WorldWideScience

Sample records for holes current status

  1. Teleradiology - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltadjiev, D.; Charakchiev

    2000-01-01

    Tele-radiology is a term becoming increasingly popular in the medical literature. Nevertheless, terminological definitions in this particular field are still rather vague. The scope of applications extend from simple image presenting via analogue telephone lines to transmission of 3-D medical images through a satellite. It is a matter of standards highly differing in terms of data transmission rates, safety, technical demands on the systems and the like. In this article new information technologies, technical aspects, as well as some major applications of tele-radiology are discussed. The current status of tele-medicine/tele-radiology in this country is likewise briefly outlined

  2. COHERENT Experiment: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D; Belov, V; Bolozdynya, A; Burenkov, A; Albert, J B; Del Valle Coello, M; D’Onofrio, M; Awe, C; Barbeau, P S; Cervantes, M; Becker, B; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Collar, J I; Cooper, R J; Cooper, R L; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J; Eberhardt, A; Dean, D; Dolgolenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    The COHERENT Collaboration is realizing a long term neutrino physics research program. The main goals of the program are to detect and study elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). This process is predicted by Standard Model but it has never been observed experimentally because of the very low energy of the recoil nucleus. COHERENT is using different detector technologies: CsI[Na] and NaI scintillator crystals, a single-phase liquid Ar and a Ge detectors. The placement of all the detector setups is in the basement of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The current status of the COHERENT experimental program is presented. (paper)

  3. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online.

  4. Engineered barriers: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  5. Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept

  6. The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

  7. Current Status of HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Barbara; Roden, Richard; Wu, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, with ~500,000 diagnoses and 274,000 deaths annually. It remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality despite effective screening tools and treatments for its precursor high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Increased understanding of cervical pathogenesis has led to the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiological agent for cervical cancer and the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines targeting HPV antigens for the control of cervical cancer. Herein, we discuss the current status of HPV vaccines. PMID:20677402

  8. Dark Matter Detection: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Overwhelming observational evidence indicates that most of the matter in the Universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter. One possibility is that the dark matter is Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) that were produced in the early Universe. These relics could comprise the Milky Way's dark halo and provide evidence for new particle physics, such as Supersymmetry. This talk focuses on the status of current efforts to detect dark matter by testing the hypothesis that WIMPs exist in the galactic halo. WIMP searches have begun to explore the region of parameter space where SUSY particles could provide dark matter candidates.

  9. Current status of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

  10. Variations of current profiles in tokamaks. Formation mechanism and confinement property of current-hole configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2003-01-01

    The formation mechanism of the current hole in tokamak plasmas is reviewed. Experimental results of JT-60U are shown. Increase of the off-central noninductive current is a key factor for the current-hole formation. The internal Transport Barrier (ITB), which generates large bootstrap current, plays an important role. The central current density in the hole stays nearly 0. The idea of a new equilibrium for a tokamak plasma with a current hole is introduced. This equilibrium configuration called Axisymmetric Tri-Magnetic-Islands (ATMI) equilibrium', has three islands along the R direction (a central-negative-current island and side-positive-current islands). The equilibrium is stable with the elongation coils when the current in the ATMI region is limited to a small amount. The confinement properties of a current-hole configuration with box-type ITB is described. A scaling of the core poloidal beta inside the ITB, β p,core , is given as ε f β p,core approx. = 1, which suggests the equilibrium limit (ε f : inverse aspect ratio at the ITB foot). Though the core stored energy is little dependent on the heating power, the estimated heat diffusivity in the ITB region moderately correlates with a neoclassical diffusivity. (author)

  11. Current status of diuretic renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous antegrade perfusion studies constitute a valuable contribution to the investigation of obstructive uropathy. In 1978, the first report of application of diuretic renogram techniques to this problem appeared in the literature. This was the first systematic report of a standardized protocol to be applied to a specific surgical problem. The purpose of the procedure, as with perfusion pressure-flow studies, is to help distinguish between a dilated urinary tract that is obstructed and requires surgery and a nonobstructed system in which urographic dilation and stasis mimic obstruction, but no genuine impedance to urine flow exists, and surgery is not required. The technique provides dual information. It gives quantitative data on individual renal function that perfusion pressure-flow studies do not, and it gives time-activity curves reflecting the urodynamics through the individual upper urinary tracts at normal and high urinary flow rates. In the early days, this information was obtained from probe studies, but the procedure is now almost exclusively performed using the gamma camera, images from which give additional information on the site of any suspected obstruction. In some ways, the development of diuretic renography and that of perfusion pressure-flow studies have proceeded in a competitive fashion, both attempting to answer the same questions by different means. In practice, however, the two tests would be regarded as complementary, as will be shown later in this chapter. The following sections describe the technique of diuretic renography, its current clinical application and status in surgical and nuclear medicine practice, and its role in comparison with other available tests for management of the dilated upper urinary tract

  12. Stable existence of central current hole in the JT-60U tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Fujita, T.; Oikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    In an extreme state of a reversed magnetic shear configuration, it was found in JT-60U that there is almost no plasma current in the central region (called Current Hole). The Current Hole region extends to 40% of the plasma minor radius and it exists stably for several seconds. The Current Hole is formed by the growth of the bootstrap current and it is impossible to drive current in either positive or negative direction by ECH or N-NB inside the Current Hole. In that region, there is almost no gradient of density, temperature and toroidal rotation velocity. It means that there is almost no confinement in the Current Hole and the large energy in that region is sustained only by an internal transport barrier (ITB). The effects of the Current Hole on particle orbits and the effects on an error field on the Current Hole are also discussed. (author)

  13. Current status of baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic ideas of some of the current models and the experimental numerical comparisons are discussed briefly. Included are realistic or constituent quark models, experimental comparison, the experimental and theoretical basis for the assignments, algebraic quark models, and confinement schemes

  14. Currents and radiation from the large D black hole membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Mandal, Anup Kumar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,Kalyanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Mandlik, Mangesh [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,1, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400005 (India); Mehta, Umang [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,JVLR, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076 (India); Minwalla, Shiraz [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,1, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400005 (India); Sharma, Utkarsh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,JVLR, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076 (India); Thakur, Somyadip [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,1, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400005 (India)

    2017-05-18

    It has recently been demonstrated that black hole dynamics in a large number of dimensions D reduces to the dynamics of a codimension one membrane propagating in flat space. In this paper we define a stress tensor and charge current on this membrane and explicitly determine these currents at low orders in the expansion in (1/D). We demonstrate that dynamical membrane equations of motion derived in earlier work are simply conservation equations for our stress tensor and charge current. Through the paper we focus on solutions of the membrane equations which vary on a time scale of order unity. Even though the charge current and stress tensor are not parametrically small in such solutions, we show that the radiation sourced by the corresponding membrane currents is generically of order (1/(D{sup D})). In this regime it follows that the ‘near horizon’ membrane degrees of freedom are decoupled from asymptotic flat space at every perturbative order in the (1/D) expansion. We also define an entropy current on the membrane and use the Hawking area theorem to demonstrate that the divergence of the entropy current is point wise non negative. We view this result as a local form of the second law of thermodynamics for membrane motion.

  15. Current status of baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1975-08-01

    In this review of baryon spectroscopy, the basic ideas of some of the current models and the experimental data for their claims to success are discussed including realistic or constituent quark models, experimental comparison, the experimental and theoretical basis for the assignments, algebraic quark models, and confinement schemes

  16. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R Sean

    2014-09-01

    Since the original Neer humeral replacement in the 1950s, the standard primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty design has slowly evolved. Most recently, the humeral stem has become progressively shorter to help combat stem-related complications. Currently, there are several companies who have developed and marketed a stemless humeral arthroplasty component. Manufacturers' data for 5 stemless shoulder arthroplasty components currently on the market were analyzed and reviewed. A literature review of short-term results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty was completed. Of the stemless shoulder arthroplasty systems available on the market, 3 are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The Tornier Simpliciti (Tornier, Edina, MN, USA) clinical trial began in 2011. The study with 2-year minimum follow-up results is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The Arthrex Eclipse (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) clinical trial was started in January 2013. The tentative study completion date is 2017. The Biomet Nano (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) clinical trial began in October 2013 and also has a tentative completion date of 2017. No other clinical trial is currently under way in the United States. Early results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty indicate clinical results similar to standard stemmed shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic analysis indicates implant stability without migration or subsidence at 2- to 3-year minimum follow-up.. Several stemless shoulder arthroplasty implants are available outside the United States. Early clinical and radiographic results are promising, but well-designed clinical studies and midterm results are lacking. Three clinical trials are currently under way in the United States with initial availability for use anticipated in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Current status of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Min; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2015-11-01

    Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  18. Current Status of RENO Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Bong

    2010-01-01

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle θ 13 . The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin 2 (2θ 13 ) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

  19. The current status of radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Minesh P.

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: Review the role of radiosurgery in recurrent malignant gliomas for palliative purposes. Review the role of radiosurgery in newly diagnosed malignant glioma as boost therapy and emphasize the randomized clinical trials underway. Review the role of radiosurgery in the management of patients with brain metastases and emphasize the major prognostic factors. Review the recently initiated clinical trials for brain metastases using radiosurgery. Review the role of radiosurgery in the management of benign tumors with specific emphasis on meningioma and acoustic neuroma. Emphasize the rationale for fractionation and present the preliminary results of fractionated stereotactic radiation. Stereotactic localization techniques, originally designed for neurosurgery, have been used to delivery high single doses of radiation to small intracranial targets for more than 25 years, a technique referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery. Radiosurgery has proven to be an attractive alternative to surgery in the management of several benign tumors, such as vestibular schwannomas with better preservation of hearing and facial nerve function than microsurgical resection. For other benign tumors such as meningioma and pituitary adenoma, preliminary results are promising, but longer range studies to confirm high tumor control rates are necessary. For patients with malignant glioma, radiosurgery has been used to escalate the radiation dose to enhance tumor control following surgery and radiation therapy. The rationale for this is grounded in the recent confirmatory randomized prospective trial verifying the value of brachytherapy in this disease. The results of radiosurgery from single institutional experiences for primary and recurrent malignant glioma indicate a palliative benefit as well as a potential survival benefit in a select sub-group of patients based on the appropriate mix of prognostic criteria such as patient age, performance status, tumor size and extent of resection

  20. Engineered barriers: current status 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.B.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  1. Coronary MR angiography: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danias, P.G.; Manning, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Since first described in the early 1990s, coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has evolved as a promising noninvasive modality for imaging of the coronary arteries and evaluation of coronary artery disease. Despite technical limitations, coronary MRA has established value for imaging of anomalous coronary arteries and assessment of bypass graft patency. Current research focuses on the development of optimal respiratory compensation strategies, improved spatial and temporal resolution and faster acquisition of image data. The accurate detection of stenoses and assessment of the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is presently being evaluated with large multi-center studies. With further technique enhancements and more clinical experience, coronary MRA is likely to become the dominant noninvasive modality in clinical cardiology. (orig.) [de

  2. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia; Castelli, Stefano; Pettirossi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials. [it

  3. The status of neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, F.

    1987-11-01

    The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jampsin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

  5. Health Status of Current National Guard Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proctor, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    .... The objectives are to: 1) describe the current health status of this ARNG cohort, 2) examine to what extent the job strain of ARNG service affects the relationship between Civilian job strain and health and job performance outcomes and, 3...

  6. Current status of rotational atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Matthew I; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2014-04-01

    Rotational atherectomy facilitates percutaneous coronary intervention for complex de novo lesions with severe calcification. A strategy of routine rotational atherectomy has not, however, conferred reduction in restenosis or major adverse cardiac events. As it is technically demanding, rotational atherectomy is also uncommon. At this 25-year anniversary since the introduction of rotational atherectomy, we sought to review the current state-of-the-art in rotational atherectomy technique, safety, and efficacy data in the modern era of drug-eluting stents, strategies to prevent and manage complications, including slow-flow/no-reflow and burr entrapment, and appropriate use in the context of the broader evolution in the management of stable ischemic heart disease. Fundamental elements of optimal technique include use of a single burr with burr-to-artery ratio of 0.5 to 0.6-rotational speed of 140,000 to 150,000 rpm, gradual burr advancement using a pecking motion, short ablation runs of 15 to 20 s, and avoidance of decelerations >5,000 rpm. Combined with meticulous technique, optimal antiplatelet therapy, vasodilators, flush solution, and provisional use of atropine, temporary pacing, vasopressors, and mechanical support may prevent slow-flow/no-reflow, which in contemporary series is reported in 0.0% to 2.6% of cases. On the basis of the results of recent large clinical trials, a subset of patients with complex coronary artery disease previously assigned to rotational atherectomy may be directed instead to medical therapy alone or bypass surgery. For patients with de novo severely calcified lesions for which rotational atherectomy remains appropriate, referral centers of excellence are required. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  8. Minimizing the magnetohydrodynamic potential energy for the current hole region in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Parks, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    The current hole region in the tokamak has been observed to arise naturally during the development of internal transport barriers. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) potential energy in the current hole region is shown to be determined completely in terms of the displacements at the edge of the current hole. For modes with finite toroidal mode number n≠0, the minimized potential energy is the same as if the current hole region were a vacuum region. For modes with toroidal mode number n=0, the displacement is a superposition of three types of independent displacements: a vertical displacement or displacements that compress only the plasma, or the toroidal field uniformly. Thus for ideal MHD perturbations of plasma with a current hole, the plasma behaves as if it were bordered by an extra ''internal vacuum region.'' The relevance of the present work to computer simulations of plasma with a current hole region is also discussed

  9. MINIMIZING THE MHD POTENTIAL ENERGY FOR THE CURRENT HOLE REGION IN TOKAMAKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHU, M.S; PARKS, P.B

    2004-01-01

    The current hole region in the tokamak has been observed to arise naturally during the development of internal transport barriers. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) potential energy in the current hole region is shown to be determined completely in terms of the displacements at the edge of the current hole. For modes with finite toroidal mode number n ≠ 0, the minimized potential energy is the same as if the current hole region were a vacuum region. For modes with toroidal mode number n = 0, the displacement is a superposition of three types of independent displacements: a vertical displacement or displacements that compress only the plasma or the toroidal field uniformly. Thus for ideal MHD perturbations of plasma with a current hole, the plasma behaves as if it were bordered by an extra ''internal vacuum region''. The relevance of the present work to computer simulations of plasma with a current hole region is also discussed

  10. Current status of ion source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the current status of ion source development will be discussed. In September 2001, the 9th International Conference on Ion Sources (ICIS01) was held in Oakland, U.S.A. Referring the talks presented at ICIS01, recent topics in the ion source research fields will be described. (author)

  11. Radiation processing. Current status and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation processing developed following the Second World War and employees gamma- or electron-irradiation to process polymers, cure alkene-based inks and coatings, sterilize medical supplies, irradiate food, and manage wastes. The current status of these applications is described with the probable direction of future developments. (author)

  12. Current status of the AUSTRON project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.; Regler, M.; Lechner, R.E.; Weber, H.

    2001-01-01

    The current status of the AUSTRON spallation source project is described with reference to the need for neutrons in Europe and - due to a certain West-East imbalance of large research facilities - especially in Central Europe. A short overview about technical aspects of proton accelerator, rapid cycling synchrotron, storage ring, target and instrumentation is presented. (author)

  13. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...... of international providers of ATM in Europe are presented....

  14. REMPAN at international level: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souchkevitch, Guennadi

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the current status of the Radiation Emergency medical Preparedness and Assistance Network - REMPAN, for the promotion of radiation emergency medical and public health preparedness and for practical assistance and advising countries, in a case of overexposure from any sources of radiation, by initiative of the World Health Organization - WHO

  15. Current status of methods for shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed

  16. Current status of quantum electrical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Chiharu; Kaneko, Nobuhisa; Kiryu, Shogo

    2005-01-01

    Physical background, current status of proof systems and researches of the next generation standards of Josephson voltage and Quantized Hall Resistance (QHR) standard system are described. Josephson effect, the principle and theory of quantized hall effect, usual voltage standard system, standard feed of direct current resistance, and researches of voltage standard and direct current resistance standard are explained. The current-voltage of Josephson element in the usual voltage standard proof system and bias method, outline of typical Josephson voltage standard proof system and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure used as resistance standard are stated. Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) and Direct Current Comparator (DCC) proofread usual resistor. New Quantum Hall Array Resistance Standard (QHARS) is studied by BNM-LNE group in French, and the other new AC Quantized Hall Resistance (AC-QHR) by the European ACQHE Project. (S.Y.)

  17. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Chamchang, Jipawat

    2006-01-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand, the current status of a new research reactor project at Ongkarak for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future as well as the organizational reformation of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). (author)

  18. Backfilling of a Scour Hole around a Pile in Waves and Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Locatelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the backfilling of scour holes around circular piles. Scour holes around a pile are generated either by a current or a wave. Subsequently, the flow climate is changed from current to wave, combined waves and current, or wave...... around the pile for the same wave (or combined waves and current) climate. The time scale of backfilling has been determined as a function of three parameters, namely, (1) the Keulegan-Carpenter number of the initial wave or current (which generates the initial scour hole); (2) that of the subsequent...

  19. Cancer pain management-current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Thapa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain is still one of the most feared entities in cancer and about 75% of these patients require treatment with opioids for severe pain. The cancer pain relief is difficult to manage in patients with episodic or incidental pain, neuropathic pain, substance abuse and with impaired cognitive or communication skills. This non-systematic review article aims to discuss reasons for under treatment, tools of pain assessment, cancer pain and anxiety and possibly carve new approaches for cancer pain management in future. The current status of World Health Organization analgesic ladder has also been reviewed. A thorough literature search was carried out from 1998 to 2010 for current status in cancer pain management in MEDLINE, WHO guidelines and published literature and relevant articles have been included.

  20. Current status of low energy EB machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiro Nishikimi; Shuichi Taniguchi; Kenichi Mizusawa

    1999-01-01

    Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

  1. A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 0 A Review of Atmospheric ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the...4. TI TLE (Pit 5,1tlfie) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PFRIOO COVERED A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current THESIS/DA/;J.At1AAU00 Thinking on the Antartic ...THESIS A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole by Randolph Antoine Fix Master of Science in Atmospheric Science

  2. Current status and installation of dental PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul

    2004-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is difficult to implement in the best of situations, but evidence is growing that the benefits are significant. The aims of this study are to analyze the current status of full PACS and establish successful installation standard of dental PACS. Materials and Methods were based on the investigation of current working status and installation standard of PACS, and observation of variable issues to installation of dental PACS. By September 30, 2004, full PACS implementations in their facilities were 88.1% in specialized general hospitals (37 installations out of total 42 hospitals), 59.8% in general hospitals (144 installations out of total 241 hospitals), 12.3% in medical hospitals (116 installations out of total 941 hospitals) and 3.6% in dental hospitals (4 installations out of total 110 hospitals). Only 4 university dental hospitals currently have installed and are operating full PACS. Major obstacle to wide spread of dental PACS is initial high investments. Clinical environments of dental PACS differed from medical situation. Because of characteristic dental practice, the initial investments for dental PACS are generally much greater than those of medical PACS. Also new economic crisis makes users scruple. The best way to overcome these limitations is to establish an economic installation standard for dental PACS. Also the clear technical communication between the customer and the supplier before both sides are committed to the obstacles are critical to its success.

  3. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip

    2000-01-01

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  4. Distal protection in cardiovascular medicine: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Onn Akbar; Bhindi, Ravinay; McMahon, Aisling C; Brieger, David; Kritharides, Leonard; Lowe, Harry C

    2006-08-01

    Iatrogenic and spontaneous downstream microembolization of atheromatous material is increasingly recognized as a source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Devising ways of reducing this distal embolization using a variety of mechanical means--distal protection--is currently under intense and diverse investigation. This review therefore summarizes the present status of distal protection. It examines the problem of distal embolization, describes the available distal protection devices, reviews those areas of cardiovascular medicine where distal protection devices are being investigated, and discusses potential future developments.

  5. Current status of laparoscopic central pancreatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Central pancreatectomy is an ideal surgical procedure for the treatment of benign or low-grade malignant tumors in the pancreatic neck or the proximal body of the pancreas, and it can preserve more normal pancreatic tissue in order to reduce the incidence of endocrine and exocrine insufficiency after surgery. Although some clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this procedure, laparoscopic central pancreatectomy was technically challenging with a few number of cases. This article reviews the current status of laparoscopic central pancreatectomy and introduces our clinical experience of laparoscopic central pancreatectomy and pancreaticojejunostomy.

  6. Neutrino astronomy current status, future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Karle, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    This review volume is motivated by the recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube. The aim of the book is to bring together chapters on the status of current and future neutrino observatories with chapters on the implications and possible interpretations of the present observations and their upper limits. Each chapter is a mini-review of one aspect of the subject by leading experts. Taken together, the chapters constitute an up-to-date review of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and their potential sources.

  7. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P; Eriksen, B; Crutzen, S [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Nano-electron beam induced current and hole charge dynamics through uncapped Ge nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, A.; El Hdiy, A.; Troyon, M. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Nanosciences, Bat. 6, case no 15, UFR Sciences, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Amiard, G.; Ronda, A.; Berbezier, I. [IM2NP, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Campus de Saint Jerome - Case 142, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2012-04-16

    Dynamics of hole storage in spherical Ge nanocrystals (NCs) formed by a two step dewetting/nucleation process on an oxide layer grown on an n-doped <001> silicon substrate is studied using a nano-electron beam induced current technique. Carrier generation is produced by an electron beam irradiation. The generated current is collected by an atomic force microscope--tip in contact mode at a fixed position away from the beam spot of about 0.5 {mu}m. This distance represents the effective diffusion length of holes. The time constants of holes charging are determined and the effect of the NC size is underlined.

  9. IVS: Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, D.; Nothnagel, A.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Tuccari, G.

    2016-12-01

    The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) is a globally operating service that coordinates and performs Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) activities through its constituent components. The VLBI activities are associated with the creation, provision, dissemination, and archiving of relevant VLBI data and products. The products mostly pertain to the determination of the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), atmospheric parameters as well as other ancillary parameters. The IVS observational network currently consists of about 40 radio telescopes worldwide. Subsets of these telescopes (8-12 stations) participate in 24-hour observing sessions that are run several times per week and in 1-hour intensive sessions for UT1 determination every day. The current VLBI network was developed mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. A number of factors, including aging infrastructure and demanding new scientific requirements, started to challenge its future sustainability and relevance. In response, the IVS and other groups developed and started implementing the next generation VLBI system, called VGOS (VLBI Global Observing System), at existing and new sites. The VGOS network is expected to reach maturity in the early 2020s. We describe the current status, progress, and anticipated prospects of geodetic/astrometric VLBI and the IVS.

  10. Current status in Japan related to LMNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Takehiro

    1998-01-01

    Current status of nuclear power plants in Japan is presented with the basic concepts against ageing of LWR plants which are considered to continue growing into the 21st century. Life management for aged NPPs is recognized to be important for the safe and reliable operation. In April 1996 MITI published the first report regarding the measures to cope with the aged NPPs. Two BWRs and one PWR were evaluated as aged NPPs in Phase-I Technical evaluation, which concluded that safe operation is possible with correct and adequate maintenance despite operation exceeded 30 years. The technology development items towards attaining further highly reliable management were indicated including the inspection/monitoring technology, the preventive maintenance/repair technology and ageing evaluation technology

  11. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  12. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio; Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  13. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  14. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  15. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  16. MDSplus integration at TCABR tokamak: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá, W.P. de; Ronchi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The implementation of MDSplus in TCABR tokamak, current status. • Interfaces between the system already installed and the MDSplus. • Web MDSplus interface. - Abstract: Experimental data for the TCABR tokamak is currently stored in MDSplus (Model Driven System Plus) database. The access to the data recorded during the experiments is performed using tools and libraries available by MDSplus system. The MDSplus system is widely used in different physics experiments, especially in plasmas physics and nuclear fusion. This standardized environment enables easy interaction among scientists of different experiments in different countries without the need to understand the particular characteristics of control, data acquisition and analysis, and remote access (CODAS) customized in each laboratory. In the first phase of implementation, intermediate interfaces had been developed between the legacy proprietary system and the MDSplus. In a second phase, the new diagnostic systems had been directly included in the created MDSplus system in the laboratory. After three years of use, the system installed on TCABR proved extremely efficient and significantly increased productivity in data analysis by involved scientists, regardless of whether they are locally at the TCABR, or accessing the system remotely from their home laboratories. The third phase, and subject of this article, are the development and implementation of the following systems: (i) web tools for the visualization of data, integrated with the experiment logbook, (ii) integration of MDSplus with applications (LabVIEW + MDSplus) and newer data acquisition hardware.

  17. MDSplus integration at TCABR tokamak: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, W.P. de, E-mail: pires@if.usp.br; Ronchi, G., E-mail: gronchi@if.usp.br

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The implementation of MDSplus in TCABR tokamak, current status. • Interfaces between the system already installed and the MDSplus. • Web MDSplus interface. - Abstract: Experimental data for the TCABR tokamak is currently stored in MDSplus (Model Driven System Plus) database. The access to the data recorded during the experiments is performed using tools and libraries available by MDSplus system. The MDSplus system is widely used in different physics experiments, especially in plasmas physics and nuclear fusion. This standardized environment enables easy interaction among scientists of different experiments in different countries without the need to understand the particular characteristics of control, data acquisition and analysis, and remote access (CODAS) customized in each laboratory. In the first phase of implementation, intermediate interfaces had been developed between the legacy proprietary system and the MDSplus. In a second phase, the new diagnostic systems had been directly included in the created MDSplus system in the laboratory. After three years of use, the system installed on TCABR proved extremely efficient and significantly increased productivity in data analysis by involved scientists, regardless of whether they are locally at the TCABR, or accessing the system remotely from their home laboratories. The third phase, and subject of this article, are the development and implementation of the following systems: (i) web tools for the visualization of data, integrated with the experiment logbook, (ii) integration of MDSplus with applications (LabVIEW + MDSplus) and newer data acquisition hardware.

  18. Current Status of Yongbyon Nuclear Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The DPRK has developed Yongbyon Nuclear Complex in Figure 1 since 1960's. Currently it is composed of the reactor facility, fuel fabrication facility including the enrichment center, and the radiochemistry center. Even though many facilities are not modern and economic in the western standards, Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is fully equipped with the entire life cycle of the nuclear installation. The key facilities have been added step by step. For example, the DPRK's nuclear reactor fleet started with the 2 MW IRT-2000 reactor in the middle of 80's. It started with a small scale radioactive isotope separation center nearby. But nowadays the DPRK is constructing a much more larger isotope separation center in the vicinity of its enrichment center along with a potential new UF6 conversion center. The general description over Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is given in this paper. More detailed context of the current status of the center will be discussed in the main symposium purely based on the open source information study.

  19. Probability of detection for bolt hole eddy current in extracted from service aircraft wing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, P. R.; Uemura, C.; Krause, T. W.

    2018-04-01

    Fatigue cracks are prone to develop around fasteners found in multi-layer aluminum structures on aging aircraft. Bolt hole eddy current (BHEC) is used for detection of cracks from within bolt holes after fastener removal. In support of qualification towards a target a90/95 (detect 90% of cracks of depth a, 95% of the time) of 0.76 mm (0.030"), a preliminary probability of detection (POD) study was performed to identify those parameters whose variation may keep a bolt hole inspection from attaining its goal. Parameters that were examined included variability in lift-off due to probe type, out-of-round holes, holes with diameters too large to permit surface-contact of the probe and mechanical damage to the holes, including burrs. The study examined the POD for BHEC of corner cracks in unfinished fastener holes extracted from service material. 68 EDM notches were introduced into two specimens of a horizontal stabilizer from a CC-130 Hercules aircraft. The fastener holes were inspected in the unfinished state, simulating potential inspection conditions, by 7 certified inspectors using a manual BHEC setup with an impedance plane display and also with one inspection conducted utilizing a BHEC automated C-Scan apparatus. While the standard detection limit of 1.27 mm (0.050") was achieved, given the a90/95 of 0.97 mm (0.039"), the target 0.76 mm (0.030") was not achieved. The work highlighted a number of areas where there was insufficient information to complete the qualification. Consequently, a number of recommendations were made. These included; development of a specification for minimum probe requirements; criteria for condition of the hole to be inspected, including out-of-roundness and presence of corrosion pits; statement of range of hole sizes; inspection frequency and data display for analysis.

