes can be excited during collisions involving black holes, and finally (iii) show that...

  6. Hawking radiation and entropy of a black hole in Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity from the quantum tunneling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The tunneling radiation of particles from black holes in Lovelock-Born-Infeld (LBI) gravity is studied by using the Parikh-Wilczek (PW) method, and the emission rate of a particle is calculated. It is shown that the emission spectrum deviates from the purely thermal spectrum but is consistent with an underlying unitary theory. Compared to the conventional tunneling rate related to the increment of black hole entropy, the entropy of the black hole in LBI gravity is obtained. The entropy does not obey the area law unless all the Lovelock coefficients equal zero, but it satisfies the first law of thermodynamics and is in accordance with earlier results. It is distinctly shown that the PW tunneling framework is related to the thermodynamic laws of the black hole. Supported by Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (2016A030307051, 2015A030313789)

  7. Reentrant phase transitions of higher-dimensional AdS black holes in dRGT massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Ruihong; Zhang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    We study the P-V criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in higher-dimensional de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, treating the cosmological constant as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Besides the usual small/large black hole phase transitions, the interesting thermodynamic phenomena of reentrant phase transitions (RPTs) are observed for black holes in all d ≥ 6-dimensional spacetime when the coupling coefficients c_im"2 of massive potential satisfy some certain conditions. (orig.)

  8. Reentrant phase transitions of higher-dimensional AdS black holes in dRGT massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Ruihong [Yangzhou University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Zhang, Ming [Xi' an Aeronautical University, Faculty of Science, Xi' an (China)

    2017-04-15

    We study the P-V criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in higher-dimensional de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, treating the cosmological constant as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Besides the usual small/large black hole phase transitions, the interesting thermodynamic phenomena of reentrant phase transitions (RPTs) are observed for black holes in all d ≥ 6-dimensional spacetime when the coupling coefficients c{sub i}m{sup 2} of massive potential satisfy some certain conditions. (orig.)

  9. Superradiance of charged black holes in Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Octavio; Grandi, Nicolás; Oliva, Julio

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we show that electrically charged black holes in Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet gravity suffer from a superradiant instability. It is triggered by a charged scalar field that fulfils Dirichlet boundary conditions at a mirror located outside the horizon. As in general relativity, the unstable modes exist provided that the mirror is located beyond a critical radius, making the instability a long wavelength one. We explore the effects of the Gauss–Bonnet corrections on the critical radius and find evidence that the critical radius decreases as the Gauss–Bonnet coupling α increases. Due to the, up to date, lack of an analytic rotating solution for Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet theory, this is the first example of a superradiant instability in the presence of higher curvature terms in the action.

  10. Generalisation for regular black holes on general relativity to f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Manuel E. [Universidade Federal do Para Campus Universitario de Abaetetuba, Faculdade de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Abaetetuba, Para (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Para, Faculdade de Fisica, PPGF, Belem, Para (Brazil); Fabris, Julio C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Junior, Ednaldo L.B. [Universidade Federal do Para, Faculdade de Fisica, PPGF, Belem, Para (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Para, Campus Universitario de Tucurui, Faculdade de Engenharia da Computacao, Tucurui, Para (Brazil); Marques, Glauber T. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia ICIBE - LASIC, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    IIn this paper, we determine regular black hole solutions using a very general f(R) theory, coupled to a nonlinear electromagnetic field given by a Lagrangian L{sub NED}. The functions f(R) and L{sub NED} are in principle left unspecified. Instead, the model is constructed through a choice of the mass function M(r) presented in the metric coefficients. Solutions which have a regular behaviour of the geometric invariants are found. These solutions have two horizons, the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon. All energy conditions are satisfied in the whole space-time, except the strong energy condition (SEC), which is violated near the Cauchy horizon.We present also a new theorem related to the energy conditions in f(R) gravity, re-obtaining the well-known conditions in the context of general relativity when the geometry of the solution is the same. (orig.)

  11. Partition functions for quantum gravity, black holes, elliptic genera and Lie algebra homologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, L., E-mail: bonora@sissa.it [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Bytsenko, A.A., E-mail: abyts@uel.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina (Brazil)

    2011-11-11

    There is a remarkable connection between quantum generating functions of field theory and formal power series associated with dimensions of chains and homologies of suitable Lie algebras. We discuss the homological aspects of this connection with its applications to partition functions of the minimal three-dimensional gravities in the space-time asymptotic to AdS{sub 3}, which also describe the three-dimensional Euclidean black holes, the pure N=1 supergravity, and a sigma model on N-fold generalized symmetric products. We also consider in the same context elliptic genera of some supersymmetric sigma models. These examples can be considered as a straightforward application of the machinery of modular forms and spectral functions (with values in the congruence subgroup of SL(2,Z)) to partition functions represented by means of formal power series that encode Lie algebra properties.

  12. Gamma radiation scanning of nuclear waste storage tile holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Yue, S.; Sur, B.; Johnston, J.; Gaudet, M.; Wright, M.; Burton, N.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear waste management facilities at Chalk River Laboratories use below-ground 'tile holes' to store solid waste from various activities such as medical radioisotope production. A silicon PIN (p-type-intrinsic-n-type semiconductor) diode based gamma radiation scanning system has been developed and used to profile the gamma radiation fields along the depth of waste storage tile holes by deploying the sensor into verification tubes adjacent to the tile holes themselves. The radiation field measurements were consistent with expected radiation fields in the tile holes based on administrative knowledge of the radioactive contents and their corresponding decay rates. Such measurements allow non-invasive verification of tile hole contents and provide input to the assessment of radiological risk associated with removal of the waste. Using this detector system, radioactive waste that has decayed to very low levels may be identified based on the radiation profile. This information will support planning for possible transfer of this waste to a licensed waste storage facility designed for low level waste, thus freeing storage space for possible tile hole re-use for more highly radioactive waste. (author)

  13. Quasinormal modes and thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in (anti) de Sitter space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasia, P.; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we study the Quasi-Normal Modes (QNMs) under massless scalar perturbations and the thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in the (Anti)de Sitter ((A)dS) space-time. It is found that the behavior of QNMs changes with the massive parameter of the graviton and also with the charge of the black hole. The thermodynamics of such black holes in the (A)dS space-time is also analyzed in detail. The behavior of specific heat with temperature for such black holes gives an indication of a phase transition that depends on the massive parameter of the graviton and also on the charge of the black hole. (orig.)

  14. Charged anti-de Sitter BTZ black holes in Maxwell-f(T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, G. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by the Bañados, Teitelboim and Zanelli (BTZ) formalism, we discuss the Maxwell-f(T) gravity in (2 + 1) dimensions. The main task is to derive exact solutions for a special form of f(T) = T + 𝜖T2, with T being the torsion scalar of Weitzenböck geometry. To this end, a triad field is applied to the equations of motion of charged f(T) and sets of circularly symmetric noncharged and charged solutions have been derived. We show that, in the charged case, the monopole-like and the ln terms are linked by a correlative constant despite the known results in teleparallel geometry and its extensions.39 Furthermore, it is possible to show that the event horizon is not identical with the Cauchy horizon due to such a constant. The singularities and the horizons of these black holes are examined: they are new and have no analogue in the literature due to the fact that their curvature singularities are soft. We calculate the energy content of these solutions by using the general vector form of the energy-momentum within the framework of f(T) gravity. Finally, some thermodynamical quantities, like entropy and Hawking temperature, are derived.

  15. Gravity, black holes and the very early Universe an introduction to general relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tai L

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1900s, Albert Einstein formulated two theories that would forever change the landscape of physics: the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity. By 1925, quantum mechanics had been born out of the dissection of these two theories, and shortly after that, relativistic quantum field theory. We now had in place some important ties between the laws of physics and the types of particle interactions the new physics was uncovering. Gravity is one of the four types of forces that are found throughout the universe. In fact, although it is a relatively weak force, it operates at huge distances, and so must be accounted for in any cosmological system. Unfortunately, gravity continues to defy our neat categorization of how all the forces in nature work together. Professor Tai Chow, from the California State University at Stanislaus in Turlock, lays out for us the basic ideas of Einstein, including his law of gravitation, explains the physics behind black holes, and weaves into this a...

  16. Warped solitonic deformations and propagation of black holes in 5D vacuum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I; Singleton, D

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we use the anholonomic frames method to construct exact solutions for vacuum 5D gravity with metrics having off-diagonal components. The solutions are, in general, anisotropic and possess interesting features such as an anisotropic warp factor with respect to the extra dimension, or a gravitational scaling/running of some of the physical parameters associated with the solutions. A certain class of solutions is found to describe Schwarzschild black holes which 'solitonically' propagate in spacetime. The solitonic character of these black-hole solutions arises from the embedding of the sine-Gordon soliton configuration into certain ansatz functions of the 5D metric. These solitonic solutions may either violate or preserve local Lorentz invariance. In addition, there is a connection between these solutions and non-commutative field theory. In addition to the possible physical applications of the solutions presented here, this paper is meant to illustrate the strength of the anholonomic frames method in handling anisotropic solutions of the gravitational field equations

  17. A new cubic theory of gravity in five dimensions: black hole, Birkhoff's theorem and C-function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Julio [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Ray, Sourya, E-mail: julio.oliva@docentes.uach.c, E-mail: ray@cecs.c [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2010-11-21

    We present a new cubic theory of gravity in five dimensions which has second-order traced field equations, analogous to BHT new massive gravity in three dimensions. Moreover, for static spherically symmetric spacetimes all the field equations are of second order, and the theory admits a new asymptotically locally flat black hole. Furthermore, we prove the uniqueness of this solution, study its thermodynamical properties and show the existence of a C-function for the theory following the arguments of Anber and Kastor (2008 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP05(2008)061 (arXiv:0802.1290 [hep-th])) in pure Lovelock theories. Finally, we include the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet and cosmological terms and find new asymptotically AdS black holes at the point where the three maximally symmetric solutions of the theory coincide. These black holes may also possess a Cauchy horizon.

  18. AdS charged black holes in Einstein–Yang–Mills gravity's rainbow: Thermal stability and P−V criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hendi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the interesting non-abelian gauge field, in this paper, we look for the analytical solutions of Yang–Mills theory in the context of gravity's rainbow. Regarding the trace of quantum gravity in black hole thermodynamics, we examine the first law of thermodynamics and also thermal stability in the canonical ensemble. We show that although the rainbow functions and Yang–Mills charge modify the solutions, the first law of thermodynamics is still valid. Based on the phenomenological similarities between the adS black holes and van der Waals liquid/gas systems, we study the critical behavior of the Yang–Mills black holes in the extended phase space thermodynamics. We also investigate the effects of various parameters on thermal instability as well as critical properties by using appropriate figures.

  19. AdS charged black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills gravity's rainbow: Thermal stability and P - V criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Momennia, Mehrab

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the interesting non-abelian gauge field, in this paper, we look for the analytical solutions of Yang-Mills theory in the context of gravity's rainbow. Regarding the trace of quantum gravity in black hole thermodynamics, we examine the first law of thermodynamics and also thermal stability in the canonical ensemble. We show that although the rainbow functions and Yang-Mills charge modify the solutions, the first law of thermodynamics is still valid. Based on the phenomenological similarities between the adS black holes and van der Waals liquid/gas systems, we study the critical behavior of the Yang-Mills black holes in the extended phase space thermodynamics. We also investigate the effects of various parameters on thermal instability as well as critical properties by using appropriate figures.

  20. Two aspects of black hole entropy in Lanczos-Lovelock models of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Sanved; Kothawala, Dawood; Padmanabhan, T.

    2012-03-01

    We consider two specific approaches to evaluate the black hole entropy which are known to produce correct results in the case of Einstein’s theory and generalize them to Lanczos-Lovelock models. In the first approach (which could be called extrinsic), we use a procedure motivated by earlier work by Pretorius, Vollick, and Israel, and by Oppenheim, and evaluate the entropy of a configuration of densely packed gravitating shells on the verge of forming a black hole in Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity. We find that this matter entropy is not equal to (it is less than) Wald entropy, except in the case of Einstein theory, where they are equal. The matter entropy is proportional to the Wald entropy if we consider a specific mth-order Lanczos-Lovelock model, with the proportionality constant depending on the spacetime dimensions D and the order m of the Lanczos-Lovelock theory as (D-2m)/(D-2). Since the proportionality constant depends on m, the proportionality between matter entropy and Wald entropy breaks down when we consider a sum of Lanczos-Lovelock actions involving different m. In the second approach (which could be called intrinsic), we generalize a procedure, previously introduced by Padmanabhan in the context of general relativity, to study off-shell entropy of a class of metrics with horizon using a path integral method. We consider the Euclidean action of Lanczos-Lovelock models for a class of metrics off shell and interpret it as a partition function. We show that in the case of spherically symmetric metrics, one can interpret the Euclidean action as the free energy and read off both the entropy and energy of a black hole spacetime. Surprisingly enough, this leads to exactly the Wald entropy and the energy of the spacetime in Lanczos-Lovelock models obtained by other methods. We comment on possible implications of the result.

  1. Which Quantum Theory Must be Reconciled with Gravity? (And What Does it Mean for Black Holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Lake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the nature of quantum properties in non-relativistic quantum mechanics (QM and relativistic quantum field theories, and examine the connection between formal quantization schemes and intuitive notions of wave-particle duality. Based on the map between classical Poisson brackets and their associated commutators, such schemes give rise to quantum states obeying canonical dispersion relations, obtained by substituting the de Broglie relations into the relevant (classical energy-momentum relation. In canonical QM, this yields a dispersion relation involving ℏ but not c, whereas the canonical relativistic dispersion relation involves both. Extending this logic to the canonical quantization of the gravitational field gives rise to loop quantum gravity, and a map between classical variables containing G and c, and associated commutators involving ℏ. This naturally defines a “wave-gravity duality”, suggesting that a quantum wave packet describing self-gravitating matter obeys a dispersion relation involving G, c and ℏ. We propose an Ansatz for this relation, which is valid in the semi-Newtonian regime of both QM and general relativity. In this limit, space and time are absolute, but imposing v max = c allows us to recover the standard expressions for the Compton wavelength λ C and the Schwarzschild radius r S within the same ontological framework. The new dispersion relation is based on “extended” de Broglie relations, which remain valid for slow-moving bodies of any mass m. These reduce to canonical form for m ≪ m P , yielding λ C from the standard uncertainty principle, whereas, for m ≫ m P , we obtain r S as the natural radius of a self-gravitating quantum object. Thus, the extended de Broglie theory naturally gives rise to a unified description of black holes and fundamental particles in the semi-Newtonian regime.

  2. Thermodynamics of Taub-NUT/bolt black holes in Einstein-Maxwell gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Khodam-Mohammadi, A.

    2006-01-01

    First, we construct the Taub-NUT/bolt solutions of (2k+2)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity, when all the factor spaces of 2k-dimensional base space B have positive curvature. These solutions depend on two extra parameters, other than the mass and the NUT charge. These are electric charge q and electric potential at infinity V. We investigate the existence of Taub-NUT solutions and find that in addition to the two conditions of uncharged NUT solutions, there exist two extra conditions. These two extra conditions come from the regularity of vector potential at r=N and the fact that the horizon at r=N should be the outer horizon of the NUT charged black hole. We find that the NUT solutions in 2k+2 dimensions have no curvature singularity at r=N, when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP 2k . For bolt solutions, there exists an upper limit for the NUT parameter which decreases as the potential parameter increases. Second, we study the thermodynamics of these spacetimes. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, action and mass of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity, and show that the NUT solutions are not thermally stable for even k's, while there exists a stable phase for odd k's, which becomes increasingly narrow with increasing dimensionality and wide with increasing V. We also study the phase behavior of the 4 and 6 dimensional bolt solutions in canonical ensemble and find that these solutions have a stable phase, which becomes smaller as V increases

  3. Physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics for black holes in Einstein-Maxwell axion-dilaton gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2002-07-21

    We derive general formulae for the first-order variation of the ADM mass and angular momentum for the linear perturbations of a stationary background in Einstein-Maxwell axion-dilaton gravity which is the low-energy limit of the heterotic string theory. All these variations were expressed in terms of the perturbed matter energy-momentum tensor and the perturbed charge current density. Combining these expressions, we reached at the form of the physical process version of the first law of black-hole dynamics for the stationary black holes in the considered theory which is a strong support for the cosmic censorship hypothesis.

  4. Applications of gauge/gravity dualities with charged Anti-de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, Viviane Theresa

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we deal with different applications of the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. The AdS/CFT correspondence, which is also more generally referred to as gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured duality in superstring theory between strongly-coupled four-dimensional N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory and weakly-coupled type IIB string theory in five-dimensional AdS spacetime. This duality provides a powerful method to investigate strongly-coupled low-energy systems in four dimensions by substitutionally carrying out calculations in five-dimensional weakly-coupled supergravity. In this work, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore three different strongly-coupled systems, namely a brane world accommodating a strongly-coupled field theory, a strongly-coupled fluid on a three-sphere and a strongly-coupled p-wave superfluid. In all these cases, the dual supergravity descriptions involve charged AdS black holes. The first system studied here is a Randall-Sundrum brane world moving in the background of a five-dimensional non-extremal black hole of N=2 gauged supergravity. The equations of motion of the brane are found to be equal to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) equations for a closed universe. The closed brane universe has special thermodynamic properties. The energy of the brane field theory exhibits a subextensive Casimir contribution, and the entropy can be expressed as a Cardy-Verlinde-type formula. We show that the equations for both quantities can take forms that strongly resemble the two FRW equations. At the horizon of the black hole, these two sets of equations are shown to even merge with each other which might suggest the existence of a common underlying theory. In addition, as a by-product result, the non-extremal black hole solutions considered here are found to admit an alternative description in terms of first-order flow equations similar to those which are well-known from the attractor mechanism of

  5. Applications of gauge/gravity dualities with charged Anti-de Sitter black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Viviane Theresa

    2010-05-17

    In this thesis, we deal with different applications of the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. The AdS/CFT correspondence, which is also more generally referred to as gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured duality in superstring theory between strongly-coupled four-dimensional N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory and weakly-coupled type IIB string theory in five-dimensional AdS spacetime. This duality provides a powerful method to investigate strongly-coupled low-energy systems in four dimensions by substitutionally carrying out calculations in five-dimensional weakly-coupled supergravity. In this work, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore three different strongly-coupled systems, namely a brane world accommodating a strongly-coupled field theory, a strongly-coupled fluid on a three-sphere and a strongly-coupled p-wave superfluid. In all these cases, the dual supergravity descriptions involve charged AdS black holes. The first system studied here is a Randall-Sundrum brane world moving in the background of a five-dimensional non-extremal black hole of N=2 gauged supergravity. The equations of motion of the brane are found to be equal to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) equations for a closed universe. The closed brane universe has special thermodynamic properties. The energy of the brane field theory exhibits a subextensive Casimir contribution, and the entropy can be expressed as a Cardy-Verlinde-type formula. We show that the equations for both quantities can take forms that strongly resemble the two FRW equations. At the horizon of the black hole, these two sets of equations are shown to even merge with each other which might suggest the existence of a common underlying theory. In addition, as a by-product result, the non-extremal black hole solutions considered here are found to admit an alternative description in terms of first-order flow equations similar to those which are well-known from the attractor mechanism of

  6. Area and Entropy Spectrum of Gauss—Bonnet Gravity in de Sitter Space-Times for Black Hole Event Horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Ren Ji-Rong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the modified Hod's treatment and the Kunstatter's method to study the horizon area spectrum and entropy spectrum in Gauss—Bonnet de-Sitter space-time, which is regarded as the natural generalization of Einstein gravity by including higher derivative correction terms to the original Einstein—Hilbert action. The horizon areas have some properties that are very different from the vacuum solutions obtained from the frame of Einstein gravity. With the new physical interpretation of quasinormal modes, the area/entropy spectrum for the event horizon for near-extremal Gauss—Bonnet de Sitter black holes are obtained. Meanwhile, we also extend the discussion of area/entropy quantization to the non-extremal black holes solutions. (general)

  7. Quantum corrections to Bekenstein–Hawking black hole entropy and gravity partition functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsenko, A.A.; Tureanu, A.

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic aspects of the computation of partition functions for quantum gravity and black holes in AdS 3 are discussed. We compute the sub-leading quantum corrections to the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy. It is shown that the quantum corrections to the classical result can be included systematically by making use of the comparison with conformal field theory partition functions, via the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. This leads to a better understanding of the role of modular and spectral functions, from the point of view of the representation theory of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras. Besides, the sum of known quantum contributions to the partition function can be presented in a closed form, involving the Patterson–Selberg spectral function. These contributions can be reproduced in a holomorphically factorized theory whose partition functions are associated with the formal characters of the Virasoro modules. We propose a spectral function formulation for quantum corrections to the elliptic genus from supergravity states

  8. Black holes in higher dimensional gravity theory with corrections quadratic in curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2009-01-01

    Static spherically symmetric black holes are discussed in the framework of higher dimensional gravity with quadratic in curvature terms. Such terms naturally arise as a result of quantum corrections induced by quantum fields propagating in the gravitational background. We focus our attention on the correction of the form C 2 =C αβγδ C αβγδ . The Gauss-Bonnet equation in four-dimensional spacetime enables one to reduce this term in the action to the terms quadratic in the Ricci tensor and scalar curvature. As a result the Schwarzschild solution which is Ricci flat will be also a solution of the theory with the Weyl scalar C 2 correction. An important new feature of the spaces with dimension D>4 is that in the presence of the Weyl curvature-squared term a necessary solution differs from the corresponding 'classical' vacuum Tangherlini metric. This difference is related to the presence of secondary or induced hair. We explore how the Tangherlini solution is modified by 'quantum corrections', assuming that the gravitational radius r 0 is much larger than the scale of the quantum corrections. We also demonstrated that finding a general solution beyond the perturbation method can be reduced to solving a single third order ordinary differential equation (master equation).

