WorldWideScience

Sample records for hole relaxation depends

  1. Energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates from a time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi; Zhong, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation

  2. On black hole thermodynamics with a momentum relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate black hole thermodynamics involving a scalar hair which is dual to a momentum relaxation of the dual field theory. This black hole geometry is able to be classified by two parameters. One is a momentum relaxation and the other is a mass density of another matter localized at the center. Even though all parameters are continuous, there exists a specific point where its thermodynamic interpretation is not continuously connected to the one defined in the other parameter regime. The similar feature also appears in a topological AdS black hole. In this work, we show why such an unusual thermodynamic feature happens and provide a unified way to understand such an exotic black hole thermodynamically in the entire parameter range. (paper)

  3. Picosecond intersubband hole relaxation in p-type quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Fauchet, P.M.; Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first direct measurement of the relaxation time of holes in p-type quantum wells using tunable, subpicosecond mid-infrared laser pulses in a pump-probe arrangement. The QW layers consisted of 50 In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As periods. The In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As well was 4 nm wide and the Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As barrier was 8 nm wide. The dopant concentration was 10 19 CM -3 which corresponds to a sheet density of 1.2 x 10 13 CM -2 . The room temperature IR spectrum showed a 50 meV wide absorption peak at 5.25 μm (220 meV). This energy agrees with the calculated n=1 heavy hole to n=1 light hole transition energy of 240 meV (150 meV for strain and 90 meV for confinement). The large absorption width results from hole-hole scattering and the difference in dispersion relations between the two subbands. The equal-wavelength pump-probe transmission measurements were performed using the Stanford free electron laser (FEL). The FEL pulses were tuned between 4 and 6 μ m and their duration was less than 1 ps. The measurements were performed as a function of temperature, pump wavelength and intensity (from 0.3 to 10 GW/cm 2 ). In all our experiments, we find an increase of transmission (decrease of absorption or bleaching) following photopumping, which recovers as a single exponential with a time constant (relaxation time) of the order of 1 picosecond. The maximum change in transmission is linear with pump 2 intensity below 1 GW/cm 2 and saturates to ∼3% with a saturation intensity I sat of 3 GW/cm 2 . As the saturation regime is entered, the relaxation time increases from 0.8 ps to 1.8 ps. This relaxation time depends on the temperature T: it increases from 0.8 ps to 1.3 ps as T decreases from 300 K to 77 K. Finally, when we tune the laser through the absorption band, the magnitude of the signal changes but its temporal behavior does not change, within the accuracy of the measurements

  4. Relaxation of nuclear spin on holes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gr'ncharova, E.I.; Perel', V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The longitudienal relaxation time T 1 of nuclear spins due to dipole-dipole interaction with holes in semiconductors is calculated. Expressions for T 1 in cubic and uniaxial semiconductors are obtained for non-degenerate and degenerate cases. On the basis of comparison with available experimental data for silicon the agreement with the theoretical results is obtained. It is demonstrated that in uniaxial semiconductors the time of relaxation on holes for a nuclear spin directed along the c axis is considerably greater than that for a spin in the normal direction

  5. Observation of relaxation on time scale of core hole decay by coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    It is shown by a many-body theory that when the relaxation time of a metastable core hole state(s) to the most stable one is comparable to or shorter than core hole decay time of the former state(s), a comparison between the singles (noncoincidence) photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) spectrum and the coincidence one provides a direct evidence of the relaxation. In principle the variation with photoelectron kinetic energy of relaxation (or charge transfer (CT)) time can be determined. By singles measurement the correlation of a photoelectron generated by creation of the metastable states not only with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the same core hole state but also with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the stable state via relaxation of the metastable state, is completely lost, unless only the metastable state is observed by PES, whereas the correlation often manifests directly in the coincidence spectra. Thus, compared to the coincidence spectroscopy the singles one is often much less capable of elucidating the competition between relaxation and core hole decay of a metastable state. Such examples are discussed

  6. Spin relaxation dynamics of holes in intrinsic GaAs quantum wells studied by transient circular dichromatic absorption spectroscopy at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shaoyin; Zhu, Ruidan; Lai, Tianshu

    2017-03-21

    Spin relaxation dynamics of holes in intrinsic GaAs quantum wells is studied using time-resolved circular dichromatic absorption spectroscopy at room temperature. It is found that ultrafast dynamics is dominated by the cooperative contributions of band filling and many-body effects. The relative contribution of the two effects is opposite in strength for electrons and holes. As a result, transient circular dichromatic differential transmission (TCD-DT) with co- and cross-circularly polarized pump and probe presents different strength at several picosecond delay time. Ultrafast spin relaxation dynamics of excited holes is sensitively reflected in TCD-DT with cross-circularly polarized pump and probe. A model, including coherent artifact, thermalization of nonthermal carriers and the cooperative contribution of band filling and many-body effects, is developed, and used to fit TCD-DT with cross-circularly polarized pump and probe. Spin relaxation time of holes is achieved as a function of excited hole density for the first time at room temperature, and increases with hole density, which disagrees with a theoretical prediction based on EY spin relaxation mechanism, implying that EY mechanism may be not dominant hole spin relaxation mechanism at room temperature, but DP mechanism is dominant possibly.

  7. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.

    2016-07-01

    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  8. Universality in the relaxation dynamics of the composed black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system: The role of quantum Schwinger discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quasinormal resonance spectrum {ωn(μ,q,M,Q}n=0n=∞ of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime is studied analytically in the large-coupling regime qQ≫Mμ (here {μ,q} are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the field, and {M,Q} are respectively the mass and electric charge of the black hole. This physical system provides a striking illustration for the validity of the universal relaxation bound τ×T≥ħ/π in black-hole physics (here τ≡1/ℑω0 is the characteristic relaxation time of the composed black-hole-scalar-field system, and T is the Bekenstein–Hawking temperature of the black hole. In particular, it is shown that the relaxation dynamics of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime may saturate this quantum time-times-temperature inequality. Interestingly, we prove that potential violations of the bound by light scalar fields are excluded by the Schwinger-type pair-production mechanism (a vacuum polarization effect, a quantum phenomenon which restricts the physical parameters of the composed black-hole-charged-field system to the regime qQ≪M2μ2/ħ.

  9. Numerical evidence for universality in the relaxation dynamics of near-extremal Kerr-Newman black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-12-15

    The coupled gravitational-electromagnetic quasinormal resonances of charged rotating Kerr-Newman black holes are explored. In particular, using the recently published numerical data of Dias et al. (Phys Rev Lett 114:151101, 2015), we show that the characteristic relaxation times τ ≡ 1/Iω{sub 0} of near-extremal Kerr-Newman black holes in the regime Q/r{sub +} ≤ 0.9 are described, to a very good degree of accuracy, by the simple universal relation τ x T{sub BH} = π{sup -1} (here Q/r{sub +}, and T{sub BH} are respectively the electric charge, horizon radius, and temperature of the Kerr-Newman black hole, and ω{sub 0} is the fundamental quasinormal resonance of the perturbed black-hole spacetime). (orig.)

  10. Numerical evidence for universality in the relaxation dynamics of near-extremal Kerr–Newman black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.com [The Ruppin Academic Center, 40250, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, 91010, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-12-22

    The coupled gravitational-electromagnetic quasinormal resonances of charged rotating Kerr–Newman black holes are explored. In particular, using the recently published numerical data of Dias et al. (Phys Rev Lett 114:151101, 2015), we show that the characteristic relaxation times τ≡1/Iω{sub 0} of near-extremal Kerr–Newman black holes in the regime Q/r{sub +}≤0.9 are described, to a very good degree of accuracy, by the simple universal relation τ×T{sub BH}=π{sup -1} (here Q,r{sub +}, and T{sub BH} are respectively the electric charge, horizon radius, and temperature of the Kerr–Newman black hole, and ω{sub 0} is the fundamental quasinormal resonance of the perturbed black-hole spacetime)

  11. Simulation of hole-mobility in doped relaxed and strained Ge layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Jeremy R.; Riddet, Craig; Chan, Morgan Kah H.; Asenov, Asen

    2010-11-01

    As silicon based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are reaching the limits of their performance with scaling, alternative channel materials are being considered to maintain performance in future complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology generations. Thus there is renewed interest in employing Ge as a channel material in p-MOSFETs, due to the significant improvement in hole mobility as compared to Si. Here we employ full-band Monte Carlo to study hole transport properties in Ge. We present mobility and velocity-field characteristics for different transport directions in p-doped relaxed and strained Ge layers. The simulations are based on a method for over-coming the potentially large dynamic range of scattering rates, which results from the long-range nature of the unscreened Coulombic interaction. Our model for ionized impurity scattering includes the affects of dynamic Lindhard screening, coupled with phase-shift, and multi-ion corrections along with plasmon scattering. We show that all these effects play a role in determining the hole carrier transport in doped Ge layers and cannot be neglected.

  12. Picosecond buildup and relaxation of intense stimulated emission in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L.; Zabegaev, D. N.; Krivonosov, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the idea developed previously based on circumstantial evidence, we have found that stimulated emission emerges in GaAs and its intensity increases with a picosecond delay relative to the front of powerful picosecond optical pumping that produced a dense electron-hole plasma. The emission intensity relaxes with decreasing pumping with a characteristic time of ∼10 ps. We have derived the dependences of the delay time, the relaxation time, and the duration of the picosecond emission pulse on its photon energy. The estimates based on the fact that the relaxation of emission is determined by electron-hole plasma cooling correspond to the measured relaxation time.

  13. Improved thermal stability and hole mobilities in a strained-Si/strained-Si1-yGe y/strained-Si heterostructure grown on a relaxed Si1-xGe x buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Lee, Minjoo L.; Isaacson, David M.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.