  20. Hole dynamics and spin currents after ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    We apply the time-dependent analytical R-matrix theory to develop a movie of hole motion in a Kr atom upon ionization by strong circularly polarized field. We find rich hole dynamics, ranging from rotation to swinging motion. The motion of the hole depends on the final energy and the spin of the photoelectron and can be controlled by the laser frequency and intensity. Crucially, hole rotation is a purely non-adiabatic effect, completely missing in the framework of quasistatic (adiabatic) tunneling theories. We explore the possibility to use hole rotation as a clock for measuring ionization time. Analyzing the relationship between the relative phases in different ionization channels we show that in the case of short-range electron-core interaction the hole is always initially aligned along the instantaneous direction of the laser field, signifying zero delays in ionization. Finally, we show that strong-field ionization in circular fields creates spin currents (i.e. different flow of spin-up and spin-down density in space) in the ions. This phenomenon is intimately related to the production of spin-polarized electrons in strong laser fields Barth and Smirnova (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 013401). We demonstrate that rich spin dynamics of electrons and holes produced during strong field ionization can occur in typical experimental conditions and does not require relativistic intensities or strong magnetic fields. (paper)

  1. Current status of relativistic core collapse simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Jose A [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    With the first generation of ground-based gravitational wave laser interferometers already taking data, the availability of reliable waveform templates from astrophysical sources, which may help extract the signal from the anticipated noisy data, is urgently required. Gravitational stellar core collapse supernova has traditionally been considered among the most important astrophysical sources of potentially detectable gravitational radiation. Only very recently the first multidimensional simulations of relativistic rotational core collapse have been possible (albeit for models with simplified input physics), thanks to the use of conservative formulations of the hydrodynamics equations and advanced numerical methodology, as well as stable formulations of Einstein's equations. In this paper, the current status of relativistic core collapse simulations is discussed, with the emphasis given to the modelling of the collapse dynamics and to the computation of the gravitational radiation in the existing numerical approaches. Work employing the conformally-flat approximation (CFC) of the 3+1 Einstein's equations is reported, as well as extensions of this approximation (CFC+) and investigations within the framework of the so-called BSSN formulation of the 3+1 gravitational field equations (with no approximation for the spacetime dynamics). On the other hand, the incorporation of magnetic fields and the MHD equations in numerical codes to improve the realism of core collapse simulations in general relativity, is currently an emerging field where significant progress is bound to be soon achieved. The paper also contains a brief discussion of magneto-rotational simulations of core collapse, aiming at addressing the effects of magnetic fields on the collapse dynamics and on the gravitational waveforms.

  2. Current status of relativistic core collapse simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    With the first generation of ground-based gravitational wave laser interferometers already taking data, the availability of reliable waveform templates from astrophysical sources, which may help extract the signal from the anticipated noisy data, is urgently required. Gravitational stellar core collapse supernova has traditionally been considered among the most important astrophysical sources of potentially detectable gravitational radiation. Only very recently the first multidimensional simulations of relativistic rotational core collapse have been possible (albeit for models with simplified input physics), thanks to the use of conservative formulations of the hydrodynamics equations and advanced numerical methodology, as well as stable formulations of Einstein's equations. In this paper, the current status of relativistic core collapse simulations is discussed, with the emphasis given to the modelling of the collapse dynamics and to the computation of the gravitational radiation in the existing numerical approaches. Work employing the conformally-flat approximation (CFC) of the 3+1 Einstein's equations is reported, as well as extensions of this approximation (CFC+) and investigations within the framework of the so-called BSSN formulation of the 3+1 gravitational field equations (with no approximation for the spacetime dynamics). On the other hand, the incorporation of magnetic fields and the MHD equations in numerical codes to improve the realism of core collapse simulations in general relativity, is currently an emerging field where significant progress is bound to be soon achieved. The paper also contains a brief discussion of magneto-rotational simulations of core collapse, aiming at addressing the effects of magnetic fields on the collapse dynamics and on the gravitational waveforms

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  5. The Japanese artificial organs scene: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun

    2005-08-01

    Artificial organs and regenerative medicine are the subjects of very active research and development (R&D) in Japan and various artificial organs are widely used in patients. Results of the R&D are presented at the annual conference of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs (JSAO). Progress in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are reviewed annually in the Japanese Journal of Artificial Organs. The official English-language journal of JSAO, Journal of Artificial Organs, also publishes many original articles by Japanese researchers. Although the annual conference and the publications of JSAO provide the world with update information on artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan, the information is not always understood appropriately in the rest of the world, mainly due to language problems. This article therefore introduces the current status of artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan. Artificial hearts and metabolic support systems are reviewed here and other interesting areas such as regenerative medicine can be found elsewhere.

  6. Current status of chirality in agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Peter

    2018-04-27

    The agrochemical industry is continuously searching for new pesticides to develop products with optimal efficacy, lower application rates in the field, increased selectivity, favorable toxicological and environmental safety, enhanced user friendliness and better economic viability. One strategy to achieve these ambitious goals makes use of the unique properties of molecules containing asymmetric centers. In the past, many natural products and their congeners have been a source of inspiration for designing new active ingredients, and the molecular structure of the resulting molecules have become increasingly complex. 30% contain fragments with asymmetric centers. However, despite the enormous progress that has been made in catalytic asymmetric processes over the last decade, only few agrochemicals are produced in enantiomerically pure or enriched form on an industrial scale. Since 2007, around 43% of the 44 launched products (insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, nematicides, and herbicides) contain one or more asymmetric centers in the molecule (≈ 47 %) and most of them were launched as racemic mixtures of enantiomers or diastereomers. This review gives an overview of the current status of chiral agrochemicals launched over the past 10 years and describes the inherently connected challenges of modern agricultural chemistry by managing important aspects resulting from stereochemistry of these innovative products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Current Status of TRR-1/M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittichai, Chaiyut

    2000-01-01

    In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 -Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

  8. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition,which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases,kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation.Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema,is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries.Today,blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy.The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia,arterial tension,lipids and renal status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME),can be valid as gold standard in many countries.The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs(ranibizumab and bevacizumab),are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME,but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies.The corticosteroids for diffuse DME,has a place in pseudophakic patients,but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients.Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients.

  9. Current status of construction license of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Cho, J. S.; Min, Y. S.; Nam, J. M.; Jeon, G. P.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.; Song, I. T.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2010 August, PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project)'s Proton Accelerator Research Center has been under construction so far. Generally, in advance of construction startup, many kinds of licenses should be acquired along with the types of construction works. To acquire a license in time, each item should meet the standard by the related regulation, including not only procedural but also content aspect. In the advent of internet era, electronic government system has been adopted in many governmental functions: So is the national construction license acquisition system. Owing to the system, both approval and documentation functions in licensing are integrated in online computer network which provide us simplification in process and easy accessibility to license data. However, aside from these construction licenses, other types of licenses still remain separately managed: Machinery, electric facilities, and so on. Moreover, all the licenses have the priority order and take legal term in processing. So, to avoid any time delay in license acquisition, we organized license hierarchy and found out the priority among them. Thereafter, according to their legal term in approval and acquisition, whole license acquisition schedule was arranged and we completed all the necessary licenses acquisition in time In this study, we summarize the current status of license acquisition on Proton Accelerator Research Center Construction, and manifest how they have been and will be managed systematically

  10. Current status of construction license of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Cho, J. S.; Min, Y. S.; Nam, J. M.; Jeon, G. P.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.; Song, I. T. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Since 2010 August, PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project)'s Proton Accelerator Research Center has been under construction so far. Generally, in advance of construction startup, many kinds of licenses should be acquired along with the types of construction works. To acquire a license in time, each item should meet the standard by the related regulation, including not only procedural but also content aspect. In the advent of internet era, electronic government system has been adopted in many governmental functions: So is the national construction license acquisition system. Owing to the system, both approval and documentation functions in licensing are integrated in online computer network which provide us simplification in process and easy accessibility to license data. However, aside from these construction licenses, other types of licenses still remain separately managed: Machinery, electric facilities, and so on. Moreover, all the licenses have the priority order and take legal term in processing. So, to avoid any time delay in license acquisition, we organized license hierarchy and found out the priority among them. Thereafter, according to their legal term in approval and acquisition, whole license acquisition schedule was arranged and we completed all the necessary licenses acquisition in time In this study, we summarize the current status of license acquisition on Proton Accelerator Research Center Construction, and manifest how they have been and will be managed systematically.

  11. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  12. Current status of ITER EC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosia, G.

    2003-01-01

    The ITER-FEAT Electron Cyclotron System employs one equatorial launcher and three upper port launchers to inject 20 + 20 MW of mm-wave power at 170 GHz through slots in the plasma-facing neutron and radiation shield. The equatorial launcher includes 3 sets of toroidally steer-able mirrors, each collecting 8 RF beams from 24 circular cross-section corrugated wave-guides. In the upper-port launcher, eight beams, reflected in pairs by four toroidally angled (∼30 angle) and poloidally steer-able (∼ 10 angle) mirrors focus of the RF power on the plasma m = 2 and m = 3/2 plasma flux rational surfaces, for neo-classical tearing mode(s) (NTM) control. Conceptual studies of remote steering that would possibly allow removing the beam- steering equipment from the vacuum vessel and locating them in more protected positions have been carried out. All EC wave transmission is based on low losses circular cross section corrugated and evacuated wave guides each connected to a 170 GHz, 1 MW CW Gyrotron tube oscillator featuring an overall efficiency of ∼ 50%, obtained by depressed-collector energy recovery. In the paper, requirements, issues and the current status of the design is reviewed. (authors)

  13. IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deboodt, P.; Mrabit, K.

    2006-01-01

    As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

  14. Current status and prospects of HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, Tomas; Fordyce, Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Current antiviral treatments can reduce HIV-associated morbidity, prolong survival, and prevent HIV transmission. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing preferably three active drugs from two or more classes is required for durable virologic suppression. Regimen selection is based on virologic efficacy, potential for adverse effects, pill burden and dosing frequency, drug-drug interaction potential, resistance test results, comorbid conditions, social status, and cost. With prolonged virologic suppression, improved clinical outcomes, and longer survival, patients will be exposed to antiretroviral agents for decades. Therefore, maximizing the safety and tolerability of cART is a high priority. Emergence of resistance and/or lack of tolerability in individual patients require availability of a range of treatment options. Development of new drugs is focused on improving safety (e.g. tenofovir alafenamide) and/or resistance profile (e.g. doravirine) within the existing drug classes, combination therapies with improved adherence (e.g. single-tablet regimens), novel mechanisms of action (e.g. attachment inhibitors, maturation inhibitors, broadly neutralizing antibodies), and treatment simplification with infrequent dosing (e.g. long-acting injectables). In parallel with cART innovations, research and development efforts focused on agents that target persistent HIV reservoirs may lead to prolonged drug-free remission and HIV cure. Copyright © 2016 Gilead Sciences, Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Current status of the IREN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, W.I.

    1997-01-01

    A current status and a corrected time-schedule of the project of the new Intense Resonance Neutron pulsed source (IREN) realized in JINR (Dubna) for experiments dealing with fundamental and applied nuclear physics studies are discussed. This source is the upgraded variant of the existing IBR-30 pulsed booster. It consists of the 200 MeV electron linac and supplying by an electron beam the photo-neutron converter placed in the center of the very fast multiplying subcritical core. The existing buildings and beam infrastructure are planned to adopt for the new IREN source. The aim of the project is to improve essentially an energy resolution of the time-of-flight spectrometer and to increase twice (up to 10 15 n/sec) an integral neutron yield. An implementation of the IREN project has started in June 1994 with the planned end in December 1997. But due to mainly insufficient financing the approved time-schedule is shifted. Now most optimistic time of start-up of the neutron source is the end of 1999

  16. Spin currents, relativistic effects and the Darwin interaction in the theory of hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The existence of macroscopic spin currents in the ground state of superconductors is predicted within the theory of hole superconductivity. Here it is shown that the electromagnetic Darwin interaction is attractive for spin currents and repulsive for charge currents. It is also shown that the mere existence of spin currents implies that some electrons are moving at relativistic speeds in macroscopic superconductors, which in turn implies that the Darwin interaction plays a fundamental role in stabilizing the superconducting state

  17. Current status of JMTR refurbishment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Niimi, Motoji; Hori, Naohiko; Takahashi, Kunihiro; Kanno, Masaru; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Ishihara, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    The JMTR is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium reflected tank- type reactor using LUE silicide plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 50 MW, maximum thermal and fast neutron flux is 4x10 18 m -2 s -1 . First criticality was achieved in March 1968, and its operation was stopped from August, 2006 for the refurbishment. The refurbishment is scheduled from the beginning of FY2007 to the end of FY2010. The renewed and upgraded JMTR will be re-started from FY2011. An investigation on aged components (aged-investigation) was carried out for concrete structures of the JMTR reactor building, exhaust stack, etc., and for tanks in the primary cooling system, heat exchangers, pipes in the secondary cooling system, cooling tower, emergency generators and so on, in order to identify their integrity. The aged-investigation was carried out at the beginning of FY2007. As a result, some components were decided to replace from viewpoints of future maintenance and improvement of reliability, and some components or structures were decided to repair. A visual inspection of inner side of the pressure vessel was carried out using an underwater camera in FY2008, and no serious damage was observed. Up to now, refurbishment works are in progress according to the planned schedule. In FY2009, motors of primary cooling pumps, secondary cooling pumps, motors of drain pumps, pump in the primary water transfer line to the water purification system, beryllium reflector frame, low-voltage motor control centers are to be replaced. A nuclear instrumentation system, process control system, safety protection system and so on are to be replaced in FY2010. In this paper, current status of JMTR refurbishment project is presented. (author)

  18. Current status of NPP generation IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanes Dwi Anggoro; Dharu Dewi; Nurlaila; Arief Tris Yuliyanto

    2013-01-01

    Today development of nuclear technology has reached the stage of research and development of Generation IV nuclear power plants (advanced reactor systems) which is an innovative development from the previous generation of nuclear power plants. There are six types of power generation IV reactors, namely: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), and Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). The purpose of this study is to know the development of Generation IV nuclear power plants that have been done by the thirteen countries that are members of the Gen IV International Forum (GIF). The method used is review study and refers to various studies related to the current status of research and development of generation IV nuclear power. The result of this study showed that the systems and technology on Generation IV nuclear power plants offer significant advances in sustainability, safety and reliability, economics, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. In addition, based on the research and development experience is estimated that: SFR can be used optimally in 2015, VHTR in 2020, while NPP types GFR, LFR, MSR, and SCWR in 2025. Utilization of NPP generation IV said to be optimal if fulfill the goal of NPP generation IV, such as: capable to generate energy sustainability and promote long-term availability of nuclear fuel, minimize nuclear waste and reduce the long term stewardship burden, has an advantage in the field of safety and reliability compared to the previous generation of NPP and VHTR technology have a good prospects in Indonesia. (author)

  19. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  20. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  1. Current status of theranostics in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgolini, Irene; Decristoforo, Clemens; Uprimny, Christian [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Haug, Alexander [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Bologna (Italy)

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this review is to report on the current status of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-directed theranostics in prostate cancer (PC) patients. The value of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-directed PET imaging as a diagnostic procedure for primary and recurrent PC as well as the role of evolving PSMA radioligand therapy (PRLT) in castration-resistant (CR)PC is assessed. The most eminent data from mostly retrospective studies currently available on theranostics of prostate cancer are discussed. The current knowledge on {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT implicates that primary staging with PET/CT is meaningful in patients with high-risk PC and that the combination with pelvic multi parametric (mp)MR (or PET/mpMR) reaches the highest impact on patient management. There may be a place for {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT in intermediate-risk PC patients as well, however, only a few data are available at the moment. In secondary staging for local recurrence, {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/mpMR is superior to PET/CT, whereas for distant recurrence, PET/CT has equivalent results and is faster and cheaper compared to PET/mpMR. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT is superior to {sup 18}F / {sup 11}Choline PET/CT in primary staging as well as in secondary staging. In patients with biochemical relapse, PET/CT positivity is directly associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) increase and amounts to roughly 50% when PSA is raised to ≤0.5 ng/ml and to ≥90% above 1 ng/ml. Significant clinical results have so far been achieved with the subsequent use of radiolabeled PSMA ligands in the treatment of CRPC. Accumulated activities of 30 to 50 GBq of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA ligands seem to be clinically safe with biochemical response and PERCIST/RECIST response in around 75% of patients along with xerostomia in 5-10% of patients as the only notable side effect. On the basis of the current literature, we conclude that PSMA-directed theranostics do have a major clinical impact in diagnosis and therapy of PC patients. We recommend

  2. Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in Toro Game Reserve, Uganda. ... As part of a biological assessment of Toro Game Reserve, the status of Uganda kob Kobus kob Thomasi ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Discrimination between Fatigue Cracking and Mechanical Damage in Aircraft Fastener Holes by Eddy-Current Phase Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Science and Technology Organisation) EDM Electrodischarge machining FSH Full Screen Height on an eddy - current instrument IVD Ion Vapour...electromagnetic skin depth δ is 0.15 mm in the fastener holes3. 4.1 Bolt Hole Eddy Current Inspection Procedure 4.1.1 Calibration on Machined ...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Discrimination between Fatigue Cracking and Mechanical Damage in Aircraft Fastener Holes by Eddy - Current Phase

  4. Current status of nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4 He, 7 Li, 9 Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested

  5. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  6. Current status of the world's research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    1999-01-01

    Data from the IAEA's Research Reactor Database (RRDB) provides information with respect to the status of the world's research reactors. Some summary data are given. Recent initiatives by the IAEA regarding communications and information flow with respect to research reactors are discussed. Future plans and perspectives are also introduced. (author)

  7. Current status of the US RERTR Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the RERTR Program. The main objective is to provide the audience with some orientation and sense of perspective that may assist in viewing the other program presentations as part of an overall effort, rather than as separate and unrelated activities

  8. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2005-01-01

    This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the

  9. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  10. Current status and prospects of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabaraev, A.B.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Khmelshikov, V.V.; Dollezhal, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The first nuclear research reactors (RR) appeared in the 1940s. Their initial purpose was to provide knowledge of the main processes associated with neutron-induced nuclear reactions. Later, the rang of problems addressed expanded substantially. Besides fundamental research in the properties of matter, such reactors are successfully used for dealing with problems in the fields of materials science, nuclear engineering, medicine, isotope production, education, etc. Over the whole period of RR fleet growth, more than six hundred nuclear research facilities were built in 70 countries of the world. As of the end of 2008, the number of Russian research reactors in service was about 20% of the globally operating RR fleet. This paper discusses the current status of the world's RR fleet and describes the capabilities of the experimental reactor facilities existing in Russia. In the 21st century, research reactors will remain in demand to solve scientific and technological problems for innovative development of society. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power, the expanding RR uses for production of isotopes and other applications, the increase in the number of countries willing to use nuclear technologies in energy production, industry and science - all contribute to a rebirth of interest in research reactors. One of the ways to improve the experimental capabilities lies in radical upgrading of the reactor facilities with qualitative changes in the main neutronic characteristics of the core. The associated design approaches are illustrated with the example of the IBR-2M reactor at the JNRI in Dubna. The imperative need restricting the spread of nuclear threat leads us to give up using highly enriched uranium in most research reactors. Development of RR fuel with reduced enrichment in uranium has been one of the priority objectives of NIKIET for many years. This paper presents the latest results obtained along these lines, as applied to pool-type research

  11. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip

    1999-01-01

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  12. Current status of VHTR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aochi, A.; Kondo, T.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 950 0 . The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 1000 0 C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

  13. Current status of fast reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented

  14. Predictive Toxicology: Current Status and Future Outlook (EBI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA. Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA.

  15. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  16. Current status of schistosomiasis in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in poor communities, where most of the population is dependent on river and well for their everyday activities. In this study 5 years–15 years aged children were sampled for schistosomiasis (Urinary and intestinal, using of urine and stool samples. The stool samples were analyzed using kato-katz thick faecal smear technique while the urine samples were analyzed by filtration technique. The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium was 60.8% (228 positive cases in 375 samples, and for intestinal schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni was 2.93% (11 positive in 375 samples. The order of infection based on social status (occupation of pupil's parents was farmers > fishermen > traders > civil servents > others. The prevalence of infection based on pupil's water contact activities such as farming associated 84.87% urinary schistosomiasis, followed by swimming (78.21%. Occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis based on source of pupil's drinking water; highest infection was reported among those that drink dam water (75.24% while least infection was occurred whose drinking water was from bore-whole (17.64%. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the studied area is therefore very high and family status, means of water contact and availability of drinking water dependent. Therefore there is urgent need to adapt preventive measures, provision of safe drinking water as well as control programmes for vector snails, immediately.

  17. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrithi eSugumaran Menon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to ionizing radiation disrupts normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses that interfere with gene and protein expression. Conventional dosimetry, monitoring of prodromal symptoms and peripheral lymphocyte counts are of limited value as organ and tissue specific biomarkers for personnel exposed to radiation, particularly, weeks or months after exposure. Analysis of metabolites generated in known stress-responsive pathways by molecular profiling helps to predict the physiological status of an individual in response to environmental or genetic perturbations. Thus, a multi-metabolite profile obtained from a high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform offers potential for identification of robust biomarkers to predict radiation toxicity of organs and tissues resulting from exposures to therapeutic or non-therapeutic ionizing radiation. Here, we review the status of radiation metabolomics and explore applications as a standalone technology, as well as its integration in systems biology, to facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of radiation response. Finally, we draw attention to the identification of specific pathways that can be targeted for the development of therapeutics to alleviate or mitigate harmful effects of radiation exposure.

  19. Current status of water chemistry in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigure, K. [Saitama Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8{open_square} of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

  20. Current status of water chemistry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigure, K.

    2002-01-01

    At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8□ of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

  1. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Sangariyavanich, Archara

    2003-01-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future. (author)

  2. Current Status of Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2016-03-01

    I will review the current instrumentation and recent results. I will discuss which measurements have to be done in the near future to significantly advance our knowledge about the phenomenon of cosmic rays, their sources, and their interactions with the interstellar medium. A support from NASA APRA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  3. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Cortez, L.A.B.; Oscullo, J.; Olmedo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  4. Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Barnett, R.M.; Bhattacharya, G.

    1990-11-01

    We review the most recent data from e + e - and p bar p colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. We review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. We present the results of detailed simulations of E T and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the E T signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The E T and the same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. We also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z degree bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n ≥ 3). Finally, we discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sectors is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions. 49 refs., 12 figs

  5. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2018-01-01

    Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Measured current drainage through holes in various dielectrics up to 2 kilovolts in a dilute plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, N. T.; Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The electron current drained from a plasma through approximately 0.05 cm diameter holes in eight possible space applicable dielectrics placed on a probe biased at voltages up to 2000 V dc have been determined both theoretically and experimentally. The dielectrics tested were Parylene C and N, Teflon FEP type C, Teflon TFE, Nomex, quartz 7940 Corning Glass, Mylar A, and Kapton H polymide film. A Laplace field was used to predict an upper limit for the drainage current. The measured current was less than the computed current for quartz, Teflon FEP, and the 0.0123 cm thick sample of Parylene N for all voltages tested. The drainage current through the other dielectrics became equal to or greater than the computed current at a voltage below 2000 V. The magnitudes of the currents were between 0.1 and 10 microamperes for most of the dielectrics.

  7. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, B.

    1983-01-01

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  8. State Emergency Department Opioid Guidelines: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, Robert I; Gronowski, Tanner; Kalnow, Andrew F; Little, Andrew G; Lloyd, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and categorize current state-sponsored opioid guidelines for the practice of emergency medicine (EM). We conducted a comprehensive search of EM-specific opioid prescribing guidelines and/or policies in each state to determine current state involvement in EM opioid prescribing, as well as to evaluate some of the specifics of each guideline or policy. The search was conducted using an online query and a follow-up email request to each state chapter of ACEP. We found that 17 states had emergency department-specific guidelines. We further organized the guidelines into four categories: limiting prescriptions for opioids with 67 total recommendations; preventing/diverting abuse with 56 total recommendations; addiction-related guidelines with 29 total recommendations; and a community resources section with 24 total recommendations. Our results showed that current state guidelines focus on providers limiting opioid pain prescriptions and vetting patients for possible abuse/diversion. This study highlights the 17 states that have addressed opioid prescribing guidelines and categorizes their efforts to date. It is hoped that this study will provide the basis for similar efforts in other states.

  9. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Project Promotion Office; Kotake, Shoji [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  10. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  11. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT.

  12. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

  13. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides 223 Ra, 211 At and 212 Pb/ 212 Bi the alpha emitters 225 Ac and 213 Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with 225 Ac and 213 Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  14. Current status of family health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Membrillo Luna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.

  15. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies.

  16. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  17. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-08-21

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices.

  18. Current status of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 65 colleges and universities offering undergraduate degrees in nuclear engineering and the 15 schools offering strong nuclear engineering options are, in general, doing a good job to meet the current spectrum of job opportunities. But, nuclear engineering programs are not producing enough graduates to meet growing demands. They currently receive little aid and support from their customers --industry and government--in the form of scholarships, grants, faculty research support, student thesis and project support, or student summer jobs. There is not enough interaction between industry and universities. Most nuclear engineering programs are geared too closely to the technology of the present family of reactors and too little to the future breeder reactors and controlled thermonuclear reactors. In addition, nuclear engineering programs attract too few women and members of minority ethnic groups. Further study of the reasons for this fact is needed so that effective corrective action can be taken. Faculty in nuclear engineering programs should assume greater initiative to provide attractive and objective nuclear energy electives for technical and nontechnical students in other disciplines to improve their technical understanding of the safety and environmental issues involved. More aggressive and persistent efforts must be made by nuclear engineering schools to obtain industry support and involvement in their programs

  19. Esophageal tissue engineering: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, T; Catry, J; Luong-Nguyen, M; Bruneval, P; Domet, T; Arakelian, L; Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Vanneaux, V; Gottrand, F; Larghero, J; Cattan, P

    2016-02-01

    Tissue engineering, which consists of the combination and in vivo implantation of elements required for tissue remodeling toward a specific organ phenotype, could be an alternative for classical techniques of esophageal replacement. The current hybrid approach entails creation of an esophageal substitute composed of an acellular matrix and autologous epithelial and muscle cells provides the most successful results. Current research is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, whose potential for differentiation and proangioogenic, immune-modulator and anti-inflammatory properties are important assets. In the near future, esophageal substitutes could be constructed from acellular "intelligent matrices" that contain the molecules necessary for tissue regeneration; this should allow circumvention of the implantation step and still obtain standardized in vivo biological responses. At present, tissue engineering applications to esophageal replacement are limited to enlargement plasties with absorbable, non-cellular matrices. Nevertheless, the application of existing clinical techniques for replacement of other organs by tissue engineering in combination with a multiplication of translational research protocols for esophageal replacement in large animals should soon pave the way for health agencies to authorize clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Current status of the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, Armando

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress which has been accomplished by the RERTR Program during the past year, the present status of the program, the activities which are now in progress, and the program plans for the coming years. The main program objectives have not changed during the past year. The primary goal of the RERTR Program is still to reduce the amount of HEU which is shipped and used around the world in research reactors and, with it, the nuclear proliferation potential which it creates. Also unchanged is the program objective to reduce HEU use without significant penalty to the reactors involved. This means that for every possible conversion, our technical goal is to achieve good experiment capabilities and the economic advantages that come from a long core lifetime and from relatively economical fuels. We also intend to limit as much as possible the modifications which may have to be made to the reactor in order to achieve conversion and, last but not least, we intend to avoid any significant problems that might appear in the safety and licensing areas. Other important goals are the sharing of information about reduced-enrichment technology and providing technical assistance to the U.S. Government on special problems that may affect implementation of its policies. The timetable of the RERTR Program has stretched slightly. At the time of the previous ANL Conference, a long range goal was set which was anticipated to require about five or six years. This happened in 1978 and, therefore, the long range goal was considered to be achievable by 1984. This final deadline, the time when the long term goal of technical convertibility of all research reactors can be achieved, has now been moved to 1986. In the meantime, good progress has been made towards the near-term goals. Much more detailed knowledge is available about what lies ahead from a technical point of view. In addition, the general level of confidence in the achievability of the

  1. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank, E-mail: frank.bruchertseifer@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides {sup 223}Ra, {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi the alpha emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  2. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  3. Current Status of Renal Denervation in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasoulis, Alexander; Bakris, George L

    2016-11-01

    Over the past 7 years, prospective cohorts and small randomized controlled studies showed that renal denervation therapy (RDN) in patients with resistant hypertension is safe but associated with variable effects on BP which are not substantially better than medical therapy alone. The failure of the most rigorously designed randomized sham-control study, SYMPLICITY HTN-3, to meet the efficacy endpoints has raised several methodological concerns. However, recently reported studies and ongoing trials with improved procedural characteristics, identification of patients with true treatment-resistant hypertension on appropriate antihypertensive regimens further explore potential benefits of RDN. The scope of this review is to summarize evidence from currently completed studies on RDN and discuss future perspectives of RDN therapy in patients with resistant hypertension.