  9. Logarithmic entropy of Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole with self-gravitation in asymptotically flat IR modified Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Molin; Lu Junwang

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent logarithmic entropy of Horava-Lifshitz gravity, we investigate Hawking radiation for Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole from tunneling perspective. After considering the effect of self-gravitation, we calculate the emission rate and entropy of quantum tunneling by using Kraus-Parikh-Wilczek method. Meanwhile, both massless and massive particles are considered in this Letter. Interestingly, two types tunneling particles have the same emission rate Γ and entropy S b whose analytical formulae are Γ=exp[π(r in 2 -r out 2 )/2+π/αlnr in /r out ] and S b =A/4+π/αln(A/4), respectively. Here, α is the Horava-Lifshitz field parameter. The results show that the logarithmic entropy of Horava-Lifshitz gravity could be explained well by the self-gravitation, which is totally different from other methods. The study of this semiclassical tunneling process may shed light on understanding the Horava-Lifshitz gravity.

  10. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  11. Effect of vacuum energy on evolution of primordial black holes in Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Bibekananda; Jamil, Mubasher

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of primordial black holes by considering present universe is no more matter dominated rather vacuum energy dominated. We also consider the accretion of radiation, matter and vacuum energy during respective dominance period. In this scenario, we found that radiation accretion efficiency should be less than 0.366 and accretion rate is much larger than previous analysis by Nayak et al. (2009) . Thus here primordial black holes live longer than previous works Nayak and Singh (2011). Again matter accretion slightly increases the mass and lifetime of primordial black holes. However, the vacuum energy accretion is slightly complicated one, where accretion is possible only up to a critical time. If a primordial black hole lives beyond critical time, then its' lifespan increases due to vacuum energy accretion. But for presently evaporating primordial black holes, critical time comes much later than their evaporating time and thus vacuum energy could not affect those primordial black holes.

  12. Thermodynamics and phase transition of black hole in an asymptotically safe gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Meng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of quantum gravitational correction on the thermodynamics of black holes in the asymptotic safety scenario. Owing to the quantum-corrected Schwarzschild metric, the thermodynamic quantities are also corrected and a Hawking–Page-type phase transition may exist. We also employ the concept of thermodynamic geometry to the black hole to characterize the phase transition. By introducing a cavity enclosing the black hole, we apply the spatially finite boundary conditions to further investigate the thermodynamic phase transition of the black hole. It is shown that the larger and small black holes are both locally stable according to heat capacity. According to free energy, we find that the quantum-corrected black hole has similar thermodynamic phase structure to that of RN–AdS black hole. In addition, we also discuss the possibility of the phase transition between the black hole and the hot curved space. Above a certain temperature T 0 , the black hole is more probable than the hot space

  13. Thermodynamics of Phantom Energy Accreting onto a Black Hole in Einstein—Power—Maxwell Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Ramzan, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the phantom energy accretion onto a 3D black hole formulated in the Einstein—Power—Maxwell theory, and present the conditions for critical accretion of phantom energy onto the black hole. Further, we discuss the thermodynamics of phantom energy accreting onto the black hole and find that the first law of thermodynamics is easily satisfied while the second law and the generalized second law of thermodynamics remain invalid and conditionally valid, respectively. The results for the Banados—Teitelboim—Zanelli black hole can be recovered by taking Maxwellian contribution equal to zero

  14. Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamow, George

    2003-01-01

    A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw

  15. New perspective for black hole thermodynamics in Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Li, Gu-Qiang; Mo, Jie-Xiong; Panahiyan, Shahram; Panah, Behzad Eslam

    2016-01-01

    Following an earlier study regarding Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-massive black holes in the presence of a Born-Infeld nonlinear electromagnetic field (Hendi, arXiv:1510.00108, 2016), we study thermodynamical structure and critical behavior of these black holes through various methods in this paper. Geometrical thermodynamics is employed to give a picture regarding the phase transition of these black holes. Next, a new method is used to derive critical pressure and radius of the horizon of these black holes. In addition, Maxwell equal area law is employed to study the Van der Waals like behavior of these black holes. Moreover, the critical exponents are calculated and by using Ehrenfest equations, the type of phase transition is determined. (orig.)

  16. New perspective for black hole thermodynamics in Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM),Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Li, Gu-Qiang; Mo, Jie-Xiong [Lingnan Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Panahiyan, Shahram [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panah, Behzad Eslam [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Following an earlier study regarding Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-massive black holes in the presence of a Born-Infeld nonlinear electromagnetic field (Hendi, arXiv:1510.00108, 2016), we study thermodynamical structure and critical behavior of these black holes through various methods in this paper. Geometrical thermodynamics is employed to give a picture regarding the phase transition of these black holes. Next, a new method is used to derive critical pressure and radius of the horizon of these black holes. In addition, Maxwell equal area law is employed to study the Van der Waals like behavior of these black holes. Moreover, the critical exponents are calculated and by using Ehrenfest equations, the type of phase transition is determined. (orig.)

  17. Dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow with a nonlinear source: the effects of thermal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panah, B.E. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); ICRANet, Pescara (Italy); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Momennia, M. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    This paper is devoted to an investigation of nonlinearly charged dilatonic black holes in the context of gravity's rainbow with two cases: (1) by considering the usual entropy, (2) in the presence of first order logarithmic correction of the entropy. First, exact black hole solutions of dilatonic Born-Infeld gravity with an energy dependent Liouville-type potential are obtained. Then, thermodynamic properties of the mentioned cases are studied, separately. It will be shown that although mass, entropy and the heat capacity are modified due to the presence of a first order correction, the temperature remains independent of it. Furthermore, it will be shown that divergences of the heat capacity, hence phase transition points are also independent of a first order correction, whereas the stability conditions are highly sensitive to variation of the correction parameter. Except for the effects of a first order correction, we will also present a limit on the values of the dilatonic parameter and show that it is possible to recognize AdS and dS thermodynamical behaviors for two specific branches of the dilatonic parameter. In addition, the effects of nonlinear electromagnetic field and energy functions on the thermodynamical behavior of the solutions will be highlighted and dependency of critical behavior, on these generalizations will be investigated. (orig.)

  18. Topological charged black holes in massive gravity's rainbow and their thermodynamical analysis through various approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eslam Panah, B. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-10

    Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.

  19. Dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow with a nonlinear source: the effects of thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Panah, B.E.; Panahiyan, S.; Momennia, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to an investigation of nonlinearly charged dilatonic black holes in the context of gravity's rainbow with two cases: (1) by considering the usual entropy, (2) in the presence of first order logarithmic correction of the entropy. First, exact black hole solutions of dilatonic Born-Infeld gravity with an energy dependent Liouville-type potential are obtained. Then, thermodynamic properties of the mentioned cases are studied, separately. It will be shown that although mass, entropy and the heat capacity are modified due to the presence of a first order correction, the temperature remains independent of it. Furthermore, it will be shown that divergences of the heat capacity, hence phase transition points are also independent of a first order correction, whereas the stability conditions are highly sensitive to variation of the correction parameter. Except for the effects of a first order correction, we will also present a limit on the values of the dilatonic parameter and show that it is possible to recognize AdS and dS thermodynamical behaviors for two specific branches of the dilatonic parameter. In addition, the effects of nonlinear electromagnetic field and energy functions on the thermodynamical behavior of the solutions will be highlighted and dependency of critical behavior, on these generalizations will be investigated. (orig.)

  20. Boundary causality versus hyperbolicity for spherical black holes in Gauss–Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Cáceres, Elena; Keeler, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We explore the constraints boundary causality places on the allowable Gauss–Bonnet gravitational couplings in asymptotically AdS spaces, specifically considering spherical black hole solutions. We additionally consider the hyperbolicity properties of these solutions, positing that hyperbolicity-violating solutions are sick solutions whose causality properties provide no information about the theory they reside in. For both signs of the Gauss–Bonnet coupling, spherical black holes violate boundary causality at smaller absolute values of the coupling than planar black holes do. For negative coupling, as we tune the Gauss–Bonnet coupling away from zero, both spherical and planar black holes violate hyperbolicity before they violate boundary causality. For positive coupling, the only hyperbolicity-respecting spherical black holes which violate boundary causality do not do so appreciably far from the planar bound. Consequently, eliminating hyperbolicity-violating solutions means the bound on Gauss–Bonnet couplings from the boundary causality of spherical black holes is no tighter than that from planar black holes. (paper)

  1. Weight Estimate and Centers of Gravity for JT-11 Nuclear Conversion Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R. W.

    1958-01-01

    Weight estimates and centers of gravity for the JT-11 nuclear conversion study are tabulated. Included in the radiator section are: diffuser, shrouds, supports, radiator, liquid metal, shafting and casing.

  2. Quantum Gravity Effect on the Tunneling Particles from 2 + 1-Dimensional New-Type Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganim Gecim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP effect on the Hawking temperature for the 2 + 1-dimensional new-type black hole by using the quantum tunneling method for both the spin-1/2 Dirac and the spin-0 scalar particles. In computation of the GUP correction for the Hawking temperature of the black hole, we modified Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. We observed that the modified Hawking temperature of the black hole depends not only on the black hole properties, but also on the graviton mass and the intrinsic properties of the tunneling particle, such as total angular momentum, energy, and mass. Also, we see that the Hawking temperature was found to be probed by these particles in different manners. The modified Hawking temperature for the scalar particle seems low compared with its standard Hawking temperature. Also, we find that the modified Hawking temperature of the black hole caused by Dirac particle’s tunneling is raised by the total angular momentum of the particle. It is diminishable by the energy and mass of the particle and graviton mass as well. These intrinsic properties of the particle, except total angular momentum for the Dirac particle, and graviton mass may cause screening for the black hole radiation.

  3. Black hole physics from two-dimensional dilaton gravity based on the SL(2,R)/U(1) coset model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, S.; Oda, I.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the quantum two-dimensional dilaton gravity model, which is described by the SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten model deformed by a (1,1) operator. We show that the curvature singularity does not appear when the central charge c matter of the matter fields is given by 22 matter matter matter ∝δ(x + -x 0 + ), create a kind of wormholes, i.e., causally disconnected regions. Most of the quantum information in past null infinity is lost in future null infinity but the lost information would be carried by the wormholes. We also discuss the problem of defining the mass of quantum black holes. On the basis of the argument by Regge and Teitelboim, we show that the ADM mass measured by the observer who lives in one of the asymptotically flat regions is finite and does not vanish in general. On the other hand, the Bondi mass is ill defined in this model. Instead of the Bondi mass, we consider the mass measured by observers who live in an asymptotically flat region at first. A class of observers finds the mass of the black hole created by a shock wave changes as the observers' proper time goes by, i.e., they observe Hawking radiation. The measured mass vanishes after the infinite proper time and the black hole evaporates completely. Therefore the total Hawking radiation is positive even when N<24

  4. Cosmological and black hole brane-world universes in higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Ogushi, Sachiko

    2002-01-01

    A general model of multidimensional R 2 gravity including a Riemann tensor square term (nonzero c case) is considered. The number of brane-worlds in such a model is constructed (mainly in five dimensions) and their properties are discussed. The thermodynamics of a Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter (S-AdS) BH (with boundary) is presented when perturbation on c is used. The entropy, free energy, and energy are calculated. For a nonzero c the entropy (energy) is not proportional to the area (mass). The equation of motion of the brane in a BH background is presented as a FRW equation. Using a dual CFT description it is shown that the dual field theory is not a conformal one when c is not zero. In this case the holographic entropy does not coincide with the BH entropy (they coincide for Einstein gravity or c=0 HD gravity where the AdS/CFT description is well applied). An asymmetrically warped background (an analogue of a charged AdS BH) where Lorentz invariance violation occurs is found. The cosmological 4D dS brane connecting two dS bulk spaces is formulated in terms of the parameters of R 2 gravity. Within the proposed dS/CFT correspondence the holographic conformal anomaly from five-dimensional higher derivative gravity in a de Sitter background is evaluated

  5. gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...

  6. One-loop pure-gravity contributions to a black-hole geometry with quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterkin, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    A black-hole is unstable to zero-means quantum fluctuations of its metric. These quantum fluctuations break the degeneracy of the locations of the event-horizon and the apparent-horizon for a Schwarzschild black-hole. The path-integral in spacetime with Euclidean signature is calculated from the ADM action to second order in the variations. It is found that the second-order term of this perturbation expansion gives the same contribution to the path-integral as the zeroth-order term for these particular fluctuations. A surface near the black-hole event-horizon is correctly treated as a boundary, and this surface makes a substantial contribution to the path-integral. One may treat this path-integral as a partition function and calculate thermodynamic quantities. The entropy of this black-hole, for example, is found to be close to the accepted value of A/4h, where A is the black-hole surface area. The meaning of these particular fluctuations and the importance of the boundary near the event-horizon is discussed

  7. Microscopic entropy of the three-dimensional rotating black hole of Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, Gaston; Oliva, Julio; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotically anti-de Sitter rotating black holes for the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity theory in three dimensions are considered. In the special case when the theory admits a unique maximally symmetric solution, apart from the mass and the angular momentum, the black hole is described by an independent 'gravitational hair' parameter, which provides a negative lower bound for the mass. This bound is saturated at the extremal case, and since the temperature and the semiclassical entropy vanish, it is naturally regarded as the ground state. The absence of a global charge associated with the gravitational hair parameter reflects itself through the first law of thermodynamics in the fact that the variation of this parameter can be consistently reabsorbed by a shift of the global charges, giving further support to consider the extremal case as the ground state. The rotating black hole fits within relaxed asymptotic conditions as compared with the ones of Brown and Henneaux, such that they are invariant under the standard asymptotic symmetries spanned by two copies of the Virasoro generators, and the algebra of the conserved charges acquires a central extension. Then it is shown that Strominger's holographic computation for general relativity can also be extended to the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend theory; i.e., assuming that the quantum theory could be consistently described by a dual conformal field theory at the boundary, the black hole entropy can be microscopically computed from the asymptotic growth of the number of states according to Cardy's formula, in exact agreement with the semiclassical result.

  8. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  9. Integrability in conformally coupled gravity: Taub-NUT spacetimes and rotating black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardoux, Yannis [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (LPT), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8627, F-91405 Orsay (France); Caldarelli, Marco M. [Mathematical Sciences and STAG research centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Charmousis, Christos [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (LPT), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8627, F-91405 Orsay (France); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (LMPT), Université Tours, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France)

    2014-05-09

    We consider four dimensional stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes for conformally coupled scalar-tensor theories. We show that, in analogy to the Lewis-Papapetrou problem in General Relativity (GR), the theory at hand can be recast in an analogous integrable form. We give the relevant rod formalism, introduced by Weyl for vacuum GR, explicitly giving the rod structure of the black hole of Bocharova et al. and Bekenstein (BBMB), in complete analogy to the Schwarzschild solution. The additional scalar field is shown to play the role of an extra Weyl potential. We then employ the Ernst method as a concrete solution generating example to obtain the Taub-NUT version of the BBMB hairy black hole. The solution is easily extended to include a cosmological constant. We show that the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of this solution is free of closed timelike curves that plague usual Taub-NUT metrics, and thus consists of a rotating, asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter black hole. This stationary solution has no curvature singularities whatsoever in the conformal frame, and the NUT charge is shown here to regularize the central curvature singularity of the corresponding static black hole. Given our findings we discuss the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of Taub-NUT in four dimensions, and show that the curvature singularity of the NUT-less solution is now replaced by a neighbouring chronological singularity screened by horizons. We argue that the properties of this rotating black hole are very similar to those of the rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions.

  10. Extremal dyonic black holes in D=4 Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Orlov, Dmitry G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate extremal dyon black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with higher curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. In the same theory without the Gauss-Bonnet term the extremal dyon solutions exist only for discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant a. We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term acts as a dyon hair tonic enlarging the allowed values of a to continuous domains in the plane (a,q m ) where q m is the magnetic charge. In the limit of the vanishing curvature coupling (a large magnetic charge) the dyon solutions obtained tend to the Reissner-Nordstroem solution but not to the extremal dyons of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. Both solutions have the same dependence of the horizon radius in terms of charges. The entropy of new dyonic black holes interpolates between the Bekenstein-Hawking value in the limit of the large magnetic charge (equivalent to the vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling) and twice this value for the vanishing magnetic charge. Although an expression for the entropy can be obtained analytically using purely local near-horizon solutions, its interpretation as the black hole entropy is legitimate only once the global black hole solution is known to exist, and we obtain numerically the corresponding conditions on the parameters. Thus, a purely local analysis is insufficient to fully understand the entropy of the curvature-corrected black holes. We also find dyon solutions which are not asymptotically flat, but approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. They describe magnetic black holes on the electric linear dilaton background.

  11. The quantum nonthermal radiation and horizon surface gravity of an arbitrarily accelerating black hole with electric charge and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhi-Kun; Pan Wei-Zhen; Yang Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, we discuss the quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics near an event horizon by studying the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of a scalar particle in curved space-time, and obtain the event horizon surface gravity and the Hawking temperature on that event horizon. The results show that there is a crossing of particle energy near the event horizon. We derive the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels. It is also found that the Hawking temperature of a black hole depends not only on the time, but also on the angle. There is a problem of dimension in the usual tortoise coordinate, so the present results obtained by using a correct-dimension new tortoise coordinate transformation may be more reasonable

  12. Magnetic Neutral Points and Electric Lines of Force in Strong Gravity of a Rotating Black Hole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, Vladimír; Kopáček, Ondřej; Kunneriath, Devaky

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, 3A (2013), s. 18-24 ISSN 2161-4717 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-00070J Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * nuclei * black hole physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Non-commutative black hole algebra and string theory from gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haro, S. de

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the action found by 't Hooft, which describes the gravitational interaction between ingoing and outgoing particles in the neighbourhood of a black hole. The effect of this back-reaction is that of a shock wave, and it provides a mec hanism for reco vering information about the momen

  14. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from twelve boreholes drilled in Area 25 under the guidance of the Sandia National Laboratory. They were drilled to provide samples and alluvial thickness determinations for the repository surface facilities, especially with respect to foundation conditions. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities and review of hole conditions

  15. Analytic rotating black-hole solutions in N-dimensional f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashed, G.G.L. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, Cairo (Egypt); Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group (ERG), Cairo (Egypt); El Hanafy, W. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group (ERG), Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    A non-diagonal vielbein ansatz is applied to the N-dimension field equations of f(T) gravity. An analytical vacuum solution is derived for the quadratic polynomial f(T)=T+εT{sup 2} and an inverse relation between the coupling constant ε and the cosmological constant Λ. Since the induced metric has off-diagonal components, it cannot be removed by a mere coordinate transformation, the solution has a rotating parameter. The curvature and torsion scalars invariants are calculated to study the singularities and horizons of the solution. In contrast to general relativity, the Cauchy horizon differs from the horizon which shows the effect of the higher order torsion. The general expression of the energy-momentum vector of f(T) gravity is used to calculate the energy of the system. Finally, we have shown that this kind of solution satisfies the first law of thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) gravitational theories. (orig.)

  16. Black holes in loop quantum gravity: the complete space-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2008-10-17

    We consider the quantization of the complete extension of the Schwarzschild space-time using spherically symmetric loop quantum gravity. We find an exact solution corresponding to the semiclassical theory. The singularity is eliminated but the space-time still contains a horizon. Although the solution is known partially numerically and therefore a proper global analysis is not possible, a global structure akin to a singularity-free Reissner-Nordström space-time including a Cauchy horizon is suggested.

  17. Deforming black hole and cosmological solutions by quasiperiodic and/or pattern forming structures in modified and Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubuianu, Laurenţiu; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2018-05-01

    We elaborate on the anholonomic frame deformation method, AFDM, for constructing exact solutions with quasiperiodic structure in modified gravity theories, MGTs, and general relativity, GR. Such solutions are described by generic off-diagonal metrics, nonlinear and linear connections and (effective) matter sources with coefficients depending on all spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generation and integration functions and (effective) matter sources. There are studied effective free energy functionals and nonlinear evolution equations for generating off-diagonal quasiperiodic deformations of black hole and/or homogeneous cosmological metrics. The physical data for such functionals are stated by different values of constants and prescribed symmetries for defining quasiperiodic structures at cosmological scales, or astrophysical objects in nontrivial gravitational backgrounds some similar forms as in condensed matter physics. It is shown how quasiperiodic structures determined by general nonlinear, or additive, functionals for generating functions and (effective) sources may transform black hole like configurations into cosmological metrics and inversely. We speculate on possible implications of quasiperiodic solutions in dark energy and dark matter physics. Finally, it is concluded that geometric methods for constructing exact solutions consist an important alternative tool to numerical relativity for investigating nonlinear effects in astrophysics and cosmology.

  18. Near-horizon limit of the charged BTZ black hole and AdS2 quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Setare, Mohammad R.

    2008-01-01

    We show that the 3D charged Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole solution interpolates between two different 2D AdS spacetimes: a near-extremal, near-horizon AdS 2 geometry with constant dilaton and U(1) field and an asymptotic AdS 2 geometry with a linear dilaton. Thus, the charged BTZ black hole can be considered as interpolating between the two different formulations proposed until now for AdS 2 quantum gravity. In both cases the theory is the chiral half of a 2D CFT and describes, respectively, Brown-Hennaux-like boundary deformations and near-horizon excitations. The central charge c as of the asymptotic CFT is determined by 3D Newton constant G and the AdS length l, c as = 3l/G, whereas that of the near-horizon CFT also depends on the U(1) charge Q, c nh ∝lQ/√G.