    2005-01-01

    A dual channel heterostructure consisting of strained-Si/strained-Si 1-y Ge y on relaxed Si 1-x Ge x (y > x), provides a platform for fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high hole mobilities (μ eff ) which depend directly on Ge concentration and strain in the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer. Ge out-diffuses from the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer into relaxed Si 1-x Ge x during high temperature processing, reducing peak Ge concentration and strain in the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer and degrades hole μ eff in these dual channel heterostructures. A heterostructure consisting of strained-Si/strained-Si 1-y Ge y /strained-Si, referred to as a trilayer heterostructure, grown on relaxed Si 1-x Ge x has much reduced Ge out-flux from the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer and retains higher μ eff after thermal processing. Improved hole μ eff over similar dual channel heterostructures is also observed in this heterostructure. This could be a result of preventing the hole wavefunction tunneling into the low μ eff relaxed Si 1-x Ge x layer due to the additional valence band offset provided by the underlying strained-Si layer. A diffusion coefficient has been formulated and implemented in a finite difference scheme for predicting the thermal budget of the strained SiGe heterostructures. It shows that the trilayer heterostructures have superior thermal budgets at higher Ge concentrations. Ring-shaped MOSFETs were fabricated on both platforms and subjected to various processing temperatures in order to compare the extent of μ eff reduction with thermal budget. Hole μ eff enhancements are retained to a much higher extent in a trilayer heterostructure after high temperature processing as compared to a dual channel heterostructure. The improved thermal stability and hole μ eff of a trilayer heterostructure makes it an ideal platform for fabricating high μ eff MOSFETs that can be processed over higher temperatures without significant losses in hole

  14. Effect of iodine impurity on relaxation of photoexcited silver chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostrikova, Yu. V.; Klyuev, V. G.

    2008-01-01

    The time and temperature dependences of relaxation of excited AgCl and AgCl:I crystals is studied by the method of photostimulated flash of luminescence. The presence of iodine impurity in silver chloride gives rise to hole recombination (luminescence) centers and hole traps in the band gap. It is shown that the main contribution to the decrease in the concentration of electrons localized at deep traps is made by the recombination of electrons with holes released thermally from shallow localization levels (iodine-related centers). Estimation of activation energy for the relaxation process showed that these energies for the AgCl and AgCl:I samples under study are the same within the experimental error and are equal to E rel1 = 0.01 ± 0.0005 eV for the initial stage of relaxation and E rel2 = 0.09 ± 0.005 eV for the final state. This fact indicates that the majority of hole traps involved in the relaxation process in AgCl are related to iodine impurity. In the course of thermal relaxation in AgCl, relocalization of nonequilibrium charge carriers from shallow levels to deep levels is observed. The depth of the corresponding trap is E arl = 0.174 ± 0.03 eV.

  15. Tuning of the hole spin relaxation time in single self-assembled In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dots by electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hai; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin, E-mail: helx@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-11-28

    We investigate the electric field tuning of the phonon-assisted hole spin relaxation in single self-assembled In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs), using an atomistic empirical pseudopotential method. We find that the electric field along the growth direction can tune the hole spin relaxation time for more than one order of magnitude. The electric field can prolong or shorten the hole spin lifetime and the tuning shows an asymmetry in terms of the field direction. The asymmetry is more pronounced for the taller dot. The results show that the electric field is an effective way to tune the hole spin-relaxation in self-assembled QDs.

  16. Relaxation of Isolated Ventricular Cardiomyocytes by a Voltage-Dependent Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John H. B.; Spitzer, Kenneth W.; Ershler, Philip R.

    1988-08-01

    Cell contraction and relaxation were measured in single voltage-clamped guinea pig cardiomyocytes to investigate the contribution of sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchange to mechanical relaxation. Cells clamped from -80 to 0 millivolts displayed initial phasic and subsequent tonic contractions; caffeine reduced or abolished the phasic and enlarged the tonic contraction. The rate of relaxation from tonic contractions was steeply voltage-dependent and was significantly slowed in the absence of a sarcolemmal Na+ gradient. Tonic contractions elicited in the absence of a Na+ gradient promptly relaxed when external Na+ was applied, reflecting activation of Na+-Ca2+ exchange. It appears that a voltage-dependent Na+-Ca2+ exchange can rapidly mechanically relax mammalian heart muscle.

  17. Influence of relaxation processes on the evaluation of the metastable defect density in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciaszek, M.; Zabierowski, P. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, Warszawa 00 662 (Poland)

    2016-06-07

    In this contribution, we investigated by means of numerical simulations the influence of relaxation processes related to metastable defects on electrical characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}. In particular, we analyzed the relaxation of a metastable state induced by illumination at a fixed temperature as well as the dependence of the hole concentration on the temperature during cooling. The knowledge of these two relaxation processes is crucial in the evaluation of the hole concentration in the relaxed state and after light soaking. We have shown that the distribution of the metastable defects can be considered frozen below 200 K. The hole capture cross section was estimated as ∼3 × 10{sup −15} cm{sup 2}. It was shown that the usually used cooling rates may lead to relevant changes of the hole concentration. We calculated the lower limit of the hole concentration after cooling, and we presented how it depends on densities of shallow acceptors and metastable defects. Moreover, we proposed a method which allows for the evaluation of shallow acceptor and metastable defect densities from two capacitance-voltage profiles measured in the relaxed and light soaking states. Finally, we indicated experimental conditions in which the influence of relaxation processes on the accuracy of this method is the smallest.

  18. Hole digging in ensembles of tunneling molecular magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupitsyn, I. S.; Stamp, P. C.; Prokof'ev, N. V.

    2004-04-01

    The nuclear spin-mediated quantum relaxation of ensembles of tunneling magnetic molecules causes a “hole” to appear in the distribution of internal fields in the system. The form of this hole and its time evolution, are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the line shape of the tunneling hole in a partially depolarized sample must have a Lorentzian line shape. The short-time half-width ξo in Fe8 crystals should be ˜E0, the half-width of the nuclear spin multiplet, but this result is not generally true. The Lorentzian hole line shape and the short-time √(t) relaxation in weakly polarized samples are both connected to a correlation time τde(ξ) for bias diffusion, whose inverse value also has a Lorentzian dependence on ξ.

  19. Time-dependent perturbations in two-dimensional string black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Diamandis, G A; Maintas, X N; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss time-dependent perturbations (induced by matter fields) of a black-hole background in tree-level two-dimensional string theory. We analyse the linearized case and show the possibility of having black-hole solutions with time-dependent horizons. The latter exist only in the presence of time-dependent `tachyon' matter fields, which constitute the only propagating degrees of freedom in two-dimensional string theory. For real tachyon field configurations it is not possible to obtain solutions with horizons shrinking to a point. On the other hand, such a possibility seems to be realized in the case of string black-hole models formulated on higher world-sheet genera. We connect this latter result with black hole evaporation/decay at a quantum level.}

  20. Dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times on magnetic field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Wu, Yong; Martens, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) the relaxation time of the magnetization in response to externally applied magnetic fields is determined by the Brownian and Néel relaxation mechanisms. Here the authors investigate the dependence of the relaxation times on the magnetic field strength and the implications for MPI and MPS. Methods: The Fokker–Planck equation with Brownian relaxation and the Fokker–Planck equation with Néel relaxation are solved numerically for a time-varying externally applied magnetic field, including a step-function, a sinusoidally varying, and a linearly ramped magnetic field. For magnetic fields that are applied as a step function, an eigenvalue approach is used to directly calculate both the Brownian and Néel relaxation times for a range of magnetic field strengths. For Néel relaxation, the eigenvalue calculations are compared to Brown's high-barrier approximation formula. Results: The relaxation times due to the Brownian or Néel mechanisms depend on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. In particular, the Néel relaxation time is sensitive to the magnetic field strength, and varies by many orders of magnitude for nanoparticle properties and magnetic field strengths relevant for MPI and MPS. Therefore, the well-known zero-field relaxation times underestimate the actual relaxation times and, in particular, can underestimate the Néel relaxation time by many orders of magnitude. When only Néel relaxation is present—if the particles are embedded in a solid for instance—the authors found that there can be a strong magnetization response to a sinusoidal driving field, even if the period is much less than the zero-field relaxation time. For a ferrofluid in which both Brownian and Néel relaxation are present, only one relaxation mechanism may dominate depending on the magnetic field strength, the driving frequency (or ramp time), and the phase of the magnetization relative to the

  1. Stellar dynamics around a massive black hole - II. Resonant relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first-principles theory of resonant relaxation (RR) of a low-mass stellar system orbiting a more massive black hole (MBH). We first extend the kinetic theory of Gilbert to include the Keplerian field of a black hole of mass M•. Specializing to a Keplerian stellar system of mass M ≪ M•, we use the orbit-averaging method of Sridhar & Touma to derive a kinetic equation for RR. This describes the collisional evolution of a system of N ≫ 1 Gaussian rings in a reduced 5-dim space, under the combined actions of self-gravity, 1 post-Newtonian (PN) and 1.5 PN relativistic effects of the MBH and an arbitrary external potential. In general geometries, RR is driven by both apsidal and nodal resonances, so the distinction between scalar RR and vector RR disappears. The system passes through a sequence of quasi-steady secular collisionless equilibria, driven by irreversible two-ring correlations that accrue through gravitational interactions, both direct and collective. This correlation function is related to a `wake function', which is the linear response of the system to the perturbation of a chosen ring. The wake function is easier to appreciate, and satisfies a simpler equation, than the correlation function. We discuss general implications for the interplay of secular dynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics in the evolution of Keplerian stellar systems towards secular thermodynamic equilibria, and set the stage for applications to the RR of axisymmetric discs in Paper III.

  2. Load dependence of left ventricular contraction and relaxation. Effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Moreira, A F; Correia-Pinto, J; Gillebert, T C

    1999-08-01

    Load dependence of left ventricular (LV) contraction and relaxation was investigated at baseline and after alteration of intracellular calcium handling by caffeine. Afterload was increased by aortic clamp occlusions (n = 281) in anesthetized open-chest dogs (n = 7). Control and first heartbeat after the intervention were considered for analysis. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, iv) had no inotropic effect. The systolic LV pressure (LVP), developed in response to aortic occlusion, decreased as ejection proceeded and this pressure generating capacity was not affected by caffeine. Late-systolic aortic occlusions induced premature onset and accelerated rate of initial LVP fall at baseline and similarly after caffeine. Graded diastolic aortic occlusions induced systolic LVP elevations of various magnitudes. Smaller LVP elevations prolonged ejection and accelerated LVP fall, while larger elevations had opposite effects. The transition from acceleration to deceleration was observed at 83.1 +/- 1.1% of peak isovolumetric LVP at baseline and at lower loads, at 77.6 +/- 1.2%, after caffeine (p caffeine (p dependence of relaxation, was also modified by caffeine. Caffeine affected LV relaxation without altering contractility. As a consequence contraction-relaxation coupling was modified by caffeine. These results might help to understand load dependence of relaxation in conditions where intracellular calcium handling is altered.