  4. Current status of automated breast ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Shin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast ultrasonography (US is currently considered the first-line examination in the detection Epub ahead of print and characterization of breast lesions. However, conventional handheld US (HHUS has several limitations such as operator dependence and the requirement of a considerable amount of radiologist time for whole-breast US. Automated breast US (ABUS, recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for screening purposes, has several advantages over HHUS, such as higher reproducibility, less operator dependence, and less required physician time for image acquisition. In addition, ABUS provides both a coronal view and a relatively large field of view. Recent studies have reported that ABUS is promising in US screening for women with dense breasts and can potentially replace handheld second-look US in a preoperative setting.

  5. ILRS: Current Status and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bianco, G.; Merkowitz, S.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Shargorodsky, V.; Zhongping, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is expanding its ground tracking capability with new stations and upgrades to current stations. Our Russian colleagues have installed new stations in Brasilia and South Africa, and have several other sites in process or in planning. The NASA Space Geodesy Program is preparing equipment for U.S. sites (McDonald and Haleakala) and with the Norwegian National Mapping Agency in Ny Ålesund; further deployments are planned. Upgrades continue at sites in China, and new sites are underway or planned in Europe and India. Stations are moving to higher repetition rates and more efficient detection to enhance satellite interleaving capability; some stations have already implemented automated processes that could lead to around-the-clock operation to increase temporal coverage and to make more efficient use of personnel. The ILRS roster of supported satellites continues to grow with the addition of the LARES satellite to augment tracking for the improvement of the ITRF. New GNSS constellations and geosynchronous satellites now bring the total roster to over 80 satellites - so much so, that new tracking strategies and time and location multiplexing are under consideration. There continues to be strong interest in Lunar Ranging. New applications of one-way and two-way laser ranging include ps-accurate time transfer, laser transponders for interplanetary ranging, and tracking of space debris. New laser ranging data products are being developed, including satellite orbit products, satellite orientation, gravity field products, and products to characterize the quality of data and station performance. This talk will give a brief summary of recent progress, current challenges and a view of the path ahead.

  6. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysz, M.A.; Gambhir, S.S.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  7. Sagebrush ecosystems: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Stiver, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome has changed since settlement by Europeans. The current distribution, composition and dynamics, and disturbance regimes of sagebrush ecosystems have been altered by interactions among disturbance, land use, and invasion of exotic plants. In this chapter, we present the dominant factors that have influenced habitats across the sagebrush biome. Using a large-scale analysis, we identified regional changes and patterns in “natural disturbance”, invasive exotic species, and influences of land use in sagebrush systems. Number of fires and total area burned has increased since 1980 across much of the sagebrush biome. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands have expanded into sagebrush habitats at higher elevations. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, has invaded much of lower elevation, more xeric sagebrush landscapes across the western portion of the biome. Consequently, synergistic feedbacks between habitats and disturbance (natural and human-caused) have altered disturbance regimes, plant community dynamics and contributed to loss of sagebrush habitats and change in plant communities. Habitat conversion to agriculture has occurred in the highly productive regions of the sagebrush biome and influenced up to 56% of the Conservation Assessment area. Similarly, urban areas, and road, railroad, and powerline networks fragment habitats, facilitate predator movements, and provide corridors for spread of exotic species across the entire sagebrush biome. Livestock grazing has altered sagebrush habitats; the effects of overgrazing combined with drought on plant communities in the late 1880s and early 1900s still influences current habitats. Management of livestock grazing has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by habitat treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences, roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements have further

  8. Current status of PHOBOS at sign RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.; Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments are currently approved for the first measurements with colliding heavy ion beams from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which is scheduled to come into operation in Spring 1999. These experiments are named STAR, Phoenix, PHOBOS and Brahms. It is expected that central collisions of 100 GeV/u Au + Au at RHIC will lead to energy densities far above any so far attained in the laboratory and it is suspected and hoped that this situation will lead to qualitatively new physics perhaps associated with the creation of a large volume containing a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons. All four experiments attempt to search for signatures of new physics through combinations of measurements of quantities such as the multiplicity of produced particles, the average transverse momentum of these particles, fluctuations in their multiplicity distribution, their flavor composition, the size scales of the volume from which they are emitted, mass shifts and changes in the decay widths of resonances which decay inside the high energy density volume etc. The PHOBOS detector addresses these issues with a Multiplicity Array which covers the pseudo-rapidity region -5.3 ≤ η ≤ 5.3 with a coverage of 85% of 4π and also incorporates a Vertex Detector. The Multiplicity Array is complemented by two Multi-Particle Spectrometers, each of which cover the range 0.5 ≤ η ≤ 1.5 and azimuthal angle range Δφ = 11 degree. Various trigger and monitor detectors complete PHOBOS

  9. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Current status of endovascular catheter robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Alan B; Bismuth, Jean

    2018-06-01

    In this review, we will detail the evolution of endovascular therapy as the basis for the development of catheter-based robotics. In parallel, we will outline the evolution of robotics in the surgical space and how the convergence of technology and the entrepreneurs who push this evolution have led to the development of endovascular robots. The current state-of-the-art and future directions and potential are summarized for the reader. Information in this review has been drawn primarily from our personal clinical and preclinical experience in use of catheter robotics, coupled with some ground-breaking work reported from a few other major centers who have embraced the technology's capabilities and opportunities. Several case studies demonstrating the unique capabilities of a precisely controlled catheter are presented. Most of the preclinical work was performed in the advanced imaging and navigation laboratory. In this unique facility, the interface of advanced imaging techniques and robotic guidance is being explored. Although this procedure employs a very high-tech approach to navigation inside the endovascular space, we have conveyed the kind of opportunities that this technology affords to integrate 3D imaging and 3D control. Further, we present the opportunity of semi-autonomous motion of these devices to a target. For the interventionist, enhanced precision can be achieved in a nearly radiation-free environment.

  11. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  12. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D.; Kliman, J.; Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-11-01

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction 48Ca+242Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  13. The current status of the MASHA setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D.; Kliman, J.; Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-01-01

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction "4"8Ca+"2"4"2Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  14. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  15. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs.

  16. Current status of nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Efforts at nuclear safety research have expanded year by year in Japan, in term of money and technical achievement. The Atomic Energy Commission set last year the five year nuclear safety research program, a guideline by which various research institutes will be able to develop their own efforts in a concerted manner. From the results of the nuclear safety research which cover very wide areas ranging from reactor engineering safety, safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, prevention of radiation hazards to the adequate treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, AIJ hereafter focuses of LWR engineering safety and prevents two articles, one introducing the current results of the NSSR program developed by JAERI and the other reporting the LWR reliability demonstration testing projects being promoted by MITI. The outline of these demonstration tests was reported in this report. The tests consist of earthquake resistance reliability test of nuclear power plants, steam generator reliability tests, valve integrity tests, fuel assembly reliability tests, reliability tests of heat affected zones and reliability tests of pumps. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Current status of the PBMR licensing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysen, A.; Clapisson, G.A.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

  18. Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunicardi, F.C.; Rosman, P.M.; Lesser, K.L.; Andersen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors

  19. Biologic resurfacing of the patella: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapinelli, Raphaele; Aglietti, Paolo; Baldovin, Marino; Giron, Francesco; Teitge, Robert

    2002-07-01

    The techniques of biologic resurfacing of the patella, like other joint surfaces, are still evolving. Currently none of them is free from criticism. In this regard it is our hope that progress in the basic science will offer in the near future new and more optimistic therapeutic possibilities (i.e., the restoration of a reparative cartilage that is structurally and functionally comparable to the native one). The greater expectancies come perhaps from the present experimental investigations about the combined use of tissue-engineered implants embedded with staminal cells and growth factors. Many problems remain to be solved, however, before reliable applicability in humans. From a general point of view, stem cells obtained from various sources (e.g., adult bone marrow, umbilical cord) offer the same finalities as the embryonic stem cells, without the ethical obstacles related to the latter. Therefore, it may be that restoration of part or all of the articular surface of a joint will be possible by way of these mesenchymal progenitors that have the ability to differentiate into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lines, which is required for the restoration of the various layers of a normal articular cartilage and subchondral bone.

  20. Current Status of Engineering Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald E.

    Many faculty believe that engineering education in America is at a crossroads and much change is needed. International competition in engineering and the global economy have major potential impact on the engineering workforce of the future. We must find ways to educate U.S. engineers to be competitive and creative contributors in the worldwide arena. Recent national reports are sounding the alarm that the U.S. is losing it leadership in technology and innovation, with consequences for economic prosperity and national security. The report Rising Above the Gathering Storm discusses this dilemma in detail and offers four recommendations to U.S. policymakers. The report Educating the Engineer of 2020 discusses new ways to prepare American engineers for the 21st Century. Furthermore, changes in ABET accreditation, along with new paradigms of teaching and new technology in the classroom, are changing the scholarship of engineering education. We must find ways to promote change in engineering faculty for this new opportunity in engineering educational scholarship. Future engineering students are now in K-12, which is becoming an increasingly diverse population that in the past has not been fully represented in engineering education. Current trends show disaffection for pursuing studies in science and engineering in the youth of our U.S. society. We must find new ways to portray engineering as an exciting and rewarding career, and certainly as an educational platform for professional careers beyond the baccalaureate degree.

  1. [Current status of noninvasive hemodynamics in hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, G

    Hypertension is a haemodynamic disorder resulting from a persistent mismatch between cardiac output and peripheral resistance. Hypertension undergoes haemodynamic progression during its natural history. Impedance cardiography is a method of evaluating the cardiovascular system that obtains haemodynamic information from beat to beat through the analysis of variations in the impedance of the thorax on the passage of an electric current. Impedance cardiography unmasks the haemodynamic deterioration underlying the increase in blood pressure as age and systolic blood pressure increases. This method may help to improve blood pressure control through individualized treatment with reduction of peripheral resistance, maintenance of cardiac output or its increase, improvement of arterial compliance and preservation of organ-tissue perfusion. It is useful in the management of patients with resistant hypertension, since a greater percentage of patients controlled with changes in the treatment in relation to the haemodynamic measurements are obtained. Impedance cardiography is important and has prognostic utility in relation to a haemodynamic deterioration pattern and increased cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-01-01

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  3. Current status of pediatric minimal access surgery at Sultan Qaboos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: current status, laparoscopy, minimal access surgery, thoracoscopy. Departments of ... Materials and methods ... procedures, the open technique was used for the creation ... operated for bilateral inguinal herniotomy had recurrence.

  4. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  5. International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound

  6. Teledermatology. Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, J D

    2001-01-01

    Teledermatology is becoming an increasingly common means of delivering dermatologic healthcare worldwide and will almost certainly play a greater role in the future. The type of technology used distinguishes the 2 modes of teledermatology consultation. The store and forward technique uses still digital images generated by a digital camera. Consultations of this type are considered asynchronous since the images are obtained, sent, and reviewed at different times. In contrast, real-time interactive consultations are synchronous. Patients and clinicians interact in real-time through an audio-video communication link. Each modality has its advantages and disadvantages, and studies appear in the literature that assess both technologies. Although diagnostic reliability (precision) assessments for teledermatology are subject to limitations, existing information indicates that both store and forward and real-time interactive technology result in reliable diagnostic outcomes when compared with clinic-based evaluations. Less information regarding diagnostic accuracy is available; however, one evaluation that used store and forward technology found comparable diagnostic accuracy between teledermatology consultations and clinic-based examinations. Currently, little information is available regarding cost effectiveness and patient outcomes. Existing evidence, while inconclusive, suggests that teledermatology may be more costly than traditional clinic-based care, especially when using real-time interactive technology. Teledermatology has been shown to have utility as a triage mechanism for determining the urgency or need for a clinic-based consultation. Overall, patients appear to accept teledermatology and are satisfied with it as a means of obtaining healthcare. Clinicians have also generally reported positive experiences with teledermatology. Future studies that focus on cost effectiveness, patient outcomes, and patient and clinician satisfaction will help further define the

  7. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-01

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  8. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  9. [Immunotherapy for renal cell carcinoma - current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Foller, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Systemic treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has substantially changed during the last 2 years due to approval of the immune-checkpoint inhibitor Nivolumab (Opdivo ® ) and new multikinase inhibitors (Cabozantinib, Lenvatinib, Tivozanib). The german kidney tumor guideline strongly recommends Nivolumab and Cabozantinib as 2nd line treatments after prior VEGF targeted therapy. CheckMate 025, the prospective randomized trial which led to approval of Nivolumab demonstrated improved overall survival (26 month vs. 19.7 month; hazard ratio 0.73; p = 0.0006) and response rate (26 % vs. 5 %) as well as a favorable toxicity profile compared with Everolimus. Currently, numerous combinations with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are compared to Sunitinib as first line treatment of mRCC. Out of these CheckMate 214, a randomized phase-3 trial is the first to demonstrate a significant higher objective response rate (42 % vs. 27 %, p < 0.0001) and overall survival (Sunitinib 26.0 month, median for Nivo + Ipi has been not yet reached (28.2 - NR); Hazard ratio 0.63) for the combination of Nivolumab and the CTLA-4 antibody Ipilimumab in IMDC intermediate and high risk patients. Furthermore, CheckMate 214 shows better side effect profile and quality of life in patients receiving Nivolumab and Ipilimumab compared with Sunitinib. However, a considerable increase of immune related adverse events is associated with the immune combination therapy. Another randomized trial demonstrates improved progression-free survival for the combination of the PD-L1 inhibitor Atezolizumab and the VEGF antibody Bevacizumab in patients with PD-L1 positive tumors; this was found in all IMDC risk groups. Further phase-3 trials with "new" VEGFR-TKIs (Axitinib, Cabozantinib, Lenvatinib) and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor combinations are ongoing.In conclusion, the PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor Nivolumab will remain a standard treatment for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

  10. Current status and future perspective of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) detecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had, 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3

  11. [Current status of and prospects for contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, E; Parisi, C

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that at the current rate of growth the world's population will reach 8.5 billion by the year 2025 and 10-11 billion by the end of the 21st century. 90% of this population increase would occur in developing countries, where only 38% of couples used contraceptives during 1980-81 compared to 68% in developed countries. About 300 million couples in the Third World do not use contraceptives, although they do not want more children. Some of these contraceptives include natural steroids, such as progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol that is used for treatment of menopause (1-2 mg daily po). Medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone enanthate depot injections have long-acting properties with low failure rates (3.6% + 0.7 pregnancies/100 women years) if given every 3 months, amenorrhea may occur. RU-486, substance with antiprogesterone activity, inhibits hormonal metabolism during ovulation in a dose of 100 mg/day, just like norgestimate. HRP 102 consists of 50 mg norethisterone enanthate and 5 mg estradiol valerate and cycloprovera contains 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5 mg of estradiol cypionate. Both of these agents are effective contraceptives for 2 months. Norplant is implanted subcutaneously in capsule forms. It releases levonorgestrel/LNG for 6-7 years, and in a study of 992 women 2.6 pregnancies occurred for 100 women in the course of 5 years. Vaginal suppositories can release 20 mg/day LNG, or 5-10 mg progesterone/day, and they are considered ideal for nursing mothers. The IUD has been used by 60 million women, however, pelvic inflammatory disease may be associated with its use. Sulprostone and RU-486 (mifepristone) are post ovulatory agents with effectiveness of up to 90 day. Female sterilization has problems of reversibility, male sterilization is less accepted, and other male endocrine approaches producing azoospermia are in the testing phase. The ideal contraceptive with properties of wide acceptability, reversibility, and

  12. The current status of HANARO utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, Choong Sung; Sohn, Jae Min; Park, Kyung Bae

    2003-01-01

    The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron

  13. Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.

    Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes m

  14. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  15. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer

  16. Profile formation and sustainment of autonomous tokamak plasma with current hole configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Takizuka, T.; Ozeki, T.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the profile formation and sustainment of tokamak plasmas with the current hole (CH) configuration by using 1.5D time-dependent transport simulations. A model of the current limit inside the CH on the basis of the Axisymmetric Tri-Magnetic-Islands equilibrium is introduced into the transport simulation. We found that a transport model with the sharp reduction of anomalous transport in the reversed-shear (RS) region can reproduce the time evolution of profiles observed in JT-60U experiments. The transport becomes neoclassical-level in the RS region, which results in the formation of profiles with internal transport barrier (ITB) and CH. The CH plasma has an autonomous property because of the strong interaction between a pressure profile and a current profile through the large bootstrap current fraction. The ITB width determined by the neoclassical-level transport agrees well with that measured in JT-60U. The energy confinement inside the ITB agrees with the scaling based on the JT-60U data. The scaling means the autonomous limitation of energy confinement in the CH plasma. The plasma with the large CH is sustained with the full current drive by the bootstrap current. The plasma with the small CH and the small bootstrap current fraction shrinks due to the penetration of inductive current. This shrink is prevented and the CH size can be controlled by the appropriate external current drive (CD). The CH plasma is found to respond autonomically to the external CD. (author)

  17. Conserved current for the Cotton tensor, black hole entropy and equivariant Pontryagin forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro Perez, Roberto, E-mail: roferreiro@ccee.ucm.e [Departamento de Economia Financiera y Contabilidad I Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UCM Campus de Somosaguas, 28223-Pozuelo de Alarcon (Spain)

    2010-07-07

    The Chern-Simons Lagrangian density in the space of metrics of a three-dimensional manifold M is not invariant under the action of diffeomorphisms on M. However, its Euler-Lagrange operator can be identified with the Cotton tensor, which is invariant under diffeomorphims. As the Lagrangian is not invariant, the Noether theorem cannot be applied to obtain conserved currents. We show that it is possible to obtain an equivariant conserved current for the Cotton tensor by using the first equivariant Pontryagin form on the bundle of metrics. Finally we define a Hamiltonian current which gives the contribution of the Chern-Simons term to the black hole entropy, energy and angular momentum.

  18. Conserved current for the Cotton tensor, black hole entropy and equivariant Pontryagin forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro Perez, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The Chern-Simons Lagrangian density in the space of metrics of a three-dimensional manifold M is not invariant under the action of diffeomorphisms on M. However, its Euler-Lagrange operator can be identified with the Cotton tensor, which is invariant under diffeomorphims. As the Lagrangian is not invariant, the Noether theorem cannot be applied to obtain conserved currents. We show that it is possible to obtain an equivariant conserved current for the Cotton tensor by using the first equivariant Pontryagin form on the bundle of metrics. Finally we define a Hamiltonian current which gives the contribution of the Chern-Simons term to the black hole entropy, energy and angular momentum.

  19. Development of an eddy current inspection technique for sleeved engine disk bolt holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, R.; Lakin, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent research programs have concentrated mainly on developing techniques to characterize surface breaking cracks and very little has been done towards characterizing subsurface flaws in conducting materials. Presented in this paper are the results of some initial theoretical work aimed at the development of a reliable eddy current technique to detect and characterize defects in engine disk bolt holes under a 0.05'' stainless steel sleeve. The change in impedance of an absolute eddy current coil with and without ferrite core, and the distribution of eddy currents around a second layer crack with and without a thin insulating film between the two conducting layers have been predicted numerically. The overall system development goals and methods to accomplish them are outlined briefly

  20. Current fluctuation of electron and hole carriers in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun Eon; Kim, Gyu-Tae, E-mail: gtkim@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Young Keun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Minju [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble INP-MINATEC, 3 Parvis Louis Neel, 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-14

    Two-dimensional materials have outstanding scalability due to their structural and electrical properties for the logic devices. Here, we report the current fluctuation in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs). In order to demonstrate the impact on carrier types, n-type and p-type WSe{sub 2} FETs are fabricated with different work function metals. Each device has similar electrical characteristics except for the threshold voltage. In the low frequency noise analysis, drain current power spectral density (S{sub I}) is inversely proportional to frequency, indicating typical 1/f noise behaviors. The curves of the normalized drain current power spectral density (NS{sub I}) as a function of drain current at the 10 Hz of frequency indicate that our devices follow the carrier number fluctuation with correlated mobility fluctuation model. This means that current fluctuation depends on the trapping-detrapping motion of the charge carriers near the channel interface. No significant difference is observed in the current fluctuation according to the charge carrier type, electrons and holes that occurred in the junction and channel region.

  1. Current status of accreditation for drug testing in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail; Moeller, Manfred; Kronstrand, Robert

    2008-03-21

    At the annual meeting of the Society of Hair Testing in Vadstena, Sweden in 2006, a committee was appointed to address the issue of guidelines for hair testing and to assess the current status of accreditation amongst laboratories offering drug testing in hair. A short questionnaire was circulated amongst the membership and interested parties. Fifty-two responses were received from hair testing laboratories providing details on the amount and type of hair tests they offered and the status of accreditation within their facilities. Although the vast majority of laboratories follow current guidelines (83%), only nine laboratories were accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 for hair testing. A significant number of laboratories reporting that they were in the process of developing quality systems with a view to accrediting their methods within 2-3 years. This study provides an insight into the status of accreditation in hair testing laboratories and supports the need for guidelines to encourage best practice.

  2. Current status and future direction of the MONK software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Nigel; Armishaw, Malcolm; Cooper, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

  3. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  4. The nonparametric bootstrap for the current status model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Hendrickx, K.

    2017-01-01

    It has been proved that direct bootstrapping of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of the distribution function in the current status model leads to inconsistent confidence intervals. We show that bootstrapping of functionals of the MLE can however be used to produce valid

  5. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  6. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  7. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...

  8. [Current status and prospects of gene doping detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Zhang, Sichun; Xu, Jingjuan; Xia, Xinghua; Tian, Yaping; Zhang, Xinrong; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    The fast development of biotechnology promotes the development of doping. From recombinant protein to gene doping, there is a great challenge to their detection. The improvement of gene therapy and potential to enhance athletic performance open the door for gene doping. After a brief introduction of the concept of gene doping, the current status and prospects of gene doping detection are reviewed.

  9. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  10. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  11. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  12. Current status of agricultural extension services for market oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of agricultural extension services for market oriented agricultural development in Ethiopia: Results from a household baseline ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v10i3.1.

  13. Ethiopia's emerging domestic biogas sector : Current status, bottlenecks and drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Bermúdez Forn, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia experiences an energy and environmental crisis due to the sustained reliance on woody biomass to satisfy its energy needs. This situation could be improved by using biogas. This paper analyses the current status of the domestic biogas sector in Ethiopia and identifies barriers and

  14. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  15. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, H.; Muramatsu, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  16. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  17. The Current Status of Teachers and the Teaching Profession in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current status of teachers and the teaching sector in Tanzania. It draws on experiences of teachers, parents, and students in Dar es Salaam, Iringa and Mbeya regions. Informed by the qualitative inquiry, the paper is largely empirical in character. Data was sought through interviews and document ...

  18. NON-LINEAR VISCO-RESISTIVE COLLISIONAL TRANSPORT IN TOROIDAL ELLIPTICAL PLASMAS WITH TRIANGULARITY AND HOLE CURRENTS: A REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Puerta, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Non-linear plasma diffusion effects due to hole currents in tokamaks is analyzed in this work. Since the recent discovery of hole currents in tokamaks, this matter has become very important in confinement and instabilities in tokamaks plasmas. The analysis here presented includes non-linear flows as well as hole currents. In the case of low vorticity plasmas our treatment is performed using MHD equations, an it is more suitable for plasmas with very low levels of turbulence, as in the H-mode. The present treatment follows the lines of previous works, and some of the equations and results look like those obtained on these papers. However, the form of the family of the magnetic surfaces is very different to previous treatment, since the hole current modifies those families in a very important way. Elliptic plasmas with triangularity are considered. Pfirsch-Schlueter type currents are obtained for these generalized cases. Diffusion with and without holes are calculated and compared for several values of ellipticity and triangularity. Negative and positive triangularities are considered. In most of the calculations triangularity improves confinement, but the results are different for the positive than for the negative case.

  19. CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Innocente, V

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

  20. Current status of fusion-relevant covariance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The following review of the current status of formatted data covariance files and their multigroup processing is a contribution to the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ''Improved Evaluations and Integral Data Testing for FENDL,'' to be held at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany, 12--16 September 1994. The draft agenda of this meeting lists as Item 6 the ''assessment of present status and role of uncertainty files, their processing and sensitivity studies related to FENDL.'' We conclude that this is an important and timely topic and recommend needed actions in this field

  1. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:29666656

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kilonzo, Semvua B.; Gunda, Daniel W.; Mpondo, Bonaventura C. T.; Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatm...

  3. Current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems. At this moment only one comprehensive report is available. In order to review national activities a questionnaire has been distributed amongst national societies of medical physicists. From the 23 responding countries, 8 indicated that only limited efforts are underway, 8 answered that a working group is evaluating their specific national requirements while in 5 countries a document is drafted. The highlights of these reports have been summarized. (author)

  4. CT colonography: current status in Europe and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefere, P.; Gryspeerdt, S.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we review the current status of CT colonography (CTC) in Europe and future perspectives of CTC including fecal tagging and CAD. There are several large multi-centre studies that have been initiated. Fecal tagging has gradually become a prerequisite to perform state-of-the-art CTC. However, CAD for fecal-tagging CTC remains a subject for future research. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, A. E.; Borisov, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  6. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Little, M.P.

    1988-10-01

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  7. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-liang Zhang; Zheng Lin; Qiu-lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeti...

  8. Experimental study of current loss and plasma formation in the Z machine post-hole convolute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Z pulsed-power generator at Sandia National Laboratories drives high energy density physics experiments with load currents of up to 26 MA. Z utilizes a double post-hole convolute to combine the current from four parallel magnetically insulated transmission lines into a single transmission line just upstream of the load. Current loss is observed in most experiments and is traditionally attributed to inefficient convolute performance. The apparent loss current varies substantially for z-pinch loads with different inductance histories; however, a similar convolute impedance history is observed for all load types. This paper details direct spectroscopic measurements of plasma density, temperature, and apparent and actual plasma closure velocities within the convolute. Spectral measurements indicate a correlation between impedance collapse and plasma formation in the convolute. Absorption features in the spectra show the convolute plasma consists primarily of hydrogen, which likely forms from desorbed electrode contaminant species such as H_{2}O, H_{2}, and hydrocarbons. Plasma densities increase from 1×10^{16}  cm^{−3} (level of detectability just before peak current to over 1×10^{17}  cm^{−3} at stagnation (tens of ns later. The density seems to be highest near the cathode surface, with an apparent cathode to anode plasma velocity in the range of 35–50  cm/μs. Similar plasma conditions and convolute impedance histories are observed in experiments with high and low losses, suggesting that losses are driven largely by load dynamics, which determine the voltage on the convolute.