  19. Null geodesics and shadow of a rotating black hole in extended Chern-Simons modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarilla, Leonardo; Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Giribet, Gaston

    2010-01-01

    The Chern-Simons modification to general relativity in four dimensions consists of adding to the Einstein-Hilbert term a scalar field that couples to the first-class Pontryagin density. In this theory, which has attracted considerable attention recently, the Schwarzschild metric persists as an exact solution, and this is why this model resists several observational constraints. In contrast, the spinning black hole solution of the theory is not given by the Kerr metric but by a modification of it, so far only known for slow rotation and small coupling constant. In the present paper, we show that, in this approximation, the null geodesic equation can be integrated, and this allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole. We discuss how, in addition to the angular momentum of the solution, the coupling to the Chern-Simons term deforms the shape of the shadow.

  20. Combinatorics of the SU(2) black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agullo, Ivan; Barbero G, J. Fernando; Borja, Enrique F.; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Villasenor, Eduardo J. S.

    2009-01-01

    We use the combinatorial and number-theoretical methods developed in previous works by the authors to study black hole entropy in the new proposal put forth by Engle, Noui, and Perez. Specifically, we give the generating functions relevant for the computation of the entropy and use them to derive its asymptotic behavior, including the value of the Immirzi parameter and the coefficient of the logarithmic correction.

  1. Spacetime completeness of non-singular black holes in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Rachwał, Lesław [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: lmodesto@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: grzerach@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2017-05-01

    We explicitly prove that the Weyl conformal symmetry solves the black hole singularity problem, otherwise unavoidable in a generally covariant local or non-local gravitational theory. Moreover, we yield explicit examples of local and non-local theories enjoying Weyl and diffeomorphism symmetry (in short co-covariant theories). Following the seminal paper by Narlikar and Kembhavi, we provide an explicit construction of singularity-free spherically symmetric and axi-symmetric exact solutions for black hole spacetimes conformally equivalent to the Schwarzschild or the Kerr spacetime. We first check the absence of divergences in the Kretschmann invariant for the rescaled metrics. Afterwords, we show that the new types of black holes are geodesically complete and linked by a Newman-Janis transformation just as in standard general relativity (based on Einstein-Hilbert action). Furthermore, we argue that no massive or massless particles can reach the former Schwarzschild singularity or touch the former Kerr ring singularity in a finite amount of their proper time or of their affine parameter. Finally, we discuss the Raychaudhuri equation in a co-covariant theory and we show that the expansion parameter for congruences of both types of geodesics (for massless and massive particles) never reaches minus infinity. Actually, the null geodesics become parallel at the r =0 point in the Schwarzschild spacetime (the origin) and the focusing of geodesics is avoided. The arguments of regularity of curvature invariants, geodesic completeness, and finiteness of geodesics' expansion parameter ensure us that we are dealing with singularity-free and geodesically-complete black hole spacetimes.

  2. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  3. Geonic black holes and remnants in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, D; Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios

    We show that electrically charged solutions within the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity replace the central singularity by a wormhole supported by the electric field. As a result, the total energy associated with the electric field is finite and similar to that found in the Born-Infeld electromagnetic theory. When a certain charge-to-mass ratio is satisfied, in the lowest part of the mass and charge spectrum the event horizon disappears, yielding stable remnants. We argue that quantum effects in the matter sector can lower the mass of these remnants from the Planck scale down to the TeV scale.

  4. Quantum gravity removes classical singularities and shortens the life of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Vilkovisky, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in classical General Relativity is what is to be done with singularities which inevitably arise in the theoretical description of the massive body (or total Universe) collapse. Although the singularities arising as a result of the gravitational collapse are believed to be hidden under event horizons and thus are not visible to an external observer, their very existence means the crisis of the classical gravitational physics. It is generally believed that the proper account of quantum effects may cure this disease. The aim of the present work is to show that it really happens, and quantum gravity does remove classical singularities. (Auth.)

  5. Machining of the nuclear tube sheet with small hole diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    Regarding the tube sheet for the heat exchanger of Qinshan Phase II extension project, its material is 00Cr19Ni10 forgings, the tube sheet thickness is 125 mm, requiring 178-φ10.35 0 +0.05 hole, the tube array shall take the shape of equilateral triangle, the center distance is 15 mm, and the tube hole roughness is Ra 3.2. The guide sleeve shall be adopted for positioning prior to machining of the high precision small hole of the thick tube sheet, and the gun drill and BTA drill shall be adopted for testing, finally BTA drilling with internal chip removal shall be adopted, this method shall overcome the disadvantage factor of BTA drilling and shall be the new approach for drilling. The diameter of BTA drill is φ10.34 mm. The machined hole diameter shall be φ10.375-φ10.355 mm. The ellipticity of the tube hole shall be less than 0.01 mm, the pipe bridge dimension shall be 4.6 mm, conforming to the requirement of the drawing. The paper presents the precautions during machining so as to provide the reference for the similar pipe hole machining in the future. (author)

  6. On wormholes and black holes solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a K-massless scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez-Delgado, J; Zannias, T

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the nature of black holes and wormholes admitted by a K-essence model involving a massless scalar field φ, minimally coupled to gravity. Via Weyl's formalism, we show that any axial wormhole of the theory can be generated by a unique pair of harmonic functions: U(λ) = π/2 C + C arctan(λ/λ 0 ), φ(λ) = π/2 D + D arctan(λ/λ 0 ) where λ is one of the oblate coordinate, λ 0 > 0 and (C, D) real parameters. The properties of the wormholes depends crucially upon the values of the parameters (C, D). Whenever (C, D) are chosen so that 2C 2 - kD 2 = -2 the wormhole is spherical, while for the case where 2C 2 - kD 2 = -4 or 2C 2 - kD 2 = -6 the wormhole throat possesses toroidal topology. Those two families of wormholes exhaust all regular static and axisymmetric wormholes admitted by this theory. For completeness we add that whenever (C, D) satisfy 2C 2 - kD 2 = -2l with l ≥ 3/2 one still generates a spacetime possessing two asymptotically flat but the throat connecting the two ends contains a string like singularity. For the refined case where 2C 2 - kD 2 = -2l with l = 4,5, ... the resulting spacetime represents a multi-sheeted configuration which even though free of curvature singularities nevertheless the spacetime topology is distinct to so far accepted wormhole topology. Spacetimes generated by the pair (U(λ), φ(λ)) and parameters (C, D) subject to 2C 2 - kD 2 = -2l with l 2 bifurcating, regular Killing horizon necessary possesses a constant exterior scalar field. Under the assumption that the event horizon of any static black hole of this theory is a Killing horizon, the results show that the only static black hole admitted by this K-essence model, is the Schwarzschild black hole

  7. Black hole formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppe, Nils [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science andDepartment of Physics, Cornell University,122 Sciences Drive, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kolly, Allison [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University,805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montréal, Québec H3A 0B9 (Canada); Frey, Andrew R.; Kunstatter, Gabor [Department of Physics and Winnipeg Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Winnipeg,515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9 (Canada)

    2016-10-17

    AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.071102, the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.

  8. TeV-scale black hole lifetimes in extra-dimensional Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G

    2006-01-01

    We examine the mass loss rates and lifetimes of TeV-scale extra-dimensional black holes (BH) in Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali-like models with Lovelock higher-curvature terms present in the action. In particular, we focus on the predicted differences between the canonical and microcanonical ensemble statistical mechanics descriptions of the Hawking radiation that result in the decay of these BH. In even numbers of extra dimensions, the employment of the microcanonical approach is shown to generally lead to a significant increase in the BH lifetime as in the case of the Einstein-Hilbert action. For odd numbers of extra dimensions, stable BH remnants occur when employing either description provided the highest order allowed Lovelock invariant is present. However, in this case, the time dependence of the mass loss rates obtained employing the two approaches will be different. These effects are in principle measurable at future colliders

  9. Toward a better understanding of glass gravity-feed micro-hole drilling with electrochemical discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, M; Maillard, P; Wüthrich, R

    2009-01-01

    Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a flexible, simple and inexpensive method for machining electrically non-conductive materials. SACE is particularly interesting because of the high drilling speed that can be achieved compared to other micromachining technologies. In this paper, the issue of drilling speed decreasing from 100 µm s −1 to 10 µm s −1 for micro-hole depths more than 200–300 µm is analyzed. To understand better the material removal mechanism, with the target to eliminate this limit, a model for the material removal mechanism as a hybrid mechanism combining local heating and chemical etching is presented and compared with experimental data. The comparison between the model and experiment allowed the estimation of the machining temperature to be around 600 °C

  10. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from sixteen boreholes drilled under the guidance of the US Geological Survey to help identify the area's water table. The sixteen boreholes were drilled between April 1983 and November 1983 in Area 25, Nevada Test Site land and in Bureau of Land Management land adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities, review of hole conditions, geophysical log lists, video tape lists, and microfiche copies of the geophysical logs run by the Fenix and Scisson, Inc. subcontractor

  11. Behavior of quasinormal modes and Van der Waals-like phase transition of charged AdS black holes in massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Ruihong [Yangzhou University, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Liu, Yunqi [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, we utilize the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a massless scalar perturbation to probe the Van der Waals-like small and large black holes (SBH/LBH) phase transition of charged topological Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in four-dimensional massive gravity. We find that the signature of this SBH/LBH phase transition is detected in the isobaric as well as in the isothermal process. This further supports the idea that the QNMs can be an efficient tool to investigate the thermodynamical phase transition. (orig.)

  12. Gauge-gravity duality, phase transition of nuclear matter, beyond the Einstein gravity limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassino, Antonia Micol

    2016-07-01

    In this thesis the geometrical, thermodynamical, and holographical properties of charged Gauss-Bonnet black branes in five dimensions, charged Lovelock black holes, and regular black holes and branes were detailedly studied. In the case of Gauss-Bonnet it was found that in agreement with the geometrical and thermodynamic picture the universality of η/s is lost in the UV, but is restored in the IR. The ratio η/s has a non-universal temperature-dependent behaviour for non-extremal Gauss-Bonnet black branes, but reaches the universal value 1/4π in the extremal case. This result suggests that η/s is exclusively determined by the IR behaviour and is insensitive against the UV region of the dual QFT. At low temperatures the ratio η/s approaches the universal value 1/4π, but this value represents a minimum for the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant λ < 0 and a maximum for λ > 0. Therefore the dual to Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell QFT for λ < 0 a nice example for a temperature-dependent η/s with a lower bound of 1/4π. But the temperature dependence, which is obtained for 0 < λ < 1/4 and violates the Kovtun-Son-Starinets limit, is an interesting theme for further studies.

  13. Path-integral derivation of black-hole radiance inside the de-Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley formulation of massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arraut, Ivan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    If we apply the path-integral formulation in order to analyze the particle creation process of black holes inside the non-linear formulation of massive gravity, it is possible to demonstrate that the effect of the extra degrees of freedom is to deform the periodicity of the poles of the propagator in the complex t-plane. This might create the effect of extra particle creation process at scales where the extra degrees of freedom become relevant. For stationary solutions, depending on the values taken by the free parameters of the theory, the periodicity structure of the propagator reveal two effects. The first one is a shift on the positions of the pole of the propagator with respect to the GR case, affecting then the instant at which the particles are detected. The second one is the existence of branch points, affecting then the perception of particles. The branch point can be finite (including the zero order case) or infinite, depending on the free parameters of the theory. (orig.)

  14. Charged black holes in string-inspired gravity II. Mass inflation and dependence on parameters and potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jakob [KISTI,Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-07

    We investigate the relation between the existence of mass inflation and model parameters of string-inspired gravity models. In order to cover various models, we investigate a Brans-Dicke theory that is coupled to a U(1) gauge field. By tuning a model parameter that decides the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the electromagnetic field, we can make both of models such that the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward strong or weak coupling directions after gravitational collapses. We observe that as long as the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward any (strong or weak) directions, there is no Cauchy horizon and no mass inflation. Therefore, we conclude that to induce a Cauchy horizon and mass inflation inside a charged black hole, either there is no bias of the Brans-Dicke field as well as no Brans-Dicke hair outside the horizon or such a biased Brans-Dicke field should be well trapped and controlled by a potential.

  15. Path-integral derivation of black-hole radiance inside the de-Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley formulation of massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arraut, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    If we apply the path-integral formulation in order to analyze the particle creation process of black holes inside the non-linear formulation of massive gravity, it is possible to demonstrate that the effect of the extra degrees of freedom is to deform the periodicity of the poles of the propagator in the complex t-plane. This might create the effect of extra particle creation process at scales where the extra degrees of freedom become relevant. For stationary solutions, depending on the values taken by the free parameters of the theory, the periodicity structure of the propagator reveal two effects. The first one is a shift on the positions of the pole of the propagator with respect to the GR case, affecting then the instant at which the particles are detected. The second one is the existence of branch points, affecting then the perception of particles. The branch point can be finite (including the zero order case) or infinite, depending on the free parameters of the theory. (orig.)

  16. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] 51 seismic hole histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report is a compilation of data from fifty-one shallow boreholes drilled within the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the adjacent Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands. The boreholes were drilled to determine the alluvial thickness and subsurface structure. Once drilled the boreholes were used to emplace explosive charges of three seismic refraction surveys conducted in 1981, 1983 and 1984. The information presented in this report includes location maps, daily activities and reviews of hole condition

  17. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  18. A close nuclear black-hole pair in the spiral galaxy NGC 3393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, M; Risaliti, G

    2011-08-31

    The current picture of galaxy evolution advocates co-evolution of galaxies and their nuclear massive black holes, through accretion and galactic merging. Pairs of quasars, each with a massive black hole at the centre of its galaxy, have separations of 6,000 to 300,000 light years (refs 2 and 3; 1 parsec = 3.26 light years) and exemplify the first stages of this gravitational interaction. The final stages of the black-hole merging process, through binary black holes and final collapse into a single black hole with gravitational wave emission, are consistent with the sub-light-year separation inferred from the optical spectra and light-variability of two such quasars. The double active nuclei of a few nearby galaxies with disrupted morphology and intense star formation (such as NGC 6240 with a separation of about 2,600 light years and Mrk 463 with a separation of about 13,000 light years between the nuclei) demonstrate the importance of major mergers of equal-mass spiral galaxies in this evolution; such mergers lead to an elliptical galaxy, as in the case of the double-radio-nucleus elliptical galaxy 0402+379 (with a separation of about 24 light years between the nuclei). Minor mergers of a spiral galaxy with a smaller companion should be a more common occurrence, evolving into spiral galaxies with active massive black-hole pairs, but have hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of two active massive black holes, separated by about 490 light years, in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3393 (50 Mpc, about 160 million light years). The regular spiral morphology and predominantly old circum-nuclear stellar population of this galaxy, and the closeness of the black holes embedded in the bulge, provide a hitherto missing observational point to the study of galaxy/black hole evolution. Comparison of our observations with current theoretical models of mergers suggests that they are the result of minor merger evolution. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights

  19. $P-V$ criticality of a specific black hole in $f(R)$ gravity coupled with Yang-Mills field arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Övgün, Ali

    In this paper, we study the $P-v$ criticality of a specific charged AdS type black hole (SBH) in $f(R)$ gravity coupled with Yang-Mills field. In the extended phase space, we treat the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic pressure. After we study the various thermodynamical quantities, we show that the thermodynamic properties of the SBH behave as a Van der Waals liquid-gas system at the critical points and there is a first order phase transition between small-large SBH.

  20. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  1. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  2. Full nuclear field theory treatment of two-particle-one-hole-excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Liotta, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear field theory series is summed up to all orders of perturbation theory including only Tamm-Dancoff vertices for the case of two-particle-one-hole-excitations. It is found that the theory gives the same results as those provided by the shell-model method, but only if all possible basis states are included in the formalism. Applicability of the theory is discussed in a simple model

  3. Scattering in particle-hole space: simple approximations to nuclear RPA calculations in the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1987-01-01

    The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) treatment of nuclear small amplitude vibrations including particle-hole continua is handled in terms of previously developed techniques to treat single-particle resonances in a reaction theoretical framework. A hierarchy of interpretable approximations is derived and a simple working approximation is proposed which involves a numerical effort no larger than that involved in standard, discrete RPA calculations. (Author) [pt

  4. Hawking radiation and tunneling mechanism for a new class of black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneyuki, Kenji; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation in a new class of black hole solutions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. The black hole has been argued to have vanishing mass and entropy, but finite Hawking temperature. To check if it really emits radiation, we analyze Hawking radiation using the original method of quantization of a scalar field in the black hole background and with the quantum tunneling method, and confirm that it emits radiation at the Hawking temperature. A general formula is derived for the Hawking temperature and backreaction in the tunneling approach. Physical implications of these results are discussed. (orig.)

  5. : Nuclear Spirals and Mass Accretion to Supermassive Black Holes in Weakly-Barred Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Disk galaxies, especially barred-spiral galaxies, abound with rings and spirals in their nuclear regions. Nuclear spirals existing even in weakly barred galaxies are thought to channel gas inflows to supermassive black holes residing at the centers. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like or oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies.

  6. Black hole thermodynamics and negative entropy in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the charged Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter (SAdS) BH thermodynamics in 5d Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with electromagnetic field. The Hawking-Page phase transitions between SAdS BH and pure AdS space are studied. The corresponding phase diagrams (with critical line defined by GB term coefficient and electric charge) are drawn. The possibility to account for higher derivative Maxwell terms is mentioned. In frames of proposed dS/CFT correspondence it is demonstrated that brane gravity maybe localized similarly to AdS/CFT. SdS BH thermodynamics in 5d Einstein and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity is considered. The corresponding (complicated) surface counterterms are found and used to get the conserved BH mass, free energy and entropy. The interesting feature of higher derivative gravity is the possibility for negative (or zero) SdS (or SAdS) BH entropy which depends on the parameters of higher derivative terms. We speculate that the appearance of negative entropy may indicate a new type instability where a transition between SdS (SAdS) BH with negative entropy to SAdS (SdS) BH with positive entropy would occur

  7. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquej, P. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Villafranca del Castillo, E-28850, Madrid (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, E-38205, La Laguna (Spain); Hönig, S. F. [UCSB Department of Physics, Broida Hall 2015H, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Roche, P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku, HI 96720 (United States); Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Packham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star-formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate, M-dot {sub BH}) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas-forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (∼0.''4-0.''8) mid-infrared (8-13 μm) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalog. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of ∼65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and we used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 μm PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are, on average, five times lower than those measured in circumnuclear regions of 600 pc in size (median value). However, the projected nuclear SFR densities (median value of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) are a factor of 20 higher than those measured on circumnuclear scales. This indicates that the SF activity per unit area in the central ∼65 pc region of Seyfert galaxies is much higher than at larger distances from their nuclei. We studied the connection between the nuclear SFR and M-dot {sub BH} and showed that numerical simulations reproduce our observed relation fairly well.

  8. Fracture analyses and test of regions with nozzle and hole and curvature influence in nuclear vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baisong; Xu Dinggen; Ye Weijuan; Hu Yinbiao; Liang Xingyun; Gu Shaode; Zhou Peiying

    1993-08-01

    For the calculations of stress intensity factor K 1 of surface crack in the regions with nozzle and hole and the curvature influence on nuclear vessel, a improved 3-D collapsed isoparametric singular element with quarter-points was presented. The square root singularity in the vertical planes of crack was derived. The methods of transitional element and calculating K 1 from displacements were extensively used in 3- D case. The SIF K 1 of the corner crack in inner wall of the nozzle of RPV (reactor pressure vessel) for a typical 300 MW nuclear plant was calculated, and it was verified by 3-D photo-elastic test and diffusion of light test. The engineering fracture analysis and evaluation of the outside surface crack in the circular are transitional region of the head flange of RPV are also completed

  9. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981

  10. In what sense a neutron star-black hole binary is the holy grail for testing gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Manjari; Torres, Diego F.

    2014-01-01

    Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime [1-4]. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?

  11. Polarization of Light from Warm Clouds above an Accretion Disk: Effects of Strong Gravity near a Black Hole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Jiří; Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2006), s. 203-209 ISSN 0004-6264 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR(CZ) GP205/06/P415; GA AV ČR IAA300030510; GA ČR GD205/03/H144 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : accretion disks * black holes * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.106, year: 2006

  12. Conventional and Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Artificial Gravity Mars Transfer Vehicle Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of countermeasures have been developed to address the debilitating physiological effects of zero-gravity (0-g) experienced by cosmonauts and astronauts during their approximately 0.5 to 1.2 year long stays in low Earth orbit (LEO). Longer interplanetary flights, combined with possible prolonged stays in Mars orbit, could subject crewmembers to up to approximately 2.5 years of weightlessness. In view of known and recently diagnosed problems associated with 0-g, an artificial gravity (AG) spacecraft offers many advantages and may indeed be an enabling technology for human flights to Mars. A number of important human factors must be taken into account in selecting the rotation radius, rotation rate, and orientation of the habitation module or modules. These factors include the gravity gradient effect, radial and tangential Coriolis forces, along with cross-coupled acceleration effects. Artificial gravity Mars transfer vehicle (MTV) concepts are presented that utilize both conventional NTR, as well as, enhanced bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) propulsion. The NTR is a proven technology that generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) capability of approximately 900 s-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. The AG/MTV concepts using conventional Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) carry twin cylindrical International Space Station (ISS)- type habitation modules with their long axes oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the longitudinal spin axis of the MTV and utilize photovoltaic arrays (PVAs) for spacecraft power. The twin habitat modules are connected to a central operations hub located at the front of the MTV via two pressurized tunnels that provide the rotation radius for the habitat modules. For the BNTR AG/MTV option, each engine has its own closed secondary helium(He)-xenon (Xe) gas loop and Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) that can generate 10s of kilowatts (kWe) of spacecraft electrical power during the mission coast phase

  13. Effects of bedrock fractures on radionuclide transport near a vertical deposition hole for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.