  3. Vogel-Fulcher dependence of relaxation rates in a nematic monomer and elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, D.; Filippov, S.; Aliev, F.; Keller, P.; Thomsen, D.; Ratna, B.

    2000-12-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy is used to study the relaxation processes in a nematic monomer and the corresponding cross-linked polymer nematic liquid crystal (elastomer). In the frequency window 10 mHz to 2 GHz the monomer liquid crystal shows a single relaxation whereas the polymer exhibits three relaxation processes, two of which are quantitatively analyzed. The temperature dependence of relaxation times in both the monomer and polymer follows a Vogel-Fulcher behavior. The relaxation processes are identified with specific molecular motions and activation energies are calculated in a linear approximation for comparison with literature data.

  4. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by cathepsin G in porcine pulmonary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glusa, Erika; Adam, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Serine proteinases elicit profound cellular effects in various tissues mediated by activation of proteinase-activated receptors (PAR). In the present study, we investigated the vascular effects of cathepsin G, a serine proteinase that is present in the azurophil granules of leukocytes and is known to activate several cells that express PARs. In prostaglandin F2α (3 μM)-precontracted rings from porcine pulmonary arteries with intact endothelium, cathepsin G caused concentration-dependent relaxant responses (pEC50=9.64±0.12). The endothelium-dependent relaxant effect of cathepsin G could also be demonstrated in porcine coronary arteries (pEC50=9.23±0.07). In pulmonary arteries the cathepsin G-induced relaxation was inhibited after blockade of nitric oxide synthesis by L-NAME (200 μM) and was absent in endothelium-denuded vessels. Bradykinin- and cathepsin G-induced relaxant effects were associated with a 5.7 fold and 2.4 fold increase in the concentration of cyclic GMP, respectively. Compared with thrombin and trypsin, which also produced an endothelium-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries, cathepsin G was 2.5 and four times more potent, respectively. Cathepsin G caused only small homologous desensitization. In cathepsin G-challenged vessels, thrombin was still able to elicit a relaxant effect. The effects of cathepsin G were blocked by soybean trypsin inhibitor (IC50=0.043 μg ml−1), suggesting that proteolytic activity is essential for induction of relaxation. Recombinant acetyl-eglin C proved to be a potent inhibitor (IC50=0.14 μg ml−1) of the cathepsin G effect, whereas neither indomethacin (3 μM) nor the thrombin inhibitor hirudin (5 ATU ml−1) elicited any inhibitory activity. Due to their polyanionic structure defibrotide (IC50=0.11 μg ml−1), heparin (IC50=0.48 μg ml−1) and suramin (IC50=1.85 μg ml−1) diminished significantly the relaxation in response to the basic protein cathepsin G. In conclusion, like

  5. Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF)-type relaxation in rat bronchioles. Immunohistochemistry was performed, and rat bronchioles and pulmonary arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for functional studies. An opener of small...... (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK(Ca))-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime) was used to induce EpDHF-type relaxation. IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 positive immunoreactions were observed mainly in the epithelium and endothelium of bronchioles and arteries......, respectively. In 5-hydroxytryptamine (1 microM)-contracted bronchioles (828 +/- 20 microm, n = 84) and U46619 (0.03 microM)-contracted arteries (720 +/- 24 microm, n = 68), NS309 (0.001-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent relaxations that were reduced by epithelium/endothelium removal and by blocking IK...

  6. Resonant tunneling measurements of size-induced strain relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Can Deniz

    Lattice mismatch strain available in such semiconductor heterostructures as Si/SiGe or GaAs/AlGaAs can be employed to alter the electronic and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor structures and devices. When deep submicron structures are fabricated from strained material, strained layers relax by sidewall expansion giving rise to size- and geometry-dependent strain gradients throughout the structure. This thesis describes a novel experimental technique to probe the size-induced strain relaxation by studying the tunneling current characteristics of strained p-type Si/SiGe resonant tunneling diodes. Our current-voltage measurements on submicron strained p-Si/SiGe double- and triple-barrier resonant tunneling structures as a function of device diameter, D, provide experimental access to both the average strain relaxation (which leads to relative shifts in the tunneling current peak positions) and strain gradients (which give rise to a fine structure in the current peaks due to inhomogeneous strain-induced lateral quantization). We find that strain relaxation is significant, with a large fraction of the strain energy relaxed on average in D ≤ 0.25 m m devices. Further, the in-plane potentials that arise from inhomogeneous strain gradients are large. In the D ˜ 0.2 m m devices, the corresponding lateral potentials are approximately parabolic exceeding ˜ 25 meV near the perimeter. These potentials create discrete hole states in double-barrier structures (single well), and coupled hole states in triple-barrier structures (two wells). Our results are in excellent agreement with finite-element strain calculations in which the strained layers are permitted to relax to a state of minimum energy by sidewall expansion. Size-induced strain relaxation will undoubtedly become a serious technological issue once strained devices are scaled down to the deep submicron regime. Interestingly, our calculations predict and our measurements are consistent with the appearance of

  7. Density dependence of relaxation dynamics in glass formers, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anshul D S Parmar

    formers, we study the variation of relaxation dynamics with density, rather than temperature, as a control ... stronger behaviour, the use of scaled variables involving temperature and ... of the temperature dependence of B as written defines.

  8. Temperature-dependent structural relaxation in As{sub 40}Se{sub 60} glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchak, R., E-mail: roman_ya@yahoo.com [Lviv Sci. and Res. Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Kozdras, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole, PL-45370 (Poland); Academy of Management and Administration, 18 Niedzialkowski str., Opole, PL-45085 (Poland); Shpotyuk, O. [Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, 42201, Czestochowa (Poland); Gorecki, Cz. [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole, PL-45370 (Poland); Kovalskiy, A.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The origin of structural relaxation in As{sub 40}Se{sub 60} glass at different annealing temperatures is studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) methods. Strong physical aging effect, expressed through the increase of endothermic peak area in the vicinity of T{sub g}, is recorded by DSC technique at the annealing temperatures T{sub a}>90{sup o}C. EXAFS data show that the observed structural relaxation is not associated with significant changes in the short-range order of this glass. An explanation is proposed for this relaxation behavior assuming temperature-dependent constraints. -- Highlights: → In this study we report experimental evidence for temperature-dependent constraints theory. → Structural relaxation of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glass at higher annealing temperatures is studied by DSC technique. → Accompanied changes in the structure are monitored by in situ EXAFS measurements.

  9. Temperature dependence of the kinetics of isometric myocardium relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izakov, V.Ya.; Bykov, B.L.; Kimmelman, I.Ya.

    1981-11-01

    The dependence of the exponential decay constant expressing the isometric relaxation of the myocardium on temperature is investigated in animals with various specific contents of myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments were performed on cardiac ventricles and atria isolated from rabbits, frogs and turtles and electrically stimulated to produce maximal contraction at temperatures from 10 to 35 C. Arrhenius plots derived from the data are found to be linear in the myocardia of the rabbit and frog, with a greater activation energy for the relaxation found in the rabbit. The Arrhenius plot for the turtle, which has a sarcoplasmic reticulum content intermediate between those of the frog and rabbit, corresponds to two straight lines with different activation energies. Results thus support the hypothesis of two separate mechanisms of calcium removal, involving the sarcoplasmic reticulum and cellular membrane, in muscle relaxation.

  10. Resveratrol Protects and Restores Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Nergiz; Korhan, Peyda; Kizer, Onur; Evcim, Sinem; Kefi, Aykut; Demir, Ömer; Gidener, Sedef; Atabey, Neşe; Esen, Ahmet Adil

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress dependent-decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays an integral role in hypercholesterolemia-induced erectile dysfunction (ED). Resveratrol has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects against oxidative stress and improve NO bioavailability. The protective and restorative potentials of resveratrol on endothelium-dependent relaxations were evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbit corpus cavernosum (CC). Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering 2% cholesterol diet (CD) (w/w) to the rabbits for 6 weeks. Two different protocols were applied to test the effects of resveratrol on hypercholesterolemia-induced ED. In Protocol-1 (P1), resveratrol was administrated to the rabbits simultaneously with CD in order to evaluate the protective effect, and for Protocol-2 (P2), resveratrol was administrated for 6 weeks after termination of CD in order to evaluate the restorative effect. Endothelium-dependent relaxations of CC were evaluated by using organ bath studies. In order to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms, we measured endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphovasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) expressions and activations, NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in cavernosal tissues obtained at the end of the study. Resveratrol showed an improvement in the endothelium-dependent relaxation responses in vitro. We demonstrated significantly increased activatory-phosphorylation (p[S1177]-eNOS) and activated phosphovasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (phospho-VASP) levels, but reduced phosphorylation (p[T495]-eNOS) of eNOS and NADPH oxidase activity in the resveratrol-administered HC animals compared with hypercholesterolemic control rabbits in the P1. In the P2, resveratrol exhibited an improvement in endothelium-dependent relaxation responses and more pronounced effects on eNOS activation. Resveratrol administration, either simultaneously with HC diet

  11. Field dependence of the electron spin relaxation in quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Carlos; Chudnovsky, E M; Garanin, D A

    2005-10-14

    The interaction of the electron spin with local elastic twists due to transverse phonons is studied. The universal dependence of the spin-relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field is obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid. The theory contains no unknown parameters and it can be easily tested in experiment. At high magnetic field it provides a parameter-free lower bound on the electron spin relaxation in quantum dots.