  9. Current status of RCA projects and strategies for future implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report is intended to provide basic overall information about ways to promote technical cooperation within the framework of RCA to accelerate and coordinate cooperative activities in nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific region through a thorough review on the current status and through suggesting future implementation strategies. The contents of this report include an overall introduction of RCA, guidelines and operating rules for RCA programmes, current status and future plans for RCA projects as well as the RCA vision for the next 25 years. By reviewing the current status and future implementation strategies for RCA projects, it will help to set up a national nuclear policy aimed at seeking maximum benefits from participation in RCA projects and to implement programmes for nuclear cooperation with Asian-Pacific countries. It is expected that as a lead country for the energy sector, which is one of five thematic areas for the year 1999 - 2000 cycle programmes, Korea will continue to make significant contributions towards the implementation of RCA programmes in the future. With this report, we plan to keep up with future developments as well as implement an effective cooperation with the countries in the region so that the opinion of Korea, one of the nuclear advanced countries in the region, can be fully reflected in the establishment of future plans for RCA programmes. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  11. The current ability to test theories of gravity with black hole shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Porth, Oliver; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Olivares, Hector; Falcke, Heino; Kramer, Michael; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2018-04-01

    Our Galactic Centre, Sagittarius A*, is believed to harbour a supermassive black hole, as suggested by observations tracking individual orbiting stars1,2. Upcoming submillimetre very-long baseline interferometry images of Sagittarius A* carried out by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration (EHTC)3,4 are expected to provide critical evidence for the existence of this supermassive black hole5,6. We assess our present ability to use EHTC images to determine whether they correspond to a Kerr black hole as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity or to a black hole in alternative theories of gravity. To this end, we perform general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations and use general-relativistic radiative-transfer calculations to generate synthetic shadow images of a magnetized accretion flow onto a Kerr black hole. In addition, we perform these simulations and calculations for a dilaton black hole, which we take as a representative solution of an alternative theory of gravity. Adopting the very-long baseline interferometry configuration from the 2017 EHTC campaign, we find that it could be extremely difficult to distinguish between black holes from different theories of gravity, thus highlighting that great caution is needed when interpreting black hole images as tests of general relativity.

  12. Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. Y.; Min, M. J.; Noh, B. C.

    2010-04-01

    All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected

  13. Current status of high-T{sub c} wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vase, Per [Nordic Superconductor Technologies A/S, Priorparken 685, DK 2605 Broendby (Denmark); Fluekiger, Rene [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve (Switzerland); Leghissa, Martino [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Erlangen (Germany); Glowacki, Bartek [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper is the result of the work of a SCENET (The European Network for Superconductivity) material working group's efforts on giving values for present and future expected performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires and tapes. The purpose of the work is to give input to the design of HTS applications like power cables, motors, current leads, magnets, transformers and generators. The current status performance values are supposed to be used in the design of today's prototypes and the future values for the design of fully commercial HTS applications of the future. We focus on what is expected to be the relevant parameters for HTS application design. The most successful technique by far for making HTS tapes has been on the (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Bi-2223) material by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technique and this paper therefore focuses on giving the current status and expected future performance for Bi-2223 tapes. (author)

  14. Indirect dark matter searches: current status and perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many theoretical ideas for the particle nature of dark matter exist. The  most popular models often predict that dark matter particles self-annihilate or decay, giving rise to potentially detectable signatures in astronomical observations.  I will summarize the current status of searches for such signatures and critically reassess recent claims for dark matter signals.  I will further provide an outlook on anticipated developments in the next 10 years, and discuss new methods to facilitate strategy development.

  15. Current status of large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, K; Ohashi, M; Miyoki, S; Uchiyama, T; Ishitsuka, H; Yamamoto, K; Kasahara, K; Fujimoto, M-K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Nagano, S; Tsunesada, Y; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saito, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Aso, Y; Ueda, K-I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Sasaki, M; Tanaka, T; Oohara, K; Takahashi, H; Miyakawa, O; Tobar, M E

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) project is the proposed advancement of TAMA, which will be able to detect the coalescences of binary neutron stars occurring in our galaxy. LCGT intends to detect the coalescence events within about 240 Mpc, the rate of which is expected to be from 0.1 to several events in a year. LCGT has Fabry-Perot cavities of 3 km baseline and the mirrors are cooled down to a cryogenic temperature of 20 K. It is planned to be built in the underground of Kamioka mine. This paper overviews the revision of the design and the current status of the R and D

  16. [Molecular imaging; current status and future prospects in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the definition, current status, and future prospects of the molecular imaging, which has recently been a hot topic in medicine and the biological science in USA. In vivo imaging methods to visualize the molecular events and functions in organs or animals/humans are overviewed and discussed especially in combinations of imaging modalities (machines) and contrast agents(chemicals) used in the molecular imaging. Next, the close relationship between the molecular imaging and the nanotechnology, an important part of nanomedicine, is stressed from the aspect of united multidisciplinary sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  17. History and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Nagai, Toshihisa; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2008-01-01

    History and present state of fast breeder reactor was reviewed in series. As a history and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, this ninth lecture presented the progress of the FBR fuel reprocessing technology and advanced reprocessing processes. FBR fuel reprocessing technology had been developed to construct the reprocessing equipment test facilities (RETF) based on PUREX process technologies. With economics, reduction of environmental burdens and proliferation resistance taken into consideration, advanced aqueous method for nuclear fuel cycle activities has been promoted as the government's basic policy. Innovative technologies on mechanical disassembly, continuous rotary dissolver, crystallizer, solvent extraction and actinides recovery have been mainly studied. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semvua B. Kilonzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  19. Current Status of Operation and Management of Dental School Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, John W

    2017-08-01

    This article summarizes the current status of the operation and management of dental school clinics as schools strive to provide excellent patient-centered care in an environment that is educationally sound, efficient, and financially strong. Clinical education is a large component of dental education and an area in which many dental schools have an opportunity to enhance revenue. Clinical efficiencies and alternative models of clinical education are evolving in U.S. dental schools, and this article describes some of those evolutionary changes. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  20. CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hak

    2017-07-01

    Computed tomography myocardial perfusion (CTP) combined with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) may constitute a "1-stop shop" for the noninvasive diagnosis of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis during a single CT examination. CTP shows high diagnostic performance and provides incremental value over CCTA for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis in patients with a high Agatston calcium score or coronary artery stents. Future studies should determine the optimal protocol and clinical value of CTP for guiding revascularization strategy and prognostication. In this article, we review the current status and future perspectives of CTP, focusing on technical considerations, clinical applications, and future research topics.

  1. Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutynska L. T.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

  2. Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D. P.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: dragon@vin.bg.ac.yu; Antic, D.)

    2005-01-01

    Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

  3. ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

  4. Current status of the nuclear medicine in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, K.

    1974-01-01

    A brief survey of the current status of Japan nuclear medicine is given. The following data are described (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference of Radioisotopes): 1. the increase of the number of nuclear instruments between 1971 and 1973; 2. the total amount of the cobalt radiation apparatur (inclusive of the cesium apparatus) in the hospitals in 1971- and 1972; 3. the radioactive medicines and nuclids used in Japan; 4. the radioactive isotopes used generally in the therapeutics in 1971 and 1972; 5. the question of labour. (K.A.)

  5. Community-based dental education: history, current status, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.

  6. Current status of endoscopic simulation in gastroenterology fellowship training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Thompson, Christopher C

    2015-07-01

    Recent guidelines have encouraged gastroenterology and surgical training programs to integrate simulation into their core endoscopic curricula. However, the role that simulation currently has within training programs is unknown. This study aims to assess the current status of simulation among gastroenterology fellowship programs. This questionnaire study consisted of 38 fields divided into two sections. The first section queried program directors' experience on simulation and assessed the current status of simulation at their institution. The second portion surveyed their opinion on the potential role of simulation on the training curriculum. The study was conducted at the 2013 American Gastroenterological Association Training Directors' Workshop in Phoenix, Arizona. The participants were program directors from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited gastroenterology training programs, who attended the workshop. The questionnaire was returned by 69 of 97 program directors (response rate of 71%). 42% of programs had an endoscopic simulator. Computerized simulators (61.5%) were the most common, followed by mechanical (30.8%) and animal tissue (7.7%) simulators, respectively. Eleven programs (15%) required fellows to use simulation prior to clinical cases. Only one program has a minimum number of hours fellows have to participate in simulation training. Current simulators are deemed as easy to use (76%) and good educational tools (65%). Problems are cost (72%) and accessibility (69%). The majority of program directors believe that there is a need for endoscopic simulator training, with only 8% disagreeing. Additionally, a majority believe there is a role for simulation prior to initiation of clinical cases with 15% disagreeing. Gastroenterology fellowship program directors widely recognize the importance of simulation. Nevertheless, simulation is used by only 42% of programs and only 15% of programs require that trainees use simulation prior to

  7. Phase-space holes due to electron and ion beams accelerated by a current-driven potential ramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Goldman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional open-boundary simulations have been carried out in a current-carrying plasma seeded with a neutral density depression and with no initial electric field. These simulations show the development of a variety of nonlinear localized electric field structures: double layers (unipolar localized fields, fast electron phase-space holes (bipolar fields moving in the direction of electrons accelerated by the double layer and trains of slow alternating electron and ion phase-space holes (wave-like fields moving in the direction of ions accelerated by the double layer. The principal new result in this paper is to show by means of a linear stability analysis that the slow-moving trains of electron and ion holes are likely to be the result of saturation via trapping of a kinetic-Buneman instability driven by the interaction of accelerated ions with unaccelerated electrons.

  8. Black holes in massive close binaries - observational data and evolutionary status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.; Moskovskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet, Moscow, USSR)

    1985-01-01

    The available information on the mass of four candidate black holes in X-ray binary systems is summarized; these systems are compared with neutron star binaries with regard to the mass of their components. In mass, the relativistic objects form two distinct groups, neutron stars with masses equal to about 1-2 solar masses and black hole candidates with masses equal to about 10-60 solar masses (there seem to be no intermediate cases), but there is no correlation with the mass of the optical star. Mass exchange between the optical component of a close binary and its neutron star companion would be unlikely to produce a black hole more massive than 5-7 solar masses. Instead, the black holes having masses greater than about 10 solar masses might result from core collapse in stars of initial mass equating 20-100 solar masses through either a rise in the presupernova core mass or weakness of the magnetic field. The (10-30)-fold disparity in the incidence of black holes coupled with OB stars and with radio pulsars could indicate that black holes tend to form in pairs. 36 references

  9. Finite element model study of the effect of corner rounding on detectability of corner cracks using bolt hole eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, P. R.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Recent work has shown that the detectability of corner cracks in bolt-holes is compromised when rounding of corners arises, as might occur during bolt-hole removal. Probability of Detection (POD) studies normally require a large number of samples of both fatigue cracks and electric discharge machined notches. In the particular instance of rounding of bolt-hole corners the generation of such a large set of samples representing the full spectrum of potential rounding would be prohibitive. In this paper, the application of Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling is used to supplement the study of detection of cracks forming at the rounded corners of bolt-holes. FEM models show that rounding of the corner of the bolt-hole reduces the size of the response to a corner crack to a greater extent than can be accounted for by loss of crack area. This reduced sensitivity can be ascribed to a lower concentration of eddy currents at the rounded corner surface and greater lift-off of pick-up coils relative to that of a straight-edge corner. A rounding with a radius of 0.4 mm (.016 inch) showed a 20% reduction in the strength of the crack signal. Assuming linearity of the crack signal with crack size, this would suggest an increase in the minimum detectable size by 25%.

  10. MONK and MCBEND: Current status and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Simon D.; Baker, Chris M.J.; Bird, Adam J.; Cowan, Pat; Davies, Nigel; Dobson, Geoff P.; Fry, Tim C.; Kyrieleis, Albrecht; Smith, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We describe recent developments to the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCBEND. • MONK is a Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality and reactor physics analyses. • MCBEND is a Monte Carlo code for radiation shielding and dosimetry analyses. • Improvements include input; physics; scoring; variance reduction; and visualisation. • Parallelisation of MONK and multi-physics coupling are described. - Abstract: MONK® and MCBEND are Monte Carlo software packages for: nuclear criticality and reactor physics; and radiation shielding and dosimetry applications, respectively. The codes are actively developed, maintained and supported by AMEC’s ANSWERS® Software Service in line with the ANSWERS vision of providing easy-to-use software that meets the current and emerging needs of the user community. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND and the recent developments which have been carried out to the codes, and their supporting nuclear data libraries and visualisation package

  11. Review of the current status of linear hybrid reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1977-07-01

    A review was made of the current status of linear fusion-fission hybrid reactor design studies in the USA. The linear hybrid reactor concepts reviewed include the linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor being studied at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, the electron beam-heated solenoid hybrid reactor under development at Physics International Co., the laser-heated solenoid hybrid reactor being investigated at Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc., and the linear fusion waste burning reactor being studied at General Atomic Company. The discussion addresses confinement and heating mechanisms for each concept, as well as the hybrid blanket designs. The current state of the four reactor designs is summarized and the performance of the various concepts compared

  12. Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Morgan, M.V.; Buechley, R.W.; Key, C.R.; Valdivia, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

  13. Elementary particle physics and cosmology: current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubakov, Valerii A

    1999-01-01

    The current status of elementary particle physics can be briefly summarized as follows: the Standard Model of elementary particles is perfectly (at the level of radiation effects!) adequate in describing all the available experimental data except for the recent indications of neutrino oscillations. At the same time, much (and possibly most) of today's cosmology is not encompassed by the Standard Model - a fact which, together with intrinsic theoretical difficulties and the neutrino oscillation challenge, strongly indicates that the Standard Model is incomplete. It is expected that in the current decade a 'new physics', i.e. particles and interactions beyond the Standard Model, will emerge. Major advances in cosmology, both in terms of qualitatively improved observations and theoretical analysis of the structure and evolution of the Universe, are expected as well. (special issue)

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  15. Research Experience in Psychiatry Residency Programs Across Canada: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Method: Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Results: Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents’ final work. Conclusions: The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs. PMID:25565474

  16. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  17. Parametric overdispersed frailty models for current status data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert; Hens, Niel

    2017-12-01

    Frailty models have a prominent place in survival analysis to model univariate and multivariate time-to-event data, often complicated by the presence of different types of censoring. In recent years, frailty modeling gained popularity in infectious disease epidemiology to quantify unobserved heterogeneity using Type I interval-censored serological data or current status data. In a multivariate setting, frailty models prove useful to assess the association between infection times related to multiple distinct infections acquired by the same individual. In addition to dependence among individual infection times, overdispersion can arise when the observed variability in the data exceeds the one implied by the model. In this article, we discuss parametric overdispersed frailty models for time-to-event data under Type I interval-censoring, building upon the work by Molenberghs et al. (2010) and Hens et al. (2009). The proposed methodology is illustrated using bivariate serological data on hepatitis A and B from Flanders, Belgium anno 1993-1994. Furthermore, the relationship between individual heterogeneity and overdispersion at a stratum-specific level is studied through simulations. Although it is important to account for overdispersion, one should be cautious when modeling both individual heterogeneity and overdispersion based on current status data as model selection is hampered by the loss of information due to censoring. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  19. Reduction of eddy current losses around bushing holes on the top-plate of a high efficient transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aytaç ÇINAR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Low voltage winding leads cause local eddy current losses in top-plate of the transformer tank. In this paper, this loss component which also causes local hot spots is investigated. Top-plate design is modified using stainless steel non-magnetic material, around the low voltage bushing holes. Manufacturing issues and cost as well as power losses are considered as main criteria during modification study. Magnetic flux distributions and eddy current losses are analysed and compared for different designs. Comparisons are based on 3D finite element simulations and experimental studies. Obtained results show that, insertion of single I-shaped stainless steel plate reduces eddy current losses around low voltage bushing holes to nearly zero.

  20. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L Gillies

    Full Text Available We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia's two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia's shellfish ecosystems.

  1. Smart wearable systems: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marie; Estève, Daniel; Fourniols, Jean-Yves; Escriba, Christophe; Campo, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Extensive efforts have been made in both academia and industry in the research and development of smart wearable systems (SWS) for health monitoring (HM). Primarily influenced by skyrocketing healthcare costs and supported by recent technological advances in micro- and nanotechnologies, miniaturisation of sensors, and smart fabrics, the continuous advances in SWS will progressively change the landscape of healthcare by allowing individual management and continuous monitoring of a patient's health status. Consisting of various components and devices, ranging from sensors and actuators to multimedia devices, these systems support complex healthcare applications and enable low-cost wearable, non-invasive alternatives for continuous 24-h monitoring of health, activity, mobility, and mental status, both indoors and outdoors. Our objective has been to examine the current research in wearable to serve as references for researchers and provide perspectives for future research. Herein, we review the current research and development of and the challenges facing SWS for HM, focusing on multi-parameter physiological sensor systems and activity and mobility measurement system designs that reliably measure mobility or vital signs and integrate real-time decision support processing for disease prevention, symptom detection, and diagnosis. For this literature review, we have chosen specific selection criteria to include papers in which wearable systems or devices are covered. We describe the state of the art in SWS and provide a survey of recent implementations of wearable health-care systems. We describe current issues, challenges, and prospects of SWS. We conclude by identifying the future challenges facing SWS for HM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Chris L.; McLeod, Ian M.; Alleway, Heidi K.; Cook, Peter; Crawford, Christine; Creighton, Colin; Diggles, Ben; Ford, John; Hamer, Paul; Heller-Wagner, Gideon; Lebrault, Emma; Le Port, Agnès; Russell, Kylie; Sheaves, Marcus; Warnock, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia’s two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia’s shellfish ecosystems. PMID:29444143

  3. Nuclear power for sustainable development. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactors. By addressing many of the public health and safety risks that plagued the industry since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, these reactors may help break the current deadlock over nuclear power. In that case, nuclear power could make a significant contribution towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, significant issues persist, fueling reservations among the public and many decision makers. Nuclear safety, disposal of radioactive wastes, and proliferation of nuclear explosives need to be addressed in an effective and credible way if the necessary public support is to be obtained. (author)

  4. Current status of cerebral glioma surgery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-song; Zhang, Jie; Zhuang, Dong-xiao; Yao, Cheng-jun; Qiu, Tian-ming; Lu, Jun-feng; Zhu, Feng-ping; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2011-09-01

    The treatment of gliomas is highly individualized. Surgery for gliomas is essentially for histological diagnosis, to alleviate mass effect, and most importantly, to favor longer survival expectancy. During the past two decades, many surgical techniques and adjuvants have been applied to glioma surgery in China, which lead to a rapid development in the field of cerebral glioma surgery. This article broadly and critically reviewed the existing studies on cerebral glioma surgery and to portrait the current status of glioma surgery in China. A literature search was conducted covering major innovative surgical techniques and adjuvants for glioma surgery in China. The following databases were searched: the Pubmed (January 1995 to date); China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (January 1995 to date) and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (January 1995 to date). A selection criterion was established to exclude duplicates and irrelevant studies. The outcome measures were extracted from included studies. A total of 3307 articles were initially searched. After excluded by abstracts and full texts, 69 studies conducted in the mainland of China were included and went through further analysis. The philosophy of surgical strategies for cerebral gliomas in China is undergoing tremendous change. Nowadays Chinese neurosurgeons pay more attention to the postoperative neurofunctional status of the patients. The aim of the glioma surgery is not only the more extensive tumor resection but also the maximal safety of intervention. The well balance of longer overall survival and higher quality of life should be judged with respect to each individual patient.

  5. Current Diagnosis, Treatment and Etiology of Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Kürşad Akpınar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Status Epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency that causes significant morbidity and mortality and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although SE can be divided into two subgroups as convulsive and nonconvulsive, treatment principles are generally similar. Treatment should be prompt and underlying cause should be corrected. Although intravenous lorazepam is the first-line treatment due to a lower risk of relapse, diazepam becomes the first choice since loeazepan is not available in our country. Even though intravenous benzodiazepine stops seizures, intravenous antiepileptic drug (phenytoin, etc. should be administered at a loading dose. Patients with refractory status epilepticus should be supported with respect to vital, respiratory, metabolic and hemodynamic aspects and followed up in an intensive care unit to monitor cerebral electrical activity. The most common cause in the etiology is the cessation of antiepileptic drugs. The aim of SE treatment is to stop seizures and prevent complications and recurrence. In this paper, current diagnosis, treatment and etiology of SE are reviewed.

  6. In vivo microrobots for natural orifice transluminal surgery. Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, A

    2009-06-01

    The possibility to operate inside the peritoneal cavity through small holes performed in hollow organs that is presented by Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) represents a major paradigm shift in general surgery. While this new approach seems very appealing from patients' perspectives because it eliminates completely abdominal wall aggression and promises to reduce postoperative pain, it is very challenging for surgeons because of the major constraints imposed by both the mode of access and the limited technology currently available. For this reason NOTES applications at the present time are performed by only a few surgeons and mainly to perform non-complex procedures. While new devices are under development, many of them are trying mainly to simply improve current endoscopic platforms and seem not to offer breakthrough solutions. The numerous challenges introduced by natural orifice approaches require a radical shift in the conception of new technologies in order to make this emerging operative access safe and reproducible. The convergence of several enabling technologies in the field of miniaturization, communication and micro-mechatronics brings the possibility to realize on a large scale the revolutionary concept of miniature in vivo co-operative robots. These robots provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision and have been shown in experimental settings to possess many qualities that could be ideal to partner with Natural Orifice Surgery. This article explores the current status of microrobotics as well as presents potential future scenarios of their applications in NOTES.

  7. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support.

  8. [Current status and sustainable development countermeasures of Anoectochilus roxburghii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lin; Shao, Qing-Song; Zhou, Ai-Cun; Wang, Hong-Zhen; Zhang, Ai-Lian; Xu, Jian-Wei; Huang, Yu-Qiu

    2016-02-01

    The current status of the domestic manufacturing and sales markets of Anoectochilus roxburghii were investigated and analyzed in the study. Some problems in the A. roxburghii industry were revealed and a variety of sustainable development countermeasures were also proposed. The main problems of A. roxburghii industry are the lack of protection for wild resources, the lag in the speed of variety breeding, the insufficient research on the quality systems, the low level of industry and product innovation capability, as well as the relatively low market cognition and brand competence. Therefore, strengthening the protection for breeding resources, establishing a dynamic monitoring system, promoting the variety breeding, constructing a propagation system for improved varieties, enhancing the quality of medicinal herbs, accelerating the adjustment of product structure, upgrading the industry technology, strengthening brand competence and expanding the market, will be the effective methods to realize the sustainable development of A. roxburghii industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Current Status of HbA1c Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Yi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is formed via non-enzymatic glycosylation reactions at the α–amino group of βVal1 residues in the tetrameric Hb, and it can reflect the ambient glycemic level over the past two to three months. A variety of HbA1c detection methods, including chromatography, immunoassay, enzymatic measurement, electrochemical sensor and capillary electrophoresis have been developed and used in research laboratories and in clinics as well. In this review, we summarize the current status of HbA1c biosensors based on the recognition of the sugar moiety on the protein and also their applications in the whole blood sample measurements. PMID:28777351

  10. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together

  11. Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

  12. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  13. Current Status and Application of Hazard Definition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George C.

    1997-01-01

    A research is performed: to define wake non-encounter & hazard, to provide requirements for sensors, and to obtain input from the user community. This research includes: validating wake encounter simulation models, establishing a metric to quantify the upset potential of a wake encounter, applying hazard metric and simulation models to the commercial fleet for development of candidate acceptable encounter limits, and applying technology to near term problems to evaluate current status of technology. The following lessons are learned from this project: technology is not adequate to determine absolute spacing requirements; time, not distance, determines the duration of the wake hazard; Optimum standards depend on the traffic; Wing span is an important parameter for characterizing both generator and follower; and Short span "biz jets" are easily rolled.

  14. Current Status of QA For Nuclear Power Plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Hitohiko

    1986-01-01

    It is the current status of QA and our QA experiences with nuclear power plants against the background of the Japanese social and business environment. Accordingly, in 1972, 'The Guidance for Quality Assurance in Construction of Nuclear Power Plants' based on U. S. 10CEF50 Appendix B, was published by the Japan Electric Association. 'Jug-4101 The Guide for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants' has been prepared by referring to the IAEA QA code. The Guide has been accepted by the Japanese nuclear industry and applied to the QA programs of every organization concerned therewith. The Japanese approach to higher quality will naturally be different from that of other countries because of Japan's cultural, social, and economic conditions. Even higher quality is being aimed at through the LWR Improvement and Standardization Program and coordinated quality assurance efforts

  15. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  16. The Dortmund low background facility. Current status and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, Claus; Kroeninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian [Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility (DLB) is a low-background gamma ray spectrometry system with an artificial overburden. The overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, in combination with a multi-layer lead castle and an active muon veto are shielding a high-purity germanium detector of 60 % relative efficiency. The background level is remarkably low compared to a conventional spectrometer system without special shielding and enables sensitivities well below 1 Bq/kg. Thus, material screening measurements as well as environmental monitoring measurements are possible on an easy-accessible location above ground at the campus of the Technische Universitaet Dortmund. The integral background count rate between 40 keV and 2700 keV is 2.528±0.004 counts/kg/min, which is comparable to systems that are situated below ground. In the talk, an overview of the current status of the DLB is given and recent developments are presented.

  17. Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Current status of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Dentists belong to a professional group potentially exposed to harmful biological factors which most often are infectious microorganisms, less frequently - allergenic or toxic microorganisms. The fundamental routes of spreading harmful microorganisms in a dental surgery are: blood-borne, saliva-droplet, direct contact with a patient and with infected equipment, and water-droplet infections. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on microbiological hazards in a dentist's work is presented. Groups of microorganisms, such as prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to which a dentist is, or may be exposed, are discussed. Epidemiological assessment of microbiological hazards in a dentist's work was performed and the basic principles of prevention formulated. Special attention was given to microflora in dental unit waterlines, and the biofilm persisting in them, as a source of occupational hazards specific for a dentist's workplace.

  18. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeting China's future energy needs. Additionally, considering the uneven distribution of China's marine renewable energy and the influences of its exploitation on the environment, we have suggested several sites with great potential for each kind of marine energy. Furthermore, perspectives on and challenges related with marine renewable energy in China are addressed.

  19. Materials technology for fusion - Current status and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Bloom, E.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Stevenson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The general status of the materials research and development activities currently under way in support of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors in the United States is reviewed. In the area of magnetic confinement configurations, attention is given to development programs for first wall materials, which are at various stages for possible austenitic stainless steels, high-strength Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, reactive and refractory metal alloys, specially designed long-range ordered and rapidly solidified alloys, and ferritic/martensitic steels, and for tritium breeding materials, electrical insulators, ceramics, and coolants. The development of materials for inertial confinement reactors is also surveyed in relation to the protection scheme employed for the first wall and the effects of pulsed neutron irradiation. Finally, the materials requirements and selection procedures for the ETF/INTOR and Starfire tokamak reactor designs are examined. Needs for the expansion of research on nonfirst-wall materials and inertial confinement fusion reactor material requirements are pointed out

  20. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  1. Current status of the Fastbus Micro-Vax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The present hardware, firmware, and software design and status of the Fastbus Micro-VAX, a two board Fastbus module packaging of the DEC Micro-VAX II computing system, is described. The hardware currently features an Intel 80186, equipped with 64 kB of ROM, 32 kB of RAM, and an 82586/82501 Ethernet port, as a front end I/O processor, plus a high bandwidth Fastbus interface implemented in semi-custom ECL 100K VLSI with the Motorola MCA2500ECL macrocell array. Standard 80186 firmware implements multiple Fastbus segment drivers and interrupt receivers software compatible with the UPI, a limited Fastbus interprocessor network, and emulations of the DEC DEQNA Ethernet interface and an MSCP disk interface. Software includes device drivers for the non-DEC devices, plus appropriate standard access subroutines for the Fastbus and network devices

  2. Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rourke, Fergal O.; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

  3. Current status of RTO development and its implications for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, M. [Powerex Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation includes a corporate review of Powerex, a review of Order 2000, and the current status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) efforts regarding Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs). Other topics of discussion include FERC's standard market design, an update of RTO West and implications for Canada. Powerex was incorporated in 1988 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of BC Hydro. British Columbia-based Powerex's heaviest trading is along the western-most states and Alberta, but it is slowly expanding into central and eastern markets. It evolved by selling and buying power at the United States Border. It received US FERC power marketing authorization in 1997 and has since seen sales jump from C$165 million to C$5.4 billion. Currently, the majority of power supply is from utilities other than BC Hydro. The presentation addresses issues such as the Federal Power Act, PUHCA and PURPA, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act which deals with expanded access to the power grid. Power Pool restructuring and FERC orders 888/889 are also discussed. 2 figs.