    2011-12-01

    Effects of bedrock fractures on radionuclide transport near a vertical deposition hole for spent nuclear fuel are studied computationally. The studied fractures are both natural and excavation damage fractures. The emphasis is on the detailed modelling of geometry in 3D in contrast to the traditional radionuclide transport studies that often concentrate on chain decays, sorption, and precipitation at the expense of the geometry. The built computer model is used to assess the significance of components near a deposition hole for radionuclide transport and to estimate the quality of previously used modelling techniques. The results show nearly exponential decrease of radionuclide mass in the bentonite buffer when the release route is a thin natural fracture. The results also imply that size is the most important property of the tunnel section for radionuclide transport. In addition, the results demonstrate that the boundary layer theory can be used to approximate the release of radionuclides with certain accuracy and that a thin fracture in rock can be modelled, at least to a certain limit, by using a fracture with wider aperture but with same flow rate as the thin fracture. (orig.)

  14. Off-Diagonal Deformations of Kerr Black Holes in Einstein and Modified Massive Gravity and Higher Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gheorghiu, Tamara; Vacaru, Sergiu I

    2014-01-01

    We find general parameterizations for generic off-diagonal spacetime metrics and matter sources in general relativity, GR, and modified gravity theories when the field equations decouple with respect to certain types of nonholonomic frames of reference. This allows us to construct various classes of exact solutions when the coefficients of fundamental geometric/ physical objects depend on all spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generating and integration functions and/or constants. Such (modified) spacetimes can be with Killing and non-Killing symmetries, describe nonlinear vacuum configurations and effective polarizations of cosmological and interaction constants. Our method can be extended to higher dimensions which simplifies some proofs for imbedded and nonholonomically constrained four dimensional configurations. We reproduce the Kerr solution and show how to deform it nonholonomically into new classes of generic off-diagonal solutions depending on 3-8 spacetime coordinates. There are anal...

  15. Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    These lectures give a pedagogical review of dilaton gravity, Hawking radiation, the black hole information problem, and black hole pair creation. (Lectures presented at the 1994 Trieste Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology)

  16. 'Bimodal' Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion for an artificial gravity HOPE mission to Callisto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James H.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a year long, multi-center NASA study which examined the viability of nuclear fission propulsion systems for Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE). The HOPE mission assumes a crew of six is sent to Callisto. Jupiter's outermost large moon, to establish a surface base and propellant production facility. The Asgard asteroid formation, a region potentially rich in water-ice, is selected as the landing site. High thrust BNTR propulsion is used to transport the crew from the Earth-Moon L1 staging node to Callisto then back to Earth in less than 5 years. Cargo and LH2 'return' propellant for the piloted Callisto transfer vehicle (PCTV) is pre-deployed at the moon (before the crew's departure) using low thrust, high power, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) cargo and tanker vehicles powered by hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The PCTV is powered by three 25 klbf BNTR engines which also produce 50 kWe of power for crew life support and spacecraft operational needs. To counter the debilitating effects of long duration space flight (∼855 days out and ∼836 days back) under '0-gE' conditions, the PCTV generates an artificial gravity environment of '1-gE' via rotation of the vehicle about its center-of-mass at a rate of ∼4 rpm. After ∼123 days at Callisto, the 'refueled' PCTV leaves orbit for the trip home. Direct capsule re-entry of the crew at mission end is assumed. Dynamic Brayton power conversion and high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten metal ''cermet'' fuel is used in both the BNTR and NEP vehicles to maximize hardware commonality. Technology performance levels and vehicle characteristics are presented, and requirements for PCTV reusability are also discussed

  17. Design of a machine to bore and line a long horizontal hole in tuff: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, J.E.; Dowden, P.B.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes an engineering design for equipment capable of simultaneously drilling and lining deep horizontal bore holes. The ultimate use of the equipment is to bore up to 600 ft long, 3 ft diameter emplacement holes for a nuclear waste repository. The specific system designed is referred to as a Development Prototype Boring Machine (DPBM) which will be used to demonstrate the drilling/lining capability in field development tests. The system utilizes as in-hole electric drive and a vacuum chip removal and handling system. The drilling unit is capable of active directional control and uses laser-type alignment equipment. The system combines the features of a small steerable tunnel boring machine, combined with a horizontally-oriented raise drill, thereby utilizing current technology. All elements of the system are compact and mobile as required for a shaft entry, underground mining environment. 3 refs., 35 figs., 1 tab

  18. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  19. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR SPIRALS: FEEDING THE BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Ven, Glenn; Fathi, Kambiz

    2010-01-01

    We present a harmonic expansion of the observed line-of-sight velocity field as a method to recover and investigate spiral structures in the nuclear regions of galaxies. We apply it to the emission-line velocity field within the circumnuclear star-forming ring of NGC 1097, obtained with the GMOS-IFU spectrograph. The radial variation of the third harmonic terms is well described by a logarithmic spiral, from which we interpret that the gravitational potential is weakly perturbed by a two-arm spiral density wave with an inferred pitch angle of 52 0 ± 4 0 . This interpretation predicts a two-arm spiral distortion in the surface brightness, as hinted by the dust structures in central images of NGC 1097, and predicts a combined one-arm and three-arm spiral structure in the velocity field, as revealed in the non-circular motions of the ionized gas. Next, we use a simple spiral perturbation model to constrain the fraction of the measured non-circular motions that is due to radial inflow. We combine the resulting inflow velocity with the gas density in the spiral arms, inferred from emission-line ratios, to estimate the mass inflow rate as a function of radius, which reaches about 0.011 M sun yr -1 at a distance of 70 pc from the center. This value corresponds to a fraction of about 4.2 x 10 -3 of the Eddington mass accretion rate onto the central black hole in this LINER/Seyfert1 galaxy. We conclude that the line-of-sight velocity can not only provide a cleaner view of nuclear spirals than the associated dust, but that the presented method also allows the quantitative study of these possibly important links in fueling the centers of galaxies, including providing a constraint on the mass inflow rate as a function of radius.

  20. WANO to increase focus on new nuclear as industry's centre of gravity shifts towards Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-02-15

    The World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) intends to focus more on new nuclear units coming into operation around the world as the ''centre of gravity'' in the industry shifts from the US and Europe to the Middle East and Asia. The organisation's chief executive officer, Peter Prozesky, told NucNet that new-build projects in China, India, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates are giving WANO the opportunity to make sure those countries start the operational life of their new units ''in a very positive way''. In supporting countries with new units beginning operation, WANO is working more closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). One of the IAEA's tasks is to help emerging nuclear countries develop the infrastructure and capability they need to have nuclear power as part of their energy mix.

  1. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NSCs and their host galaxies, a correlation which is said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (SMBHs and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies—including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions—shows that while SMBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NSCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio MNSC/M⋆, tot for NSCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types Sc and later is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio MBH/M⋆, bul of SMBHs. The absence of a universal “central massive object” correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both SMBHs and NSCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NSC-host galaxy correlation, galaxies with Hubble types earlier than Sbc appear to host systematically more massive NSCs than do types Sc and later.

  2. Workshop on Topics in Three Dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Gravity in three dimensions has rather special features which makes it particularly suitable for addressing questions related to the quantization of gravity and puzzles concerning black hole physics. AdS3 gravity and in particular AdS3/CFT2 has played a crucial role in black hole microstate counting, and more recently in studying holographic entanglement entropy and higher spin theories.

  3. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories: Unsaturated zone-neutron holes: 76 boreholes drilled between May 1984 and February 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This is a compilation of data from seventy-four shallow alluvial exploratory core holes and two shallow calibration core holes. The boreholes were drilled to obtain undisturbed alluvial cores, to determine vertical distribution of moisture content and water potential, and to run neutron moisture logs. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities and review of hole conditions

  4. Gravity as a thermodynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Moustos, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The analogy between the laws of black hole mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics led Bekenstein and Hawking to argue that black holes should be considered as real thermodynamic systems that are characterised by entropy and temperature. Black hole thermodynamics indicates a deeper connection between thermodynamics and gravity. We review and examine in detail the arguments that suggest an interpretation of gravity itself as a thermodynamic theory.

  5. Drilling holes in rock for final storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, G.

    1980-09-01

    This report delas with the technical and economic aspects of the drilling of vertical holes with diameters of 1.5 metres and 1 metre in the Swedish bedrock. The holes will be 7.7 metres in depth and located on a level approximately 500 metres below the ground surface. There is no directly applicable technique for the construction of the above-mentioned holes from a small tunnel. The data presented in this report are based to a great extent on information supplied by the manufacturers of drilling equipment, and by underground construction contractors. Three different techniques for drilling the holes have been delat with in the report: shaft boring, stitch drilling (three alternative methods) and core drilling. In order to produce the required 233 holes per year, the following sets of equipment must be purchased, and personnel engaged. A hole with a diameter of 1.5 m and a depth of 7.7 m requires 3 to 7 sets of equipment for shaft boring or stitch drilling and engages 12 to 27 employees. The cost per hole varies between 24.200 and 31.200 SKr. Core drilling requires 7 sets of equipment, engages 29 persons and costs 55.300 SKr per hole. A hole with a diameter of 1.0 m requires less personnel and costs between 19.700 and 25.800 per hole except for core drilling where the cost per hole is estimated to 43.900 SKr. Interest costs account for 10 percent - 15 percent of the above-mentioned costs. Our aim has been to calculate the costs for the different methods on as similar a basis as possible, but a margin of error of +- 15 percent entails and overlapping of the cost span for most of the methods considered. (G.B.)

  6. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  7. The effect of nuclear gas distribution on the mass determination of supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Capellupo, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of most galaxies. During their active episodes, black holes are powered by accretion discs where gravitational energy is converted into radiation1. Accurately determining black hole masses is key to understand how the population evolves over time and how the black holes relate to their host galaxies2-4. Beyond the local universe, z ≳ 0.2, the mass is commonly estimated assuming a virialized motion of gas in the close vicinity of the active black holes, traced through broad emission lines5,6. However, this procedure has uncertainties associated with the unknown distribution of the gas clouds. Here, we show that the black hole masses derived from the properties of the accretion disk and virial mass estimates differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the width of the broad emission lines. This leads to virial mass misestimations up to a factor of six. Our results suggest that a planar gas distribution that is inclined with respect to the line of sight may account for this effect. However, radiation pressure effects on the distribution of gas can also reproduce our results. Regardless of the physical origin, our findings contribute to mitigating the uncertainties in current black hole mass estimations and, in turn, will help us to better understand the evolution of distant supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

  8. Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, G E

    2005-01-01

    Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)

  9. Dynamical ejecta from precessing neutron star-black hole mergers with a hot, nuclear-theory based equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucart, F; Kasen, D; Desai, D; Brege, W; Duez, M D; Hemberger, D A; Scheel, M A; Kidder, L E; Pfeiffer, H P

    2017-01-01

    Neutron star-black hole binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves detectable by current observatories. They can also power bright electromagnetic signals (gamma-ray bursts, kilonovae), and may be a significant source of production of r-process nuclei. A misalignment of the black hole spin with respect to the orbital angular momentum leads to precession of that spin and of the orbital plane, and has a significant effect on the properties of the post-merger remnant and of the material ejected by the merger. We present a first set of simulations of precessing neutron star-black hole mergers using a hot, composition dependent, nuclear-theory based equation of state (DD2). We show that the mass of the remnant and of the dynamical ejecta are broadly consistent with the result of simulations using simpler equations of state, while differences arise when considering the dynamics of the merger and the velocity of the ejecta. We show that the latter can easily be understood from assumptions about the composition of low-density, cold material in the different equations of state, and propose an updated estimate for the ejecta velocity which takes those effects into account. We also present an updated mesh-refinement algorithm which allows us to improve the numerical resolution used to evolve neutron star-black hole mergers. (paper)

  10. Borehole geophysical measurements for Hole UE25a-3, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Waste Isolation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Borehole geophysical measurements made in drill hole UE25a-3 with a US Geological Survey research well-logging truck are presented in this paper. The purpose of these logging measurements is to provide in-situ physical properties information that is not commercially available on drill hole UE25a-3. Well logs are presented in this paper for dual-detector density, normal resistivity, gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, induced polarization, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. These data are analyzed correlations with the core lithology. Hole-to-surface measurements made from drill hole UE25a-3 indicate the presence of two resistive bodies at depth. The deeper resistive anomaly may be related to a granitic intrusion

  11. On the evaluation of semiclassical nuclear many-particle many-hole level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, A.H.; Hiller, B.; Schuck, P.; Yannouleas, C.

    1985-10-01

    An exact general scheme is described to calculate the m-particle n-hole fermion level densities for an arbitrary single particle Hamiltonian taking into account the Pauli exclusion principle. This technique is applied to obtain level densities of the three dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator semiclassically in the Thomas-Fermi approach. In addition, we study the l-particle l-hole level density of the Woods-Saxon potential. For the harmonic oscillator we analyze the temperature dependence of the linear response function and the influence of pairing correlations on the l-particle l-hole level density. Finally, a Taylor expansion method of the m-particle n-hole level densities is discussed

  12. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole history, UE-25b No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from UE-25b No. 1 drilled in Area 25 under the guidance of the US Geological Survey. It was drilled to provide geologic and hydrologic information for the Yucca Mountain area. Data presented in this document include the hole history, geophysical log and video tape listings, and microfiche copies of all geophysical logs run in hole by Fenix and Scisson, Inc. subcontractor

  13. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  14. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  15. ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AROUND MASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The centers of stellar spheroids less luminous than ∼10 10 L ☉ are often marked by the presence of nucleated central regions, called 'nuclear star clusters' (NSCs). The origin of NSCs is still unclear. Here we investigate the possibility that NSCs originate from the migration and merger of stellar clusters at the center of galaxies where a massive black hole (MBH) may sit. We show that the observed scaling relation between NSC masses and the velocity dispersion of their host spheroids cannot be reconciled with a purely 'in situ' dissipative formation scenario. On the other hand, the observed relation appears to be in agreement with the predictions of the cluster merger model. A dissipationless formation model also reproduces the observed relation between the size of NSCs and their total luminosity, R∝√(L NSC ). When an MBH is included at the center of the galaxy, such dependence becomes substantially weaker than the observed correlation, since the size of the NSC is mainly determined by the fixed tidal field of the MBH. We evolve through dynamical friction a population of stellar clusters in a model of a galactic bulge taking into account dynamical dissolution due to two-body relaxation, starting from a power-law cluster initial mass function and adopting an initial total mass in stellar clusters consistent with the present-day cluster formation efficiency of the Milky Way (MW). The most massive clusters reach the center of the galaxy and merge to form a compact nucleus; after 10 10 years, the resulting NSC has properties that are consistent with the observed distribution of stars in the MW NSC. When an MBH is included at the center of a galaxy, globular clusters are tidally disrupted during inspiral, resulting in NSCs with lower densities than those of NSCs forming in galaxies with no MBHs. We suggest this as a possible explanation for the lack of NSCs in galaxies containing MBHs more massive than ∼10 8 M ☉ . Finally, we investigate the orbital

  16. ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AROUND MASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, Fabio, E-mail: antonini@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2013-01-20

    The centers of stellar spheroids less luminous than {approx}10{sup 10} L {sub Sun} are often marked by the presence of nucleated central regions, called 'nuclear star clusters' (NSCs). The origin of NSCs is still unclear. Here we investigate the possibility that NSCs originate from the migration and merger of stellar clusters at the center of galaxies where a massive black hole (MBH) may sit. We show that the observed scaling relation between NSC masses and the velocity dispersion of their host spheroids cannot be reconciled with a purely 'in situ' dissipative formation scenario. On the other hand, the observed relation appears to be in agreement with the predictions of the cluster merger model. A dissipationless formation model also reproduces the observed relation between the size of NSCs and their total luminosity, R{proportional_to}{radical}(L{sub NSC}). When an MBH is included at the center of the galaxy, such dependence becomes substantially weaker than the observed correlation, since the size of the NSC is mainly determined by the fixed tidal field of the MBH. We evolve through dynamical friction a population of stellar clusters in a model of a galactic bulge taking into account dynamical dissolution due to two-body relaxation, starting from a power-law cluster initial mass function and adopting an initial total mass in stellar clusters consistent with the present-day cluster formation efficiency of the Milky Way (MW). The most massive clusters reach the center of the galaxy and merge to form a compact nucleus; after 10{sup 10} years, the resulting NSC has properties that are consistent with the observed distribution of stars in the MW NSC. When an MBH is included at the center of a galaxy, globular clusters are tidally disrupted during inspiral, resulting in NSCs with lower densities than those of NSCs forming in galaxies with no MBHs. We suggest this as a possible explanation for the lack of NSCs in galaxies containing MBHs more massive

  17. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  18. Design management and stress analysis of a circular rock tunnel and emplacement holes for storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandalaft-Ladkany, N.; Wyman, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a critical path method (CPM) diagram and logic net which are used for the design cycle of the rock tunnel system for a high level nuclear waste repository. In the analysis the design tunnel is subjected to pre-existing temperature and overburden loads at time of construction. high thermal stresses develop later due to the long term influx of heat from the canisters stored in vertical emplacement holes. Results indicate that thermal stresses reach a critical level for the rock in the vicinity of the canisters which could lead to local collapse of the rock and damage to the canisters

  19. Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)

  20. Gravitating discs around black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, V; Hure, J-M; Semerak, O

    2004-01-01

    Fluid discs and tori around black holes are discussed within different approaches and with the emphasis on the role of disc gravity. First reviewed are the prospects of investigating the gravitational field of a black hole-disc system using analytical solutions of stationary, axially symmetric Einstein equations. Then, more detailed considerations are focused to the middle and outer parts of extended disc-like configurations where relativistic effects are small and the Newtonian description is adequate. Within general relativity, only a static case has been analysed in detail. Results are often very inspiring. However, simplifying assumptions must be imposed: ad hoc profiles of the disc density are commonly assumed and the effects of frame-dragging are completely lacking. Astrophysical discs (e.g. accretion discs in active galactic nuclei) typically extend far beyond the relativistic domain and are fairly diluted. However, self-gravity is still essential for their structure and evolution, as well as for their radiation emission and the impact on the surrounding environment. For example, a nuclear star cluster in a galactic centre may bear various imprints of mutual star-disc interactions, which can be recognized in observational properties, such as the relation between the central mass and stellar velocity dispersion. (topical review)

  1. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  2. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole history, UE-25p No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from one borehole drilled in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) under the guidance of the US Geological Survey. The borehole was drilled to obtain geologic, geophysical and hydrologic information. Data presented in this publication include location, daily activities, review of hole conditions, geophysical log listing, video tape listing, and microfiche copies of all geophysical logs run by the Fenix and Scisson subcontractors

  3. The Future of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.

  4. Relaxation near Supermassive Black Holes Driven by Nuclear Spiral Arms: Anisotropic Hypervelocity Stars, S-stars, and Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, Adrian S. [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: hamers@ias.edu [Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2017-09-10

    Nuclear spiral arms are small-scale transient spiral structures found in the centers of galaxies. Similarly to their galactic-scale counterparts, nuclear spiral arms can perturb the orbits of stars. In the case of the Galactic center (GC), these perturbations can affect the orbits of stars and binaries in a region extending to several hundred parsecs around the supermassive black hole (SMBH), causing diffusion in orbital energy and angular momentum. This diffusion process can drive stars and binaries to close approaches with the SMBH, disrupting single stars in tidal disruption events (TDEs), or disrupting binaries, leaving a star tightly bound to the SMBH and an unbound star escaping the galaxy, i.e., a hypervelocity star (HVS). Here, we consider diffusion by nuclear spiral arms in galactic nuclei, specifically the Milky Way GC. We determine nuclear-spiral-arm-driven diffusion rates using test-particle integrations and compute disruption rates. Our TDE rates are up to 20% higher compared to relaxation by single stars. For binaries, the enhancement is up to a factor of ∼100, and our rates are comparable to the observed numbers of HVSs and S-stars. Our scenario is complementary to relaxation driven by massive perturbers. In addition, our rates depend on the inclination of the binary with respect to the Galactic plane. Therefore, our scenario provides a novel potential source for the observed anisotropic distribution of HVSs. Nuclear spiral arms may also be important for accelerating the coalescence of binary SMBHs and for supplying nuclear star clusters with stars and gas.

  5. Very deep hole concept: evaluation of an alternative for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.T.; Cohen, L.H.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Simkin, T.L.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Brace, W.F.; Green, S.; Pratt, H.P.

    1979-07-01

    One proposal for disposing of radioactive waste is to put it in drill holes or mined cavities so deep that the waste would be effectively isolated from the surface. Even if radioisotopes escaped from the disposal canister, they would be removed from the circulating groundwater system by sorption and/or chemical reaction in their transit on very long paths to the surface. This report summarizes the feasibilities and costs of making deep holes and deep mine shafts; estimates probable technological advances by the year 2000; presents thermal history and thermally induced stress calculations based on several assumptions regarding age of waste and density of emplacement; and summarizes lack of knowledge that bear upon the isolation of waste at great depth. In strong rock, present technology would probably enable us to drill a hole 20 cm in diameter to a depth of 11 km and sink a shaft 10 m in diameter to about 4.4 km. By the year 2000, with advancement of technology, holes of 15 km depth and 20 cm diameter could be drilled, and shafts of 6.4 km or deeper could be sunk. The heat output of 5.5-year-old spent fuel and 6.5-year-old reprocessed waste is used to calculate temperature increases and stress buildings in the surrounding rocks. Some waste configurations may cause unacceptably high temperature increases; indeed, limitations on temperatures reached will in some cases limit the packing density of waste canisters and/or require longer cooling of the waste before emplacement. Sealing boreholes and shafts for significant times, i.e. 1,000 to 100,000 years presents additional problems. The casing or ling of the borehole or shaft would have to be removed in the region where seals are constructed, or the lining material would have to be designed to function as an integral part of the long-term seal. Sealing fractures in the rock around the borehole or shaft will be quite important

  6. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  7. Torsion induces gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aros, Rodrigo; Contreras, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    In this work the Poincare-Chern-Simons and anti-de Sitter-Chern-Simons gravities are studied. For both, a solution that can be cast as a black hole with manifest torsion is found. Those solutions resemble Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-AdS solutions, respectively

  8. Equipment for deployment of canisters with spent nuclear fuel and bentonite buffer in horizontal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henttonen, V.; Suikki, M.