  12. Anomalous strain relaxation and light-hole character enhancement in GaAs capped InAs/In0.53Ga0.47As quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Pilkyung; Park, Kwangmin; Yoon, Euijoon; Leburton, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the strain profiles and the electronic structures of InAs/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As quantum dot and GaAs capped quantum ring. In contrast to the intuitive expectation that the GaAs layer applies a strong compressive strain along the lateral directions of InAs, the GaAs embedded in the In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As matrix provides enough space for the InAs relaxation. The GaAs embedded in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As acts as potential barrier for both electrons and heavy-holes, and as potential well for light-holes. Each hole state of the quantum ring exhibits two to eight times larger light-hole character than that of a quantum dot. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Exciton-relaxation dynamics in lead halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Hayashi, Tetsusuke

    2003-01-01

    We survey recent comprehensive studies of exciton relaxation in the crystals of lead halides. The luminescence and electron-spin-resonance studies have revealed that excitons in lead bromide spontaneously dissociate and both electrons and holes get self-trapped individually. Similar relaxation has been also clarified in lead chloride. The electron-hole separation is ascribed to repulsive correlation via acoustic phonons. Besides, on the basis of the temperature profiles of self-trapped states, we discuss the origin of luminescence components which are mainly induced under one-photon excitation into the exciton band in lead fluoride, lead chloride, and lead bromide

  14. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang; Liu, Taixiang; Liao, G J; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  15. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2017-09-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  16. The time-dependence of exchange-induced relaxation during modulated radio frequency pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Dennis J; Michaeli, Shalom; Garwood, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The problem of the relaxation of identical spins 1/2 induced by chemical exchange between spins with different chemical shifts in the presence of time-dependent RF irradiation (in the first rotating frame) is considered for the fast exchange regime. The solution for the time evolution under the chemical exchange Hamiltonian in the tilted doubly rotating frame (TDRF) is presented. Detailed derivation is specified to the case of a two-site chemical exchange system with complete randomization between jumps of the exchanging spins. The derived theory can be applied to describe the modulation of the chemical exchange relaxation rate constants when using a train of adiabatic pulses, such as the hyperbolic secant pulse. Theory presented is valid for quantification of the exchange-induced time-dependent rotating frame longitudinal T1rho,ex and transverse T2rho,ex relaxations in the fast chemical exchange regime.

  17. Low-field one-dimensional and direction-dependent relaxation imaging of bovine articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Erik; Mattea, Carlos; Mollova, Ayret; Stapf, Siegfried

    2011-12-01

    The structure of articular cartilage is separated into three layers of differently oriented collagen fibers, which is accompanied by a gradient of increasing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and decreasing water concentration from the top layer towards the bone interface. The combined effect of these structural variations results in a change of the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times as a function of the distance from the cartilage surface. In this paper, this dependence is investigated at a magnetic field strength of 0.27 T with a one-dimensional depth resolution of 50 μm on bovine hip and stifle joint articular cartilage. By employing this method, advantage is taken of the increasing contrast of the longitudinal relaxation rate found at lower magnetic field strengths. Furthermore, evidence for an orientational dependence of relaxation times with respect to an axis normal to the surface plane is given, an observation that has recently been reported using high-field MRI and that was explained by preferential orientations of collagen bundles in each of the three cartilage zones. In order to quantify the extent of a further contrast mechanism and to estimate spatially dependent glycosaminoglycan concentrations, the data are supplemented by proton relaxation times that were acquired in bovine articular cartilage that was soaked in a 0.8 mM aqueous Gd ++ solution.

  18. Concentration dependence of fluorine impurity spin-lattice relaxation rate in bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Code, R.F.; Armstrong, R.L.; Cheng, P.-T.

    1992-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the fluoride ion spin-lattice relaxation rate has been observed by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on samples of defatted and dried bone. The 19 F spin-lattice relaxation rates increased linearly with bone fluoride concentration. Different results were obtained from trabecular than from cortical bone. For the same macroscopic fluoride content per gram of bone calcium, relaxation rate is significantly faster in cortical bone. Relaxation rates in cortical bone samples prepared from rats and dogs were apparently controlled by the same species-independent processes. For samples from beagle dogs, bulk fluoride concentrations measured by neutron activation analysis were 3.1±0.3 times greater in trabecular bone than in corresponding cortical bone. The beagle spin-lattice relaxation data suggest that microscopic fluoride concentrations in bone mineral were 1.8±0.4 times greater in trabecular bone than in cortical bone. It is concluded that accumulation of fluoride impurities in bone mineral is non-uniform. (author)

  19. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuan; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B 2 receptor agonist) and des-Arg 9 -bradykinin- (selective B 1 receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE 2 . The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg 9 -bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B 2 receptors, but not those on B 1 . Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in some patients with asthma

  20. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.xu@ki.se; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B{sub 2} receptor agonist) and des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin- (selective B{sub 1} receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE{sub 2}. The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B{sub 2} receptors, but not those on B{sub 1}. Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in

  1. Relaxation near Supermassive Black Holes Driven by Nuclear Spiral Arms: Anisotropic Hypervelocity Stars, S-stars, and Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, Adrian S. [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: hamers@ias.edu [Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2017-09-10

    Nuclear spiral arms are small-scale transient spiral structures found in the centers of galaxies. Similarly to their galactic-scale counterparts, nuclear spiral arms can perturb the orbits of stars. In the case of the Galactic center (GC), these perturbations can affect the orbits of stars and binaries in a region extending to several hundred parsecs around the supermassive black hole (SMBH), causing diffusion in orbital energy and angular momentum. This diffusion process can drive stars and binaries to close approaches with the SMBH, disrupting single stars in tidal disruption events (TDEs), or disrupting binaries, leaving a star tightly bound to the SMBH and an unbound star escaping the galaxy, i.e., a hypervelocity star (HVS). Here, we consider diffusion by nuclear spiral arms in galactic nuclei, specifically the Milky Way GC. We determine nuclear-spiral-arm-driven diffusion rates using test-particle integrations and compute disruption rates. Our TDE rates are up to 20% higher compared to relaxation by single stars. For binaries, the enhancement is up to a factor of ∼100, and our rates are comparable to the observed numbers of HVSs and S-stars. Our scenario is complementary to relaxation driven by massive perturbers. In addition, our rates depend on the inclination of the binary with respect to the Galactic plane. Therefore, our scenario provides a novel potential source for the observed anisotropic distribution of HVSs. Nuclear spiral arms may also be important for accelerating the coalescence of binary SMBHs and for supplying nuclear star clusters with stars and gas.

  2. Maternal smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of uterine small arteries in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Uldbjerg, Niels; Stender, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelium-dependent relaxation of uterine small arteries from pregnant nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers who stopped smoking early in pregnancy.......This study aimed to investigate the endothelium-dependent relaxation of uterine small arteries from pregnant nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers who stopped smoking early in pregnancy....

  3. Deducting the temperature dependence of the structural relaxation time in equilibrium far below the nominal Tg by aging the decoupled conductivity relaxation to equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Ngai, K L; Paluch, M

    2014-05-07

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy we investigate the changes in the conductivity relaxation times τσ observed during the physical aging of the protic ionic conductor carvedilol dihydrogen phosphate (CP). Due to the large decoupling of ion diffusion from host molecule reorientation, the ion conductivity relaxation time τσ(Tage,tage) can be directly measured at temperatures Tage below Tg for exceedingly long aging times tage till τσ(Tage,tage) has reached the equilibrium value τσ(eq)(Tage). The dependence of τσ(Tage,tage) on tage is well described by the stretched exponential function, τσ(Tage, tage) = Aexp[-((tage)/(τage(Tage)))(β)] + τσ(eq)(Tage), where β is a constant and τage(Tage) can be taken as the structural α-relaxation time of the equilibrium liquid at T = Tage. The value of τσ(eq)(Tage) obtained after 63 days long annealing of CP, deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHσ) dependence of τσ(T) determined from data taken above Tg and extrapolated down to Tage. Concurrently, τage(Tage) also deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHα) dependence. The results help to answer the longstanding question of whether the VFTH dependence of τσ(T) as well as the structural α-relaxation time τα(T) holds or not in the equilibrium liquid state far below Tg.

  4. Time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in nanostructured copper: Stress relaxation tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Guo-Yong; Zhai, Hui-Ru; Dai, L.H.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, stress relaxation tests, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted on coarse-grained (cg), nanograined (ng), and nanotwinned (nt) copper at temperatures of 22 °C (RT), 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, and 75 °C. The comprehensive investigations provide sufficient information for the building-up of a formula to describe the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation and clarify the relationship among the strain rate sensitivity parameter, stress exponent, and activation volume. The typically experimental curves of logarithmic plastic strain rate versus stress exhibited a three staged relaxation process from a linear high stress relaxation region to a subsequent nonlinear stress relaxation region and finally to a linear low stress relaxation region, which only showed-up at the test temperatures higher than 22 °C, 22 °C, and 30 °C, respectively, in the tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens. The values of stress exponent, stress-independent activation energy, and activation volume were determined from the experimental data in the two linear regions. The determined activation parameters, HRTEM images, and MD simulations consistently suggest that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation is predominant in all tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens in the initial linear high stress relaxation region at the five relaxation temperatures, whereas in the linear low stress relaxation region, the grain boundary (GB) diffusion-associated deformation is dominant in the ng- and cg-Cu specimens, while twin boundary (TB) migration, i.e., twinning and detwinning with parallel partial dislocations, governs the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in the nt-Cu specimens.

  5. Gou-teng (from Uncaria rhynchophylla Miquel)-induced endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations in the isolated rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, T; Chu, J; Suga, T

    1994-01-01

    Gou-teng is a drug used for treatment of hypertension in Chinese medicine. Its antihypertensive action has been previously confirmed in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Here, its vasorelaxing effect and the mechanisms of actions were studied in vitro. Gou-teng extract (GTE) relaxed the norepinephrine (NE)-precontracted aortic ring preparations isolated from Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) with and without intact endothelium; the latter was significantly less sensitive than the former. The GTE-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) in a dose-dependent manner while indomethacin did not affect the relaxation. Atropine inhibited the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation but did not the GTE-induced one. Furthermore, once GTE was applied, the following NE-induced contraction was significantly reduced even after repeated washout. NMMA effectively reduced and rather reversed this residual effect of GTE. From these results, it is concluded that GTE relaxes the NE-precontracted rat aorta through endothelium-dependent and, to lesser extent, -independent mechanisms. The endothelium-dependent component would be mediated by EDRF/NO pathway in which the muscarinic cholinoceptors were not involved. Thus, GTE appears to be a potent and long-lasting vasodilator mainly through EDRF/NO release.