  4. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plutonium metal exchange program : current status and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, L. (Lav); Eglin, J. L. (Judith Lynn); Michalak, S. E. (Sarah E.); Picard, R. R.; Temer, D. J. (Donald J.)

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. The Rocky Flats program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. In 2001, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) reestablished the Pu Metal Exchange program. In addition to the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, six Department of Energy (DOE) facilities Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, New Brunswick Laboratory, and Savannah River are currently participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are prepared and distributed to the sites for destructive measurements to determine elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program provides independent verification of analytical measurement capabilies for each participating facility and allows problems in analytical methods to be identified. The current status of the program will be discussed with emphasis on the unique statistical analysis and modeling of the data developed for the program. The discussion includes the definition of the consensus values for each analyte (in the presence and absence of anomalous values and/or censored values), and interesting features of the data and the results.

  6. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gun Kwack

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system, which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  7. Current status of RTO development and its implications for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, M.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation includes a corporate review of Powerex, a review of Order 2000, and the current status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) efforts regarding Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs). Other topics of discussion include FERC's standard market design, an update of RTO West and implications for Canada. Powerex was incorporated in 1988 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of BC Hydro. British Columbia-based Powerex's heaviest trading is along the western-most states and Alberta, but it is slowly expanding into central and eastern markets. It evolved by selling and buying power at the United States Border. It received US FERC power marketing authorization in 1997 and has since seen sales jump from C$165 million to C$5.4 billion. Currently, the majority of power supply is from utilities other than BC Hydro. The presentation addresses issues such as the Federal Power Act, PUHCA and PURPA, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act which deals with expanded access to the power grid. Power Pool restructuring and FERC orders 888/889 are also discussed. 2 figs

  8. Current Status of Postdoctoral and Graduate Programs in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assael, Leon

    2017-08-01

    Advanced dental education has evolved in the context of societal needs and economic trends to its current status. Graduate programs have positioned their role in the context of health systems and health science education trends in hospitals, interprofessional clinical care teams, and dental schools and oral health care systems. Graduate dental education has been a critical factor in developing teams in trauma care, craniofacial disorders, pediatric and adult medicine, and oncology. The misalignment of the mission of graduate dental programs and the demands of private practice has posed a challenge in the evolution of programs as educational programs have been directed towards tertiary and indigent care while the practice community focuses on largely healthy affluent patients for complex clinical interventions. Those seeking graduate dental education today are smaller in number and include more international dental graduates than in the past. Graduate dental education in general dentistry and in the nine recognized dental specialties now includes Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) recognition of training standards as part of its accreditation process and a CODA accreditation process for areas of clinical education not recognized as specialties by the American Dental Association. Current types of programs include fellowship training for students in recognized specialties. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  9. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  10. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  11. Cost Estimating in DoD: Current Status, Trends, and What the Future Holds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nussbaum, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    (1) Current Status: Baseline analysis of current cost estimating community, including which organizations are responsible for developing and reviewing cost estimates, how many personnel there are, what...

  12. Pediatric neurology training in Canada: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doja, Asif

    2012-05-01

    Child neurology training in Canada has changed considerably over time, with increasing requirements for standardized teaching of the fundamentals of child neurology and the CanMEDS competencies. We sought to determine the current status of child neurology training in Canada as well future directions for training. A web-based survey was sent to program directors (PD's) of active pediatric neurology training programs. General questions about the programs were asked, as well as about success at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) exam, breakdown of rotations, views on CanMEDS roles and questions on the future of pediatric neurology. 9/9 PD's completed the survey. 96.5% of all trainees successfully passed their RCPSC exam from 2001-2006. Breakdowns of the number and type of rotations for each year of training were provided. All CanMEDS roles were deemed to be important by PD's and programs have developed unique strategies to teach and assess these roles.92.6% of trainees chose to go into academic practice, with the most popular subspecialty being epilepsy. All PD's favour joint training sessions particularly for neurogenetics and neuromuscular disease. Overall, PD's suggest recruitment for future child neurologists at the medical student level but are divided as to whether we are currently training too few or too many child neurologists. This survey provides a view of the current state of pediatric neurology training in Canada and suggestions for further development of post-graduate training. In particular, attention should be given to joint educational programs as well as urgently assessing the manpower needs of child neurologists.

  13. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Personal dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine: current status and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V. V.; Musijachenkom, A. V.; Boguslavskaya, A. I.

    2003-01-01

    Presently Ukraine has mixed system for dosimetric monitoring. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services, which are responsible for regular dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by dosimetry laboratories affiliated to the territorial authorities for sanitary and epidemiology supervision. In 2002-2003 Ukrainian Ministry of Health performed survey of the status of dosimetric monitoring and inventory of critical groups requiring such monitoring. Dosimetry services in Ukraine cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca.12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services operate in 13 of 24 regions of Ukraine, using DTU-01 manual TLD readers produced with one exception in 1988-1990. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38% to 100% depending on the region. Personnel of nuclear power plants (about 16,400 workers) is monitored by their own dosimetry services achieving absolute coverage of the main staff and temporary workers. Current inadequate status of dosimetric monitoring infrastructure in Ukraine demands an urgent elaboration of the united state system for monitoring and recording of individual doses. The proposed plan would allows to bring dosimetry infrastructure in Ukraine to the modern state which would be compatible with existing and future European and international radiation protection networks. Unitary structure of Ukraine, strong administrative command and good communications between regions of the country are positive factors in favour of efficient implementation of the proposed plan. Deficiencies are associated with limited funding of this effort. (authors)

  15. Current status and future prospects on nuclear industry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joongjae

    2006-01-01

    It is ny great pleasure to have this chance of speaking at twenty-first KAIF/KNS Annual Conference, with the subject of the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea. As you all know, since the start of operation in Obninsk, the former Soviet Union, on June 26th, 1954, nuclear generation in the world has expanded continuously for the past 50 years. In 1973, when the first oil crisis hit the world, there were 147 nuclear power plants in operation, supplying only 0.8% of the world energy demand. About 30 years later, by the end of last year, 443 plants were in operation in 32 countries, supplying about 16% of the world power demand. Nuclear power generation is greatly contributing to the energy security of many countries and preservation of global environments. Recently, countries all over the world are becoming aware of the values and importance of nuclear energy which can help respond to energy crises caused by a sharp rise in oil prices and protect the earth from global warming. Due to its high energy density and ability to secure fuel supply at a lower cost, in addition to its cleanliness resulting from almost no emission of greenhouse gases, nuclear power generation is the practical alternative for energy security and the prevention of global warming. However, in the rapidly changing 21st century, the nuclear industries of the world, as well as Korea, are facing more challenges than ever before. The political and social disputes on nuclear generation are continuing while we all are facing urgent challenges, including the concerns about the safety of nuclear generation, procuring site to build nuclear power plants, and the improvement of competitiveness. Please allow me to remind you that it is very important for the world's nuclear societies to cooperate together in order to overcome diverse difficulties along our path and to contribute to the development of mankind and preservation of natural environments with nuclear power as a

  16. [Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabić-Stanković, Kata M; Stanković, Jovan B; Radosević-Jelić, Ljiljana M

    2004-01-01

    After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower) for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and matched to point current status. The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%), as well as, ADAC (43.7%) and Focus (CMS) (27.4%) systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%), although classic "simulation" is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%). About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CPRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.). CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day). Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor developement strategies do not point that

  17. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.

  18. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: current status and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Shai; Deutsch, Israel; Antonelli, Massimo; Hockey, Peter M; Rozenblum, Ronen; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2010-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common hazardous complication in ICU patients. The aim of the current review is to give an update on the current status and future recommendations for VAP prevention. This article gives an updated review of the current literature on VAP. The first part briefly reviews pathogenesis and epidemiology while the second includes an in-depth review of evidence-based practice guidelines (EBPG) and new technologies developed for prevention of VAP. VAP remains a frequent and costly complication of critical illness with a pooled relative risk of 9-27% and mortality of 25-50%. Strikingly, VAP adds an estimated cost of more than $40,000 to a typical hospital admission. An important aetiological mechanism of VAP is gross or micro-aspiration of oropharyngeal organisms around the cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) into the distal bronchi. Prevention of VAP is preferable. Preventative measures can be divided into two main groups: the implemen- tation of EBPGs and use of device-based technologies. EBPGs have been authored jointly by the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The Canadian Critical Care Trials group also published VAP Guidelines in 2008. Their recommendations are detailed in this review. The current device-based technologies include drainage of subglottic secretions, silver coated ETTs aiming to influence the internal bio-layer of the ETT, better sealing of the lower airways with ultrathin cuffs and loops for optimal cuff pressure control. EBPG consensus includes: elevation of the head of the bed, use of daily "sedation vacations" and decontamination of the oropharynx. Technological solutions should aim to use the most comprehensive combination of subglottic suction of secretions, optimization of ETT cuff pressure and ultrathin cuffs. VAP is a type of hospital-acquired pneumonia that develops more than 48 h after endotracheal intubation. Its incidence is estimated to be 9-27%, with a

  19. Cyclotron facilities in Brazil: Current status and licensing aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, A.; Carvalho, S.M.; Di Prinzio, R.; Silveira, C.S.; Gasparian, P.B.R.; Franca, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive and accurate nuclear medicine imaging technology but the major problem of this technique is the use of radioisotopes with short half-life, less than two hours. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes used to be monopoly of the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centers very far from the government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of short half-life radioisotopes production in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. In Brazil, as has been occurring worldwide, the number of nuclear medicine centers is increasing. Currently there are 123 services performing PET scans in Brazil. There are 14 cyclotrons operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this there is a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast and no cyclotrons operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel as operation workers and radiation safety officers. The number of cyclotron accelerators and PET/CT equipment increased in recent years. However, a number of external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centers, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility. (author)

  20. Cyclotron facilities in Brazil: Current status and licensing aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, A.; Carvalho, S.M.; Di Prinzio, R.; Silveira, C.S.; Gasparian, P.B.R.; Franca, W.F., E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive and accurate nuclear medicine imaging technology but the major problem of this technique is the use of radioisotopes with short half-life, less than two hours. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes used to be monopoly of the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centers very far from the government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of short half-life radioisotopes production in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. In Brazil, as has been occurring worldwide, the number of nuclear medicine centers is increasing. Currently there are 123 services performing PET scans in Brazil. There are 14 cyclotrons operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this there is a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast and no cyclotrons operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel as operation workers and radiation safety officers. The number of cyclotron accelerators and PET/CT equipment increased in recent years. However, a number of external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centers, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility. (author)

  1. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  2. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  3. Oil development in China: Current status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Linwei; Fu Feng; Li Zheng; Liu Pei

    2012-01-01

    The future of oil has become an important topic of the discussion of energy policy in China. This paper attempts to present a full picture of the current status and future trends of China’s oil development through system analysis. First, we map a Sankey diagram of China’s oil flow to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. Then, we present the historical and ongoing trends of China’s oil flow from key aspects such as oil demand, oil resource availability, technology improvement, and policy adjustment. Based on these understandings, we design three scenarios of China’s oil demand in 2030, and analyze policy implications for oil saving, automotive energy development, and energy security. From the analysis, we draw some conclusions for policy decisions, such as to control the total oil consumption to avoid energy security risks, to enhance oil saving in all sectors with road transportation as the emphasis, and to increase the investment on oil production and refining to secure oil supply and reduce emissions. - Highlights: ► A Sankey Diagram to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. ► Present the ongoing trends of China’s oil development. ► Discuss important policy issues such as oil saving, energy security, and emissions reduction.

  4. The current status and prospect of nuclear power in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S. [State Nuclear Power Technology Corp., Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:' China's nuclear power development has attracted world attention. This paper presented the current status of the nuclear power plant in China. By June 30, 2014, China has 20 operational units of 18.05GWe installed capacity, taking up 1.44% of the country's total. All the units have been operating well without any events above INES Level 1 in 2013. China also has 28 units of 30.5GWe installed capacity under construction, which accounts for around 40% of that in the world. The paper presented the progress of AP1000 in China. China made a national plan for 2011 to 2020 with the target to reach 58GWe operational nuclear power and 30GWe under construction by 2020. The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged recently to speed up the approval for new builds. This paper also presented the work of 'Go Global' by Chinese nuclear companies, i.e., their development of international market. (author)

  5. The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngalie, J.E.; Mompome, W.K.; Meza, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  6. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nleya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA. Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  7. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Nancy; Adetunji, Modupeade Christianah; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  8. Current status of the development of international exemption principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    For the past several years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been investigating the possibility of exempting certain radiation sources and practices from regulatory control. Initial efforts were conducted under the general heading of de minimis. Interest in this topic arises from international recognition that a significant fraction of the wastes from industry, research, medicine, and the nuclear fuel cycle are contaminated to such low levels that applying regulatory controls may be unwarranted. The IAEA evaluation has been conducted by Advisory Groups considering two interrelated topics: to establish principles for exemption, and to apply the principles to various areas of waste management. The IAEA Advisory Groups developed the criteria from modeled assessments of the potential radiation exposure pathways and scenarios for individuals and population groups following the unrestricted release of radioactive materials. Although the scenarios and models used by the IAEA are necessarily generic, consultants to the Advisory Groups attempted to identify the most important radiation exposure pathways based on available literature. This approach is intended to provide the basic framework for the numerical derivation of generic exempt quantities that would be conservative in most situations. This paper discusses the current status of the IAEA's efforts on the subject of exemption and presents the generic results expressed as overall exemption limits for municipal wastes and materials for recycle and reuse

  9. Plague in Iran: its history and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  10. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  11. Current status and progress of pancreatic cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Quan-Jun; Yang, Feng; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2015-07-14

    Cancer is currently one of the most important public health problems in the world. Pancreatic cancer is a fatal disease with poor prognosis. As in most other countries, the health burden of pancreatic cancer in China is increasing, with annual mortality rates almost equal to incidence rates. The increasing trend of pancreatic cancer incidence is more significant in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Annual diagnoses and deaths of pancreatic cancer in China are now beyond the number of cases in the United States. GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates that cases in China account for 19.45% (65727/337872) of all newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 19.27% (63662/330391) of all deaths from pancreatic cancer worldwide. The population's growing socioeconomic status contributes to the rapid increase of China's proportional contribution to global rates. Here, we present an overview of control programs for pancreatic cancer in China focusing on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we describe key epidemiological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences between China and developed countries. Facts including no nationwide screening program for pancreatic cancer, delay in early detection resulting in a late stage at presentation, lack of awareness of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese population, and low investment compared with other cancer types by government have led to backwardness in China's pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we suggest measures to improve health outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients in China.

  12. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  13. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, J Azorin

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting

  14. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening: Current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Fu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a clinically feasible technology to prevent the transmission of monogenic inherited disorders in families afflicted the diseases to the future offsprings. The major technical hurdle is it does not have a general formula for all mutations, thus different gene locus needs individualized, customized design to make the diagnosis accurate enough to be applied on PGD, in which the quantity of DNA is scarce, whereas timely result is sometimes requested if fresh embryo transfer is desired. On the other hand, preimplantation genetic screening (PGS screens embryo with aneuploidy and was also known as PGD-A (A denotes aneuploidy in order to enhance the implantation rates as well as livebirth rates. In contrasts to PGD, PGS is still under ferocious debate, especially recent reports found that euploid babies were born after transferring the aneuploid embryos diagnosed by PGS back to the womb and only very few randomized trials of PGS are available in the literature. We have been doing PGD and/or PGS for more than 10 years as one of the core PGD/PGS laboratories in Taiwan. Here we provide a concise review of PGD/PGS regarding its current status, both domestically and globally, as well as its future challenges.

  15. Current status of Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA B-737 and FAA B-727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices have been conducted for a variety of runway surface types and wetness conditions. This effort is part of the Joint FAA/NASA Aircraft Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow-, and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed together with ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For the wet, compacted snow- and ice-covered runway conditions, the relationship between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, and surface contaminant type are discussed. The test results indicate that use of properly maintained and calibrated ground vehicles for monitoring runway friction conditions should be encouraged particularly under adverse weather conditions. The current status of the runway friction program is summarized and future test plans are identified.

  16. The SNO+ experiment. Current status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, Valentina [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator based experiment that reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector. The detector, located 2 km underground in a mine near Sudbury, Canada, consists of a 12 m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator. The main physics goal of SNO+ is to search for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 130}Te. During the double-beta phase, the liquid scintillator will be initially loaded with 0.3-0.5% natural tellurium. In 5 years of data taking, SNO+ expects to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of 55-133 meV, just above the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy region. Recently, the possibility to deploy up to 10 times more natural tellurium has been investigated, by which SNO+ could explore deep into the parameter space for the inverted hierarchy in the near future. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, SNO+ can additionally measure the reactor antineutrino oscillations, geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch supernova neutrinos and measure low-energy solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon. The scintillator phase is expected to start after few months of water data taking. The 0νββ decay phase is foreseen for the 2017. In this talk the current status and the broad physics program of SNO+ will be presented.

  17. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer

  18. Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Jai Pal

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  19. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  20. Current global status of carotid artery stent placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, M H; Wholey, M; Bergeron, P; Diethrich, E B; Henry, M; Laborde, J C; Mathias, K; Myla, S; Roubin, G S; Shawl, F; Theron, J G; Yadav, J S; Dorros, G; Guimaraens, J; Higashida, R; Kumar, V; Leon, M; Lim, M; Londero, H; Mesa, J; Ramee, S; Rodriguez, A; Rosenfield, K; Teitelbaum, G; Vozzi, C

    1998-05-01

    Our purpose was to review the current status of carotid artery stent placement throughout the world. Surveys were sent to major interventional centers in Europe, North and South America, and Asia. Information from peer-reviewed journals was also included and supplemented the survey. The survey asked various questions regarding the patients enrolled, procedure techniques, and results of carotid stenting, including complications and restenosis. Of the centers which were sent surveys, 24 responded. The total number of endovascular carotid stent procedures that have been performed worldwide to date included 2,048 cases, with a technical success of 98.6%. Complications that occurred during carotid stent placement or within a 30-day period following placement were recorded. Overall, there were 63 minor strokes, with a rate of occurrence of 3.08%. The total number of major strokes was 27, for a rate of 1.32%. There were 28 deaths within a 30-day postprocedure period, resulting in a mortality rate of 1.37%. Restenosis rates of carotid stenting have been 4.80% at 6 mo. Endovascular stent treatment of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is growing as an alternative to vascular surgery, especially for patients that are at high risk for standard carotid endarterectomy. The periprocedural risks for major and minor strokes and death are generally acceptable at this early stage of development.

  1. Collagen Cross-Linking: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Hovakimyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL using UVA light and riboflavin (vitamin B2 was introduced as a clinical application to stabilize the cornea by inducing cross-links within and between collagen fibers. CXL has been investigated extensively and has been shown clinically to arrest the progression of keratoconic or post-LASIK ectasia. With its minimal cost, simplicity, and proven positive clinical outcome, CXL can be regarded as a useful approach to reduce the number of penetrating keratoplasties performed. Small case series have also indicated that CXL is beneficial in corneal edema by reducing stromal swelling behavior and in keratitis by inhibiting pathogen growth. Despite these encouraging results, CXL remains a relatively new method that is potentially associated with complications. Aspects such as side effects and recurrence rates have still to be elucidated. In light of the growing interest in CXL, our paper summarizes present knowledge about this promising approach. We have intentionally endeavored to include the more relevant studies from the recent literature to provide an overview of the current status of CXL.

  2. Current Status of Manufacturing Hazardous Waste in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changqing; Zhang Jiangshan; Zhao Youcai

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to manage the manufacturing hazardous waste(MHW)whichis generated from a huge amount of complicated sources and causes very serious pollution.Therefore more and more attention has been paid to MHW pollution.shanghai,as an industrial and economic center and an intemational metropolis in China,has a vast industrial system spanning a multitude of sectors,which generates MHW not only in a huge magnitude but also in a large variety of types from complicated sourrces,resulting in severe pollution.In 2003,the production of MHW in Shanghai is about 3.96 x 10ton,involving 33 indices.Most of MHW in Shanghai is treated and disposed of,but a significant portion is not handled properly and effectively.This paper carries out in-field investigation on the current status of MHW production and treat ment in Shanghai,and puts forward scientific proposals that Shanghai should facilitate cleaner production and minimize haz ardous waste;strictly enforce hazardous waste registration system, strengthen monitoring the certified enterprises;strengthen intent disposal center construction and realize hazardous waste reclamation;accelerate establishing tlle technical criteria and the management policy,promote the research and development on the treatment and disposal technology,and strengthen information management,thus realizing integrated management on MHW pollution.

  3. Current status and directions for fast reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of fast breeder reactors (FBRs) for commercial electric power production has been under way in several countries for more than 20 years. In the United States (US), as elsewhere, early work was focused on small reactors to prove the feasibility of concepts and later was followed by larger reactors to test engineering features and to develop fuel technology. Because of the perceived crisis in electrical generation expected late in this century, major efforts (including fuel cycle activities) were developed in the early 1970s to ensure the capability of developing and using this new form of nuclear power. However, because of the effects of the oil price rise and subsequent emphasis on conservation, and a slowdown of industrial growth, there has been a decline in such activities, particularly in the US, which was at one time (1970s) the world leader in reactor development. This paper provides a brief history of breeder reprocessing and describes the current status, with emphasis on US programs and glimpses into the future

  4. The current status and prospect of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.

    2014-01-01

    'Full text:' China's nuclear power development has attracted world attention. This paper presented the current status of the nuclear power plant in China. By June 30, 2014, China has 20 operational units of 18.05GWe installed capacity, taking up 1.44% of the country's total. All the units have been operating well without any events above INES Level 1 in 2013. China also has 28 units of 30.5GWe installed capacity under construction, which accounts for around 40% of that in the world. The paper presented the progress of AP1000 in China. China made a national plan for 2011 to 2020 with the target to reach 58GWe operational nuclear power and 30GWe under construction by 2020. The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged recently to speed up the approval for new builds. This paper also presented the work of 'Go Global' by Chinese nuclear companies, i.e., their development of international market. (author)

  5. Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Vento, V. Thatar; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Ilardo, J.C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Estrada, L.; Sandin, J.C. Suarez; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Padulo, J.; Minsky, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

  6. Classical swine fever in India: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Sharad Kumar

    2018-05-04

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a globally significant disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus. The virus affects the wild boars and pigs of all age groups, leading to acute, chronic, late-onset or in-apparent course of the disease. The disease causes great economic loss to the piggery industry due to mortality, stunted growth, poor reproductive performance, and by impeding the international trade of pig and pig products. In India, CSF outbreaks are reported from most of the states wherever pig rearing is practiced and more frequently from northeast states. In spite of the highly devastating nature and frequent outbreaks, CSF remained underestimated and neglected for decades in India. The country requires rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests for an early detection of infection to limit the spread of the disease. Also, effective prophylactics are required to help in control and eradication of the disease for the development of the piggery industry. This review looks into the economic impact; epidemiology of CSF highlighting the temporal and spatial occurrence of outbreaks in the last two decades, circulation, and emergence of the virus genotypes in and around the country; and the constraints in the disease control, with the aim to update the knowledge of current status of the disease in India. The article also emphasizes the importance of the disease and the need to develop rapid specific diagnostics and effective measures to eradicate the disease.

  7. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. 2013 FRAME.

  8. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  10. Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

  11. Current Status of Periodic Safety Review of HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Choong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A PSR for a research reactor became a legal requirement as the Nuclear Safety Act was amended and came into effect in 2014. This paper describes the current status and methodology of the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of HANARO that is being performed. The legal requirements, work plan, and process of implementing a PSR are described. Because this is the first PSR for a research reactor, it is our understating that the operating organization and regulatory body should communicate well with each other to complete the PSR in a timely manner. The first PSR of HANARO is under way. In order to achieve a successful result, activities of the operation organization such as scheduling, maintaining consistency in input data for review, and reviewing the PSR reports that will require intensive resources should be well planned. This means the operating organization needs to incorporate appropriate measures to ensure the transfer of knowledge and expertise arising from the PSR via a contractor to the operation organization. It is desirable for the Regulatory Body to be involved in all stage of the PSR to prevent any waste of resources and minimize the potential for a reworking of the PSR and the need for an additional assessment and review as recommended by foreign experts.

  12. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.

  13. The payloads of Advanced Virgo: current status and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naticchioni, L.; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The development and integration of new detector payloads has been an important part of the Advanced Virgo (AdV) project, the major upgrade of the Virgo interferometric detector of Gravitational Waves, aiming to increase the detector sensitivity by one order of magnitude. During the integration phase of the new AdV payloads with monolithic suspension of mirrors we experienced systematic suspension failures later identified as caused by dust contamination of the vacuum system. In order to not postpone the detector commissioning, making possible to join the LIGO O2 observation run, the Collaboration decided to proceed with the integration of the payloads relying on steel wire suspensions for all the mirrors. In this proceeding the status of the currently integrated payloads is reported, including their angular control characterization and the Q-factor measurements for test mass steel wire suspensions. The payload upgrade for the re-integration of monolithic suspensions after the O2 run is reported in the last section.

  14. The current status of theory evaluation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-10-01

    To identify the current status of theory evaluation in nursing and provide directions for theory evaluation for future development of theoretical bases of nursing discipline. Theory evaluation is an essential component in development of nursing knowledge, which is a critical element in development of nursing discipline. Despite earlier significant efforts for theory evaluation in nursing, a recent decline in the number of theory evaluation articles was noted and there have been few updates on theory evaluation in nursing. Discussion paper. A total of 58 articles published from 2003-2014 were retrieved through searches using the PUBMED, PsyInfo and CINAHL. The articles were sorted by the area of evaluation and analysed to identify themes reflecting the theory evaluation process. Diverse ways of theory evaluation need to be continuously used in future theory evaluation efforts. Six themes reflecting the theory evaluation process were identified: (a) rarely using existing theory evaluation criteria; (b) evaluating specifics; (c) using various statistical analysis methods; (d) developing instruments; (e) adopting in practice and education; and (f) evaluating mainly middle-range theories and situation-specific theories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Sotiris; Christoforou, Eftychios G; Panayides, Andreas S; Voskarides, Sotos; Novales, Cyril; Nouaille, Laurence; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Vieyres, Pierre

    2016-08-12

    Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed.

  16. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R S; Scott, J F; Kohlstedt, H; Petraru, A; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-01-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO 2 , Cr 2 O 3 , FeO x and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 , Pb(Zr x Ti 1−x )O 3 , BiFeO 3 and Pr x Ca 1−x MnO 3 ; (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al 2 O 3 and Gd 2 O 3 ; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In 2 Se 3 and In 2 Te 3 . Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors. (review article)

  17. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.; Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-07-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1-x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1-xMnO3 (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

  18. Current and Future Status of Diversity in Ophthalmologist Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xierali, Imam M; Nivet, Marc A; Wilson, M Roy

    2016-09-01

    Increasing the level of diversity among ophthalmologists may help reduce disparities in eye care. To assess the current and future status of diversity among ophthalmologists in the workforce by sex, race, and ethnicity in the context of the available number of medical students in the United States. Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and US Census were used to evaluate the differences and trends in diversity among ophthalmologists, all full-time faculty except ophthalmology, ophthalmology faculty, ophthalmology residents, medical school students, and the US population between 2005 and 2015. For 2014, associations of sex, race, and ethnicity with physician practice locations were assessed. Proportions of ophthalmologists stratified by sex, race, and ethnicity between 2005 and 2015. Women and minority groups traditionally underrepresented in medicine (URM)-black, Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander-were underrepresented as practicing ophthalmologists (22.7% and 6%, respectively), ophthalmology faculty (35.1% and 5.7%, respectively), and ophthalmology residents (44.3% and 7.7%, respectively), compared with the US population (50.8% and 30.7%, respectively). During the past decade, there had been a modest increase in the proportion of female practicing ophthalmologists who graduated from US medical schools in 1980 or later (from 23.8% to 27.1%; P workforce despite an available pool of medical students. Given the prevalent racial and ethnic disparities in eye care and an increasingly diverse society, future research and training efforts that increase the level of diversity among medical students and residents seems warranted.