    1992-08-01

    The study presents the predesign of equipment for the deployment of canisters in long horizontal holes. The canisters are placed in the centre of the hole and are surrounded by a bentonite buffer. In thE study the canisters are assumed to have a diameter of 1.6 m and a length of 5.9 m, including the hemispherical ends. Their total weight is 60 tonnes. The bentonite buffer after homogenization is 400 mm thick, making a total package diameter of 2.4 m. The deployment system consists of four wagons for handling The canisters and the bentonite blocks. To ensure safe emplacement, every part is installed separately in its final position. This also makes it possible to use small clearances between the canisters and the bentonite blocks and between the blocks and the rock wall. With small clearances, backfilling can be avoided. Another basic design idea is that the wagons are equipped with wheels, which are in direct contact with the rock walls. Thus, rails, which have to be removed as the deployment progresses, are unnecessary. To minimize the time taken for deploying one canister, the wagons are designed so that only three trips from the service area to the deposit area are needed. Due to the radiation in the vicinity of the canisters, the wagons have to be teleoperated

  9. Equipment for deployment of canisters with spent nuclear fuel and bentonite buffer in horisontal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henttonen, V.; Suikki, M.

    1992-06-01

    This study presents the predesign of equipment for the deployment of canisters in long horizontal holes. The canisters are placed in the centre of the hole and are surrounded by a bentonite buffer. In this study the canisters are assumed to have a diameter of 1.6 m and a length of 5.9 m, including the hemispherical ends. Their total weight is 60 tonnes. The bentonite buffer after homogenization is 400 mm thick, making a total package diameter of 2.4 m. The deployment system consists of four wagons for handling the canisters and the bentonite blocks. To ensure safe emplacement, every part is installed separately in its final position. This also makes it possible to use small clearances between the canisters and the bentonite blocks and between the blocks and the rock wall. With small clearances, backfilling can be avoided. Another basic design idea is that the wagons are equipped with wheels, which are in direct contact with the rock walls. Thus, rails, which have to be removed as the deployment progresses, are unnecessary. To minimize the time taken for deploying one canister, the wagons are designed so that only three trips from the service area to the deposit area are needed. Due to the radiation in the vicinity of the canisters, the wagons have to be teleoperated. (au)

  10. Shedding Light on the EOS-Gravity Degeneracy and Constraining the Nuclear Symmetry Energy from the Gravitational Binding Energy of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiao-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough understanding of properties of neutron stars requires both a reliable knowledge of the equation of state (EOS of super-dense nuclear matter and the strong-field gravity theories simultaneously. To provide information that may help break this EOS-gravity degeneracy, we investigate effects of nuclear symmetry energy on the gravitational binding energy of neutron stars within GR and the scalar-tensor subset of alternative gravity models. We focus on effects of the slope L of nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density and the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy. We find that the variation of either the density slope L or the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy leads to large changes in the binding energy of neutron stars. The difference in predictions using the GR and the scalar-tensor theory appears only for massive neutron stars, and even then is significantly smaller than the difference resulting from variations in the symmetry energy.

  11. Ruppeiner theory of black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, Jan E; Bedford, James; Grumiller, Daniel; Pidokrajt, Narit; Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    The Ruppeiner metric as determined by the Hessian of the Gibbs surface provides a geometric description of thermodynamic systems in equilibrium. An interesting example is a black hole in equilibrium with its own Hawking radiation. In this article, we present results from the Ruppeiner study of various black hole families from different gravity theories e.g. 2D dilaton gravity, BTZ, general relativity and higher-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity

  12. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  13. Black holes go supersonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    In modern physics, the unification of gravity and quantum mechanics remains a mystery. Gravity rules the macroscopic world of planets, stars and galaxies, while quantum mechanics governs the micro-cosmos of atoms, light quanta and elementary particles. However, cosmologists believe that these two disparate worlds may meet at the edges of black holes. Now Luis Garay, James Anglin, Ignacio Cirac and Peter Zoller at the University of Innsbruck in Austria have proposed a realistic way to make an artificial 'sonic' black hole in a tabletop experiment (L J Garay et al. 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 4643). In the February issue of Physics World, Ulf Leonhardt of the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, UK, explains how the simulated black holes work. (U.K.)

  14. Calorimeter measures high nuclear heating rates and their gradients across a reactor test hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, D.; Coombe, J. R.; Mc Bride, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pedestal-type calorimeter measures gamma-ray heating rates from 0.5 to 7.0 watts per gram of aluminum. Nuclear heating rate is a function of cylinder temperature change, measured by four chromel-alumel thermocouples attached to the calorimeter, and known thermoconductivity of the tested material.

  15. Modeling the Propagation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves Produced by an Underground Nuclear Explosion using the Transfer Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntz, R. J.; Mayr, H. G.; Paxton, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from the Transfer Function Model (TFM), which simulates the neutral atmosphere, from 0 to 700 km, across the entire globe (pole to pole). The TFM is able to rapidly calculate the density and temperature perturbations created by a localized impulse. We have used TFM to simulate a ground-level explosion (equivalent to an underground nuclear explosion (UNE)) and its effects on the neutral atmosphere, including the propagation of gravity waves up to ionospheric heights. At ionospheric altitudes ion-neutral interactions are expected to lead to perturbations in the electron density. These perturbations can be observed as changes in the total electron content (TEC), a feature readily observed by the globally distributed network of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) sensors. We will discuss the time and location of the maximum atmospheric disturbances at a number of altitudes, including the peaks of several ionospheric layers, including the F2 layer, which is often treated as the major driver of changes in GNSS-TEC observations. We will also examine the drop-off of atmospheric disturbances at those altitudes, both with increasing time and distance. The 6 known underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) by North Korea in the 21st century have sparked increased interest in UNE detection through atmospheric and ionospheric observations. The latest test by North Korea (3 Sept. 2017) was the largest UNE in over 2 decades. We will compare TFM results to the analysis of previous UNEs, including some tests by North Korea, and discuss possible confounding factors in predicting the time, location, and amplitude of atmospheric and ionospheric disturbances produced by a UNE.

  16. A comparison of Horava-Lifshitz gravity and Einstein gravity through thin-shell wormhole construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, F [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kuhfittig, P K F [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Kalam, M [Department of Physics, Aliah University, Sector V, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700091 (India); Usmani, A A [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, S, E-mail: farook-rahaman@yahoo.com, E-mail: kuhfitti@msoe.edu, E-mail: mehedikalam@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: anisul@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Govt College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010 (India)

    2011-08-07

    In this paper, we have constructed a new class of thin-shell wormholes from black holes in Horava-Lifshitz gravity. Particular emphasis is placed on those aspects that allow a comparison of Horava-Lifshitz gravity to Einstein gravity. The former enjoys a number of advantages for small values of the throat radius.

  17. Gravity-driven flow and heat transfer in a spent nuclear fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    The GFLOW code analyzes a three-dimensional rectangular porous medium by dividing the porous medium into a number of nodes or cells specified by the user. The finite difference form of the fluid conservation equations is solved for each node by application of a modified ''marker and cell'' numerical technique. The existence of spent nuclear fuel in any node is modeled by using a porosity value less than unity in that node and by including a surface heat transfer term in the fluid energy equation. In addition, local pressure losses due to grid spaces or other planar flow obstructions can be modeled by local loss coefficients. Heat conduction in the fuel is simulated by a fast running implicit finite difference model of the fuel, gap, and clad regions of the fuel rod

  18. Black holes and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.

  19. Towards a quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, B.; Barrau, A.; Vidotto, F.; Le Meur, H.; Noui, K.

    2011-01-01

    The loop quantum gravity is the only theory that proposes a quantum description of space-time and therefore of gravitation. This theory predicts that space is not infinitely divisible but that is has a granular structure at the Planck scale (10 -35 m). Another feature of loop quantum gravity is that it gets rid of the Big-Bang singularity: our expanding universe may come from the bouncing of a previous contracting universe, in this theory the Big-Bang is replaced with a big bounce. The loop quantum theory predicts also the huge number of quantum states that accounts for the entropy of large black holes. (A.C.)

  20. Does Explosive Nuclear Burning Occur in Tidal Disruption Events of White Dwarfs by Intermediate-mass Black Holes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Sato, Yushi; Hachisu, Izumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Nakasato, Naohito, E-mail: tanikawa@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Tsuruga Ikki-machi Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan)

    2017-04-20

    We investigate nucleosynthesis in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate-mass black holes. We consider various types of WDs with different masses and compositions by means of three-dimensional (3D) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. We model these WDs with different numbers of SPH particles, N , from a few 10{sup 4} to a few 10{sup 7} in order to check mass resolution convergence, where SPH simulations with N > 10{sup 7} (or a space resolution of several 10{sup 6} cm) have unprecedentedly high resolution in this kind of simulation. We find that nuclear reactions become less active with increasing N and that these nuclear reactions are excited by spurious heating due to low resolution. Moreover, we find no shock wave generation. In order to investigate the reason for the absence of a shock wave, we additionally perform one-dimensional (1D) SPH and mesh-based simulations with a space resolution ranging from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} cm, using a characteristic flow structure extracted from the 3D SPH simulations. We find shock waves in these 1D high-resolution simulations, one of which triggers a detonation wave. However, we must be careful of the fact that, if the shock wave emerged in an outer region, it could not trigger the detonation wave due to low density. Note that the 1D initial conditions lack accuracy to precisely determine where a shock wave emerges. We need to perform 3D simulations with ≲10{sup 6} cm space resolution in order to conclude that WD TDEs become optical transients powered by radioactive nuclei.

  1. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories: UE-29a No. 1, UE-29a No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from two hydrologic exploratory core holes drilled to help identify the area geology and hydrology. The two bore holes were drilled between September, 1981 and January, 1982 under the guidance of the US Geological Survey in Area 29, Nevada Test Site. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities, coring records, review of hole conditions, and geophysical log lists, and microfiche copies of the geophysical logs run by the Fenix and Scisson, Inc. subcontractor

  2. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  3. Black Hole Grabs Starry Snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.

  4. The quest for quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, G.

    1995-03-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing theoretical physics lies in reconciling Einstein's classical theory of gravity - general relativity -with quantum field theory. Although both theories have been experimentally supported in their respective regimes, they are as compatible as a square peg and a round hole. This article summarises the current status of the superstring approach to the problem, the status of the Ashtekar program, and problem of time in quantum gravity

  5. The quest for quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, G

    1995-03-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing theoretical physics lies in reconciling Einstein`s classical theory of gravity - general relativity -with quantum field theory. Although both theories have been experimentally supported in their respective regimes, they are as compatible as a square peg and a round hole. This article summarises the current status of the superstring approach to the problem, the status of the Ashtekar program, and problem of time in quantum gravity.

  6. Investigating the Binarity of S0-2: Implications for Its Origins and Robustness as a Probe of the Laws of Gravity around a Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Devin S.; Do, Tuan; Hees, Aurelien; Ghez, Andrea; Naoz, Smadar; Witzel, Gunther; Sakai, Shoko; Chappell, Samantha; Gautam, Abhimat K.; Lu, Jessica R.; Matthews, Keith

    2018-02-01

    The star S0-2, which orbits the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in our Galaxy with a period of 16 years, provides the strongest constraint on both the mass of the SMBH and the distance to the Galactic center. S0-2 will soon provide the first measurement of relativistic effects near a SMBH. We report the first limits on the binarity of S0-2 from radial velocity (RV) monitoring, which has implications for both understanding its origin and robustness as a probe of the central gravitational field. With 87 RV measurements, which include 12 new observations that we present, we have the requisite data set to look for RV variations from S0-2‧s orbital model. Using a Lomb–Scargle analysis and orbit-fitting for potential binaries, we detect no RV variation beyond S0-2‧s orbital motion and do not find any significant periodic signal. The lack of a binary companion does not currently distinguish different formation scenarios for S0-2. The upper limit on the mass of a companion star ({M}{comp}) still allowed by our results has a median upper limit of {M}{comp} sin i ≤ 1.6 M ⊙ for periods between 1 and 150 days, the longest period to avoid tidal break-up of the binary. We also investigate the impact of the remaining allowed binary system on the measurement of the relativistic redshift at S0-2‧s closest approach in 2018. While binary star systems are important to consider for this experiment, we find that plausible binaries for S0-2 will not alter a 5σ detection of the relativistic redshift.

  7. Gravity and strings

    CERN Document Server

    Ortín, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.

  8. The quantization of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...

  9. Falling into a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2007-01-01

    String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...

  10. Entropy bound and causality violation in higher curvature gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Ishwaree P; Dadhich, Naresh

    2009-01-01

    In any quantum theory of gravity we do expect corrections to Einstein gravity to occur. Yet, at a fundamental level, it is not apparent what the most relevant corrections are. We argue that the generic curvature square corrections present in the lower dimensional actions of various compactified string theories provide a natural passage between the classical and quantum realms of gravity. The Gauss-Bonnet and (Riemann) 2 gravities, in particular, provide concrete examples in which inconsistency of a theory, such as a violation of microcausality, and a classical limit on black hole entropy are correlated. In such theories the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η/s, can be smaller than for a boundary conformal field theory with Einstein gravity dual. This result is interesting from the viewpoint that nuclear matter or quark-gluon plasma produced (such as at RHIC) under extreme densities and temperatures may violate the conjectured KSS bound η/s ≥ 1/4π, albeit marginally so.

  11. Preliminary results of gravity investigations at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Southern Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.B.; Carr, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Exploration for a high-level-nuclear-waste-repository site in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, resulted in the addition of 423 new gravity stations during the past 2 years to the 934 existing stations to form the data base of this study. About 100 surface-rock samples, three borehole gamma-gamma logs, and one borehole gravity study provide excellent density control. A linear increase in density of 0.26 g/cm 3 per km is indicated in the tuff sequences makes the density contrast across the basal contact of the tuff the only strong source of gravity fluctuations. Isostatic and 2.0g/cm 3 Bouguer corrections were applied to the observed gravity values to remove deep-crust-related regional gradients and topographic effects, respectively. The resulting residual-gravity plot shows significant gravity anomalies that correlate closely with the structures inferred from drill-hole and surface geologic studies. Gravity highs over the three Paleozoic rock outcrops within the study area - Bare Mountain, the Calico Hills, and the Striped Hills - served as reference points for the gravity models. At least 3000 m of tuff fills a large steep-sided depression in the prevolcanic rocks beneath Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat. The gravity low and thick tuff section probably lie within a large collapse area comprising the Crater Flat-Timber Mountain-Silent Canyon caldera complexes. Gravity lows in Crater Flat itself are thought to coincide with the source areas of the Prow Pass Member, the Bullfrog Member, and the unnamed member of the Crater Flat Tuff. Southward extension of the broad gravity low associated with Crater Flat into the Amargosa Desert is evidence for sector graben-type collapse segments related to the Timber Mountain caldera and superimposed on the other structures within Crater Flat. 13 figures, 4 tables

  12. Entropy and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard S. Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.

  13. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  14. Black holes from extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)

  15. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  16. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models.

  17. Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    de Rham, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...

  18. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  19. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  20. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  1. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  2. Pressure loss coefficient and flow rate of side hole in a lower end plug for dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang-Hwan, E-mail: shinch@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Ju-Yong, E-mail: juyong@kaeri.re.kr; In, Wang-Kee, E-mail: wkin@kaeri.re.kr

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A lower end plug with side flow holes is suggested to provide alternative flow paths of the inner channel. • The inlet loss coefficient of the lower end plug is estimated from the experiment. • The flow rate through the side holes is estimated in a complete entrance blockage of inner channel. • The consequence in the reactor core condition is evaluated with a subchannel analysis code. - Abstract: Dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been introduced for a significant increase in reactor power. KAERI has been developing a dual-cooled annular fuel for a power uprate of 20% in an optimized PWR in Korea, the OPR1000. This annular fuel can help decrease the fuel temperature substantially relative to conventional cylindrical fuel at a power uprate. Annular fuel has dual flow channels around itself; however, the inner flow channel has a weakness in that it is isolated unlike the outer flow channel, which is open to other neighbouring outer channels for a coolant exchange in the reactor core. If the entrance of the inner channel is, as a hypothetical event, completely blocked by debris, the inner channel will then experience a rapid increase in coolant temperature such that a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) may occur. Therefore, a remedy to avoid such a postulated accident is indispensable for the safety of annular fuel. A lower end plug with side flow holes was suggested to provide alternative flow paths in addition to the central entrance of the inner channel. In this paper, the inlet loss coefficient of the lower end plug and the flow rate through the side holes were estimated from the experimental results even in a complete entrance blockage of the inner channel. An optimization for the side hole was also performed, and the results are applied to a subchannel analysis to evaluate the consequence in the reactor core condition.

  3. Innermost stable circular orbit of Kerr-MOG black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Han, Yong-Jin [Soonchunhyang University, Department of Physics, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    We study the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of the metric of the Kerr black hole in modified gravity (Kerr-MOG black hole), which is one of the exact solutions of the field equation of modified gravity in the strong gravity regime. The Kerr-MOG metric is constructed; it is the commonly known Kerr metric in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates by adding a repulsive term like the Yukawa force, which is explained in quantum gravity. In this paper, we numerically calculate the circular orbit of a photon and the ISCO of a test particle of Kerr-MOG black holes. (orig.)

  4. Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature

  5. Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: nuclear physics constraints and the validity of the continuous fluid approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, P.P., E-mail: ppavelin@fc.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the classical non-relativistic limit of the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity. We show that strong bounds on the value of the only additional parameter of the theory κ, with respect to general relativity, may be obtained by requiring that gravity plays a subdominant role compared to electromagnetic interactions inside atomic nuclei. We also discuss the validity of the continuous fluid approximation used in this and other astrophysical and cosmological studies. We argue that although the continuous fluid approximation is expected to be valid in the case of sufficiently smooth density distributions, its use should eventually be validated at a quantum level.

  6. Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: nuclear physics constraints and the validity of the continuous fluid approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the classical non-relativistic limit of the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity. We show that strong bounds on the value of the only additional parameter of the theory κ, with respect to general relativity, may be obtained by requiring that gravity plays a subdominant role compared to electromagnetic interactions inside atomic nuclei. We also discuss the validity of the continuous fluid approximation used in this and other astrophysical and cosmological studies. We argue that although the continuous fluid approximation is expected to be valid in the case of sufficiently smooth density distributions, its use should eventually be validated at a quantum level

  7. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  8. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  9. Gravity Defied From Potato Asteroids to Magnetised Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Left to itself, gravity wouldpull everything together, and the Universe would be nothingbut a gigantic black hole. Nature throws almost every bit ofphysics – rotation, magnetic field, heat, quantum effects andso on, at gravity to escape such a fate. In this series of articles,we shall explore systems where the eternal pull of gravity ...

  10. Thermodynamics and phases in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    We give an approach for studying quantum gravity effects on black hole thermodynamics. This combines a quantum framework for gravitational collapse with quasi-local definitions of energy and surface gravity. Our arguments suggest that (i) the specific heat of a black hole becomes positive after a phase transition near the Planck scale,(ii) its entropy acquires a logarithmic correction and (iii) the mass loss rate is modified such that Hawking radiation stops near the Planck scale. These results are due essentially to a realization of fundamental discreteness in quantum gravity, and are in this sense potentially theory independent.

  11. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are humanity's high-technology windows onto the universe. For reasons that will ... instrument ever built; and it was the first direct ... gravity will drive it to collapse into a black hole. Indeed, in 2007, ... Given their large X-ray power, it has been ...

  12. Paths toward understanding black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayerson, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    This work can be summarized as trying to understand aspects of black holes, gravity, and geometry, in the context of supergravity and string theory in high-energy theoretical physics. The two parts of this thesis have been written with entirely different audiences in mind. The first part consists of

  13. Black holes and everyday physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Black holes have piqued much curiosity. But thus far they have been important only in ''remote'' subjects like astrophysics and quantum gravity. It is shown that the situation can be improved. By a judicious application of black hole physics, one can obtain new results in ''everyday physics''. For example, black holes yield a quantum universal upper bound on the entropy-to-energy ratio for ordinary thermodynamical systems which was unknown earlier. It can be checked, albeit with much labor, by ordinary statistical methods. Black holes set a limitation on the number of species of elementary particles-quarks, leptons, neutrinos - which may exist. And black holes lead to a fundamental limitation on the rate at which information can be transferred for given message energy by any communication system. (author)

  14. Semiclassical Approach to Black Hole Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Black hole evaporation may lead to massive or massless remnants, or naked singularities. This paper investigates this process in the context of two quite different two dimensional black hole models. The first is the original CGHS model, the second is another two dimensional dilaton-gravity model, but with properties much closer to physics in the real, four dimensional, world. Numerical simulations are performed of the formation and subsequent evaporation of black holes and the results are fou...

  15. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  16. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M ☉ neutron star, 5.6 M ☉ black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M 2 = 0.9) system with the K 0 = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M ☉ of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M ☉ forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y e of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L ν ∼ 10 54 erg s –1 ), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution

  17. Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bei Lok

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein–Langevin equation, which has, in addition, sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bitensor, which describes the fluctuations of quantum-matter fields in curved spacetimes. A new improved criterion for the validity of semiclassical gravity may also be formulated from the viewpoint of this theory. In the first part of this review we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to the correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman–Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger–Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime, compute the two-point correlation functions of these perturbations and prove that Minkowski spacetime is a stable solution of semiclassical gravity. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic-gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, using the Einstein–Langevin equation, we discuss the backreaction of Hawking radiation and the behavior of metric fluctuations for both the quasi-equilibrium condition of a black-hole in a box and the fully nonequilibrium condition of an evaporating black hole spacetime. Finally, we briefly discuss the theoretical structure of stochastic gravity in relation to quantum gravity and point out

  18. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, Steven

    2006-01-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy

  19. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, Steven [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy.