  6. Size dependence of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in micro- and nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, A. M.; Sergeev, N. A.; Shames, A. I.; Osipov, V. Yu; Boudou, J.-P.; Goren, S. D.

    2015-02-01

    Size dependence of physical properties of nanodiamond particles is of crucial importance for various applications in which defect density and location as well as relaxation processes play a significant role. In this work, the impact of defects induced by milling of micron-sized synthetic diamonds was studied by magnetic resonance techniques as a function of the particle size. EPR and 13C NMR studies of highly purified commercial synthetic micro- and nanodiamonds were done for various fractions separated by sizes. Noticeable acceleration of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation with decreasing particle size was found. We showed that this effect is caused by the contribution to relaxation coming from the surface paramagnetic centers induced by sample milling. The developed theory of the spin-lattice relaxation for such a case shows good compliance with the experiment.

  7. Arbutus unedo induces endothelium-dependent relaxation of the isolated rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Tahri, Abdelhafid; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hoerter, Jacqueline; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2002-09-01

    Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) is used in oriental Morocco to treat arterial hypertension. We studied its vasodilator effect and mechanisms of action in vitro. The root aqueous extract of Arbutus (0.25 mg/mL) produced a relaxation of noradrenaline-precontracted ring preparations of rat aorta with intact endothelium. Relaxation by Arbutus did not occur in specimens without endothelium and was inhibited by pretreatment with 100 microM N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA), 10 microM methylene blue or 50 microM 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) but not by 10 microM atropine. These results suggest that Arbutus produces an endothelium-dependent relaxation of the isolated rat aorta which may be mediated mainly by a stimulation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase by mechanisms other than activation of muscarinic receptors. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals Topology Dependent Mutual Relaxation of Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Abadi, Maram; Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The motion and relaxation of linear and cyclic polymers under entangled conditions are investigated by means of a newly developed single-molecule tracking technique, cumulative-area (CA) tracking. CA tracking enables simultaneous quantitative characterization of the diffusion mode, diffusion rate, and relaxation time that have been impossible with a widely used conventional single-molecule localization and tracking method, by analyzing cumulative areas occupied by the moving molecule. Using the novel approach, we investigate the motion and relaxation of entangled cyclic polymers, which have been an important but poorly understood question. Fluorescently labeled 42 kbp linear or cyclic tracer dsDNAs in concentrated solutions of unlabeled linear or cyclic DNAs are used as model systems. We show that CA tracking can explicitly distinguish topology-dependent diffusion mode, rate, and relaxation time, demonstrating that the method provides an invaluable tool for characterizing topological interaction between the entangled chains. We further demonstrate that the current models proposed for the entanglement between cyclic polymers which are based on cyclic chains moving through an array of fixed obstacles cannot correctly describe the motion of the cyclic chain under the entangled conditions. Our results rather suggest the mutual relaxation of the cyclic chains, which underscore the necessity of developing a new model to describe the motion of cyclic polymer under the entangled conditions based on the mutual interaction of the chains.

  9. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals Topology Dependent Mutual Relaxation of Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Abadi, Maram

    2015-08-24

    The motion and relaxation of linear and cyclic polymers under entangled conditions are investigated by means of a newly developed single-molecule tracking technique, cumulative-area (CA) tracking. CA tracking enables simultaneous quantitative characterization of the diffusion mode, diffusion rate, and relaxation time that have been impossible with a widely used conventional single-molecule localization and tracking method, by analyzing cumulative areas occupied by the moving molecule. Using the novel approach, we investigate the motion and relaxation of entangled cyclic polymers, which have been an important but poorly understood question. Fluorescently labeled 42 kbp linear or cyclic tracer dsDNAs in concentrated solutions of unlabeled linear or cyclic DNAs are used as model systems. We show that CA tracking can explicitly distinguish topology-dependent diffusion mode, rate, and relaxation time, demonstrating that the method provides an invaluable tool for characterizing topological interaction between the entangled chains. We further demonstrate that the current models proposed for the entanglement between cyclic polymers which are based on cyclic chains moving through an array of fixed obstacles cannot correctly describe the motion of the cyclic chain under the entangled conditions. Our results rather suggest the mutual relaxation of the cyclic chains, which underscore the necessity of developing a new model to describe the motion of cyclic polymer under the entangled conditions based on the mutual interaction of the chains.

  10. Excess L-arginine restores endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by monocrotaline pyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Wei; Oike, Masahiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ohnaka, Keizo; Koyama, Tetsuya; Ito, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid plant toxin monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) causes pulmonary hypertension in experimental animals. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MCTP on the endothelium-dependent relaxation. We constructed an in vitro disease model of pulmonary hypertension by overlaying MCTP-treated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) onto pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell-embedded collagen gel lattice. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced a relaxation of the control CPAEs-overlaid gels that were pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and the relaxation was inhibited by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). In contrast, when MCTP-treated CPAEs were overlaid, the pre-contracted gels did not show a relaxation in response to Ach in the presence of 0.5 mM L-arginine. Expression of endothelial NOS protein, Ach-induced Ca 2+ transients and cellular uptake of L-[ 3 H]arginine were significantly smaller in MCTP-treated CPAEs than in control cells, indicating that these changes were responsible for the impaired NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. Since cellular uptake of L-[ 3 H]arginine linearly increased according to its extracellular concentration, we hypothesized that the excess concentration of extracellular L-arginine might restore NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. As expected, in the presence of 10 mM L-arginine, Ach showed a relaxation of the MCTP-treated CPAEs-overlaid gels. These results indicate that the impaired NO production in damaged endothelial cells can be reversed by supplying excess L-arginine

  11. Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet metrics: black holes, black strings and a staticity theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanos, C.; Charmousis, C.; Gouteraux, B.; Zegers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We find the general solution of the 6-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet equations in a large class of space and time-dependent warped geometries. Several distinct families of solutions are found, some of which include black string metrics, space and time-dependent solutions and black holes with exotic horizons. Among these, some are shown to verify a Birkhoff type staticity theorem, although here, the usual assumption of maximal symmetry on the horizon is relaxed, allowing exotic horizon geometries. We provide explicit examples of such static exotic black holes, including ones whose horizon geometry is that of a Bergman space. We find that the situation is very different from higher-dimensional general relativity, where Einstein spaces are admissible black hole horizons and the associated black hole potential is not even affected. In Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory, on the contrary, the non-trivial Weyl tensor of such exotic horizons is exposed to the bulk dynamics through the higher order Gauss-Bonnet term, severely constraining the allowed horizon geometries and adding a novel charge-like parameter to the black hole potential. The latter is related to the Euler characteristic of the four-dimensional horizon and provides, in some cases, additional black hole horizons.

  12. Two-band analysis of hole mobility and Hall factor for heavily carbon-doped p-type GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. W.; Majerfeld, A.

    1996-02-01

    We solve a pair of Boltzmann transport equations based on an interacting two-isotropic-band model in a general way first to get transport parameters corresponding to the relaxation time. We present a simple method to calculate effective relaxation times, separately for each band, which compensate for the inherent deficiencies in using the relaxation time concept for polar optical-phonon scattering. Formulas for calculating momentum relaxation times in the two-band model are presented for all the major scattering mechanisms of p-type GaAs for simple, practical mobility calculations. In the newly proposed theoretical framework, first-principles calculations for the Hall mobility and Hall factor of p-type GaAs at room temperature are carried out with no adjustable parameters in order to obtain direct comparisons between the theory and recently available experimental results. In the calculations, the light-hole-band nonparabolicity is taken into account on the average by the use of energy-dependent effective mass obtained from the kṡp method and valence-band anisotropy is taken partly into account by the use the Wiley's overlap function.. The calculated Hall mobilities show a good agreement with our experimental data for carbon-doped p-GaAs samples in the range of degenerate hole densities. The calculated Hall factors show rH=1.25-1.75 over hole densities of 2×1017-1×1020 cm-3.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As: Influence of epitaxial strain and hole concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glunk, M.; Daeubler, J.; Dreher, L.; Schwaiger, S.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.

    2009-05-01

    We present a systematic study on the influence of epitaxial strain and hole concentration on the magnetic anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As at 4.2 K. The strain was gradually varied over a wide range from tensile to compressive by growing a series of (Ga,Mn)As layers with 5% Mn on relaxed graded (In,Ga)As/GaAs templates with different In concentration. The hole density, the Curie temperature, and the relaxed lattice constant of the as-grown and annealed (Ga,Mn)As layers turned out to be essentially unaffected by the strain. Angle-dependent magnetotransport measurements performed at different magnetic-field strengths were used to probe the magnetic anisotropy. The measurements reveal a pronounced linear dependence of the uniaxial out-of-plane anisotropy on both strain and hole density. Whereas the uniaxial and cubic in-plane anisotropies are nearly constant, the cubic out-of-plane anisotropy changes sign when the magnetic easy axis flips from in-plane to out-of-plane. The experimental results for the magnetic anisotropy are quantitatively compared with calculations of the free energy based on a mean-field Zener model. Almost perfect agreement between experiment and theory is found for the uniaxial out-of-plane and cubic in-plane anisotropy parameters of the as-grown samples. In addition, magnetostriction constants are derived from the anisotropy data.