  19. Neutron star matter equation of state: current status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Neutron star matter has a variety of constituents and structures depending on the density; neutron-rich nuclei surounded by electrons and drip neutrons in the crust, pasta nuclei at the bottom of inner crust, and uniform isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in a superfluid state in the outer core. In the inner core, the neutron Fermi energy becomes so large that exotic constituents such as hyperons, mesons and quarks may emerge. Radioactive beam and hypernuclear experiments provide information on the symmetry energy and superfluidity in the crust and outer core and on the hyperon potentials in the inner core, respectively. Cold atom experiments are also helpful to understand pure neutron matter, which may be simulated by the unitary gas. An equation of state (EOS) constructed based on these laboratory experiments has to be verified by the astronomical observations such as the mass, radius, and oscillations of neutron stars. One of the key but missing ingredients is the three-baryon interactions such as the hyperon-hyperon-nucleon (YYN) interaction. YYN interaction is important in order to explain the recently discovered massive neutron stars consistently with laboratory experiments. We have recently found that the ΛΛ interaction extracted from the ΛΛ correlation at RHIC is somewhat stronger than that from double Λ hypernuclei. Since these two interactions corresponds to the vacuum and in-medium ΛΛ interactions, respectively, the difference may tell us a possible way to access the YYN interaction based on experimental data. In the presentation, after a review on the current status of neutron star matter EOS studies, we discuss the necessary tasks to pin down the EOS. We also present our recent study of ΛΛ interaction from correlation data at RHIC.

  20. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  1. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. Methods A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Conclusions Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses. PMID:27200224

  2. Current status of brachytherapy in cancer treatment – short overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Skowronek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality depend on a number of factors, including age, socio-economic status and geographical location, and its prevalence is growing around the world. Most of cancer treatments include external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Brachytherapy, a type of radiotherapy with energy from radionuclides inserted directly into the tumor, is increasingly used in cancer treatment. For cervical and skin cancers, it has become a standard therapy for more than 100 years as well as an important part of the treatment guidelines for other malignancies, including head and neck, skin, breast, and prostate cancers. Compared to external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy has the potential to deliver an ablative radiation dose over a short period of time directly to the altered tissue area with the advantage of a rapid fall-off in dose, and consequently, sparing of adjacent organs. As a result, the patient is able to complete the treatment earlier, and the risks of occurrence of another cancer are lower than in conventional radiotherapy treatment. Brachytherapy has increased its use as a radical or palliative treatment, and become more advanced with the spread of pulsed-dose-rate and high-dose-rate afterloading machines; the use of new 3D/4D planning systems has additionally improved the quality of the treatment. The aim of the present study was to present short summaries of current studies on brachytherapy for the most frequently diagnosed tumors. Data presented in this manuscript should help especially young physicians or physicists to explore and introduce brachytherapy in cancer treatments.

  3. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses.

  4. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  5. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  6. Assessing the nutritional status of beef cattle: current practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Key words: Body condition scoring, blood metabolites, nutritional status, cattle. INTRODUCTION ... reproductive performance and good walking and foraging ..... the gastrointestinal tract while mobilization is increased in.

  7. Review of mercury pollution in South Africa: current status

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a review on the status of mercury (Hg) as a pollutant in South African aquatic ecosystems. Spatial patterns of Hg distribution and bioaccumulation in water resources were investigated by collecting and analyzing multimedia...

  8. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzheng, Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  9. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

  10. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  11. Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.

    2009-01-01

    Current status: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is currently almost exclusively targeted at the somatostatin receptor (sst). Of the 5 receptor subtypes, sst2 is frequently very highly expressed at the cell surface of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Octreotide is a small and stable derivative of native somatostatin, which can be very well labeled with therapeutic radionuclides such as the beta-emitters ''9''0Y, ''1''7''7Lu or the Auger emitter ''1''1''1In, chelated in DTPA or DOTA, linked to the peptide. All current therapeutic octreotide derivatives are agonists that are internalized in the cell. The affinity for the sst2 receptor is better for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate than for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide or [DTPA]octreotide. ''9''0Y is a pure beta-emitter, with a half-life of 2.7 days, a high energy of 2.270 MeV, and a maximum penetration in tissue of 12mm. ''1''7''7Lu with a half-life of 6.7 days emits a low abundance of gamma photons as well as beta particles of 497 keV, with a maximum tissue penetration of 2 mm. ''1''7''7Lu-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Lu-DOTATE), ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Y-DOTATATE) and ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide (Y-DOTATOC) are today the most frequently used therapeutic radiopeptides. Main inclusion criteria: inoperable and/or metastatic NET, receptor-positivity in all known lesions demonstrated by sufficient uptake on ''1''1''1In-octreotide scintigraphy (intensity > liver parenchyma), life expectancy at least 3-6 months, sufficient bone marrow reserve (hemoglobin (HGB) ≥ 5 mmol/L, white blood cells (WBC) ≥ 2*10 9 /L, platelets (PLT) ≥ 75*10 12 /L), sufficient renal function (serum creatinine 40 mL/min), sufficient hepatic and cardiac reserve. Karnofski score ≥50. Efficacy: several groups have reported objective response rates (RECIST or WHO/SWOG; CT or MRI based). Complete remission (CR) is rarely seen, partial remission (PR; >50% shrinkage SWOG) in 7% - 37%, minor remission (MR, 25% - 50% shrinkage) in 13% - 17

  12. Current status of the New Antiepileptic drugs in chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Sidhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are extensively used worldwide to treat a wide range of disorders other than epilepsy, such as neuropathic pain, migraine and bipolar disorder. Due to this situation more than 20 new third-generation AEDs have been introduced in the market recently. The future design of new AEDs must also have potential to help in the non-epileptic disorders. The wide acceptance of second generation AEDs for the management of various Non-epileptic disorders has caused the emergence of generics in the market. The wide use of approved AEDs outside epilepsy is based on both economic and scientific reasons. Bipolar disorders, migraine prophylaxis, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain represent the most attractive indication expansion opportunities for anticonvulsant developers, providing blockbuster revenues. Strong growth in non-epilepsy conditions will see Pfizer’s Lyrica become the market leading brand by 2018. In this review we mainly focus on the current status of new AEDs in the treatment of chronic pain and migraine prophylaxis. AEDs have a strong analgesic potential and this is demonstrated by the wide use of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia and sodium valproate in migraine prophylaxis. At present, data on the new AEDs for non-epileptic conditions are inconclusive. Not all AEDs are effective in the management of neuropathic pain and migraine. Only those AEDs whose mechanisms of action are match with pathophysiology of the disease, have potential to show efficacy in non-epileptic disorder. For this better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and mechanisms of action of new AEDs are essential requirement before initiating pre-clinical and clinical trials. Many new AEDs show good results in the animal model and open-label studies but fail to provide strong evidence at randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The final decision regarding the clinical efficacy of the particular AEDs in a specific non-epileptic disorder

  13. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  14. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  15. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porkolab, M.

    1993-01-01

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients

  16. The Current Status of the Economic Security of Poltava Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarevska Olha M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of economic security of Poltava region in 2012–2016 was analyzed, the analysis was conducted using the developed methodology for assessing economic security of region, which is based on the joint use of indicative and functional methods. In order to assess the status of economic security of region, a system of indicators, divided by economic security components, has been formed using functional approach. The information-analytical provision of assessment has been formed using statistical information on the socio-economic development of the region. The influence of factors of destabilizing and destimulative nature on the status of economic security of the region has been researched. It has been concluded that the economic security of Poltava region is unsatisfactory, despite the existence of some positive tendencies, which at present are not sustainable.

  17. [Development of antituberculous drugs: current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Namba, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    and drug regimens for anti-TB chemotherapy. There are a number of difficulties in drug-design for the development of new drug formulations with increased potential for antimycobacterial effects, excellent pharmacokinetics, and tolerability. It should be emphasized that the most urgent goal of chemotherapy of TB and MAC infections, especially that associated with HIV infection, is to develop highly active, low-cost drugs which can be used not only in industrialized countries but also in developing countries, since the incidences of AIDS-associated intractable TB and MAC infections are rapidly increasing in the latter. We strongly wish a great advance of fundametal and practical studies in developing such kinds of new anti-TB drugs in the near future. 1. Prospects for non-clinical or clinical development of new antituberculous drugs in relation to corporate strategy: Kenji NAMBA (New Product Research Laboratories I, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest threats to public health. No new anti-TB drugs have been brought into the clinic in the past 40 years. Current non-clinical works with progressed technology and Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, a non-profit organization established in 2000, accelerate research and development of faster-acting anti-TB compounds. We reviewed the status of new types of compounds which are being developed as anti-TB drug, such as diarylquinoline (TMC 207), nitroimidazole (PA-824 and OPC-67683), and moxifloxacin (MFLX). We also discussed the best clinical development plans for new-TB drugs in relation to corporate strategy. 2. Exploring novel drug targets through the chemical genomics approach and its possible application to the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs: Yorimasa SUWA (Reverse Proteomics Research Institute Co., Ltd.), Yohji SUZUKI (Teijin Ltd.) Recently, chemical genomics approach has been focused as an emerging technology for the drug discovery. In advance to a very large scale

  18. Current status of Russian Evaluated Neutron Data Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Manokhin, V.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    The status of Russian Evaluated Data Libraries is discussed. The last modifications of the BROND-2 files and their relations to the additional files of the FOND library and the ABBN-90 group constants are considered. The main characteristics of new libraries for the photoneutron data, dosimetry and activation reaction cross sections and transmutation cross sections for intermediate energies are described briefly. (author)

  19. Current status of CHESS - the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of CHESS through its three-year construction period, which ends in the fall of 1981. Included are a brief description of beam lines, monochromators, station instrumentations and support facilities. Our experiences with source size and stability over the last year are reported, along with planned fall revisions and running schedule. (orig.)

  20. Current status of the EPR method to detect irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some rarely cited works of historical importance. (author)

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  10. Gravitational-wave research: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    There is a reasonably good change that in the 1980s cosmic gravitational waves will be discovered and will become a powerful tool for astronomy. This prospect has stimulated a three-pronged research effort. First, relativity theorists are developing new mathematical tools for the analysis of gravitational radiation: including (i) methods of analyzing the generation of gravity waves by sources with strong self-gravity and large internal velocities (e.g., collisions of black holes), (ii) methods of computing radiation reaction in sources, and (iii) methods of analyzing how gravitational waves propagate through our lumpy curved-space Universe. Second, astrophysicists are attempting to identify the most promissing sources of gravitational waves, and are using the relativity theorists' mathematical tools to estimate the characteristics of the waves they emit. Third, with the estimated wave characteristics in mind, experimenters are designing and constructing a second generation of gravitational-wave detectors: detectors of three types: Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft, Earth-based laser interferometers, and Earth-based Weber-type resonant bars. This article reviews, in brief, all three prongs of the research effort and gives references to more detailed articles about specialized aspects of gravitational-wave physics

  11. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  15. Safety analysis reports. Current status (third key report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of Ukrainian regulations and laws concerned with Nuclear power and radiation safety is presented with an overview of the requirements for the Safety Analysis Report Contents. Status of Safety Analysis Reports (SAR) is listed for each particular Ukrainian NPP including SAR development schedules. Organisational scheme of SAR development works includes: general technical co-ordination on Safety Analysis Report development; list of leading organisations and utilization of technical support within international projects

  16. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  17. Current status of the near surface repository in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Rotaru, I.

    2000-01-01

    The radioactive waste management at the Cernavoda NPP is based on collection, pretreatment and storage of all solid wastes. The disposal of operational and decommissioning wastes has been evaluated, based on the results of a research and development programme. A near surface disposal facility was selected and a siting process was implemented. The status of this project and its prospective are discussed in the paper. (author)

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Min; Kim, Min; Jeong, Hee Jong; Hwang, Jeong Ki; Cho, Chung Hee

    1996-10-01

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  11. New horizons in predictive toxicology: current status and application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, A. G. E

    2012-01-01

    "In this comprehensive discussion of predictive toxicology and its applications, leading experts express their views on the technologies currently available and the potential for future developments...

  12. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min

    2003-01-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10 13 - 1 x 10 14 n/cm 2 ·s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  13. Current status of mechanical erosion studies of bentonite buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    The performance of the bentonite buffer in KBS-3-type nuclear waste repository concept relies to a great extent on the buffer surrounding the canister having sufficient dry density. Loss of buffer material caused by erosion remains as the most significant process reducing the density of the buffer. The mechanical erosion, or pre-saturation erosion, is the process where flowing groundwater transports buffer material away from the deposition hole towards the deposition tunnel. This process reduces the overall buffer density and potentially creates localized regions of low density. In the worst case the process is assumed to last as long as the free volume between the pellets in the pellets filled regions is filled with groundwater. With fixed environmental and material parameters a set of experiments was performed, testing the erosive properties of different buffer and backfill materials (MX-80 and Friedland Clay) in different groundwater conditions. The method used was a pinhole erosion test using two sizescales; 100 mm and 400 mm of cell length. The purpose of the pinhole tests was to test the scenario where piping channel is formed in the buffer and water flows through a single channel. The erosion data was produced with two methods, firstly the time-related erosion rates measured in-situ during the measurement and secondly the overall mass loss in the sample cell measured after dismantling of the test. It was observed that erosion in piping channels decreases rapidly (∼24 h) and irreversibly to a level that is an order of magnitude lower than the peak values. (orig.)

  14. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2003-03-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10{sup 13} - 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  15. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    PURPOSE: To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. METHODS: The current implementation status of a sports and

  16. The proton ''spin contents'': Current status ampersand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ta-Pei; Li, Ling-Fong

    1990-01-01

    The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs

  17. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. The current status of imaging diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Tang Guangcai

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence and the mortality rate of female breast cancer in our country is increasing, Early diagnosis of breast cancer is particularly important. Precious preoperative staging in the breast cancer is advantageous for the treatment planning. Evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy is beneficial for adjusting the follow-up plan. Imaging examination has become an important role in breast cancer management. At present, commonly used equipment include mammography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, etc. This article reviews the present study status of these tools in diagnosis of breast cancer. A reasonable and effective choice of those tools can facilitate clinic diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  19. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  20. The current status of radioactive monitoring gauges in UIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1993-01-01

    The author introduces the characteristics of representative products for current environment radiation monitoring and measurement instruments of radiation nuclide content in UIC including aerosol detection equipment and multi function radiation dosemeters

  1. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.

  2. Biofuel implementation in East Europe: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondili, E.M.; Kaldellis, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    There is a continuously increasing interest concerning the biofuel implementation in Europe, mainly because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. In this context, the European Union (EU) strongly encourages the use of biofuels through a number of Directives. To that effect, EU members follow the Directives implementing various political, fiscal and technical measures and incentives. In the light of the potential created by the recently joined Eastern European countries, an increasing interest is shown in the whole biofuel supply chain within the EU. In parallel, the status of the Eastern European countries domestic market, as far as biofuels are concerned, is an interesting issue, since most of these countries present a significant potential, however still lagging in biofuel implementation. In the above context, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of biofuel implementation in East Europe. The work also aims at identifying the prospects of these countries as far as biofuels are concerned and their role in the EU framework as potential suppliers of a wider market. (author)

  3. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  4. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  5. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liushuai Hua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  6. STS operations planning - Current status and outlook for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the status of Space Shuttle operations planning and outlook for the period 1982-94, with some speculations on Shuttle-related space operations early in the next century. Attention is given to the evolution of Shuttle payload capabilities over the next five years. The following list of near-earth environment factors to be exploited by the Space Shuttle is given: (1) easy control of gravity; (2) absence of atmosphere; (3) a comprehensive view of the earth's surface and atmosphere; (4) isolation of hazardous processes from earth biosphere; (5) freely available light, heat and photovoltaic power; (6) an infinite natural reservoir for the disposal of radioactive waste products; and (7) a super-cold heat sink.

  7. Current status of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, De-Hua; Hong, Xiao-Kun; Su, Bi-Xiu; Liang, Chi; Hide, Geoff; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Xinbing; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, a pathogen causing clonorchiasis, is of major socio-economic importance in East Asia, including China, Korea and Vietnam. This parasite is now recognized as a biocarcinogen strongly linked to cholangiocarcinoma in humans. Here, we describe the status of clonorchiasis in China, where it has been estimated that more than 15 million patients are affected. This paper also summarizes the major advances in the field of clonorchiasis research during last decade, including diagnosis techniques, pathogenesis and genome/transcriptome/proteome studies in the last years. We strongly hope that our work can stimulate the governments of the countries or regions where clonorchiasis is endemic to pay more attention to this disease and establish related guidelines to prevent and control it. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Current status of bio-based materials industry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiaoqian; Weng, Yunxuan; Huang, Zhigang; Yang, Nan; Wang, Xiyuan; Zhang, Min; Jin, Yujuan

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry leading the scientific and technological innovation, and economic development of the world. We reviewed the new development of bio-based materials industry in China, analyzed the entire market of bio-based materials products comprehensively, and also stated the industry status of bio-based chemicals, such as lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, and succinic acid; biodegradable bio-based polymers, such as co-polyester of diacid and diol, polylactic acid, carbon dioxide based copolymer, polyhydroxyalknoates, polycaprolactone, and thermoplastic bio-based plastics; non-biodegradable bio-based polymers, such as bio-based polyamide, polytrimethylene terephthalate, bio-based polyurethane, and bio-based fibers.

  9. Bacterial Wilt in China: History, Current Status, and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gaofei; Wei, Zhong; Xu, Jin; Chen, Huilan; Zhang, Yong; She, Xiaoman; Macho, Alberto P.; Ding, Wei; Liao, Boshou

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by plant pathogenic Ralstonia spp. is one of the most important diseases affecting the production of many important crops worldwide. In China, a large scientific community has been dedicated to studying bacterial wilt and its causative agent, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and R. solanacearum. Most of their work was published in Chinese, which has hindered international communication and collaboration in this field. In this review, we summarize the status of knowledge on geographical distribution, diversity, and host range of Ralstonia spp., as well as, the impact of bacterial wilt on important crops and disease control approaches, in China. We present areas of research and publications by Chinese scientists and propose the promotion of collaborative research within China and with the international community. PMID:28955350

  10. Space transportation systems within ESA programmes: Current status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahais, Maurice

    1993-03-01

    An overview of the space transportation aspects of the ESA (European Space Agency) programs as they result from history, present status, and decisions taken at the ministerial level conference in Granada, Spain is presented. The new factors taken into consideration for the long term plan proposed in Munich, Germany, the three strategic options for the reorientation of the ESA long term plan, and the essential elements of space transportation in the Granada long term plan in three areas of space activities, scientific, and commercial launches with expendable launch vehicles, manned flight and in-orbit infrastructure, and future transportation systems are outlined. The new ESA long term plan, in the field of space transportation systems, constitutes a reorientation of the initial program contemplated in previous councils at ministerial level. It aims at balancing the new economic situation with the new avenues of cooperation, and the outcome will be a new implementation of the space transportation systems policy.

  11. Filtered neutron beams at the FMRB - review and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.

    1987-12-01

    A review is presented of our experience with filtered neutron beams installed in beam tubes of the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig since 1976: Desing of the filters and measurement of the beam parameters are reported and an outline of the research work done with the beams is given. The present status of the irradiation facility, which consists of 5 beams (144 keV, 24.5 keV, 2 keV, 0.2 keV and thermal neutrons), is described in some detail to allow understanding of the physical as well as the technical prerequisites for performing calibrations of neutron measuring instruments. An appendix contains the actual beam parameters. (orig.) [de

  12. Current status of the MPEG-4 standardization effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiou, Dimitris

    1994-09-01

    The Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) of the International Standardization Organization has initiated a standardization effort, known as MPEG-4, addressing generic audiovisual coding at very low bit-rates (up to 64 kbits/s) with applications in videotelephony, mobile audiovisual communications, video database retrieval, computer games, video over Internet, remote sensing, etc. This paper gives a survey of the status of MPEG-4, including its planned schedule, and initial ideas about requirements and applications. A significant part of this paper is summarizing an incomplete draft version of a `requirements document' which presents specifications of desirable features on the video, audio, and system level of the forthcoming standard. Very low bit-rate coding algorithms are not described, because no endorsement of any particular algorithm, or class of algorithms, has yet been made by MPEG-4, and several seminars held concurrently with MPEG-4 meetings have not so far provided evidence that such high performance coding schemes are achievable.

  13. Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Brasch, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

  14. HappyFace - current status and future development plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Quadt, Arnulf [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.

    2013-07-01

    The HappyFace Project is a meta-monitoring tool, which is allow to monitor the Grid sites of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). It can also be used for any (complex) computing system, e.g. local or distributed computing resources. HappyFace provides fast access to all relevant monitoring sites and gets a complete overview about the status of all available sites on one page. It has an automatic querying system, a lot of testing modules can be plugged in and also the ability to design and add new modules is available. The project had been written in Python and PHP, but in the 3rd version of HappyFace the source code is fully migrated to Python and the web output uses only HTML templates, which makes it simpler.

  15. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbron E, E.; Puente E, F.

    2014-10-01

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  16. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerup, Lars; Akesson, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 μg Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 μg/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  17. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  18. Oral transmucosal drug delivery--current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Mohammed; Sayed, Ossama M; Lane, Majella E

    2014-08-25

    Oral transmucosal drug delivery (OTDD) dosage forms have been available since the 1980s. In contrast to the number of actives currently delivered locally to the oral cavity, the number delivered as buccal or sublingual formulations remains relatively low. This is surprising in view of the advantages associated with OTDD, compared with conventional oral drug delivery. This review examines a number of aspects related to OTDD including the anatomy of the oral cavity, models currently used to study OTDD, as well as commercially available formulations and emerging technologies. The limitations of current methodologies to study OTDD are considered as well as recent publications and new approaches which have advanced our understanding of this route of drug delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    , aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current......This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided...

  20. Rotavirus infection and the current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Chien Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among children, rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis worldwide and of diarrheal deaths in developing countries. Current vaccines (e.g., Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; RotaTeq, Merck and Company effectively reduce rotaviral gastroenteritis, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. The tremendous burden of rotavirus-related diarrhea in children across the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. This review assesses the global epidemiological and economic burden of rotavirus diseases, summarizes the relevant principles of the development of rotavirus vaccines, and presents data on the efficacy and effectiveness of currently licensed vaccines in both developed and developing countries.

  1. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  2. Current conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall probability of extinction of the species in the wild is 3%. Minimum viable population size analysis suggests that a goal for the long-term conservation of the Blue Swallow should be to mitigate current threats that are driving declines such that the population increases to a minimum of 3 600 individuals. This should ...

  3. Current status and new directions in conceptual aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, George H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: systems analysis branch questions; systems analysis; historical perspective; background technology; conceptual design/evaluation program organization; system integration/vehicle closure; conceptual design synthesis programs; numerical optimization/mathematical programming; and current R&D interests. The discussion is presented in viewgraph format.

  4. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was

  5. Current status of fertility control methods in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Use of the condom increased to 3.1% from 2.4%. ... Current efforts in India to develop a male contraceptive are mainly directed towards ... the existing range of contraceptive methods available in the National Family Planning Programme. ... long acting, relatively easily removed and fertility returns rapidly after their removal.

  6. The current status of psychotherapy | Gureje | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  7. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network ...

  8. The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, Gerald J

    2014-01-01

    Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy.

  9. current status and outlook of renewable energy development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a critical review of the available renewable energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. It examines the current energy situation in the country and equally discusses the various energy policy documents developed by the government. Using the scenario-based ...

  10. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  11. Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias E-mail: matthias.koenig@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

    2003-03-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be

  12. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Current status and phenotypic characteristics of Bulgarian poultry genetic resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneva, A.; Gerzilov, V.; Lalev, M.; Lukanov, H.; Mincheva, N.; Oblakova, M.; Petrov, P.; Hristakieva, P.; Dimitrova, I.; Periasamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria. (author)

  14. The LHCf experiment at CERN motivations and current status

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessandro, R; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; Faus, D A; Fukui, K; Grandi, M; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Macina, D; Mase, T; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Menjo, H; Mizuishi, M; Muraki, Y; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Ricciarini, S; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Taki, K; Tamura, T; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C; Velasco, J; Viciani, A; Yoshida, K

    2009-01-01

    LHCf is an experiment currently installed at CERN at the LHC complex. It consists of two small calorimeters each one placed 140 meters away from the ATLAS interaction point. Their purpose is to study forward production of neutral particles in proton-proton collisions at extremely low angles. The results will provide invaluable inputs to the many air-shower Monte Carlo codes currently used for modeling cosmic rays interactions in the Earth atmosphere. Depending on machine start up, data will be taken from 900 GeV in the centre of mass up to 14 TeV (laboratory equivalent collision energy of 1017eV), thus covering an energy range up to and beyond the “knee” of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  15. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  16. Current status of superficial pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikitake, Ryoko; Ando, Mizuo; Saito, Yuki; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Higashi, Takahiro

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the status and treatment of superficial pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. We analyzed all cases diagnosed between 2011 and 2013, as recorded in the national database of hospital-based cancer registries. We extracted data on patient sex, age, tumor locations, histology, presentation routes, initial treatments, and TNM stages. Additionally, we compared the characteristics of pharyngeal carcinoma to those of esophageal cancer. A total of 16,521 oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers from 409 institutions were included. Diagnosis of Tis tumors was infrequent, and both cancers were likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage (n = 866, 5.3%). Tis diseases were the most commonly detected during follow-up examinations for other diseases (n = 608, 70%). While more oropharyngeal Tis patients were men compared to T1-4 patients (88 vs 82%, respectively), hypopharyngeal cancer patients comprised an equally high proportion of men (94 vs 92%, respectively). The most common location of oropharyngeal Tis tumors was the posterior wall (32%), whereas T1-4 tumors were most commonly found on the lateral wall (36%). In hypopharyngeal cancer, both Tis and T1-4 were most commonly located in the pyriform sinus (62%). The proportion of Tis tumors diagnosed at individual institutions showed a positive correlation with the number of endoscopic treatments (r = 0.32, P squamous cell carcinoma patients in Japan. Further improvements in early diagnosis and standardized treatments are warranted.

  17. Spent fuel management in China: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the development of nuclear power in China, its status of operating nuclear power plants and progress of on-going NPP projects are described. With the arising of spent fuel from NPPs, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following storage at reactor sites for at least 5 years (generally maximum 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred to an away-from-reactor pool type centralized storage facility. Adjacent to the storage facility, a multi-purpose reprocessing pilot plant will be set up by the end of this century. An industrial scale reprocessing plant would be succeeded around the year 2020. China's spent fuel management activities include at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing. Relatively detailed description of the work done up to now on spent fuel management and plans for the future are described. It should be noted that activities related to the management of high level radioactive waste are not included here. (author)

  18. Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5α-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial

  19. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations

  20. Current Status of The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartez, Louis; Creighton, Teviet; Jenet, Fredrick; Dolch, Timothy; Boehler, Keith; Bres, Luis; Cole, Brent; Luo, Jing; Miller, Rossina; Murray, James; Reyes, Alex; Rivera, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a distributed array of cross-dipole antennas that are sensitive to radio frequencies from 10 to 88 MHz. LoFASM consists of antennas and front end electronics that were originally developed for the Long Wavelength Array by the U.S. Naval Research Lab, the University of New Mexico, Virginia Tech, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. LoFASM, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, will initially consist of 4 stations, each consisting of 12 dual- polarization dipole antenna stands. The primary science goals of LoFASM will be the detection and study of low-frequency radio transients, a high priority science goal as deemed by the National Research Council’s ASTRO2010 decadal survey. The data acquisition system for the LoFASM antenna array uses Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to implement a real time full Stokes spectrometer and data recorder. This poster presents an overview of the LoFASM Radio Telescope as well as the status of data analysis of initial commissioning observations.