  20. Black Holes and Gravitational Properties of Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  1. Black-hole driven winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the physical mechanism that allows a large scale magnetic field to torque a rapidly rotating, supermassive black hole. This is an interesting problem as it has been conjectured that rapidly rotating black holes are the central engines that power the observed extragalactic double radio sources. Axisymmetric solutions of the curved space-time version of Maxwell's equations in the vacuum do not torque black holes. Plasma must be introduced for the hole to mechanically couple to the field. The dynamical aspect of rotating black holes that couples the magnetic field to the hole is the following. A rotating black hole forces the external geometry of space-time to rotate (the dragging of inertial frames). Inside of the stationary limit surface, the ergosphere, all physical particle trajectories must appear to rotate in the same direction as the black hole as viewed by the stationary observers at asymptotic infinity. In the text, it is demonstrated how plasma that is created on field lines that thread both the ergosphere and the equatorial plane will be pulled by gravity toward the equator. By the aforementioned properties of the ergosphere, the disk must rotate. Consequently, the disk acts like a unipolar generator. It drives a global current system that supports the toroidal magnetic field in an outgoing, magnetically dominated wind. This wind carries energy (mainly in the form of Poynting flux) and angular momentum towards infinity. The spin down of the black hole is the ultimate source of this energy and angular momentum flux

  2. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  3. Black holes with surrounding matter in scalar-tensor theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Carucci, Isabella P; Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2013-09-13

    We uncover two mechanisms that can render Kerr black holes unstable in scalar-tensor gravity, both associated with the presence of matter in the vicinity of the black hole and the fact that this introduces an effective mass for the scalar. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the structure of spacetime in realistic, astrophysical black holes in scalar-tensor theories.

  4. The relativistic gravity train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Max

    2018-05-01

    The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.

  5. Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovelli Carlo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding the quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open. One of the most active of the current approaches is loop quantum gravity. Loop quantum gravity is a mathematically well-defined, non-perturbative and background independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Research in loop quantum gravity today forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained are: (i The computation of the physical spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yields quantitative predictions on Planck-scale physics. (ii A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula. (iii An intriguing physical picture of the microstructure of quantum physical space, characterized by a polymer-like Planck scale discreteness. This discreteness emerges naturally from the quantum theory and provides a mathematically well-defined realization of Wheeler's intuition of a spacetime ``foam''. Long standing open problems within the approach (lack of a scalar product, over-completeness of the loop basis, implementation of reality conditions have been fully solved. The weak part of the approach is the treatment of the dynamics: at present there exist several proposals, which are intensely debated. Here, I provide a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  6. Exact Solutions in Three-Dimensional Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, Alberto A.

    2017-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Point particles; 3. Dust solutions; 4. AdS cyclic symmetric stationary solutions; 5. Perfect fluid static stars; 6. Static perfect fluid stars with Λ; 7. Hydrodynamic equilibrium; 8. Stationary perfect fluid with Λ; 9. Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmologies; 10. Dilaton-inflaton FRW cosmologies; 11. Einstein–Maxwell solutions; 12. Nonlinear electrodynamics black hole; 13. Dilaton minimally coupled to gravity; 14. Dilaton non-minimally coupled to gravity; 15. Low energy 2+1 string gravity; 16. Topologically massive gravity; 17. Bianchi type spacetimes in TMG; 18. Petrov type N wave metrics; 19. Kundt spacetimes in TMG; 20. Cotton tensor in Riemannian spacetimes; References; Index.

  7. Loop Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime , is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i) The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii) A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler's "spacetime foam" intuition. (iii) Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv) A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black-hole entropy. (v) Low-energy calculations, yielding n -point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  8. Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovelli Carlo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime, is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler’s “spacetime foam” intuition. (iii Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv A derivation of the Bekenstein–Hawking black-hole entropy. (v Low-energy calculations, yielding n-point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  9. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  10. Bumpy black holes from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Tinyakov, Peter; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2007-01-01

    We consider black holes in Lorentz violating theories of massive gravity. We argue that in these theories black hole solutions are no longer universal and exhibit a large number of hairs. If they exist, these hairs probe the singularity inside the black hole providing a window into quantum gravity. The existence of these hairs can be tested by future gravitational wave observatories. We generically expect that the effects we discuss will be larger for the more massive black holes. In the simplest models the strength of the hairs is controlled by the same parameter that sets the mass of the graviton (tensor modes). Then the upper limit on this mass coming from the inferred gravitational radiation emitted by binary pulsars implies that hairs are likely to be suppressed for almost the entire mass range of the super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies

  11. The wave of the future - Searching for gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, D.

    1991-01-01

    Research on gravity waves conducted by such scientists as Gamov, Wheeler, Weber and Zel'dovich is discussed. Particular attention is given to current trends in the theoretical analysis of gravity waves carried out by theorists Kip Thorne and Leonid Grishchuk. The problems discussed include the search for gravity waves; calculation of the types of gravity waves; the possibility of detecting gravity waves from localized sources, e.g., from the collision of two black holes in a distant galaxy or the collapse of a star, through the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory; and detection primordial gravity waves from the big bang

  12. Artificial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  13. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  14. Massive gravity from bimetric gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)

  15. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  16. Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2010-01-01

    We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...

  17. Horndeski gravity and the violation of reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lu, Wen-Tian; Lue, H. [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China); Liu, Hai-Shan [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-11-15

    We consider Einstein-Horndeski-Maxwell gravity, together with a cosmological constant and multiple Horndeski axions. We construct charged AdS planar black holes in general dimensions where the Horndeski axions span over the planar directions. We analyze the thermodynamics and obtain the black hole volumes. We show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality can be violated, implying that these black holes can store information more efficiently than the Schwarzschild black hole. (orig.)

  18. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  19. Black holes by analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1997-01-01

    In the context of a two-dimensional exactly solvable model, the dynamics of quantum black holes is obtained by analytically continuing the description of the regime where no black hole is formed. The resulting spectrum of outgoing radiation departs from the one predicted by the Hawking model in the region where the outgoing modes arise from the horizon with Planck-order frequencies. This occurs early in the evaporation process, and the resulting physical picture is unconventional. The theory predicts that black holes will only radiate out an energy of Planck mass order, stabilizing after a transitory period. The continuation from a regime without black hole formation --accessible in the 1+1 gravity theory considered-- is implicit in an S matrix approach and provides in this way a possible solution to the problem of information loss.

  20. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C

    2016-01-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar–tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory. (paper)

  1. Noncommutative Black Holes at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Elena Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Based on the latest public results, 13 TeV data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has not indicated any evidence of hitherto tested models of quantum black holes, semiclassical black holes, or string balls. Such models have predicted signatures of particles with high transverse momenta. Noncommutative black holes remain an untested model of TeV-scale gravity that offers the starkly different signature of particles with relatively low transverse momenta. Considerations for a search for charged noncommutative black holes using the ATLAS detector will be discussed.

  2. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jui Chou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  3. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Jui, E-mail: agoodmanjerry.ep02g@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Xiaoning, E-mail: wuxn@amss.ac.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yiyang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yuan, Pei-Hung, E-mail: phyuan.py00g@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-10-10

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  4. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Foucart, Francois; O' Connor, Evan [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela [TAPIR, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D., E-mail: mbdeaton@wsu.edu, E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ☉} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ☉} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ☉} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ☉} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ν} ∼ 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  5. Review of lattice supersymmetry and gauge-gravity duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Anosh

    2015-12-01

    We review the status of recent investigations on validating the gauge-gravity duality conjecture through numerical simulations of strongly coupled maximally supersymmetric thermal gauge theories. In the simplest setting, the gauge-gravity duality connects systems of D0-branes and black hole geometries at finite temperature to maximally supersymmetric gauged quantum mechanics at the same temperature. Recent simulations show that non-perturbative gauge theory results give excellent agreement with the quantum gravity predictions, thus proving strong evidence for the validity of the duality conjecture and more insight into quantum black holes and gravity.

  6. Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Sen Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE=TdS−PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called “Legendre transformation” at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.

  7. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  8. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  9. Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...

  10. Probing TeV gravity with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Models with compactified extra space dimensions offer a new way to address outstanding problems in and beyond the Standard Model. In these models, the strength of gravity is strongly increased at small distances, which opens up the possibility of observing quantum gravity effects in the TeV energy range reachable by the LHC. One of the most spectacular phenomena would be the production of microscopic black holes. Searches for black holes are foreseen in the ATLAS experiment with the start-up of data taking in 2009. We present feasibility studies for the triggering, selection and reconstruction of the black hole event topologies, the black hole discovery potential and their identification.

  11. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2015-01-01

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  12. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  13. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Daria; Latosh, Boris

    2018-02-01

    In this review we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on a black hole, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the gaps that must be filled.

  14. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tretyakova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on black holes, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the issues that are not fully investigated.

  15. Quantum and gravity. Blend or melange?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuethrich, Christian [University of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    Do we need to quantize gravity, as it is tacitly assumed in much of fundamental physics? The standard lore falls short of justifying an affirmative answer. Black hole thermodynamics is widely considered, faint though it may be, our firmest hint at a quantum theory of gravity - despite the failure to date to observe Hawking radiation or any other effect that would require going beyond a classical description of black holes. Hawking radiation hitherto merely enjoys a theoretical derivation in a semi-classical theory combining quantum matter with classical gravity. But how can a semi-classical melange of physical principles possibly justify that the quantum and gravity are blended into a unified fundamental theory when the latter is generally expected to reject at least some of the principles in the former?.

  16. Discussion of a Possible Corrected Black Hole Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s equation could be interpreted as the first law of thermodynamics near the spherically symmetric horizon. Through recalling the Einstein gravity with a more general static spherical symmetric metric, we find that the entropy would have a correction in Einstein gravity. By using this method, we investigate the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI gravity. Without matter field, we can also derive the first law in EiBI gravity. With an electromagnetic field, as the field equations have a more general spherically symmetric solution in EiBI gravity, we find that correction of the entropy could be generalized to EiBI gravity. Furthermore, we point out that the Einstein gravity and EiBI gravity might be equivalent on the event horizon. At last, under EiBI gravity with the electromagnetic field, a specific corrected entropy of black hole is given.

  17. Why is gravity so weak?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goradia, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Why is gravity weak? Gravity is plagued with this and many other questions. After decades of exhausting work we do not have a clear answer. In view of this fact it will be shown in the following pages that there are reasons for thinking that gravity is just a composite force consisting of the long-range manifestations of short range nuclear forces that are too tiny to be measured at illuminated or long ranges by particle colliders. This is consistent with Einstein's proposal in 1919

  18. Three-particle one-hole multiple scattering contribution to the nuclear effective interaction in mass-18 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.; Krenciglowa, E.M.; Ando, K.

    1979-01-01

    Within the systematic framework of the double partition approach, the three-particle one-hole multiple scattering and Q-box formalisms are combined to give the valence-linked and connected energy-independent effective interaction. All low-lying [2p+3p1h] contributions to the mass-18 effective interaction are evaluated using an essentially exact energy-dependent reaction matrix based on the Reid SC potential. The low-lying one-body field of the core nucleus is treated consistently with the underlying reaction matrix G through particle- and hole-line self-energy insertions. Center-of-mass motion, folded diagrams and starting energy dependence are properly taken into account throughout. The low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations are strongly damped by self-energy insertions. By incorporating only the folded diagram contributions with origins in the low-lying space, the net effect of all low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations is to give back the bare-G plus second-order core-polarization spectra which are found to be in respectable agreement with the experimental spectra. However, including the full folded diagram contribution, which has additional contributions from the high-lying space through the energy dependence of G, leads to final spectra which deviate sizably from experiment. The present results are conclusive in the sense that the treatment is essentially exact for low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations which originate from the high-lying two-particle correlations through the reaction matrix G. (Auth.)

  19. Thermodynamic Relations for Kiselev and Dilaton Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Pradhan, Parthapratim; Majeed, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics and phase transition for Kiselev black hole and dilaton black hole. Specifically we consider Reissner-Nordström black hole surrounded by radiation and dust and Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence, as special cases of Kiselev solution. We have calculated the products relating the surface gravities, surface temperatures, Komar energies, areas, entropies, horizon radii, and the irreducible masses at the Cauchy and the event horizons. It is observed that the product of surface gravities, product of surface temperature, and product of Komar energies at the horizons are not universal quantities for the Kiselev solutions while products of areas and entropies at both the horizons are independent of mass of the above-mentioned black holes (except for Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence). For charged dilaton black hole, all the products vanish. The first law of thermodynamics is also verified for Kiselev solutions. Heat capacities are calculated and phase transitions are observed, under certain conditions

  20. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  1. Black holes, singularities and predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper favours the view that singularities may play a central role in quantum gravity. The author reviews the arguments leading to the conclusion, that in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, an initial pure state evolves to a final density matrix, thus signaling a breakdown in ordinary quantum dynamical evolution. Some related issues dealing with predictability in the dynamical evolution, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Phases of Kaluza-Klein black holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvang, Henriette; Obers, Niels; Harmark, Troels

    2004-01-01

    We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon and with asymptotics Md × S1, Md being d-dimensional Minkowski space.......We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon and with asymptotics Md × S1, Md being d-dimensional Minkowski space....

  3. Quintic quasi-topological gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisterna, Adolfo [Vicerrectoría académica, Universidad Central de Chile,Toesca 1783 Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile,Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Guajardo, Luis; Hassaïne, Mokhtar [Instituto de Matemática y Física, Universidad de Talca,Casilla 747, Talca (Chile); Oliva, Julio [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla, 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2017-04-11

    We construct a quintic quasi-topological gravity in five dimensions, i.e. a theory with a Lagrangian containing R{sup 5} terms and whose field equations are of second order on spherically (hyperbolic or planar) symmetric spacetimes. These theories have recently received attention since when formulated on asymptotically AdS spacetimes might provide for gravity duals of a broad class of CFTs. For simplicity we focus on five dimensions. We show that this theory fulfils a Birkhoff’s Theorem as it is the case in Lovelock gravity and therefore, for generic values of the couplings, there is no s-wave propagating mode. We prove that the spherically symmetric solution is determined by a quintic algebraic polynomial equation which resembles Wheeler’s polynomial of Lovelock gravity. For the black hole solutions we compute the temperature, mass and entropy and show that the first law of black holes thermodynamics is fulfilled. Besides of being of fourth order in general, we show that the field equations, when linearized around AdS are of second order, and therefore the theory does not propagate ghosts around this background. Besides the class of theories originally introduced in https://arxiv.org/abs/1003.4773, the general geometric structure of these Lagrangians remains an open problem.

  4. Massive antigravity field and incomplete black hole evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Corrado

    2008-04-01

    If gravity is a mixture of the ordinary attractive force carried by the massless graviton, and of a repulsive force carried by a particle with nonzero mass, an evaporating black hole might leave a stable remnant.

  5. Rotating black holes at future colliders. III. Determination of black hole evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Daisuke; Oda, Kin-ya; Park, Seong Chan

    2006-01-01

    TeV scale gravity scenario predicts that the black hole production dominates over all other interactions above the scale and that the Large Hadron Collider will be a black hole factory. Such higher-dimensional black holes mainly decay into the standard model fields via the Hawking radiation whose spectrum can be computed from the greybody factor. Here we complete the series of our work by showing the greybody factors and the resultant spectra for the brane-localized spinor and vector field emissions for arbitrary frequencies. Combining these results with the previous works, we determine the complete radiation spectra and the subsequent time evolution of the black hole. We find that, for a typical event, well more than half a black hole mass is emitted when the hole is still highly rotating, confirming our previous claim that it is important to take into account the angular momentum of black holes

  6. Semiclassical unimodular gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiol, Bartomeu; Garriga, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Classically, unimodular gravity is known to be equivalent to General Relativity (GR), except for the fact that the effective cosmological constant Λ has the status of an integration constant. Here, we explore various formulations of unimodular gravity beyond the classical limit. We first consider the non-generally covariant action formulation in which the determinant of the metric is held fixed to unity. We argue that the corresponding quantum theory is also equivalent to General Relativity for localized perturbative processes which take place in generic backgrounds of infinite volume (such as asymptotically flat spacetimes). Next, using the same action, we calculate semiclassical non-perturbative quantities, which we expect will be dominated by Euclidean instanton solutions. We derive the entropy/area ratio for cosmological and black hole horizons, finding agreement with GR for solutions in backgrounds of infinite volume, but disagreement for backgrounds with finite volume. In deriving the above results, the path integral is taken over histories with fixed 4-volume. We point out that the results are different if we allow the 4-volume of the different histories to vary over a continuum range. In this ''generalized'' version of unimodular gravity, one recovers the full set of Einstein's equations in the classical limit, including the trace, so Λ is no longer an integration constant. Finally, we consider the generally covariant theory due to Henneaux and Teitelboim, which is classically equivalent to unimodular gravity. In this case, the standard semiclassical GR results are recovered provided that the boundary term in the Euclidean action is chosen appropriately

  7. Can the graviton have a large mass near black holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2018-04-01

    The mass of the graviton, if nonzero, is usually considered to be very small, e.g., of the Hubble scale, from several observational constraints. In this paper, we propose a gravity model where the graviton mass is very small in the usual weak gravity environments, below all the current graviton mass bounds, but becomes much larger in the strong gravity regime such as a black hole's vicinity. For black holes in this model, significant deviations from general relativity emerge very close to the black hole horizon and alter the black hole quasinormal modes, which can be extracted from the ringdown wave form of black hole binary mergers. Also, the enhancement of the graviton mass near the horizon can result in echoes in the late-time ringdown, which can be verified in the upcoming gravitational wave observations of higher sensitivity.

  8. Induced gravity and gauge interactions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, Boguslaw; Szanecki, Michal

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the primary, old-fashioned idea of Sakharov's induced gravity and gauge interactions, in the 'one-loop dominance' version, works astonishingly well yielding phenomenologically reasonable results. As a byproduct, the issue of the role of the UV cutoff in the context of the induced gravity has been reexamined (an idea of self-cutoff induced gravity). As an additional check, the black hole entropy has been used in the place of the action. Finally, it has been explicitly shown that the induced coupling constants of gauge interactions of the standard model assume qualitatively realistic values.

  9. Collisions Around a Black Hole Mean Mealtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    When a normally dormant supermassive black hole burps out a brief flare, its assumed that a star was torn apart and fell into the black hole. But a new study suggests that some of these flares might have a slightly different cause.Not a Disruption?Artists impression of a tidal disruption event, in which a star has been pulled apart and its gas feeds the supermassive black hole. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]When a star swings a little too close by a supermassive black hole, the black holes gravity can pull the star apart, completely disrupting it. The resulting gas can then accrete onto the black hole, feeding it and causing it to flare. The predicted frequency of these tidal disruption events and their expected light curves dont perfectly match all our observations of flaring black holes, however.This discrepancy has led two scientists from the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Brian Metzger and Nicholas Stone, to wonder if we can explain flares from supermassive black holes in another way. Could a differentevent masquerade as a tidal disruption?Evolution of a stars semimajor axis (top panel) and radius (bottom panel) as a function of time since Roche-lobe overflow began onto a million-solar-mass black hole. Curves show stars of different masses. [Metzger Stone 2017]Inspirals and OutspiralsIn the dense nuclear star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole, various interactions can send stars on new paths that take them close to the black hole. In many of these interactions, the stars will end up on plunging orbits, often resulting in tidal disruption. But sometimes stars can approach the black hole on tightly bound orbits with lower eccentricities.A main-sequence star on such a path, in what is known as an extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI), slowly approaches the black hole over a period of millions of years, eventually overflowing its Roche lobe and losing mass. Theradius of the star inflates, driving more mass loss and halting the stars inward progress. The star then

  10. Black holes in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, M.

    2005-01-01

    While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)

  11. Stationary black holes as holographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2007-11-21

    Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.

  12. Atomic structure in black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2006-01-01

    We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)

  13. Brane holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in models with large extra dimensions under special conditions one can extract information from the interior of 4D black holes. For this purpose we study an induced geometry on a test brane in the background of a higher-dimensional static black string or a black brane. We show that, at the intersection surface of the test brane and the bulk black string or brane, the induced metric has an event horizon, so that the test brane contains a black hole. We call it a brane hole. When the test brane moves with a constant velocity V with respect to the bulk black object, it also has a brane hole, but its gravitational radius r e is greater than the size of the bulk black string or brane r 0 by the factor (1-V 2 ) -1 . We show that bulk ''photon'' emitted in the region between r 0 and r e can meet the test brane again at a point outside r e . From the point of view of observers on the test brane, the events of emission and capture of the bulk photon are connected by a spacelike curve in the induced geometry. This shows an example in which extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the interior of a lower-dimensional black object. Instead of the bulk black string or brane, one can also consider a bulk geometry without a horizon. We show that nevertheless the induced geometry on the moving test brane can include a brane hole. In such a case the extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the complete region of the brane-hole interior. We discuss thermodynamic properties of brane holes and interesting questions which arise when such an extra-dimensional channel for the information mining exists.

  14. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  15. Simulating Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  16. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  17. Physics of Trans-Planckian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Germani, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    We study aspects of the phenomenon of gravitational UV-self-completeness and its implications for deformations of Einstein gravity. In a ghost-free theory flowing to Einstein gravity in the IR trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist. The only physical meaning of a trans-Planckian pole is the one of a classical state (Black Hole) which is fully described by the light IR quantum degrees of freedom and gives exponentially-suppressed contributions to virtual processes. In this sense Einstein gravity is UV self-complete, although not Wilsonian. We show that this UV/IR correspondence puts a severe constraint on any attempt of conventional Wilsonian UV-completion of trans-Planckian gravity. In particular, there is no well-defined energy domain in which gravity could become asymptotically weak or safe.