  14. CdZnTe quantum dots study: energy and phase relaxation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viale, Yannick

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the electron-hole pair energy and phase relaxation processes in a CdTe/ZnTe heterostructure, in which quantum dots are embedded. CdZnTe quantum wells with a high Zinc concentration, separated by ZnTe barriers, contain islands with a high cadmium concentration. In photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy experiments, we evidence two types of electron hole pair relaxation processes. After being excited in the CdZnTe quantum well, the pairs relax their energy by emitting a cascade of longitudinal optical phonons until they are trapped in the quantum dots. Before their radiative recombination follows an intra-dot relaxation, which is attributed to a lattice polarization mechanism of the quantum dots. It is related to the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational states. Both relaxation mechanisms are reinforced by the strong polar character of the chemical bond in II-VI compounds. Time resolved measurements of transmission variations in a pump-probe configuration allowed us to investigate the population dynamics of the electron-hole pairs during the relaxation process. We observe a relaxation time of about 2 ps for the longitudinal phonon emission cascade in the quantum well before a saturation of the quantum dot transition. We also measured an intra-box relaxation time of 25 ps. The comparison of various cascades allows us to estimate the emission time of a longitudinal optical phonon in the quantum well to be about 100 fs. In four waves mixing experiments, we observe oscillations that we attribute to quantum beats between excitonic and bi-excitonic transitions. The dephasing times that we measure as function of the density of photons shows that excitons are strongly localized in the quantum dots. The excitonic dephasing time is much shorter than the radiative lifetime and is thus controlled by the intra-dot relaxation time. (author) [fr

  15. Temperature dependence of relaxation times in proton components of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kagayaki; Iwabuchi, Taku; Saito, Kensuke; Obara, Makoto; Honda, Masatoshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    We examined the temperature dependence of relaxation times in proton components of fatty acids in various samples in vitro at 11 tesla as a standard calibration data for quantitative temperature imaging of fat. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T 1 , of both the methylene (CH 2 ) chain and terminal methyl (CH 3 ) was linearly related to temperature (r>0.98, P 2 signal for calibration and observed the signal with 18% of CH 3 to estimate temperature. These findings suggested that separating the fatty acid components would significantly improve accuracy in quantitative thermometry for fat. Use of the T 1 of CH 2 seems promising in terms of reliability and reproducibility in measuring temperature of fat. (author)

  16. Effect of lithium on endothelium-dependent and neurogenic relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: role of nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2007-02-01

    Some studies have reported erectile dysfunction in patients receiving lithium through a mechanism that has not yet been defined. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of acute lithium administration on the nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC)- and endothelium-mediated relaxation of rat isolated corpus cavernosum. The isolated rat corporeal strips were precontracted with phenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 microM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied at different frequencies (2, 5, 10, and 15 Hz) to obtain NANC-mediated relaxation or relaxed by adding cumulative doses of acetylcholine (10nM-1mM) to obtain endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence or absence of lithium (0.3, 0.5, 1, and 5mM). Also, effects of combining lithium (0.3mM) with 30 nM and 0.1 nM L-NAME (an NO synthase inhibitor) on NANC- and acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was investigated, respectively. Moreover, effects of combining lithium (1mM) with 0.1mM and 10 microM L-arginine (a precursor of NO) on NANC- and endothelium-mediated relaxation was assessed, respectively. Also, the effect of lithium (1mM) on relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1nM-1mM), an NO donor, was investigated. The NANC-mediated relaxation was significantly (Pacetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination of lithium (0.3mM) with 30 and 0.1 nM L-NAME, which separately had a minimum effect on NANC- and endothelium-mediated relaxation, significantly (Pacetylcholine and EFS, it improved the inhibition by lithium (1mM) of relaxant responses to acetylcholine and EFS, respectively. Also, SNP produced similar concentration-dependent relaxations from both groups. Our experiments indicated that lithium likely by interfering with NO pathway in both endothelium and nitrergic nerve can result in impairment of both the endothelium- and NANC-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum.

  17. State-dependent bulk-boundary maps and black hole complementarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2014-01-01

    We provide a simple and explicit construction of local bulk operators that describe the interior of a black hole in the AdS/CFT correspondence. The existence of these operators is predicated on the assumption that the mapping of CFT operators to local bulk operators depends on the state of the CFT.

  18. Electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy in (111) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balocchi, A; Amand, T; Renucci, P; Duong, Q H; Marie, X; Wang, G; Liu, B L

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved optical spectroscopy experiments in (111)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) show a strong electric field dependence of the conduction electron spin relaxation anisotropy. This results from the interplay between the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin splitting in this system with C 3v symmetry. By varying the electric field applied perpendicular to the QW plane from 20 to 50 kV cm −1 the anisotropy of the spin relaxation time parallel (τ s ∥ ) and perpendicular (τ s ⊥ ) to the growth axis can be first canceled and eventually inversed with respect to the one usually observed in III–V zinc-blende QW (τ s ⊥ = 2τ s ∥ ). This dependence stems from the nonlinear contributions of the k-dependent conduction band spin splitting terms which begin to play the dominant spin relaxing role while the linear Dresselhaus terms are compensated by the Rashba ones through the applied bias. A spin density matrix model for the conduction band spin splitting including both linear and cubic terms of the Dresselhaus Hamiltonian is used which allows a quantitative description of the measured electric field dependence of the spin relaxation anisotropy. The existence of an isotropic point where the spin relaxation tensor reduces to a scalar is predicted and confirmed experimentally. The spin splitting compensation electric field and collision processes type in the QW can be likewise directly extracted from the model without complementary measurements. (paper)

  19. Time dependent black holes and scalar hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadburn, Sarah; Gregory, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We show how to correctly account for scalar accretion onto black holes in scalar field models of dark energy by a consistent expansion in terms of a slow roll parameter. At leading order, we find an analytic solution for the scalar field within our Hubble volume, which is regular on both black hole and cosmological event horizons, and compute the back reaction of the scalar on the black hole, calculating the resulting expansion of the black hole. Our results are independent of the relative size of black hole and cosmological event horizons. We comment on the implications for more general black hole accretion, and the no hair theorems. (paper)

  20. Restoring unitarity in the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2005-01-01

    Whether or not a system is unitary can be seen from the way it, if perturbed, relaxes back to equilibrium. The relaxation of a semiclassical black hole can be described in terms of a correlation function which exponentially decays with time. In the momentum space it is represented by an infinite set of complex poles to be identified with the quasinormal modes. This behavior is in sharp contrast to the relaxation in unitary theory in finite volume: the correlation function of the perturbation in this case is a quasiperiodic function of time and, in general, is expected to show the Poincare recurrences. In this paper I demonstrate how restore unitarity in the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, the simplest example of an eternal black hole in finite volume. I start with reviewing the relaxation in the semiclassical BTZ black hole and how this relaxation is mirrored in the boundary conformal field theory as suggested by the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. I analyze the sum over SL(2,Z) images of the BTZ space-time and suggest that it does not produce a quasiperiodic relaxation, as one might have hoped, but results in a correlation function which decays by power law. I develop an earlier suggestion and consider a nonsemiclassical deformation of the BTZ space-time that has the structure of a wormhole connecting two asymptotic regions semiclassically separated by a horizon. The small deformation parameter λ is supposed to have a nonperturbative origin to capture the finite N behavior of the boundary theory. The discrete spectrum of perturbation in the modified space-time is computed and is shown to determine the expected unitary behavior: the corresponding time evolution is quasiperiodic with a hierarchy of large time scales ln1/λ and 1/λ interpreted, respectively, as the Heisenberg and Poincare time scales in the system

  1. Temperature dependence of acceptor-hole recombination in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darken, L.S.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The recombination kinetics of several centers (Zn - , Cu - , B - , CuH - 2 , CuH - x , Zn = , Cu = , and CuH = x ) in high-purity Ge have been measured as a function of temperature from 8 to 160 K by transient capacitance techniques and are significantly faster than expected from cascade theory. The cascade theory also gives the wrong temperature dependence, and the wrong z dependence. Instead, the data are generally fit by the expression N v /4pτ c congruent kT/h (p and τ c are, respectively, the free-hole concentration in the sample and the experimental mean capture time for a center)

  2. Characterization of relaxation processes in interacting vortex matter through a time-dependent correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe C

    2015-01-01

    Vortex lines in type-II superconductors display complicated relaxation processes due to the intricate competition between their mutual repulsive interactions and pinning to attractive point or extended defects. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations for an interacting elastic line model with either point-like or columnar pinning centers. From measurements of the space- and time-dependent height-height correlation function for lateral flux line fluctuations, we extract a characteristic correlation length that we use to investigate different non-equilibrium relaxation regimes. The specific time dependence of this correlation length for different disorder configurations displays characteristic features that provide a novel diagnostic tool to distinguish between point-like pinning centers and extended columnar defects. (paper)

  3. Anomalous radial and angular strain relaxation around dilute p-, isoelectronic-, and n-type dopants in Si crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mingshu [School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Dong, Juncai, E-mail: dongjc@ihep.ac.cn [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Dongliang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Doping is widely applied in yielding desirable properties and functions in silicon technology; thus, fully understanding the relaxation mechanism for lattice-mismatch strain is of fundamental importance. Here we systematically study the local lattice distortion near dilute IIIA-, IVA-, and VA-group substitutional dopants in Si crystal using density functional theory, and anomalous radial and angular strain relaxation modes are first revealed. Both the nearest-neighbor (NN) bond-distances and the tetrahedral bond-angles are found to exhibit completely opposite dependence on the electronic configurations for the low Z (Z<26) and high Z (Z>26) dopants. More surprisingly, negative and positive angular shifts for the second NN twelve Si2 atoms are unveiled surrounding the p- and n-type dopants, respectively. While electron localization function shows that the doped hole and electron are highly localized near the dopants, hence being responsible for the abnormal angular shifts, a universal radial strain relaxation mechanism dominated by a competition of the Coulomb interactions among the ion-core, bond-charge, and the localized hole or electron is also proposed. These findings may prove to be instrumental in precise design of silicon-based solotronics.

  4. Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L.; Gill, William N.; Lu, T.-M.; Bakhru, Hassaram

    2014-01-01

    Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22 nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k 0 ⋅(t+1) β−1 , where 0 < β < 1. Such dynamics have previously been observed in studies of charge trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films

  5. Remarks on the necessity and implications of state-dependence in the black hole interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the "state-dependence" of the map that we proposed recently between bulk operators in the interior of a large anti-de Sitter black hole and operators in the boundary CFT. By refining recent versions of the information paradox, we show that this feature is necessary for the CFT to successfully describe local physics behind the horizon—not only for single-sided black holes but even in the eternal black hole. We show that state-dependence is invisible to an infalling observer who cannot differentiate these operators from those of ordinary quantum effective field theory. Therefore the infalling observer does not observe any violations of quantum mechanics. We successfully resolve a large class of potential ambiguities in our construction. We analyze states where the CFT is entangled with another system and show that the ER =EPR conjecture emerges from our construction in a natural and precise form. We comment on the possible semiclassical origins of state-dependence.