  1. Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. The Submillimeter Array – current status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    The current SMA receiver systems were designed in the mid-1990s and have been operating for more than fifteen years. With regular upgrades to receivers, deployment of the SWARM correlator, expansion of the IF signal transport bandwidth via improvements to the analog IF signal processing hardware, and many other enhancements, the SMA currently greatly outperforms its original specifications in terms of sensitivity, instantaneous bandwidth, and availability of observing modes such as full-Stokes polarization and dual frequency operation.We have recently started to implement a three-year instrument upgrade plan, which we are calling the wSMA. The wSMA will offer even wider bandwidth operation than the current SMA and improved sensitivity. The major subsystems that will form the wSMA include significantly improved, dual polarization receiver cartridges housed in a new cryostat; local oscillator units incorporating modern mm-wave technology; an upgraded signal transmission system; and a further expansion of the SWARM correlator. The cryostat will be cooled by a low-maintenance pulse-tube cryocooler. Two dual-polarization receiver cartridges will cover approximately the same sky frequencies as the current receiver sets; the low-band receiver will be fed by an LO unit covering 210-270 GHz, and the high-band receiver will be fed by an LO covering 280-360 GHz. With a receiver IF band of 4-20 GHz, this will enable continuous sky frequency coverage from 190 GHz to 380 GHz.Details of the upgrade plans will be presented together with a discussion of scientific opportunities afforded by this upgrade, which, once implemented, will enable the SMA to continue to produce the highest quality science throughout the next decade.

  3. CURRENT STATUS AND TRENDS INVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURE UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, A. N.; Yurko, Т. S.; Klimenko, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Globalization processes accelerate the pace of scientific and technological progress and innovation and require investment in innovation to enhance the efficiency of the national economy of our state and some of its branches, inter–industry complexes and sub–complexes at the level of developed countries.The article examines the current state of investment in agriculture of Ukraine. The main criteria to encourage capital investment taking into account regional peculiarities capital investment ...

  4. Current status and future potential for advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, L.; Naughton, M.D.; Papaiya, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    With escalating costs for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plants, and the possibility of unavailability of disposal space, some nuclear power utilities responded by commiting to implementing advanced volume reduction (VR) systems. This paper presents recent experience to implement advanced volume reduction technologies; their performance and typical operating and capital costs. This experience in the light of current economic conditions may enable us to predict the direction that future advanced VR technology commitments is taking

  5. Current status of stereoscopic 3D LCD TV technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jin

    2011-06-01

    The year 2010 may be recorded as a first year of successful commercial 3D products. Among them, the 3D LCD TVs are expected to be the major one regarding the sales volume. In this paper, the principle of current stereoscopic 3D LCD TV techniques and the required flat panel display (FPD) technologies for the realization of them are reviewed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Current Status of the MiniBooNE Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, H.; collaboration, for the MiniBooNE

    2004-01-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of nu_mu -> nu_e in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  7. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Buehler; Ranka Junge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF). In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustai...

  8. Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Sakda

    2003-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

  9. Current status of low-level-waste-segregation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Sailor, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    The adoption of improved waste segregation practices by waste generators and burial sites will result in the improved disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) in the future. Many of the problems connected with this disposal mode are directly attributable to or aggravated by the indiscriminate mixing of various waste types in burial trenches. Thus, subsidence effects, contact with ground fluids, movement of radioactivity in the vapor phase, migration of radionuclides due to the presence of chelating agents or products of biological degradation, deleterious chemical reactions, and other problems have occurred. Regulations are currently being promulgated which will require waste segregation to a high degree at LLW burial sites. The state-of-the-art of LLW segregation technology and current practices in the USA have been surveyed at representative facilities. Favorable experience has been reported at various sites following the application of segregation controls. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art survey and addresses current and projected LLW segregation practices and their relationship to other waste management activities

  10. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  11. Current Status of Simulation in Otolaryngology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musbahi, Omar; Aydin, Abdullatif; Al Omran, Yasser; Skilbeck, Christopher James; Ahmed, Kamran

    Otolaryngology is a highly technical and demanding specialty and the requirements for surgical trainees to acquire proficiency remains challenging. Simulation has been purported to be an effective tool in assisting with this. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the available otolaryngology simulators, their status of validation, and evaluation the level of evidence behind each training model and thereby establish a level of recommendation. PubMed, ERIC, and Google Scholar databases were searched for articles that described otolaryngology simulators or training models between 1980 and April 2016. Any validation studies for simulators were also retrieved. Titles and abstracts were screened for relevance using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Level of evidence (LoE) and Level of recommendation (LoR) was awarded to each study and model, respectively. A total of 70 studies were identified describing 64 simulators. Out of these, at least 54 simulators had 1 validation study. Simulators for the ear and temporal bone surgery were the most common (n = 32), followed by laryngeal and throat (n = 20) and endoscopic sinus surgery (n = 12). Face validity was evaluated by 29 studies, 20 attempted to show construct, 20 assessed content, 20 transfer, and only 2 assessed concurrent validity. Of the validation assessments, 2 were classified as Level 1b, 10 Level 2a, and 48 Level 2b. No simulators received the highest LoR, but 8 simulators received a LoR of 2. Despite the lack of evidence in outcome studies and limited number of high-validity otolaryngology simulators, the role of simulation continues to grow across surgical specialties Hence, it is imperative that the simulators are of high validity and construct for trainees to practice and rehearse surgical skills to develop confidence. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO 2 emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO 2 emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  13. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010.

  14. Update on the current status of cytomegalovirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Heungsup; Schleiss, Mark R

    2010-11-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is ubiquitous in all populations, and is the most commonly recognized cause of congenital viral infection in developed countries. On the basis of the economic costs saved and the improvement in quality of life that could potentially be conferred by a successful vaccine for prevention of congenital HCMV infection, the Institute of Medicine has identified HCMV vaccine development as a major public health priority. An effective vaccine could potentially also be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating HCMV disease in immunocompromised individuals. Although there are no licensed HCMV vaccines currently available, enormous progress has been made in the last decade, as evidenced by the recently reported results of a Phase II trial of a glycoprotein B vaccine for the prevention of HCMV infection in seronegative women of childbearing age. HCMV vaccines currently in clinical trials include: glycoprotein B subunit vaccines; alphavirus replicon particle vaccines; DNA vaccines; and live-attenuated vaccines. A variety of vaccine strategies are also being examined in preclinical systems and animal models of infection. These include: recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines; recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara; replication-deficient adenovirus-vectored vaccines; and recombinant live-attenuated virus vaccines generated by mutagenesis of cloned rodent CMV genomes maintained as bacterial artificial chromosomes in Escherichia coli. In this article, we provide an overview of the current state of clinical trials and preclinical development of vaccines against HCMV, with an emphasis on studies that have been conducted in the past 5 years. We also summarize a number of recent advances in the study of the biology of HCMV, particularly with respect to epithelial and endothelial cell entry of the virus, which have implications for future vaccine design.

  15. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  16. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-12-18

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease.

  17. [Current status and clinical application prospect of Akabane's test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Du, Yanjun

    2016-06-12

    The Akabane's test is one of the meridian diagnostic methods. Compared with the current meridian diagnostic methods, it has the advantages of convenience and efficiency, but it also has several disadvantages such as the accuracy is difficult to control, the outcome interpretation is limited, etc. In this paper, the influence factors of Akabane's test were analyzed one by one, especially proposed personal opinion on outcome interpretation, which could ascertain the location and nature of disease, leading to disease syndrome. With accurate syndrome, the treatment plan could be established. The application prospect of Akabane's test was initially explored, and it was proposed that wearable automation equipment could be one of the development directions.

  18. Current status of safety analysis report for ANPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirjanyan, A.

    1999-01-01

    Current situation concerning Armenian NPP safety analysis report is considered within the frame of accepted safety practice. Licensing procedure is being developed. Technical support group was established in the Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ANRA). The task of the group is to study modern methods of NPP in depth safety analysis for technical assistance for the ANRA, and perform independent safety assessments. ANRA will be obliged to demand assistance from various foreign organisations for preparation of different parts of the Safety Analysis Report like determination though certain parts can be prepared in Armenia

  19. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease

  20. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalik bin Haji Wood

    1999-01-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  1. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The MDSplus data acquisition system, current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillerman, J.; Fredian, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    The MDSplus data acquisition system was developed in collaboration with the ZTH group at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the RFX group at CNR in Padua, Italy and is currently in use at MIT, RFX in Padua, and TCV at EPFL in Lausanne. MDSplus is based on a hierarchical experiment description which completely describes the data acquisition and analysis tasks and contains the results from these operations. It also includes a set of X/motif based tools for data acquisition and display, as well as diagnostic configuration and management. These tools were designed to operate in a distributed, client/server environment with multiple concurrent readers and writers to the data store. An interface to a relational database is provided for storage and management of processed data. A commercially available package called IDL is used as the primary data analysis and visualization tool. The current projects include a new interface to the electronic logbook, tools for remote collaborators and WWW access, and a port of the system to UNIX and Windows-NT/95. (orig.)

  3. Current status of accident analysis for Korean HCCR TBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Shuk; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Korea has decided to test Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER and design of the TBM with its ancillary systems, i.e. Test Blanket System (TBS), is under progress. Since the TBM is operated at elevated temperature with high heat load, safety consideration is essential in design procedure. In this paper, preliminary accident analysis results for the current HCCR TBS design on selected scenarios are presented as an important part of safety assessments. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior, GAMMA-FR code which has been developed in Korea for fusion applications was used. The main cooling and tritium extraction circuit systems, as well as the TBM, were simulated and the main components in the TBS were modeled as the associated heat structures. The important accident scenarios were produced and summarized in the paper considering the HCCR TBS design and ITER conditions, which cover in-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), in-box LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA, Loss Of Flow Accident (LOFA), Loss Of Heat Sink Accident (LOHSA) and purge pipe rupture case. The accident analysis based on the selected scenarios was performed and it was found that the current design of the HCCR TBS meets the thermo-hydraulic safety requirements.

  4. Current status of accident analysis for Korean HCCR TBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Mu-Young; Jin, Hyung Gon; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Dong Won; Ku, Duck Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Shuk; Lee, Youngmin

    2014-01-01

    Korea has decided to test Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER and design of the TBM with its ancillary systems, i.e. Test Blanket System (TBS), is under progress. Since the TBM is operated at elevated temperature with high heat load, safety consideration is essential in design procedure. In this paper, preliminary accident analysis results for the current HCCR TBS design on selected scenarios are presented as an important part of safety assessments. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior, GAMMA-FR code which has been developed in Korea for fusion applications was used. The main cooling and tritium extraction circuit systems, as well as the TBM, were simulated and the main components in the TBS were modeled as the associated heat structures. The important accident scenarios were produced and summarized in the paper considering the HCCR TBS design and ITER conditions, which cover in-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), in-box LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA, Loss Of Flow Accident (LOFA), Loss Of Heat Sink Accident (LOHSA) and purge pipe rupture case. The accident analysis based on the selected scenarios was performed and it was found that the current design of the HCCR TBS meets the thermo-hydraulic safety requirements

  5. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.

  6. Transformational leadership in sport: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Calum A; Bastardoz, Nicolas; Eklund, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Borrowed from organizational psychology, the concept of transformational leadership has now been applied to a sport context for a decade. Our review covers and critically discusses empirical articles published on this growing topic. However, because the majority of studies used cross-sectional designs and single-source questionnaires to tap what has been a fuzzy construct, current theoretical and methodological issues impede understanding of whether transformational leadership matters for sport outcomes. To make a difference to applied practice and policy, the transformational leadership construct requires a refined definition and stronger empirical tests allowing for robust causal inference. We highlight avenues for advancing research on transformational leadership in the sport context. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Current status of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors: a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vythilingam, I; Wong, M L; Wan-Yussof, W S

    2018-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.

  8. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    , alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug......Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic......) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically. Tailoring of nanomedicines in terms of kidney retention and binding to key membranes and cell populations associated with renal diseases is now possible and greatly enhances their localization, tolerability, and efficacy. This Review...

  9. Current Status and Future Prospects of Yellow Fever Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized for historically immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be life-long. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. PMID:26366673

  10. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  11. Current Status of Mycotoxin Analysis: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Gordon S

    2016-07-01

    It is over 50 years since the discovery of aflatoxins focused the attention of food safety specialists on fungal toxins in the feed and food supply. Since then, analysis of this important group of natural contaminants has advanced in parallel with general developments in analytical science, and current MS methods are capable of simultaneously analyzing hundreds of compounds, including mycotoxins, pesticides, and drugs. This profusion of data may advance our understanding of human exposure, yet constitutes an interpretive challenge to toxicologists and food safety regulators. Despite these advances in analytical science, the basic problem of the extreme heterogeneity of mycotoxin contamination, although now well understood, cannot be circumvented. The real health challenges posed by mycotoxin exposure occur in the developing world, especially among small-scale and subsistence farmers. Addressing these problems requires innovative approaches in which analytical science must also play a role in providing suitable out-of-laboratory analytical techniques.

  12. Treatment of sepsis: current status of clinical immunotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, A

    2012-02-03

    While antibiotics address the root cause of sepsis--that of pathogen infection--they fail to provide an adequate cure for the condition. Currently, 30% to 50% of septic patients die, and this figure is likely to increase in line with the proliferation of multi-drug resistant bacteria. With an increased understanding of the immune response, it has been proposed that modulation of this defence mechanism offers the best hope of cure. Many entry-points in the immune system have been identified and targeted therapies have been developed,but why are these not in routine clinical practice? This review examines the latest evidence for the use of immuno-modulating drugs, obtained from human clinical trials. We discuss cytokine-based therapies, steroids and anti-coagulants. Finally, consideration is given as to why successful therapies in the laboratory, and in vivo models, do not automatically translate into clinical benefit

  13. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  14. Current status and future of MALT, The University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.S.; Nakano, C.

    2013-01-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) is designed for highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system using ion beam generated by MC-SNICSTM solid state ion sources and Pelletron TM 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently multi-nuclide AMS ( 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 129 I) system and other beam analysis techniques (PIXE, NRA, ERDA) are available and show good performance. After the 2011 earthquake-disaster and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, investigation of 129 I distribution and behavior in the environment originated the accident has come to be an important mission at MALT as well as many collaborating scientific projects such as 'Study on natural and anthropogenic iodine isotope system', 'Application of in situ cosmogenic radio nuclides to the geomorphologic processes', and 'Analysis of cosmogenic radio nuclides in the Antarctic ice core', so on. (author)

  15. Current status of RMS and technical experience for regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The NNCA uses secure remote monitoring systems, both for reporting to the IAEA and for the bilateral cooperation with Sandia (SNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The NNCA system architecture has changed from a system using a Central Monitoring Station at the former TCNC, to direct internet reporting on a simultaneous basis to the IAEA and the NNCA. The NNCA reporting system is applied at 16 power reactors. This experience provides the basis for a detailed cost analysis and evaluation of trouble-shooting experience. Progress in establishing remote monitoring cooperation between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's new Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPE) and Sandia is a precondition for regional cooperation. The ACPF system, which is currently in final testing, features network configuration and equipment that differ from safeguards standards for reasons of cost and flexibility. This allows the NNCA to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies at lower cost. (author)

  16. Metagenomics and Bioinformatics in Microbial Ecology: Current Status and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Satoshi; Yang, Ching-Chia; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-09-29

    Metagenomic approaches are now commonly used in microbial ecology to study microbial communities in more detail, including many strains that cannot be cultivated in the laboratory. Bioinformatic analyses make it possible to mine huge metagenomic datasets and discover general patterns that govern microbial ecosystems. However, the findings of typical metagenomic and bioinformatic analyses still do not completely describe the ecology and evolution of microbes in their environments. Most analyses still depend on straightforward sequence similarity searches against reference databases. We herein review the current state of metagenomics and bioinformatics in microbial ecology and discuss future directions for the field. New techniques will allow us to go beyond routine analyses and broaden our knowledge of microbial ecosystems. We need to enrich reference databases, promote platforms that enable meta- or comprehensive analyses of diverse metagenomic datasets, devise methods that utilize long-read sequence information, and develop more powerful bioinformatic methods to analyze data from diverse perspectives.

  17. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (II): Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il

    2007-06-01

    Japan needs to import around 80% of its energy requirements. In 1966, the first nuclear power plant began operation, nuclear energy has been a national strategic priority since 1973. Currently, 55 reactors provide around 30% of the country's electricity. Japanese energy policy has been conducted by the energy security and minimization of dependence of energy imports. The main factors regarding nuclear power are: - Continue to have nuclear power as a main factor of electricity production. - Recycle uranium and plutonium, and start domestic reprocessing from 2005. - Continue to develop fast breeder reactors to increase uranium utilization. - Promote the nuclear transparency to the public, emphasizing safety and non-proliferation. Also, the prospects of Asia's nuclear energy growth has been reviewed

  18. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Saraswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications.

  19. [Current status of neurostimulation and neuromodulation for vesicourethral dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Chamorro, F; Verdú Tartajo, F; Hernández Fernández, C

    1997-01-01

    To describe the current indications, techniques and results of sacral root stimulation in patients with spinal cord lesions as a treatment for patients with high pressure bladders and/or urinary incontinence despite conservative management, as well as sacral root neuromodulation with permanent stimulators for complex bladder dysfunction: vesical instability, sensory urgency, chronic pelvic pain and chronic voiding dysfunction. The literature is reviewed, both techniques are described and the results of the most significant series are discussed, with special reference to the first groups that utilized these techniques. There is ample experience in the application of sacral root electrical stimulation. The reported results are comparable with those achieved by other treatments, such as augmentation cystoplasty. Neurostimulation and neuromodulation techniques are simple, the complications are minimal and they do not prelude the use of other therapies.

  20. Current status and future development of neutron scattering in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.F.; Gou, C.; Ye, C.T.; Guo, L.P.; Sun, K.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, the 15 MW Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) in Beijing is the only neutron source available for neutron scattering experiments in China. A 60 MW tank-in-pool inverse neutron trap-type research reactor, China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), now is being built at CIAE to meet the increasing demand of neutron scattering research in China. According to design, the maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux would be expected to be 8x10 14 n/cm 2 .s in the reflector region. Seven out of nine tangential horizontal beam tubes will be dedicated for neutron scattering experiments. A cold source, a hot source and a 30x60 m 2 guide tube hall will also be constructed. In this paper, a brief introduction of HWRR, the existing neutron scattering facilities and research activities at HWRR, CARR, and the facilities to be built at CARR are presented. (author)

  1. Current Status and Perspectives of Hyperthermia in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nagata, Yasushi; Mitsumori, Michihide; Sakamoto, Masashi; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro

    2004-08-01

    Clinical trials of hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy or chemotherapy undertaken over the past decades in Japan have been reviewed. Originally developed heating devices were mostly used for these trials, which include RF (radiofrequency) capacitive heating devices, a microwave heating device with a lens applicator, an RF intracavitary heating device, an RF current interstitial heating device, and ferromagnetic implant heating device. Non-randomized trials for various cancers, demonstrated higher response rate in thermoradiotherapy than in radiotherapy alone. Randomized trials undertaken for esophageal cancers also demonstrated improved local response with the combined use of hyperthermia. Furthermore, the complications associated with treatment were not generally serious. These clinical results indicate the benefit of combined treatment of hyperthermia and radiotherapy for various malignancies. On the other hand, the presently available heating devices are not satisfactory from the clinical viewpoints. With the advancement of heating and thermometry technologies, hyperthermia will be more widely and safely used in the treatment of cancers.

  2. Anthropogenic SO2/NOx committee--current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1993-04-01

    Current activities of the Anthropogenic SO 2 /NO x Committee center around the compilation of Version 1 of the GEIA inventories. These inventories will be based on the GEIA-specified 1 degrees by 1 degrees grid (lower left corner at 180 degrees W/90 degrees S, west to east and south to north), reflect 1985 emissions and consist of two data sets: Version 1A inventories with annual emissions at one level and Version 1B inventories with seasonal emissions, two vertical levels (defined at 100 m) and sectoral split information. The basic information used for both versions of the GEIA inventories will be identical; i.e., emissions totals across both inventories will be the same. Work is being carried out in two complementary working groups; Carmen Benkovitz, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA heads the work on the annual inventory, Eva Voldner, Atmospheric Environment Services, Canada and Trevor Scholtz, ORTECH International, Canada, head the work on the seasonal inventory

  3. Current status of ethnobotany research on palms from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Albán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.

  4. The end of cheap oil: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoskounoglou, Miltos; Ayerides, George; Tritopoulou, Efi

    2008-01-01

    This paper, analyses the factors impacting the price of crude oil in order to examine the likely evolution of the oil market and attempts to answer the question, whether cheap oil is already a thing of the past. Based on data made publicly available mostly by the major oil companies, it examines the effects of demand and supply, the evolution of world oil reserves, the trends in new discoveries of new oilfields, the evolution of world Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the depletion of oil resources. The analysis concludes that the world peak in conventional oil production-the point beyond which oil production will irreversibly start declining-is approaching and will be reached, even according to the most optimistic scenarios, before 2040 and quite possibly much sooner. If the appropriate solutions for substituting crude oil and for conserving the use of energy are not implemented in time, then the current upward trend in oil prices is bound to continue

  5. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. [Current status and prospect of translational medicine in nanotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guang-yu; Chen, Mei-ling; Li, Ming-yuan; Yang, Zhen-bo; Li, Zhi-ping; Mei, Xing-guo

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, nanotechnologies have shown wide application foreground in the biomedical field of medicine laboratory tests, drug delivery, gene therapy and bioremediation. However, in recent years, nanomaterials have been labeled poisonous, because of the disputes and misunderstandings of mainstream views on their safety. Besides, for the barriers of technical issues in preparation like: (1) low efficacy (poor PK & PD and low drug loading), (2) high cost (irreproducibility and difficulty in scale up), little of that research has been successfully translated into commercial products. Currently, along with the new theory of "physical damage is the origin of nanotoxicity", biodegradability and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are listed as the basic principle of safe application of nanomaterials. Combining scientific design based on molecular level with precision control of process engineering will provide a new strategy to overcome the core technical challenges. New turning point of translational medicine in nanotechnology may emerge.

  7. Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W.

    1997-03-01

    IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

  8. Recent advancements in bioremediation of dye: Current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikrant, Kumar; Giri, Balendu Shekhar; Raza, Nadeem; Roy, Kangkan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rai, Birendra Nath; Singh, Ram Sharan

    2018-04-01

    The rampant industrialization and unchecked growth of modern textile production facilities coupled with the lack of proper treatment facilities have proliferated the discharge of effluents enriched with toxic, baleful, and carcinogenic pollutants including dyes, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, odorants, and other hazardous materials. Therefore, the development of cost-effective and efficient control measures against such pollution is imperative to safeguard ecosystems and natural resources. In this regard, recent advances in biotechnology and microbiology have propelled bioremediation as a prospective alternative to traditional treatment methods. This review was organized to address bioremediation as a practical option for the treatment of dyes by evaluating its performance and typical attributes. It further highlights the current hurdles and future prospects for the abatement of dyes via biotechnology-based remediation techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Current status of stem cells in cardiac repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    One out of every two men and one out of every three women greater than the age of 40 will experience an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at some time during their lifetime. As more patients survive their AMIs, the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) is increasing. 6 million people in the USA have ischemic cardiomyopathies and CHF. The search for new and innovative treatments for patients with AMI and CHF has led to investigations and use of human embryonic stem cells, cardiac stem/progenitor cells, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of these heart conditions. This paper reviews current investigations with human embryonic, cardiac, bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells, and also stem cell paracrine factors and exosomes.

  10. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  11. Gas evolution and migration in repositories: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.H.; Rodwell, W.R.

    1988-04-01

    Considerable volumes of gas may be formed in a repository due to corrosion of metallic wastes and microbial degradation of certain organic wastes. The requirements for data and models to help understand the rate of formation of gases and their migration are described. The Nirex research programme in the area complements existing knowledge and takes additional priorities from the outcome of site assessments. Key areas currently being studied include: the rate of evolution of hydrogen from steel under anaerobic conditions; and of carbon dioxide and methane from cellulosic materials; characterisation of near- and far-field materials with respect to gas transport (permeabilities, capillary pressures, etc); and development of a comprehensive series of models covering gas evolution and migration in the near and far fields. (author)

  12. Occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H K H; Szeto, G P Y; Cheng, A S K; Siu, H; Chan, C C H

    2011-03-01

    This paper reviews the development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong, both in terms of the science as well as the service for injured workers. Besides, it also reviews the existing Employees' Compensation Ordinance for work injury to illustrate how the policy could influence the success and development of the discipline. Five experienced occupational rehabilitation providers, including 1 occupational medicine specialist, 3 occupational therapists, and 1 physiotherapist critically reviewed the past and current development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong as well as the local contextual factors, which could influence its future development. Since the enactment of the Employees' Compensation Ordinance in the 1950s, there have been progressive improvements in the field of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong. Services in the early years were mostly based on the biomedical model, where doctors and patients tended to focus on clinical symptoms and physical pathology when making clinical decisions. Since then, remarkable academic achievements have been made in the field locally, from the validation of clinical instruments for assessment of work capacity, assessment of employment readiness to the evaluation of efficacy of interventional programs for injured workers focusing on work related outcomes. However, there has been a relatively lack of progress in the development of related policies and implementation of related programs for occupational rehabilitation. There is no built in linkage between rehabilitation, compensation and prevention in the current system in Hong Kong, and there is no rehabilitation policy specific to those workers with occupational diseases and injuries. There are still deficiencies in the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Hong Kong. Incorporation of requirements for occupational rehabilitation at the legislation and policy levels should be seriously considered in the future. Besides, the

  13. Chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    The optimal role of chemoradiotherapy in the multimodality treatment of esophageal cancer is still controversial. According to a series of clinical trials, definitive chemoradiotherapy is considered the standard of care for patients with medically inoperable or surgically unresectable esophageal cancer. This modality provides survivals comparable to those in Western series of surgery alone and is one of the standards of care even for resectable-stage disease. Recent reports of primary chemoradiotherapy from Japan suggest survival comparable to that of surgery in Japanese patients with stage I disease, but radical surgery is still the standard treatment for T2-3NanyM0 disease in Japan. However, it is clear that this approach has limitations in treatment outcomes. Trimodality therapy, i.e., preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, is more favored than surgery alone in clinical practice, particularly in patients with adenocarcinoma, although current data from randomized trials are insufficient to support this approach. To improve the local control rate of chemoradiotherapy, intensification of the radiation dose has been attempted, but this has failed to demonstrate any superiority in terms of local control or survival. The addition of new agents, including molecular targeting agents, to the current standard chemoradiotherapy has shown more promising results and warrants further investigations in future studies. Salvage treatment for patients who do not achieve a complete response (CR) is necessary to improve the overall treatment results. Salvage surgery, as well as endoscopic resection, in selected patients, may provide an improvement in survival. Until high rates of local control can be consistently achieved with chemoradiotherapy alone, these salvage treatments will be an integral component of multimodality treatment for esophageal cancer, and should be active areas for clinical investigations. (author)

  14. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries.

  15. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries

  16. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets

  17. New Molecular Targets of Anticancer Therapy - Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Marianna; Muszalska, Izabela; Jelinska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly targeted anticancer therapy involves the use of drugs or other substances affecting specific molecular targets that play a part in the development, progression and spread of a given neoplasm. By contrast, the majority of classical chemotherapeutics act on all rapidly proliferating cells, both healthy and cancerous ones. Target anticancer drugs are designed to achieve a particular aim and they usually act cytostatically, not cytotoxically like classical chemotherapeutics. At present, more than 300 biological molecular targets have been identified. The proteins involved in cellular metabolism include (among others) receptor proteins, signal transduction proteins, mRNA thread matrix synthesis proteins participating in neoplastic transformation, cell cycle control proteins, functional and structural proteins. The receptor proteins that are targeted by currently used anticancer drugs comprise the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor(VEGFR). Target anticancer drugs may affect extracellular receptor domains (antibodies) or intracellular receptor domains (tyrosine kinase inhibitors). The blocking of the mRNA thread containing information about the structure of oncogenes (signal transduction proteins) is another molecular target of anticancer drugs. That type of treatment, referred to as antisense therapy, is in clinical trials. When the synthesis of genetic material is disturbed, in most cases the passage to the next cycle phase is blocked. The key proteins responsible for the blockage are cyclines and cycline- dependent kinases (CDK). Clinical trials are focused on natural and synthetic substances capable of blocking various CDKs. The paper discusses the molecular targets and chemical structure of target anticancer drugs that have been approved for and currently applied in antineoplastic therapy together with indications and contraindications for their

  18. Numerical modelling as a cost-reduction tool for probability of detection of bolt hole eddy current testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandache, C.; Khan, M.; Fahr, A.; Yanishevsky, M.