  18. The generalized second law of thermodynamics in generalized gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaofeng; Yang Guohong; Wang Bin; Zhang Pengming

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) in generalized theories of gravity. We examine the total entropy evolution with time including the horizon entropy, the non-equilibrium entropy production, and the entropy of all matter, field and energy components. We derive a universal condition to protect the generalized second law and study its validity in different gravity theories. In Einstein gravity (even in the phantom-dominated universe with a Schwarzschild black hole), Lovelock gravity and braneworld gravity, we show that the condition to keep the GSL can always be satisfied. In f(R) gravity and scalar-tensor gravity, the condition to protect the GSL can also hold because the temperature should be positive, gravity is always attractive and the effective Newton constant should be an approximate constant satisfying the experimental bounds

  19. REVERBERATION MAPPING OF THE INTERMEDIATE-MASS NUCLEAR BLACK HOLE IN SDSS J114008.71+030711.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Zetzl, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a reverberation mapping (RM) campaign on the black hole (BH) associated with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in SDSS J114008.71+030711.4 (hereafter GH08). This object is selected from a sample of 19 candidate intermediate-mass BHs (M BH 6 M sun ) found by Greene and Ho in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We used the Hobby-Eberly Telescope to obtain 30 spectra over a period of 178 days in an attempt to resolve the reverberation time lag (τ) between the continuum source and the broad-line region (BLR) in order to determine the radius of the BLR (R BLR ) in GH08. We measure τ to be two days with an upper limit of six days. We estimate the AGN luminosity at 5100 Å to be λL 5100 ≈ 1.1 × 10 43 erg s –1 after deconvolution from the host galaxy. The most well-calibrated R BLR –L relation predicts a time lag that is four times larger than what we measure. Using the measured Hβ full width at half-maximum of 703 ± 110 km s –1 and an upper limit for R BLR =6 light days, we find M BH ∼ 5 M sun as an upper limit to the BH virial mass in GH08, which implies super-Eddington accretion. Based on our measured M BH we propose that GH08 may be another candidate to add to the very short list of AGNs with M BH 6 M sun determined using RM.

  20. Dynamics and entanglement in spherically symmetric quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Terno, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The gravity-scalar field system in spherical symmetry provides a natural setting for exploring gravitational collapse and its aftermath in quantum gravity. In a canonical approach, we give constructions of the Hamiltonian operator, and of semiclassical states peaked on constraint-free data. Such states provide explicit examples of physical states. We also show that matter-gravity entanglement is an inherent feature of physical states, whether or not there is a black hole.

  1. Classical limit of quantum gravity in an accelerating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2005-01-01

    A one-parameter deformation of Einstein-Hilbert gravity with an inverse Riemann curvature term is derived as the classical limit of quantum gravity compatible with an accelerating universe. This result is based on the investigation of semi-classical theories with sectional curvature bounds which are shown not to admit static spherically symmetric black holes if otherwise of phenomenological interest. We discuss the impact on the canonical quantization of gravity, and observe that worldsheet string theory is not affected

  2. How can rainbow gravity affect on gravitational force?

    OpenAIRE

    Sefiedgar, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    According to Verlinde's recent proposal, the gravity is originally an entropic force. In this work, we obtain the corrections to the entropy-area law of black holes within rainbow gravity. The corrected entropy-area law leads to the modifications of the number of bits $N$. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and using the modified number of bits, we can investigate the effects of rainbow gravity on the modified Newtonian dynamics, Newton's law of gravitation, and Einstein's...

  3. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  4. Dualities and emergent gravity: Gauge/gravity duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Sebastian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper I develop a framework for relating dualities and emergence: two notions that are close to each other but also exclude one another. I adopt the conception of duality as 'isomorphism', from the physics literature, cashing it out in terms of three conditions. These three conditions prompt two conceptually different ways in which a duality can be modified to make room for emergence; and I argue that this exhausts the possibilities for combining dualities and emergence (via coarse-graining). I apply this framework to gauge/gravity dualities, considering in detail three examples: AdS/CFT, Verlinde's scheme, and black holes. My main point about gauge/gravity dualities is that the theories involved, qua theories of gravity, must be background-independent. I distinguish two senses of background-independence: (i) minimalistic and (ii) extended. I argue that the former is sufficiently strong to allow for a consistent theory of quantum gravity; and that AdS/CFT is background-independent on this account; while Verlinde's scheme best fits the extended sense of background-independence. I argue that this extended sense should be applied with some caution: on pain of throwing the baby (general relativity) out with the bath-water (extended background-independence). Nevertheless, it is an interesting and potentially fruitful heuristic principle for quantum gravity theory construction. It suggests some directions for possible generalisations of gauge/gravity dualities. The interpretation of dualities is discussed; and the so-called 'internal' vs. 'external' viewpoints are articulated in terms of: (i) epistemic and metaphysical commitments; (ii) parts vs. wholes. I then analyse the emergence of gravity in gauge/gravity dualities in terms of the two available conceptualisations of emergence; and I show how emergence in AdS/CFT and in Verlinde's scenario differ from each other. Finally, I give a novel derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula based on

  5. Applied Gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shiraz Minwalla

    Einstein's theory of general relativity has had a remarkably successful last hundred years. It provides the basic framework for cosmology. The gravitational waves it predicts are likely to provide us with a new 21st century window to the universe (LIGO, LISA?). Black holes appear to have been observed. At a more mundane ...

  6. Simulations of black holes in compactified spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilhao, Miguel; Herdeiro, Carlos [Centro de Fisica do Porto, Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Sperhake, Ulrich; Witek, Helvi [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Deptartamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gualtieri, Leonardo, E-mail: mzilhao@fc.up.pt [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' and Sezione INFN Roma1, P.A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)

    2011-09-22

    From the gauge/gravity duality to braneworld scenarios, black holes in compactified spacetimes play an important role in fundamental physics. Our current understanding of black hole solutions and their dynamics in such spacetimes is rather poor because analytical tools are capable of handling a limited class of idealized scenarios, only. Breakthroughs in numerical relativity in recent years, however, have opened up the study of such spacetimes to a computational treatment which facilitates accurate studies of a wider class of configurations. We here report on recent efforts of our group to perform numerical simulations of black holes in cylindrical spacetimes.

  7. Quantum black holes and Planck's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Planck-scale black holes of quantum gravity must obey a consistency condition relating Planck's constant to the integral of the mass of the black holes over time, if the usual path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is to make sense on physical spacetime. It is also shown, using time-dependent perturbation theory in ordinary quantum mechanics, that a massless particle will not propagate on physical spacetime with the black holes present unless the same condition is met. (author)

  8. Fast plunges into Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadar, Shahar [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.; Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Most extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals of small compact objects into supermassive black holes end with a fast plunge from an eccentric last stable orbit. For rapidly rotating black holes such fast plunges may be studied in the context of the Kerr/CFT correspondence because they occur in the near-horizon region where dynamics are governed by the infinite dimensional conformal symmetry. In this paper we use conformal transformations to analytically solve for the radiation emitted from fast plunges into near-extreme Kerr black holes. We find perfect agreement between the gravity and CFT computations.

  9. Primordial black holes from fifth forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Luca; Rubio, Javier; Wetterich, Christof

    2018-04-01

    Primordial black holes can be produced by a long-range attractive fifth force stronger than gravity, mediated by a light scalar field interacting with nonrelativistic "heavy" particles. As soon as the energy fraction of heavy particles reaches a threshold, the fluctuations rapidly become nonlinear. The overdensities collapse into black holes or similar screened objects, without the need for any particular feature in the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations generated during inflation. We discuss whether such primordial black holes can constitute the total dark matter component in the Universe.

  10. Semiclassical approach to black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Black hole evaporation may lead to massive or massless remnants, or naked singularities. This paper investigates this process in the context of two quite different two-dimensional black hole models. The first is the original Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) model, the second is another two-dimensional dilaton-gravity model, but with properties much closer to physics in the real, four-dimensional, world. Numerical simulations are performed of the formation and subsequent evaporation of black holes and the results are found to agree qualitatively with the exactly solved modified CGHS models, namely, that the semiclassical approximation breaks down just before a naked singularity appears

  11. White holes and eternal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  12. Black-hole thermodynamics: Entropy, information and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review some recent advances in black-hole thermodynamics including statistical mechanical origins of black-hole entropy and its leading order corrections from the view points of various quantum gravity theories. We then examine the problem of information loss and some possible approaches to its resolution. Finally ...

  13. Exact solutions of Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, Matias; Ferraro, Rafael; Giribet, Gaston

    2004-01-01

    The exact five-dimensional charged black hole solution in Lovelock gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics is presented. This solution interpolates between the Hoffmann black hole for the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory and other solutions in the Lovelock theory previously studied in the literature. It is shown how the conical singularity of the metric around the origin can be removed by a proper choice of the black hole parameters. The differences existing with the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes are discussed. In particular, we show the existence of charged black holes with a unique horizon

  14. Black hole event horizons — Teleology and predictivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2017-11-01

    General Relativity predicts the existence of black holes. Access to the complete spacetime manifold is required to describe the black hole. This feature necessitates that black hole dynamics is specified by future or teleological boundary condition. Here, we demonstrate that the statistical mechanical description of black holes, the raison d’être behind the existence of black hole thermodynamics, requires teleological boundary condition. Within the fluid-gravity paradigm — Einstein’s equations when projected on spacetime horizons resemble Navier-Stokes equation of a fluid — we show that the specific heat and the coefficient of bulk viscosity of the horizon fluid are negative only if the teleological boundary condition is taken into account. We argue that in a quantum theory of gravity, the future boundary condition plays a crucial role. We briefly discuss the possible implications of this at late stages of black hole evaporation.

  15. A Calculation of Nuclear Heating by Activation Product of Structure Materials for the In-core Irradiation Hole in the HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Tae Yang; Park, B. G.; Kim, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Only delayed gamma heating is considered in this paper. Contribution of the delayed gamma heating is expected to be negligible for the reactor power. For the neutron irradiation, however, the contribution of delayed gamma heating is not negligible issue, and it should be evaluated for safety analysis. Additionally, in the case of temperature-sensitive irradiation targets, the delayed gamma heating should be evaluated precisely. For the HANARO, the delayed gamma heating has been evaluated by modifying the library data of the calculation code or by assuming the heating to be conservative value based on prompt gamma heating. For the method of modifying the library data, however, it should be able to estimate isotopes which contribute to heat generation exactly. And furthermore, it should be concerned to determine modified emission yield of gamma-rays depending on the half-life. For the method of assuming conservative value, it is hard to determine whether the assumed heating value is enough conservative or not. In this study, a methodology for evaluation of nuclear heating by structure materials irradiated for a long time is established with the ORIGEN and MCNP codes. And this method is applied to determine the nuclear heating of the RI capsule in the IR2 irradiation hole in the HANARO. In this paper, the methodology for evaluation of heat generation by irradiated structure materials was established by using the ORIGEN and MCNP codes. From this result, the contribution by farther structures was expected to be negligible. Meanwhile, heat generation by delayed gamma-ray was calculated less than 0.03% of heat generation by prompt radiations. The result of this study indicates that there are some remaining issues for the real situation of the neutron irradiation at HANARO.

  16. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in

    2016-04-10

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  17. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Holographic heat engine within the framework of massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong; Li, Gu-Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Heat engine models are constructed within the framework of massive gravity in this paper. For the four-dimensional charged black holes in massive gravity, it is shown that the existence of graviton mass improves the heat engine efficiency significantly. The situation is more complicated for the five-dimensional neutral black holes since the constant which corresponds to the third massive potential also contributes to the efficiency. It is also shown that the existence of graviton mass can improve the heat engine efficiency. Moreover, we probe how the massive gravity influences the behavior of the heat engine efficiency approaching the Carnot efficiency.

  19. On existence of Lorentz sworm hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    A self-consistent semiclassical theory is considered which contains the Einstein gravity and quantized massless scalar field. A solution is obtained wich describes a spherically symmetric sworm hole with mass M>0.003 M p and neck radius a 0 >0.03 L pl

  20. Black holes and compact objects: Quantum aspects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is a summary of the papers presented in session W2 on a fairly wide-ranging variety of topics in the area of black hole physics and quantum aspects of gravity, including quantum field and string theory in curved spacetimes. In addition, experts in a couple of topical subjects were invited to present short surveys on the ...

  1. Conductivity bound from dirty black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitaghsir Fadafan, Kazem, E-mail: bitaghsir@shahroodut.ac.ir

    2016-11-10

    We propose a lower bound of the dc electrical conductivity in strongly disordered, strongly interacting quantum field theories using holography. We study linear response of black holes with broken translational symmetry in Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theories of gravity. Using the generalized Stokes equations at the horizon, we derive the lower bound of the electrical conductivity for the dual two dimensional disordered field theory.

  2. Local Hawking temperature for dynamical black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, S A; Criscienzo, R Di; Nadalini, M; Vanzo, L; Zerbini, S

    2009-01-01

    A local Hawking temperature is derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi variant of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. It is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. The operational meaning of the temperature is that Kodama observers just outside the horizon measure an invariantly redshifted temperature, diverging at the horizon itself. In static, asymptotically flat cases, the Hawking temperature as usually defined by the Killing vector agrees in standard cases, but generally differs by a relative redshift factor between the horizon and infinity, this being the temperature measured by static observers at infinity. Likewise, the geometrical surface gravity reduces to the Newtonian surface gravity in the Newtonian limit, while the Killing definition instead reflects measurements at infinity. This may resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the Hawking temperature for the extremal limit of the charged stringy black hole, namely that it is the local temperature which vanishes. In general, this confirms the quasi-stationary picture of black-hole evaporation in early stages. However, the geometrical surface gravity is generally not the surface gravity of a static black hole with the same parameters. (fast track communication)

  3. Complexity growth in minimal massive 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the complexity growth by using "complexity =action " (CA) proposal in the minimal massive 3D gravity (MMG) model which is proposed for resolving the bulk-boundary clash problem of topologically massive gravity (TMG). We observe that the rate of the complexity growth for Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole saturates the proposed bound by physical mass of the BTZ black hole in the MMG model, when the angular momentum parameter and the inner horizon of black hole goes to zero.

  4. Applications of quantum information theory to quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolin, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: I describe work by and with Fotini Markopoulou and Olaf Dreyeron the application of quantum information theory to quantum gravity. A particular application to black hole physics is described, which treats the black hole horizon as an open system, in interaction with an environment, which are the degrees of freedom in the bulk spacetime. This allows us to elucidate which quantum states of a general horizon contribute to the entropy of a Schwarzchild black hole. This case serves as an example of how methods from quantum information theory may help to elucidate how the classical limit emerges from a background independent quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  5. Quantum tunneling radiation from self-dual black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.A.S.; Brito, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Black holes are considered as objects that can reveal quantum aspects of spacetime. Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is a theory that propose a way to model the quantum spacetime behavior revealed by a black hole. One recent prediction of this theory is the existence of sub-Planckian black holes, which have the interesting property of self-duality. This property removes the black hole singularity and replaces it with another asymptotically flat region. In this work, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of this kind of black holes, called self-dual black holes, using the Hamilton–Jacobi version of the tunneling formalism. Moreover, using the tools of the tunneling approach, we investigate the emission spectrum of self-dual black holes, and investigate if some information about the black hole initial state can be recovered during the evaporation process. Back-reaction effects are included

  6. Nonlinear evolutions of bosonic clouds around black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Hirotada

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a laboratory not only for testing the theory of gravity but also for exploring the properties of fundamental fields. Fundamental fields around a supermassive black hole give rise to extremely long-lived quasi-bound states which can in principle extract the energy and angular momentum from the black hole. To investigate the final state of such a system, the backreaction onto the spacetime becomes important because of the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation. In this paper, we review the numerical method to trace the evolution of massive scalar fields in the vicinity of black holes, how such a system originates from scalar clouds initially in the absence of black holes or from the capture of scalar clouds by a black hole, and the evolution of quasi-bound states around both a non-rotating black hole and a rotating black hole including the backreaction. (paper)

  7. Thermodynamic studies of different black holes with modifications of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Amritendu; Biswas, Ritabrata

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the thermodynamic properties of black holes are topics of interests. We investigate the thermodynamic properties like surface gravity and Hawking temperature on event horizon of regular black holes viz. Hayward Class and asymptotically AdS (Anti-de Sitter) black holes. We also analyze the thermodynamic volume and naive geometric volume of asymptotically AdS black holes and show that the entropy of these black holes is simply the ratio of the naive geometric volume to thermodynamic volume. We plot the different graphs and interpret them physically. We derive the `cosmic-Censorship-Inequality' for both type of black holes. Moreover, we calculate the thermal heat capacity of aforesaid black holes and study their stabilities in different regimes. Finally, we compute the logarithmic correction to the entropy for both the black holes considering the quantum fluctuations around the thermal equilibrium and study the corresponding thermodynamics.

  8. Higher order corrections to holographic black hole chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinamuli, Musema; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the holographic Smarr relation beyond the large N limit. By making use of the holographic dictionary, we find that the bulk correlates of subleading 1 /N corrections to this relation are related to the couplings in Lovelock gravity theories. We likewise obtain a holographic equation of state and check its validity for a variety of interesting and nontrivial black holes, including rotating planar black holes in Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld gravity, and nonextremal rotating black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We provide an explanation of the N -dependence of the holographic Smarr relation in terms of contributions due to planar and nonplanar diagrams in the dual theory.

  9. Stationary black holes: large D analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1/D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1/D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1/D expansion.

  10. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa); Centre for Theoretical Physics, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2018-02-15

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r{sub h} < r{sub c} allowing the black hole to become thermodynamically stable. (orig.)

  11. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r_hhole to become thermodynamically stable.

  12. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2008-01-01

    We show that all thermodynamic quantities of the Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes in three dimensions can be obtained from the dilaton and its potential of two-dimensional dilaton gravity through dimensional reduction. These are all between nonrotating uncharged BTZ (Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli) black hole (NBTZ) and charged BTZ black hole (CBTZ).

  13. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  14. Noncommutative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupp, P.

    2007-01-01

    Heuristic arguments suggest that the classical picture of smooth commutative spacetime should be replaced by some kind of quantum / noncommutative geometry at length scales and energies where quantum as well as gravitational effects are important. Motivated by this idea much research has been devoted to the study of quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetimes. More recently the focus has started to shift back to gravity in this context. We give an introductory overview to the formulation of general relativity in a noncommutative spacetime background and discuss the possibility of exact solutions. (author)

  15. The Lighter Side of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    1996-10-01

    From the drop of an apple to the stately dance of the galaxies, gravity is omnipresent in the Cosmos. Even with its high profile, gravity is the most enigmatic of all the known basic forces in nature. The Lighter Side of Gravity presents a beautifully clear and completely nontechnical introduction to the phenomenon of this force in all its manifestations. Astrophysicist Jayant Narlikar begins with an historical background to the discovery of the law of gravitation by Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. Using familiar analogies, interesting anecdotes, and numerous illustrations to get across subtle effects and difficult points to readers, he goes on to describe the general theory of relativity and some of its strange and unfamiliar ideas such as curved spacetime, the bending of light, and black holes. Since first publication in 1982 (W.H. Freeman), Dr. Narlikar has brought his book completely up to date and expanded it to include the discovery of gigantic gravitational lenses in space, the findings of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, the detection of dark matter in galaxies, the investigation of the very early Universe, and other new ideas in cosmology. This lucid and stimulating book presents a clear approach to the intriguing phenomenon of gravity for everyone who has ever felt caught in its grip. Jayant Narlikar is the winner of many astronomical prizes and the author of Introduction to Cosmology (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

  16. Three-dimensional dilatonic gravity's rainbow: Exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Hendi, Seyed; Eslam Panah, Behzad; Panahiyan, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Deep relations of dark energy scenario and string theory results into dilaton gravity, on the one hand, and the connection between quantum gravity and gravity's rainbow, on the other hand, motivate us to consider three-dimensional dilatonic black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow. We obtain two classes of the solutions, which are polynomial and logarithmic forms. We also calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and examine the first law of thermodynamics for both classes. In addition, we study thermal stability and show that one of the classes is thermally stable while the other one is unstable.

  17. Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adami, H.; Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory. (orig.)

  18. Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, H.; Setare, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory.

  19. Southern Africa Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...

  20. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  1. A theory of some gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, John.

    1990-01-01

    This paper looks at Einstein's Theory of General Relativity and lists its accomplishments in explaining many problems in gravitation and astrophysics. It was Einstin's genius that led to our present comprehensive theory of gravity. Various ideas central to the theory are explained, such as the bending of space and time by massive objects, geodesics, the origin of the universe. In astrophysics, recent discoveries such as black holes, quasars, gravitational lenses, gravitational radiation, such as that coming from pulsars, can all be explained and understood using Einstein's ideas. (UK)

  2. Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.