  6. Remarks on the necessity and implications of state-dependence in the black hole interior

    CERN Document Server

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the "state-dependence" of the map that we proposed recently between bulk operators in the interior of a large AdS black hole and operators in the boundary CFT. By refining recent versions of the information paradox, we show that this feature is necessary for the CFT to successfully describe local physics behind the horizon --- not only for single-sided black holes but even in the eternal black hole. We show that state-dependence is invisible to an infalling observer who cannot differentiate these operators from those of ordinary quantum effective field theory. Therefore the infalling observer does not observe any violations of quantum mechanics. We successfully resolve a large class of potential ambiguities in our construction. We analyze states where the CFT is entangled with another system and show that the ER=EPR conjecture emerges from our construction in a natural and precise form. We comment on the possible semi-classical origins of state-dependence.

  7. Rotational dynamics account for pH-dependent relaxivities of PAMAM dendrimeric, Gd-based potential MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Sabrina; Sour, Angélique; Ruloff, Robert; Tóth, Eva; Merbach, André E

    2005-05-06

    The EPTPA5) chelate, which ensures fast water exchange in GdIII complexes, has been coupled to three different generations (5, 7, and 9) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers through benzylthiourea linkages (H5EPTPA = ethylenepropylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid). The proton relaxivities measured at pH 7.4 for the dendrimer complexes G5-(GdEPTPA)111, G7-(GdEPTPA)253 and G9-(GdEPTPA)1157 decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that, for the first time for dendrimers, slow water exchange does not limit relaxivity. At a given field and temperature, the relaxivity increases from G5 to G7, and then slightly decreases for G9 (r1 = 20.5, 28.3 and 27.9 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively, at 37 degrees C, 30 MHz). The relaxivities show a strong and reversible pH dependency for all three dendrimer complexes. This originates from the pH-dependent rotational dynamics of the dendrimer skeleton, which was evidenced by a combined variable-temperature and multiple-field 17O NMR and 1H relaxivity study performed at pH 6.0 and 9.9 on G5-(GdEPTPA)111. The longitudinal 17O and 1H relaxation rates of the dendrimeric complex are strongly pH-dependent, whereas they are not for the [Gd(EPTPA)(H2O)]2- monomer chelate. The longitudinal 17O and 1H relaxation rates have been analysed by the Lipari-Szabo spectral density functions and correlation times have been calculated for the global motion of the entire macromolecule (tau(gO)) and the local motion of the GdIII chelates on the surface (tau(lO)), correlated by means of an order parameter S2. The dendrimer complex G5-(GdEPTPA)111 has a considerably higher tau(gO) under acidic than under basic conditions (tau(298)gO = 4040 ps and 2950 ps, respectively), while local motions are less influenced by pH (tau(298)lO = 150 and 125 ps). The order parameter, characterizing the rigidity of the macromolecule, is also higher at pH 6.0 than at pH 9.9 (S2 = 0.43 vs 0.36, respectively). The pH dependence of the global correlation time can be

  8. Acrolein relaxes mouse isolated tracheal smooth muscle via a TRPA1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Esther Y; Burcham, Philip C; Mann, Tracy S; Henry, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Airway sensory C-fibres express TRPA1 channels which have recently been identified as a key chemosensory receptor for acrolein, a toxic and highly prevalent component of smoke. TRPA1 likely plays an intermediary role in eliciting a range of effects induced by acrolein including cough and neurogenic inflammation. Currently, it is not known whether acrolein-induced activation of TRPA1 produces other airway effects including relaxation of mouse airway smooth muscle. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of acrolein on airway smooth muscle tone in mouse isolated trachea, and to characterise the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the effects of acrolein. Isometric tension recording studies were conducted on mouse isolated tracheal segments to characterise acrolein-induced relaxation responses. Release of the relaxant PGE₂ was measured by EIA to examine its role in the response. Use of selective antagonists/inhibitors permitted pharmacological characterisation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this relaxation response. Acrolein induced dose-dependent relaxation responses in mouse isolated tracheal segments. Importantly, these relaxation responses were significantly inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonists AP-18 and HC-030031, an NK₁ receptor antagonist RP-67580, and the EP₂ receptor antagonist PF-04418948, whilst completely abolished by the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin. Acrolein also caused rapid PGE₂ release which was suppressed by HC-030031. In summary, acrolein induced a novel bronchodilator response in mouse airways. Pharmacologic studies indicate that acrolein-induced relaxation likely involves interplay between TRPA1-expressing airway sensory C-fibres, NK₁ receptor-expressing epithelial cells, and EP₂-receptor expressing airway smooth muscle cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Time dependent black holes and thermal equilibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We study aspects of a recently proposed exact time dependent black hole solution of IIB string theory using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The dual field theory is a thermal system in which initially a vacuum density for a non-conserved operator is turned on. We can see that in agreement with general thermal field theory expectation the system equilibrates: the expectation value of the non-conserved operator goes to zero exponentially and the entropy increases. In the field theory the process can be described quantitatively in terms of a thermofield state and exact agreement with the gravity answers is found

  10. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  11. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-01-01

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  12. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M. [Parahyangan Catholic University, Physics Department, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-03-15

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  13. Hole spin coherence in a Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higginbotham, Andrew P; Larsen, Thorvald Wadum; Yao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation and dephasing of hole spins are measured in a gate-defined Ge/Si nanowire double quantum dot using a fast pulsed-gate method and dispersive readout. An inhomogeneous dephasing time T2(*)≈ 0.18 μs exceeds corresponding measurements in III-V semiconductors by more than an order of magnit......Relaxation and dephasing of hole spins are measured in a gate-defined Ge/Si nanowire double quantum dot using a fast pulsed-gate method and dispersive readout. An inhomogeneous dephasing time T2(*)≈ 0.18 μs exceeds corresponding measurements in III-V semiconductors by more than an order...

  14. Ionic relaxation in PEO/PVDF-HFP-LiClO4 blend polymer electrolytes: dependence on salt concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of LiClO4 salt concentration on the ionic conduction and relaxation in poly ethylene oxide (PEO) and poly (vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) blend polymer electrolytes, in which the molar ratio of ethylene oxide segments to lithium ions (R  =  EO: Li) has been varied between 3 and 35. We have observed two phases in the samples containing low salt concentrations (R  >  9) and single phase in the samples containing high salt concentrations (R  ⩽  9). The scanning electron microscopic images indicate that there exists no phase separation in the blend polymer electrolytes. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity shows two slopes corresponding to high and low temperatures and follows Arrhenius relation for the samples containing low salt concentrations (R  >  9). The conductivity relaxation as well as the structural relaxation has been clearly observed at around 104 Hz and 106 Hz for these concentrations of the blended electrolytes. However, a single conductivity relaxation peak has been observed for the compositions with R  ⩽  9. The scaling of the conductivity spectra shows that the relaxation mechanism is independent of temperature, but depends on salt concentration.

  15. Viscoelastic characterization of compacted pharmaceutical excipient materials by analysis of frequency-dependent mechanical relaxation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K.; Mousavi, S.; Lundberg, B.; Strømme, M.

    2005-09-01

    A newly developed method for determining the frequency-dependent complex Young's modulus was employed to analyze the mechanical response of compacted microcrystalline cellulose, sorbitol, ethyl cellulose and starch for frequencies up to 20 kHz. A Debye-like relaxation was observed in all the studied pharmaceutical excipient materials and a comparison with corresponding dielectric spectroscopy data was made. The location in frequency of the relaxation peak was shown to correlate to the measured tensile strength of the tablets, and the relaxation was interpreted as the vibrational response of the interparticle hydrogen and van der Waals bindings in the tablets. Further, the measured relaxation strength, holding information about the energy loss involved in the relaxation processes, showed that the weakest material in terms of tensile strength, starch, is the material among the four tested ones that is able to absorb the most energy within its structure when exposed to external perturbations inducing vibrations in the studied frequency range. The results indicate that mechanical relaxation analysis performed over relatively broad frequency ranges should be useful for predicting material properties of importance for the functionality of a material in applications such as, e.g., drug delivery, drug storage and handling, and also for clarifying the origin of hitherto unexplained molecular processes.

  16. Classical and quantum N=2 supersymmetric black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, K.; De Wit, B.; Kallosh, R.; Luest, D.; Mohaupt, T.

    1997-01-01

    We use heterotic/type-II prepotentials to study quantum/classical black holes with half the N=2, D=4 supersymmetries unbroken. We show that, in the case of heterotic string compactifications, the perturbatively corrected entropy formula is given by the tree-level entropy formula with the tree-level coupling constant replaced by the perturbative coupling constant. In the case of type-II compactifications, we display a new entropy/area formula associated with axion-free black-hole solutions, which depends on the electric and magnetic charges as well as on certain topological data of Calabi-Yau three-folds, namely the intersection numbers, the second Chern class and the Euler number of the three-fold. We show that, for both heterotic and type-II theories, there is the possibility to relax the usual requirement of the non-vanishing of some of the charges and still have a finite entropy. (orig.)

  17. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  18. Effect of relaxation and decay of a charge transfer shakeup satellite on Auger-electron spectroscopy spectra and Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy spectra of adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    An electron excited to an unoccupied part of adsorbate-substrate hybrid states in a chemisorbed molecule by a resonant core electron excitation or charge transfer (CT) shakeup may delocalize on time scale of core-hole decay so that the excited core-hole state relaxes partly or completely to a fully relaxed one. The Auger decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state via the relaxation of the excited one introduces an additional feature in the resonant Auger-electron spectroscopy (RAES) spectrum and the AES spectrum. However, the additional feature in the RAES spectrum is a normal AES spectrum by decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state, whereas the one in the AES spectrum is the AES spectrum by decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state broadened by the photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) CT shakeup satellite weighted by the branching ratio of the relaxation width. The discrepancies between the AES spectrum measured at high above the ionization threshold and the additional feature in the RAES spectrum consist of the symmetric-like part by the decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state via the relaxation of the CT shakeup state and the asymmetric part by the direct decay of the shakeup states. The asymmetric part increases with a decrease in the hybridization strength. This explains the variation with the hybridization strength in the discrepancies between the RAES spectra and the AES spectra of chemisorbed molecules such as CO/Ni, CO/Cu and CO/Ag. A comparison of the singles PES spectrum with the one measured in coincidence with the AES main line of a selected kinetic energy (KE) provides the delocalization rate of the excited electron in the CT shakeup state as a function of photoelectron KE. The coincidence measurement to obtain the partial singles PES spectrum is discussed

  19. Fatigue life evaluation based on welding residual stress relaxation and notch strain approach for cruciform welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Woo; Han, Seung Ho; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue strength of welded joint is influenced by the welding residual stress which is relaxed depending on local stress distributed in vicinity of stress raisers, eg. under cut, overlap and blow hole. To evaluate its fatigue life the geometry of the stress raisers and the welding residual stress should be taken into account. The several methods based on notch strain approach have been proposed in order to consider the two factors above mentioned. These methods, however, have shown considerable differences between analytical and experimental results. It is due to the fact that the amount of the relaxed welding residual stress evaluated by the cyclic stress-strain relationship do not correspond with that occurred in reality. In this paper the residual stress relaxation model based on experimental results was used in order to reduce the discrepancy of the estimated amount of the relaxed welding residual stress. Under an assumption of the superimposition of the relaxed welding residual stress and the local stress, a modified notch strain approach was proposed and verified to the cruciform welded joint

  20. Relaxation of nonthermal hh and lh excitons in ZnSe quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalt, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Umlauff, M.