    2011-03-01

    Probability of detection (PoD) studies are broadly used to determine the reliability of specific nondestructive inspection procedures, as well as to provide data for damage tolerance life estimations and calculation of inspection intervals for critical components. They require inspections on a large set of samples, a fact that makes these statistical assessments time- and cost-consuming. Physics-based numerical simulations of nondestructive testing inspections could be used as a cost-effective alternative to empirical investigations. They realistically predict the inspection outputs as functions of the input characteristics related to the test piece, transducer and instrument settings, which are subsequently used to partially substitute and/or complement inspection data in PoD analysis. This work focuses on the numerical modelling aspects of eddy current testing for the bolt hole inspections of wing box structures typical of the Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules and P-3 Orion aircraft, found in the air force inventory of many countries. Boundary element-based numerical modelling software was employed to predict the eddy current signal responses when varying inspection parameters related to probe characteristics, crack geometry and test piece properties. Two demonstrator exercises were used for eddy current signal prediction when lowering the driver probe frequency and changing the material's electrical conductivity, followed by subsequent discussions and examination of the implications on using simulated data in the PoD analysis. Despite some simplifying assumptions, the modelled eddy current signals were found to provide similar results to the actual inspections. It is concluded that physics-based numerical simulations have the potential to partially substitute or complement inspection data required for PoD studies, reducing the cost, time, effort and resources necessary for a full empirical PoD assessment.

  19. The Current Status of Sport Sociology within American and Canadian Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Dana D.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of sport sociology within American and Canadian Colleges and Universities. The study investigated: (1) the number of graduate and undergraduate courses offered in sport sociology; (2) current research area(s) of interest within sport sociology; (3) current text used as reference and…

  20. Income Inequality and Health Status in the United States: Evidence from the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jennifer M.; Milyo, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Current Population Survey data on self-reported health status and income for the general population and those in poverty were analyzed. No consistent association was found between income inequality and individual health status. Previous findings of such an association were attributed to ecological fallacy or failure to control for individual…

  1. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  2. Laccase applications in biofuels production: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudanga, Tukayi; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2014-08-01

    The desire to reduce dependence on the ever diminishing fossil fuel reserves coupled with the impetus towards green energy has seen increased research in biofuels as alternative sources of energy. Lignocellulose materials are one of the most promising feedstocks for advanced biofuels production. However, their utilisation is dependent on the efficient hydrolysis of polysaccharides, which in part is dependent on cost-effective and benign pretreatment of biomass to remove or modify lignin and release or expose sugars to hydrolytic enzymes. Laccase is one of the enzymes that are being investigated not only for potential use as pretreatment agents in biofuel production, mainly as a delignifying enzyme, but also as a biotechnological tool for removal of inhibitors (mainly phenolic) of subsequent enzymatic processes. The current review discusses the major advances in the application of laccase as a potential pretreatment strategy, the underlying principles as well as directions for future research in the search for better enzyme-based technologies for biofuel production. Future perspectives could include synergy between enzymes that may be required for optimal results and the adoption of the biorefinery concept in line with the move towards the global implementation of the bioeconomy strategy.

  3. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil

  4. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil.

  5. The current status of laser applications in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L J

    2003-09-01

    A range of lasers is now available for use in dentistry. This paper summarizes key current and emerging applications for lasers in clinical practice. A major diagnostic application of low power lasers is the detection of caries, using fluorescence elicited from hydroxyapatite or from bacterial by-products. Laser fluorescence is an effective method for detecting and quantifying incipient occlusal and cervical carious lesions, and with further refinement could be used in the same manner for proximal lesions. Photoactivated dye techniques have been developed which use low power lasers to elicit a photochemical reaction. Photoactivated dye techniques can be used to disinfect root canals, periodontal pockets, cavity preparations and sites of peri-implantitis. Using similar principles, more powerful lasers can be used for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of malignancies of the oral mucosa. Laser-driven photochemical reactions can also be used for tooth whitening. In combination with fluoride, laser irradiation can improve the resistance of tooth structure to demineralization, and this application is of particular benefit for susceptible sites in high caries risk patients. Laser technology for caries removal, cavity preparation and soft tissue surgery is at a high state of refinement, having had several decades of development up to the present time. Used in conjunction with or as a replacement for traditional methods, it is expected that specific laser technologies will become an essential component of contemporary dental practice over the next decade.

  6. Current status of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Villademoros, F; Calandre, E P; Slim, M

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of fibromyalgia requires pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. The pharmacological treatment of fibromyalgia is limited to a few drugs that have been demonstrated to be moderately effective in some but not all dimensions of the disease. Therefore, the search for new drugs to treat this condition is warranted. Atypical antipsychotics offered an attractive alternative because they had been shown to be active against several key symptoms of fibromyalgia. The results of open-label studies, however, appear to indicate that atypical antipsychotics are poorly tolerated in patients with fibromyalgia, and only quetiapine XR has been studied in randomized controlled trials. Quetiapine XR has demonstrated effectiveness in treating comorbid major depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance. However, in two randomized controlled trials, quetiapine XR was not differentiated from placebo and failed to demonstrate noninferiority to amitriptyline in terms of improving overall symptomatology. The effect of quetiapine XR on pain and its usefulness as part of a combination pharmacological regimen should be further evaluated. Overall, the use of quetiapine (initiated at a low dose and slowly titrated) in fibromyalgia should be limited to patients with comorbid major depression or patients who are currently receiving other treatments and have unresolved and disabling depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. Copyright 2014 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect-directed analysis: Current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Giesy, John P.; Lee, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-09-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) has become useful for identification of toxicant(s) that occur in mixtures in the environment, especially those that are causative agents of specific adverse effects. Here, we summarize and review EDA methodology including preparation of samples, biological analyses, fractionations, and instrumental analyses, highlighting key scientific advancements. A total of 63 documents since 1999 (Scopus search) including 46 research articles, 13 review papers, and 4 project descriptions, have been collected and reviewed in this study. At the early stage (1999-2010), most studies that applied EDA focused on organic extracts of freshwater and coastal contaminated sediments and wastewater. Toxic effects were often measured using cell-based bioassays ( in vitro) and the causative chemicals were identified by use of low resolution gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GCMSD). More recently (2010-present), EDA has been extended to various matrices such as biota, soil, crude oil, and suspended solids and techniques have been improved to include determination of bioavailability in vivo. In particular, methods for non-target screenings of organic chemicals in environmental samples using cutting-edge instrumentation such as time of flight-mass spectrometry (ToF-MS), Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR), and Orbitrap mass spectrometer have been developed. This overview provides descriptions of recent improvements of EDA and suggests future research directions based on current understandings and limitations.

  8. Phytochemicals for breast cancer therapy: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Singh, Nidhi; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Chakravarti, Bandana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women, representing nearly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers every year. Till date, various therapeutic interventions, including surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are available and are known to cause a significant decline in the overall mortality rate. However, therapeutic resistance, recurrence and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major challenges that need to be addressed. Increasing evidence suggests the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in heterogeneous population of breast tumors capable of selfrenewal and differentiation and is considered to be responsible for drug resistance and recurrence. Therefore, compound that can target both differentiated cancer cells, as well as CSCs, may provide a better treatment strategy. Due to safe nature of dietary agents and health products, investigators are introducing them into clinical trials in place of chemotherapeutic agents.This current review focuses on phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids that are in use for breast cancer therapy in preclinical phase. As phytochemicals have several advantages in breast cancer and cancer stem cells, new synthetic series for breast cancer therapy from analogues of most potent natural molecule can be developed via rational drug design approach.

  9. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  10. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter GM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grace M Richter,1,2 Anne L Coleman11UCLA Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2USC Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery aims to provide a medication-sparing, conjunctival-sparing, ab interno approach to intraocular pressure reduction for patients with mild-to-moderate glaucoma that is safer than traditional incisional glaucoma surgery. The current approaches include: increasing trabecular outflow (Trabectome, iStent, Hydrus stent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy; suprachoroidal shunts (Cypass micro-stent; reducing aqueous production (endocyclophotocoagulation; and subconjunctival filtration (XEN gel stent. The data on each surgical procedure for each of these approaches are reviewed in this article, patient selection pearls learned to date are discussed, and expectations for the future are examined. Keywords: MIGS, microincisional glaucoma surgery, trabecular stent, Schlemm’s canal, suprachoroidal shunt, ab interno

  11. Clinical proteomics: Current status, challenges, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Horng Chiou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This account will give an overview and evaluation of the current advances in mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics platforms and technology. A general review of some background information concerning the application of these methods in the characterization of molecular sizes and related protein expression profiles associated with different types of cells under varied experimental conditions will be presented. It is intended to provide a concise and succinct overview to those clinical researchers first exposed to this foremost powerful methodology in modern life sciences of postgenomic era. Proteomic characterization using highly sophisticated and expensive instrumentation of MS has been used to characterize biological samples of complex protein mixtures with vastly different protein structure and composition. These systems are then used to highlight the versatility and potential of the MS-based proteomic strategies for facilitating protein expression analysis of various disease-related organisms or tissues of interest. Major MS-based strategies reviewed herein include (1 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-MS and electron-spray ionization proteomics; (2 one-dimensional or two-dimensional gel-based proteomics; (3 gel-free shotgun proteomics in conjunction with liquid chromatography/tandem MS; (4 Multiple reaction monitoring coupled tandem MS quantitative proteomics and; (5 Phosphoproteomics based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-MS/MS.

  12. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  13. Current status in the treatment options for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Jyong-Hong; Lu, Hung-I; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Wu, Keng-Liang

    2013-09-07

    Recent advances in the treatment of achalasia include the use of high-resolution manometry to predict the outcome of patients and the introduction of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The first multicenter randomized, controlled, 2-year follow-up study conducted by the European Achalasia Trial group indicated that laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) was not superior to pneumatic dilations (PD). Publications on the long-term success of laparoscopic surgery continue to emerge. In addition, laparoscopic single-site surgery is applicable to advanced laparoscopic operations such as LHM and anterior fundoplication. The optimal treatment option is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review, we provide an update of the current progress in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Unless new conclusive data prove otherwise, LHM is considered the most durable treatment for achalasia at the expense of increased reflux-associated complications. However, PD is the first choice for non-surgical treatment and is more cost-effective. Repeated PD according to an "on-demand" strategy based on symptom recurrence can achieve long-term remission. Decision making should be based on clinical evidence that identifies a subcategory of patients who would benefit from specific treatment options. POEM has shown promise but its long-term efficacy and safety need to be assessed further.

  14. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  15. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is of paramount importance to achieve as short a cycle time as is reasonably possible in the evaluation and publication of the A-chains. The panel, therefore, has concentrated its efforts on identifying those factors that have tended to increase the cycle time and on finding ways to remove the obstacles. An important step was made during the past year to address reduction of the size of the published evaluations - another factor that can reduce cycle time. The Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) network adopted new format guidelines, which generated a 30% reduction by eliminating redundancy and/or duplication. A current problem appears to be the rate at which the A-chains are being evaluated, which, on the average, is only about one-half of what it could be. It is hoped that the situation will improve with an increase in the number of foreign centers and an increase in efficiency as more A-chains are recycled by the same evaluator who did the previous evaluation. Progress has been made in the area of on-line access to the nuclear data files in that a subcommittee report describing the requirements of an on-line system has been produced. 2 tabs

  16. History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, James A

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ∼1 cm 2 up to 10 m 2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R and D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications. (paper)

  17. Aetiology of childhood acute leukaemias: Current status of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossig, C.; Juergens, H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute leukaemia is a consequence of malignant transformation of a haematopoietic progenitor cell. Molecular studies have revealed a prenatal origin of many childhood leukaemias. According to current models, a pre-leukaemic stem cell clone is generated by a first mutation in utero which, in a minority of children, progresses to leukaemia after receiving further postnatal genetic hits. The nature of pre- and postnatal events involved in leukemogenesis in children is not well understood. Although genetic predisposition and specific environmental exposures may account for individual cases, the bulk of childhood leukaemia cannot be explained by any of these factors. The higher incidence of the most common leukaemia subtype in affluent societies, as well as the age peak between 2-5 y, suggest a contributory role of socioeconomic factors. An abnormal immune response during delayed exposure to common infections provides a plausible mechanism for malignant progression of pre-leukaemic clones in a subgroup of children. As highlighted in this review, a common cause for all types and subtypes of childhood leukaemia is highly unlikely. Deeper insights into the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia will rely on large-scale and combined epidemiological and bio-molecular studies. (authors)

  18. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.; Needles, A.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  19. Current Status of Interventional Radiology Treatment of Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, T., E-mail: thomas.rand@wienkav.at [General Hospital Hietzing, Department of Radiology (Austria); Uberoi, R. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Treatment of infrapopliteal arteries has developed to a standard technique during the past two decades. With the introduction of innovative devices, a variety of techniques has been created and is still under investigation. Treatment options range from plain balloon angioplasty (POBA), all sorts of stent applications, such as bare metal, balloon expanding, self-expanding, coated and drug-eluting stents, and bio-absorbable stents, to latest developments, such as drug-eluting balloons. Regarding the scientific background, several prospective, randomized studies with relevant numbers of patients have been (or will be) published that are Level I evidence. In contrast to older studies, which primarily were based mostly on numeric parameters, such as diameters or residual stenoses, more recent study concepts focus increasingly on clinical features, such as amputation rate improvement or changes of clinical stages and quality of life standards. Although it is still not decided, which of the individual techniques might be the best one, we can definitely conclude that whatever treatment of infrapopliteal arteries will be used it is of substantial benefit for the patient. Therefore, the goal of this review is to give an overview about the current developments and techniques for the treatment of infrapopliteal arteries, to present clinical and technical results, to weigh individual techniques, and to discuss the recent developments.

  20. The current status of biomarkers for predicting toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Sarah; Aubrecht, Jiri; Boekelheide, Kim; Brewster, David W; Vaidya, Vishal S; Anderson, Linnea; Burt, Deborah; Dere, Edward; Hwang, Kathleen; Pacheco, Sara; Saikumar, Janani; Schomaker, Shelli; Sigman, Mark; Goodsaid, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are significant rates of attrition in drug development. A number of compounds fail to progress past preclinical development due to limited tools that accurately monitor toxicity in preclinical studies and in the clinic. Research has focused on improving tools for the detection of organ-specific toxicity through the identification and characterization of biomarkers of toxicity. Areas covered This article reviews what we know about emerging biomarkers in toxicology, with a focus on the 2012 Northeast Society of Toxicology meeting titled ‘Translational Biomarkers in Toxicology.’ The areas covered in this meeting are summarized and include biomarkers of testicular injury and dysfunction, emerging biomarkers of kidney injury and translation of emerging biomarkers from preclinical species to human populations. The authors also provide a discussion about the biomarker qualification process and possible improvements to this process. Expert opinion There is currently a gap between the scientific work in the development and qualification of novel biomarkers for nonclinical drug safety assessment and how these biomarkers are actually used in drug safety assessment. A clear and efficient path to regulatory acceptance is needed so that breakthroughs in the biomarker toolkit for nonclinical drug safety assessment can be utilized to aid in the drug development process. PMID:23961847

  1. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-07

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described.

  2. Current Status and Issues in Basic Pharmaceutical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa

    2017-01-01

    Basic research in pharmaceutical sciences has a long and successful history. Researchers in this field have long given prime importance to the knowledge they have gained through their pharmaceutical education. The transition of pharmacy education to a 6-year course term has not only extended its duration but also placed more emphasis on practical clinical education. The School Education Act (in article 87, second paragraph) determines that "the term of the course, whose main purpose is to cultivate practical ability in clinical pharmacy, shall be six years" (excerpt). The 6-year pharmacy education is an exception to the general 4-year university term determined by the School Education Act. Therefore, the purpose of the 6-year course in pharmacy is clearly proscribed. This is true of the basic course in pharmaceutical education as well; hence, the basic course must be oriented toward developing "practical ability in clinical" education, too. The 6-year pharmacy course, starting from practice (Do), has evolved with the development of a syllabus that includes a model core curriculum (Plan). Furthermore, improvement in the course can be seen by the promoted development of faculty (Act). Now, evidence-based education research will be introduced (Check). This is how the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle in pharmaceutical education is expected to work. Currently, pedagogy research in pharmacy education has just begun, so it is difficult to evaluate at this time whether basic pharmaceutical education does in fact contribute to enhancing the "practical clinical ability" component of pharmaceutical education.

  3. "The current status of work on the origin of life"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Work on the Origin of Life is poised to converge onto a fourth phase and, many of us hope, success. The first phase concerned prebiotic synthesis of the small molecules, amino acids, nucleotides, lipids and others, essential for life and spanned some forty years. The second overlapping phase was inspired by the symmetric of the DNA or RNA double helix, presumed that life must necessarily be based on some form of template replication of one strand by ligation of free nucleotides to create the second strand, melting of the two strands and cycling again. Spearheaded by L. Orgel, but with many others, this effort has, to date, failed. The third phase begins with the discovery that RNA molecules can act as enzymes, and posited the RNA world, in which RNA molecules dominated. This has led to slightly successful efforts to evolve an RNA sequence able to template replicate itself. Current success is an evolved ribozyme able to do so for 14 nucleotides. The forth phase is converging around four ideas: 1) liposomes, h...

  4. Cangrelor in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Pappas, Christos; Sfantou, Danai; Lekakis, John

    2018-01-01

    Cangrelor is an intravenously administered P2Y 12 receptor antagonist with very fast, potent, and quickly reversible action. In the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, cangrelor provided an improved anti-ischemic protection compared with clopidogrel, without increasing the risk of severe bleeding. Cangrelor is currently approved by drug regulating authorities for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without prior treatment with a P2Y 12 receptor antagonist and not receiving a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, while its use is endorsed with a class IIb recommendation by the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Several subanalyses of CHAMPION PHOENIX trial have tried to elucidate the role of cangrelor in PCI, including its usefulness during a 2-hour landmark analysis, impact on intraprocedural stent thrombosis, and reduction in myocardial infarction (MI) rate. The influence of gender, geographic region, access site, and bivalirudin use on cangrelor's effects has also been reported. In patients with ST elevation MI and in clinical scenarios of disturbed absorption of oral antiplatelet agents or in need of an intravenous agent, cangrelor may surpass oral agents' drawbacks. Transitioning to an oral agent is mandatory following cangrelor infusion discontinuation, although ticagrelor may be administered earlier without any pharmacodynamic interaction. Nevertheless, the clinical role of cangrelor in conjunction with administration of prasugrel or ticagrelor remains unclear. Accruing real-life experience is expected to improve our understanding of cangrelor's role in everyday clinical practice.

  5. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, D.G. [OSA - CBD and CDP, 3050 Defense Pentagon, Room 3C257, Washington, DC 20301-3050 (United States)], E-mail: david.jarrett@us.army.mil; Sedlak, R.G.; Dickerson, W.E. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Reeves, G.I. [Northrop Grumman IT, 8211 Terminal Road, Lorton, VA 22079-1421 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described.

  6. Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurush Ambesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer′s disease (AD, Parkinson′s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS, recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics.

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia in children: Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Takashi; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Souichi

    2016-02-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) accounts for 25% of pediatric leukemia and affects approximately 180 patients annually in Japan. The treatment outcome for pediatric AML has improved through advances in chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), supportive care, and optimal risk stratification. Currently, clinical pediatric AML studies are conducted separately according to the AML subtypes: de novo AML, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and myeloid leukemia with Down syndrome (ML-DS). Children with de novo AML are treated mainly with anthracyclines and cytarabine, in some cases with HSCT, and the overall survival (OS) rate now approaches 70%. Children with APL are treated with an all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-combined regimen with an 80-90% OS. Children with ML-DS are treated with a less intensive regimen compared with non-DS patients, and the OS is approximately 80%. HSCT in first remission is restricted to children with high-risk de novo AML only. To further improve outcomes, it will be necessary to combine more accurate risk stratification strategies using molecular genetic analysis with assessment of minimum residual disease, and the introduction of new drugs in international collaborative clinical trials. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. In vivo small animal imaging: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagadis, George C.; Loudos, George; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Langer, Steve G.; Nikiforidis, George C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of small animal models in basic and preclinical sciences constitutes an integral part of testing new pharmaceutical agents prior to commercial translation to clinical practice. Whole-body small animal imaging is a particularly elegant and cost-effective experimental platform for the timely validation and commercialization of novel agents from the bench to the bedside. Biomedical imaging is now listed along with genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics as an integral part of biological and medical sciences. Miniaturized versions of clinical diagnostic modalities, including but not limited to microcomputed tomography, micromagnetic resonance tomography, microsingle-photon-emission tomography, micropositron-emission tomography, optical imaging, digital angiography, and ultrasound, have all greatly improved our investigative abilities to longitudinally study various experimental models of human disease in mice and rodents. After an exhaustive literature search, the authors present a concise and critical review of in vivo small animal imaging, focusing on currently available modalities as well as emerging imaging technologies on one side and molecularly targeted contrast agents on the other. Aforementioned scientific topics are analyzed in the context of cancer angiogenesis and innovative antiangiogenic strategies under-the-way to the clinic. Proposed hybrid approaches for diagnosis and targeted site-specific therapy are highlighted to offer an intriguing glimpse of the future.

  9. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  10. Blood transfusion safety; current status and challenges in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Aneke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject. The World Health Organization has been in the forefront of efforts to establish safe, available, and affordable blood transfusion services in most parts of Africa through encouraging adequate blood donor recruitment, donor blood testing, and collection as well developing strategies for the rational use of blood. Even though modest improvement has been recorded, particularly with regards to donor blood screening for common TTIs, considerable efforts are needed in the form of robust public enlightenment campaigns (on blood donation and continuous system improvement to drive the current transfusion practices in the country toward safety and self-sustenance.

  11. Current status in remnant gastric cancer after distal gastrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masaichi; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Remnant gastric cancer (RGC) and gastric stump cancer after distal gastrectomy (DG) are recognized as the same clinical entity. In this review, the current knowledges as well as the non-settled issues of RGC are presented. Duodenogastric reflux and denervation of the gastric mucosa are considered as the two main factors responsible for the development of RGC after benign disease. On the other hand, some precancerous circumstances which already have existed at the time of initial surgery, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, are the main factors associated with RGC after gastric cancer. Although eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in remnant stomach is promising, it is still uncertain whether it can reduce the risk of carcinogenesis. Periodic endoscopic surveillance after DG was reported useful in detecting RGC at an early stage, which offers a chance to undergo minimally invasive endoscopic treatment or laparoscopic surgery and leads to an improved prognosis in RGC patients. Future challenges may be expected to elucidate the benefit of eradication of H. pylori in the remnant stomach if it could reduce the risk for RGC, to build an optimal endoscopic surveillance strategy after DG by stratifying the risk for development of RGC, and to develop a specific staging system for RGC for the standardization of the treatment by prospecting the prognosis. PMID:26937131

  12. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Operational validation - current status and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2002-01-01

    The design of nuclear plant systems and operational practices is based on the application of multiple defenses to minimize the risk of occurrence of safety and production challenges and upsets. With such an approach, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of design and operational features in preventing upset challenges should be known. A longstanding industry concern is the adverse impact errors in human performance can have on plant safety and production. To minimize the risk of error occurrence, designers and operations staff routinely employ multiple design and operational defenses. However, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of defensive features in minimizing error occurrence are generally only known in a qualitative sense. More importantly, the margins to error or upset occurrence provided by combinations of design or operational features are generally not characterized during design or operational validation. This paper provides some observations and comments on current validation practice as it relates to operational human performance concerns. The paper also discusses opportunities for future improvement in validation practice in terms of the resilience of validation results to operating changes and characterization of margins to safety or production challenge. (author)

  14. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

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    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII) definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.

  16. Mid-urethral slings in female incontinence: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Krlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the mid-urethral sling (MUS 15 years ago has drastically changed the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Both retropubic and transobturator MUS can be placed in the ambulatory setting with excellent results. The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT sling has the most robust and long-term data, but more recent literature suggests that the transobturator tape sling may offer comparable efficacy in appropriately selected patients. Single incision sling (SIS is the newest addition to the MUS group and was developed in an attempt to minimize morbidity and create an anti-incontinence procedure that could be performed in the office. The efficacy of SIS remains unknown as the current literature regarding SIS lacks long-term results and comparative trials. The suprapubic arc sling appears to have equally effective outcomes in at least the short-term when compared with TVT. Although evolution of the SIS has led to a less invasive procedure with decreased post-op pain and reduced recovery time, durability of efficacy could be the endpoint we are sacrificing. Until longer-term data and more quality comparison trials are available, tailoring one′s choice of MUS to the individual patient and her unique clinical parameters remains the best option.

  17. Electronic publishing in radiology: beginnings, current status, and expanding horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Felix S; Llewellyn, Kevin; Olsen, Kathryn M

    2004-10-01

    Electronic publishing in radiology began in the 1980s and gathered momentum as use of the personal computer and subsequently the World Wide Web became commonplace. The ease of access and wide distribution that the Internet affords have presented both experts and lay users with the challenge of distinguishing reliable from unreliable material. In the field of radiology, peer-reviewed journals, the sine qua non of reliability in the scientific realm, began to appear in online versions in 1988, and now, nearly all such journals currently have online versions. Electronic versions of textbooks and textbook-like material have become more common, although the vast majority of publishers' catalogs are traditional print books. Electronic material is more common in the fields of internal, emergency, and family medicine than in the field of diagnostic radiology. The latest publishing medium is the personal digital assistant. Challenges that face electronic publishing include the issues of permanent archiving, citation, and indexing. Peer review seems to be the best method for distinguishing reliable from unreliable information. The use of Web technology has improved the logistics of peer review, and some journals have begun posting peer reviews themselves on the Web alongside peer-reviewed articles. Electronic publishing has changed the manner in which radiologists obtain information, providing wider, more immediate access.

  18. Laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction - current status - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeliga, Jacek; Jackowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    Acute small bowel obstruction (SBO) is an urgent medical condition. Its diagnosis is based mainly on a clinical examination followed by confirmatory simple routine radiological examinations such as plain X-ray of the abdominal cavity or computed tomography (CT). However, a real surgical challenge is not a decision whether to perform a surgery, but a decision when and how to perform it. To determine the place of laparoscopy in contemporary management of acute SBO based on the current literature. A review of the literature based on the Medline database and including mainly the period of 2013-2017 was performed. With regard to SBO, laparoscopy is a technique showing its advantages resulting from a minimally invasive approach. However, SBO is still a condition where the use of laparoscopy is limited mainly to selected cases such as SBO caused by single adhesions or foreign bodies. A basic limitation of using this technique is advanced and complicated SBO and lack of sufficient technical skills of the surgeon.

  19. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deste, Giacomo; De Peri, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study is aimed to review the current scientific literature on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. In particular, the main structured protocols of cognitive remediation developed for schizophrenia are presented and the main results reported in recent meta-analyses are summarized. Possible benefits of cognitive remediation in the early course of schizophrenia and in subjects at risk for psychosis are also discussed. Methods. Electronic search of the relevant studies which appeared in the PubMed database until April 2013 has been performed and all the meta-analyses and review articles on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia have been also taken into account. Results. Numerous intervention programs have been designed, applied, and evaluated, with the objective of improving cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. Several quantitative reviews have established that cognitive remediation is effective in reducing cognitive deficits and in improving functional outcome of the disorder. Furthermore, the studies available support the usefulness of cognitive remediation when applied in the early course of schizophrenia and even in subjects at risk of the disease. Conclusions. Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to improve real-world functioning in schizophrenia and should be considered a key strategy for early intervention in the psychoses. PMID:24455253

  20. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-guo WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.