  3. Quantum gravity effects in Myers-Perry space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litim, Daniel F.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    We study quantum gravity effects for Myers-Perry black holes assuming that the leading contributions arise from the renormalization group evolution of Newton’s coupling. Provided that gravity weakens following the asymptotic safety conjecture, we find that quantum effects lift a degeneracy of higher-dimensional black holes, and dominate over kinematical ones induced by rotation, particularly for small black hole mass, large angular momentum, and higher space-time dimensionality. Quantum-corrected space-times display inner and outer horizons, and show the existence of a black hole of smallest mass in any dimension. Ultra-spinning solutions no longer persist. Thermodynamic properties including temperature, specific heat, the Komar integrals, and aspects of black hole mechanics are studied as well. Observing a softening of the ring singularity, we also discuss the validity of classical energy conditions

  4. On the many saddle points description of quantum black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano, E-mail: cristiano.germani@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2014-06-02

    Considering two dimensional gravity coupled to a CFT, we show that a semiclassical black hole can be described in terms of two Liouville theories matched at the horizon. The black hole exterior corresponds to a space-like while the interior to a time-like Liouville theory. This matching automatically implies that a semiclassical black hole has an infinite entropy. The path integral description of the time-like Liouville theory (the Black Hole interior) is studied and it is found that the correlation functions of the coupled CFT-gravity system are dominated by two (complex) saddle points, even in the semiclassical limit. We argue that this system can be interpreted as two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates constructed out of two degenerate quantum states. In AdS/CFT context, the same system is mapped into two interacting strings intersecting inside a three-dimensional BTZ black hole.

  5. Mass inflation in the loop black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Eric G.; Mann, Robert; Modesto, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    In classical general relativity the Cauchy horizon within a two-horizon black hole is unstable via a phenomenon known as mass inflation, in which the mass parameter (and the spacetime curvature) of the black hole diverges at the Cauchy horizon. Here we study this effect for loop black holes - quantum gravitationally corrected black holes from loop quantum gravity - whose construction alleviates the r=0 singularity present in their classical counterparts. We use a simplified model of mass inflation, which makes use of the generalized Dray-'t Hooft relation, to conclude that the Cauchy horizon of loop black holes indeed results in a curvature singularity similar to that found in classical black holes. The Dray-'t Hooft relation is of particular utility in the loop black hole because it does not directly rely upon Einstein's field equations. We elucidate some of the interesting and counterintuitive properties of the loop black hole, and corroborate our results using an alternate model of mass inflation due to Ori.

  6. Black hole multiplicity at particle colliders (Do black holes radiate mainly on the brane?)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    If gravity becomes strong at the TeV scale, we may have the chance to produce black holes at particle colliders. In this Letter we revisit some phenomenological signatures of black hole production in TeV-gravity theories. We show that the bulk-to-brane ratio of black hole energy loss during the Hawking evaporation phase depends crucially on the black hole greybody factors and on the particle degrees of freedom. Since the greybody factors have not yet been calculated in the literature, and the particle content at trans-Planckian energies is not known, it is premature to claim that the black hole emits mainly on the brane. We also revisit the decay time and the multiplicity of the decay products of black hole evaporation. We give general formulae for black hole decay time and multiplicity. We find that the number of particles produced during the evaporation phase may be significantly lower than the average multiplicity which has been used in the past literature

  7. Thermodynamic light on black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.

    1977-01-01

    The existence of black holes and their relevance to our understanding of the nature of space and time are considered, with especial reference to the application of thermodynamic arguments which can reveal their energy-transfer processes in a new light. The application of thermodynamics to strongly gravitating systems promises some fascinating new insights into the nature of gravity. Situations can occur during gravitational collapse in which existing physics breaks down. Under these circumstances, the application of universal thermodynamical principles might be our only guide. (U.K.)

  8. The holographic bound in the scalar-tensor and f(R) gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouzjaee, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    The holographic bound has been extended to the different theory of gravities such as scalar-tensor gravity and f(R) gravity according to the Noether charge definition of the entropy for a black hole surface. We have introduced some popular examples of the flat FRW cosmology in order to investigate holographic bound in scalar-tensor and f(R) gravity. Using the holographic bound, we put an additional constraint on scalar-tensor gravity and the f(R) gravity parameters. We also discuss the transformation from Jordan frame to Einstein frame. (orig.)

  9. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    't entirely understand, the other one gets the upper hand." GRS 1915+105 Chandra X-ray Image of GRS 1915+105 The latest Chandra results also show that the wind and the jet carry about the same amount of matter away from the black hole. This is evidence that the black hole is somehow regulating its accretion rate, which may be related to the toggling between mass expulsion via either a jet or a wind from the accretion disk. Self-regulation is a common topic when discussing supermassive black holes, but this is the first clear evidence for it in stellar-mass black holes. "It is exciting that we may be on the track of explaining two mysteries at the same time: how black hole jets can be shut down and also how black holes regulate their growth," said co-author Julia Lee, assistant professor in the Astronomy department at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Maybe black holes can regulate themselves better than the financial markets!" Although micro-quasars and quasars differ in mass by factors of millions, they should show a similarity in behavior when their very different physical scales are taken into account. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption "If quasars and micro-quasars behave very differently, then we have a big problem to figure out why, because gravity treats them the same," said Neilsen. "So, our result is actually very reassuring, because it's one more link between these different types of black holes." The timescale for changes in behavior of a black hole should vary in proportion to the mass. For example, an hour-long timescale for changes in GRS 1915 would correspond to about 10,000 years for a supermassive black hole that weighs a billion times the mass of the Sun. "We cannot hope to explore at this level of detail in any single supermassive black hole

  10. Thermodynamics and luminosities of rainbow black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Benrong [Physics Teaching and Research section, College of Medical Technology, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 1166 Liutai Avenue, Chengdu (China); Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang, E-mail: mubenrong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pengw@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: hyanga@scu.edu.cn [Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, No. 24 South Section 1 Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China)

    2015-11-01

    Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is ''Gravity's rainbow'', where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the ''Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation'' which is E{sup 2} = m{sup 2}+p{sup 2}[1−η(E/m{sub p}){sup n}] with n > 0, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of η and n in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with η < 0 and n ≥ 2. Considering effects of rainbow gravity on both the Hawking temperature and radius of the event horizon, we use the geometric optics approximation to compute luminosities of a 2D black hole, a Schwarzschild one and a static uncharged black string. It is found that the luminosities can be significantly suppressed or boosted depending on the values of η and n.

  11. Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Smolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.

  12. Black Holes and Exotic Spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoff da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.

  13. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc/G1/2∼10−5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as “spacetime foam”, due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG/c31/2∼10−33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called “Black Wormhole”, consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2>1/2, a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2<1/2, the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2=1/2. This solution suggests the “Generalized Cosmic Censorship” by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by “negative” energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the

  14. Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Pu, Jin [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Qing-Quan [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China)

    2017-05-15

    In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painleve) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I{sub adia} = circular integral p{sub i}dq{sub i} introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area. (orig.)

  15. Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Pu, Jin; Jiang, Qing-Quan; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2017-05-01

    In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painlevé) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I_adia = \\oint p_i dq_i introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area.

  16. Instantons in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C.N.

    1980-02-01

    The material contained in this thesis is concerned with the functional integral approach to the quantum theory of gravity. It seems to be necessary to work with metrics of positive definite signature (Euclidean metrics) and then analytically continue the result back to the Lorentzian regime. The dominant contributions to the functional integral come from metrics which are stationary points of the action, i.e. classical solutions of the Euclideanized Einstein equations. These are known as Gravitational Instantons. Boundary conditions have to be placed upon the metrics included in the functional integral, and these are determined by the physical problem being considered. Three types of boundary condition have arisen in this context, corresponding to (i) zero temperature physics, and the calculation of particle scattering amplitudes, (ii) finite temperature effects, such as black hole radiance, and (iii) the study of the structure of the gravitational vacuum on Planck length scales. Instantons in the first category are asymptotically flat in all four directions, those in the second are asymptotically flat in three directions and periodic in the fourth, and those which arise in studying the gravitational vacuum are compact without boundaries. Much of the thesis is concerned with considering these various kinds of instanton, and particularly with the effects of their non-trivial topology. One way in which this can be investigated is by means of the various topological index theorems, and these are applied to a variety of situations. Self-dual metrics seem to have particular significance in quantum gravity, and they are discussed in detail. Finally, some recent work on the calculation of the propagation of particles in the gravitational vacuum is described. (author)

  17. Hawking temperatures of Myers-Perry black holes from tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhengze

    2009-01-01

    Using the tunneling method of Parikh and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking temperature of a general higher-dimensional rotating black hole which is equal to its surface gravity on the horizon divided by 2π. In order to eliminate the motion on the rotating degrees of freedom of a tunneling particle from a higher-dimensional rotating black hole, we choose a reference system that is co-rotating with the black hole horizon. Then, we apply the obtained result to the Myers-Perry higher-dimensional asymptotically flat black holes and reproduce their Hawking temperatures using the tunneling approach.

  18. Eddington's theory of gravity and its progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Máximo; Ferreira, Pedro G

    2010-07-02

    We resurrect Eddington's proposal for the gravitational action in the presence of a cosmological constant and extend it to include matter fields. We show that the Newton-Poisson equation is modified in the presence of sources and that charged black holes show great similarities with those arising in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to gravity. When we consider homogeneous and isotropic space-times, we find that there is a minimum length (and maximum density) at early times, clearly pointing to an alternative theory of the big bang. We thus argue that the modern formulation of Eddington's theory, Born-Infeld gravity, presents us with a novel, nonsingular description of the Universe.

  19. Geometrodynamics of spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Taves, Tim; Maeda, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    We derive the Hamiltonian for spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity using the geometrodynamics approach pioneered by Kuchar (1994 Phys. Rev. D 50 3961) in the context of four-dimensional general relativity. When written in terms of the areal radius, the generalized Misner-Sharp mass and their conjugate momenta, the generic Lovelock action and Hamiltonian take on precisely the same simple forms as in general relativity. This result supports the interpretation of Lovelock gravity as the natural higher dimensional extension of general relativity. It also provides an important first step towards the study of the quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian thermodynamics and formation of generic Lovelock black holes. (fast track communication)

  20. Emergent Abelian Gauge Fields from Noncommutative Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Stern

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct exact solutions to noncommutative gravity following the formulation of Chamseddine and show that they are in general accompanied by Abelian gauge fields which are first order in the noncommutative scale. This provides a mechanism for generating cosmological electromagnetic fields in an expanding space-time background, and also leads to multipole-like fields surrounding black holes. Exact solutions to noncommutative Einstein-Maxwell theory can give rise to first order corrections to the metric tensor, as well as to the electromagnetic fields. This leads to first order shifts in the horizons of charged black holes.

  1. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corda, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei, Prato (Italy); Istituto Universitario di Ricerca ' ' Santa Rita' ' , Prato (Italy); International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences (IIAMIS), Hyderabad (India)

    2013-12-15

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)

  2. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.

  3. The Geometry of Black Hole Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results show that important singularities in General Relativity can be naturally described in terms of finite and invariant canonical geometric objects. Consequently, one can write field equations which are equivalent to Einstein's at nonsingular points but, in addition remain well-defined and smooth at singularities. The black hole singularities appear to be less undesirable than it was thought, especially after we remove the part of the singularity due to the coordinate system. Black hole singularities are then compatible with global hyperbolicity and do not make the evolution equations break down, when these are expressed in terms of the appropriate variables. The charged black holes turn out to have smooth potential and electromagnetic fields in the new atlas. Classical charged particles can be modeled, in General Relativity, as charged black hole solutions. Since black hole singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction, this should affect Feynman's path integrals. Therefore, it is expected that singularities induce dimensional reduction effects in Quantum Gravity. These dimensional reduction effects are very similar to those postulated in some approaches to make Quantum Gravity perturbatively renormalizable. This may provide a way to test indirectly the effects of singularities, otherwise inaccessible.

  4. Compact objects in relativistic theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada da Silva, Hector

    2017-05-01

    In this dissertation we discuss several aspects of compact objects, i.e. neutron stars and black holes, in relativistic theories of gravity. We start by studying the role of nuclear physics (encoded in the so-called equation of state) in determining the properties of neutron stars in general relativity. We show that low-mass neutron stars are potentially useful astrophysical laboratories that can be used to constrain the properties of the equation of state. More specifically, we show that various bulk properties of these objects, such as their quadrupole moment and tidal deformability, are tightly correlated. Next, we develop a formalism that aims to capture how generic modifications from general relativity affect the structure of neutron stars, as predicted by a broad class of gravity theories, in the spirit of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism (PPN). Our "post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff" formalism provides a toolbox to study both stellar structure and the interior/exterior geometries of static, spherically symmetric relativistic stars. We also apply the formalism to parametrize deviations from general relativity in various astrophysical observables related with neutron stars, including surface redshift, apparent radius, Eddington luminosity. We then turn our attention to what is arguably the most well-motivated and well-investigated generalization of general relativity: scalar-tensor theory. We start by considering theories where gravity is mediated by a single extra scalar degree of freedom (in addition to the metric tensor). An interesting class of scalar-tensor theories passes all experimental tests in the weak-field regime of gravity, yet considerably deviates from general relativity in the strong-field regime in the presence of matter. A common assumption in modeling neutron stars is that the pressure within these object is spatially isotropic. We relax this assumption and examine how pressure anisotropy affects the mass, radius and moment of inertia

  5. Quantum corrections to Schwarzschild black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, Xavier; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Using effective field theory techniques, we compute quantum corrections to spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's gravity and focus in particular on the Schwarzschild black hole. Quantum modifications are covariantly encoded in a non-local effective action. We work to quadratic order in curvatures simultaneously taking local and non-local corrections into account. Looking for solutions perturbatively close to that of classical general relativity, we find that an eternal Schwarzschild black hole remains a solution and receives no quantum corrections up to this order in the curvature expansion. In contrast, the field of a massive star receives corrections which are fully determined by the effective field theory. (orig.)

  6. The Cause of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...

  7. The information entropy of a static dilaton black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with holographic principle, by calculating the statistical entropy of the quantum field just at the event horizon of the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilaton black hole, the information entropy of the black hole was investigated and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula was obtained. The results show that black hole entropy is identical with the statistical entropy of the quantum field at the horizon. Using the generalized uncertainty relation, the divergence of the state density near the event horizon in usual quantum field theory was removed, and the cutoffs and the little mass approximation in the heat gas method of black hole entropy were avoided. Thus, the microstates of the massive scalar field just at the event horizon of the static dilaton black hole were studied directly and a description on holograph principle was presented. By using residue theorem, the integral difficulty in the calculation was overcome, and the information entropy and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula were obtained quantitatively. Compared with the black hole entropy from the loop quantum gravity, the consistency of methods and results of calculating black hole entropy in non-commutative quantum field theory and loop quantum gravity was investigated. By this, the gravity correction constant in the generalized uncertainty relation was suggested and the sense of holographic principle was discussed.

  8. The double copy: gravity from gluons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. D.

    2018-04-01

    Three of the four fundamental forces in nature are described by so-called gauge theories, which include the effects of both relativity and quantum mechanics. Gravity, on the other hand, is described by General Relativity, and the lack of a well-behaved quantum theory - believed to be relevant at the centre of black holes, and at the Big Bang itself - remains a notorious unsolved problem. Recently a new correspondence, the double copy, has been discovered between scattering amplitudes (quantities related to the probability for particles to interact) in gravity, and their gauge theory counterparts. This has subsequently been extended to other quantities, providing gauge theory analogues of e.g. black holes. We here review current research on the double copy, and describe some possible applications.

  9. Skyrmion black hole hair: Conservation of baryon number by black holes and observable manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Gußmann, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.gussmann@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the skyrmion hair manifests itself by comparing this cross section with the analogous cross section caused by a Schwarzschild black hole which has the same ADM mass as the skyrmion black hole. Here we find an order-one difference in the positions of the characteristic peaks in the cross sections. The peaks are shifted to smaller scattering angles when the skyrmion hair is present. This comes from the fact that the skyrmion hair changes the near horizon geometry of the black hole when compared to a Schwarzschild black hole with same ADM mass. We keep the study of this second aspect general so that the qualitative results which we obtain can also be applied to black holes with classical hair of different kind.

  10. Born-Infeld gravity in Weitzenboeck spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Using the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity formulated in Weitzenboeck spacetime, we thoroughly explore a kind of Born-Infeld regular gravity leading to second order field equations for the vielbein components. We explicitly solve the equations of motion for two examples: the extended Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, which exists even if the cosmological constant is positive, and a cosmological model with matter, where the scale factor is well behaved, thus giving a singularity-free solution.

  11. Physics of trans-Planckian gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Folkerts, Sarah; Germani, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    We study the field theoretical description of a generic theory of gravity flowing to Einstein general relativity in IR. We prove that, if ghost-free, in the weakly-coupled regime such a theory can never become weaker than general relativity. Using this fact, as a by-product, we suggest that in a ghost-free theory of gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist. The only physical meaning of a trans-Planckian pole is the one of a classical state (black hole) which is described by the light IR quantum degrees of freedom and gives exponentially-suppressed contributions to virtual processes. In this picture Einstein gravity is UV self-complete, although not Wilsonian, and sub-Planckian distances are unobservable in any healthy theory of gravity. We then finally show that this UV/IR correspondence puts a severe constraint on any attempt of conventional Wilsonian UV-completion of trans-Planckian gravity. Specifically, there is no well-defined energy domain in which gravity could become asymptotically weak or safe.

  12. Quantum gravity and the renormalisation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litim, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics is remarkably successful in describing three out of the four known fundamental forces of Nature. But what is up with gravity? Attempts to understand quantum gravity on the same footing as the other forces still face problems. Some time ago, it has been pointed out that gravity may very well exist as a fundamental quantum field theory provided its high-energy behaviour is governed by a fixed point under the renormalisation group. In recent years, this 'asymptotic safety' scenario has found significant support thanks to numerous renormalisation group studies, lattice simulations, and new ideas within perturbation theory. The lectures will give an introduction into the renormalisation group approach for quantum gravity, aimed at those who haven't met the topic before. After an introduction and overview, the key ideas and concepts of asymptotic safety for gravity are fleshed out. Results for gravitational high-energy fixed points and scaling exponents are discussed as well as key features of the gravitational phase diagram. The survey concludes with some phenomenological implications of fixed point gravity including the physics of black holes and particle physics beyond the Standard Model. (author)

  13. Speed of gravitational waves and black hole hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Oliver J.; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Lagos, Macarena

    2018-04-01

    The recent detection of GRB 170817A and GW170817 constrains the speed of gravity waves cT to be that of light, which severely restricts the landscape of modified gravity theories that impact the cosmological evolution of the Universe. In this work, we investigate the presence of black hole hair in the remaining viable cosmological theories of modified gravity that respect the constraint cT=1 . We focus mainly on scalar-tensor theories of gravity, analyzing static, asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski, Beyond Horndeski, Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet, and Chern-Simons theories. We find that in all of the cases considered here, theories that are cosmologically relevant and respect cT=1 do not allow for hair, or have negligible hair. We further comment on vector-tensor theories including Einstein-Yang-Mills, Einstein-Aether, and generalized Proca theories, as well as bimetric theories.

  14. Radiation from quantum weakly dynamical horizons in loop quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzetti, Daniele

    2012-07-06

    We provide a statistical mechanical analysis of quantum horizons near equilibrium in the grand canonical ensemble. By matching the description of the nonequilibrium phase in terms of weakly dynamical horizons with a local statistical framework, we implement loop quantum gravity dynamics near the boundary. The resulting radiation process provides a quantum gravity description of the horizon evaporation. For large black holes, the spectrum we derive presents a discrete structure which could be potentially observable.

  15. Extended Equivalence Principle: Implications for Gravity, Geometry and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, C.; Arun, Kenath

    2012-01-01

    The equivalence principle was formulated by Einstein in an attempt to extend the concept of inertial frames to accelerated frames, thereby bringing in gravity. In recent decades, it has been realised that gravity is linked not only with geometry of space-time but also with thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole horizons, vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, etc. In this work we look at how the equivalence principle manifests itself in these different situations where we have str...

  16. No hair theorem in quasi-dilaton massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, De-Jun, E-mail: wudejun10@mails.ucas.ac.cn [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Shuang-Yong, E-mail: sxz353@case.edu [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    We investigate the static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions in the quasi-dilaton model and its generalizations, which are scalar extended dRGT massive gravity with a shift symmetry. We show that, unlike generic scalar extended massive gravity models, these theories do not admit static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions until the theory parameters in the dRGT potential are fine-tuned. When fine-tuned, the geometry of the static, spherically symmetric black hole is necessarily that of general relativity and the quasi-dilaton field is constant across the spacetime. The fine-tuning and the no hair theorem apply to black holes with flat, anti-de Sitter or de Sitter asymptotics.

  17. No hair theorem in quasi-dilaton massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, De-Jun; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions in the quasi-dilaton model and its generalizations, which are scalar extended dRGT massive gravity with a shift symmetry. We show that, unlike generic scalar extended massive gravity models, these theories do not admit static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions until the theory parameters in the dRGT potential are fine-tuned. When fine-tuned, the geometry of the static, spherically symmetric black hole is necessarily that of general relativity and the quasi-dilaton field is constant across the spacetime. The fine-tuning and the no hair theorem apply to black holes with flat, anti-de Sitter or de Sitter asymptotics.

  18. Evidence for maximal acceleration and singularity resolution in covariant loop quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2013-08-30

    A simple argument indicates that covariant loop gravity (spin foam theory) predicts a maximal acceleration and hence forbids the development of curvature singularities. This supports the results obtained for cosmology and black holes using canonical methods.

  19. Newtonian versus black-hole scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siopsis, G.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss non-relativistic scattering by a Newtonian potential. We show that the gray-body factors associated with scattering by a black hole exhibit the same functional dependence as scattering amplitudes in the Newtonian limit, which should be the weak-field limit of any quantum theory of gravity. This behavior arises independently of the presence of supersymmetry. The connection to two-dimensional conformal field theory is also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. Hairy planar black holes in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceña, Andrés [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo,Mendoza (Argentina); Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique,UMR 5672, CNRS, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon,46 allé d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mann, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    We construct exact hairy planar black holes in D-dimensional AdS gravity. These solutions are regular except at the singularity and have stress-energy that satisfies the null energy condition. We present a detailed analysis of their thermodynamical properties and show that the first law is satisfied. We also discuss these solutions in the context of AdS/CFT duality and construct the associated c-function.