    1998-01-01

    The strong exciton-LO phonon coupling in ZnSe QWs gives a direct access to the relaxation dynamics of nonthermal, free heavy-hole and light-hole excitons. Narrow hot-exciton distributions can be generated by LO-phonon assisted exciton formation. The thermalization of these excitons is monitored b...

  1. A study of angle dependent surface plasmon polaritons in nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-07-21

    We report that the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures possess a subwavelength hole radius and periodicity. The transmission coefficient for nano-hole array structures was measured for different angles of incidence of light. Each measured transmission spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. A theory of the transmission coefficient was developed based on the quantum density matrix method. It was found that the location of the surface plasmon polariton and the heights of the spectral peaks were dependent on the angle of incidence of light. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. This property of these structures has opened up new possibilities for sensing applications.

  2. The electric field at hole injecting metal/organic interfaces as a cause for manifestation of exponential bias-dependent mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvikl, B.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the well-known empirical exponential bias-dependent mobility is an approximation function of the relevant term emerging in the Mott–Gurney space charge limited current model when the constant non-zero electric field at the hole injecting metal/organic interface E int is taken into account. The term in question is the product of the bias-independent (but organic layer thickness-dependent) effective mobility coefficient and the algebraic function, f(λ), of the argument λ = E int /E a , where E a is the externally applied electric field. On account of the non-zero interfacial field, E int , the singularity of the spatial dependence of the hole current density, p(x), is removed. The resulting hole drift current density, j, is tested as a function of E a against a number of published room temperature hole current j–E a data sets, all characterized by good ohmic contact at the hole injecting interface. It is shown that the calculated current density provides a very good fit to the measurements within a high range of E a intervals. Low values of E a , are investigated analytically under the assumption of hole drift-diffusion. The extremely large internal electric fields at the anode/organic junction indicate drift-diffusion to be an improbable process for the structures investigated. However, a description of hole transport throughout the whole interval of experimental E a values may be obtained at low values of E a by an extended Mark–Helfrich drift model with traps occupying the exponentially distributed energy levels, followed by the extended Mott–Gurney model description within the remaining part of the E a interval. In both models the same (bias-independent) effective mobility coefficient is incorporated into the calculations. The results present evidence that within the framework of the extended Mott–Gurney expression the properly derived term should replace the empirical exponential bias-dependent mobility, making it redundant in the

  3. Electron tunneling in lithium-ammonia solutions probed by frequency-dependent electron spin relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T J; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-06-06

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multiexponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1-10) × 10(-12) s over a temperature range 230-290 K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a time scale of ∼10(-13) s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great

  4. Electron Tunneling in Lithium Ammonia Solutions Probed by Frequency-Dependent Electron-Spin Relaxation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T.J.; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H.; Edwards, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multi-exponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1–10)×10−12 s over a temperature range 230–290K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a timescale of ca. 10−13 s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great potential

  5. Suppression of Electron Spin Relaxation in Mn-Doped GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhov, G. V.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Kavokin, K. V.; Korenev, V. L.; Lazarev, M. V.; Tkachuk, M. N.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Kiessling, T.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2008-08-01

    We report a surprisingly long spin relaxation time of electrons in Mn-doped p-GaAs. The spin relaxation time scales with the optical pumping and increases from 12 ns in the dark to 160 ns upon saturation. This behavior is associated with the difference in spin relaxation rates of electrons precessing in the fluctuating fields of ionized or neutral Mn acceptors, respectively. For the latter, the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between a Mn ion and a bound hole results in a partial compensation of these fluctuating fields, leading to the enhanced spin memory.

  6. Charged BTZ-like black hole solutions and the diffusivity-butterfly velocity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xian-Hui; Sin, Sang-Jin; Tian, Yu; Wu, Shao-Feng; Wu, Shang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    We show that there exists a class of charged BTZ-like black hole solutions in Lifshitz spacetime with a hyperscaling violating factor. The charged BTZ black hole is characterized by a charge-dependent logarithmic term in the metric function. As concrete examples, we give five such charged BTZ-like black hole solutions and the standard charged BTZ metric can be regarded as a special instance of them. In order to check the recent proposed universal relations between diffusivity and the butterfly velocity, we first compute the diffusion constants of the standard charged BTZ black holes and then extend our calculation to arbitrary dimension d, exponents z and θ. Remarkably, the case d = θ and z = 2 is a very special in that the charge diffusion D c is a constant and the energy diffusion D e might be ill-defined, but v B 2 τ diverges. We also compute the diffusion constants for the case that the DC conductivity is finite but in the absence of momentum relaxation.

  7. Spin transport and relaxation in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for

  8. arXiv Black hole superradiance and polarization-dependent bending of light

    CERN Document Server

    Plascencia, Alexis D.

    2018-04-27

    An inhomogeneous pseudo-scalar field configuration behaves like an optically active medium. Consequently, if a light ray passes through an axion cloud surrounding a Kerr black hole, it may experience a polarization-dependent bending. We explore the size and relevance of such effect considering both the QCD axion and a generic axion-like particle.

  9. arXiv Black hole superradiance and polarization-dependent bending of light

    CERN Document Server

    Plascencia, Alexis D.

    2017-01-01

    An inhomogeneous pseudo-scalar field configuration behaves like an optically active medium. Consequently, if a light ray passes through an axion cloud surrounding a Kerr black hole, it may experience a polarization-dependent bending. We explore the size and relevance of such effect considering both the QCD axion and a generic axion-like particle.

  10. Temperature dependence of electron spin-lattice relaxation of radiation-produced silver atoms in polycrystalline aqueous and glassy organic matrices. Importance of relaxation by tunneling modes in disordered matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Kevan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The electron spin-lattice relaxation of trapped silver atoms in polycrystalline ice matrices and in methanol, ethanol, propylene carbonate, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran organic glasses has been directly studied as a function of temperature by the saturation-recovery method. Below 40 K the dominant electron spin-lattice relaxation mechanism involves modulation of the electron nuclear dipolar interaction with nuclei in the radical's environment by tunneling of those nuclei between two nearly equal energy configurations. This relaxation mechanism occurs with high efficiency, has a characteristic linear temperature dependence, and is typically found in highly disordered matrices. The efficiency of this relaxation mechanism seems to decrease with decreasing polarity of the matrix. Deuteration experiments show that the tunneling nuclei are protons and in methanol it is shown that the methyl protons have more tunneling modes available than the hydroxyl protons. In polycrystalline ice matrices silver atoms can be stabilized with two different orientations of surrounding water molecules; the efficiency of the tunneling relaxation reflects this difference. From these and previous results on tunneling relaxation of trapped electrons in glassy matrices it appears that tunneling relaxation may be used to distinguish models with different geometrical configurations and to determine the relative rigidity of such configurations around trapped radicals in disordered solids. (author)

  11. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: carrier trapping versus electron-hole recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpene, E; Mancini, E; Dallera, C; Schwen, D; Ronning, C; Silvestri, S De

    2007-01-01

    We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors

  12. The effect of particle-hole interaction on the XPS core-hole spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide; Sjoegren, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    How the effective particle-hole interaction energy, U, or the polarization effect on a secondary electron in a final two-hole one-particle (2h1p) state created by the Coster-Kronig (CK) transition can solely affect the density of the CK particle states and consequently the core-hole spectral function, is discussed. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core-hole spectrum is predominantly governed by the unperturbed initial core-hole energy relative to the zero-point energy. At the latter energy, the real part of the initial core-hole self-energy becomes zero (no relaxation energy shift) and the imaginary part (the lifetime broadening) approximately maximizes. The zero-point energy relative to the double-ionization threshold energy is governed by the ratio of U relative to the bandwidth of the CK continuum. As an example, we study the 5p XPS spectra of atomic Ra (Z=88), Th (Z=90) and U (Z=92). The spectra are interpreted in terms of the change in the unperturbed initial core-hole energy relative to the zero-point energy. We explain why in general an ab initio atomic many-body calculation can provide an overall good description of solid-state spectra predominantly governed by the atomic-like localized core-hole dynamics. We explain this in terms of the change from free atom to metal in both U and the zero-point energy (self-energy)

  13. Relaxation processes in aqueous solutions upon X-ray exposure. Entanglement of electronic and nuclear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, Isaak

    2017-07-01

    About a decade ago new types of electronic non-radiative relaxation processes, involving the environment of an electronically excited or ionized monomer, have been predicted for van der Waals clusters and these were also the first systems where such processes have been detected experimentally. These new autoionization channels encompass the recombination of an electron and a hole, and the energy transfer to a neighboring atom or molecule. Two processes can be distinguished here. In the intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) the hole created upon ionization of a monomer is filled by a valence electron of the same species, and the energy released in this electron-hole recombination is used to ionize a neighboring species. In the electron transfer mediated decay (ETMD) the initial hole is filled by an electron from a neighboring species, and the energy released by this recombination is either used to ionize the same neighbor species, or to ionize a third monomer. In more recent experiments on liquid water it has been discovered that these non- local autoionization processes are strongly coupled with ultrafast nuclear dynamics. The core ionization initiates proton motion along a hydrogen donor-bond of the electronically excited water cation. This nuclear dynamics leads to the formation of transient cationic species where a proton is shared by two neighboring water molecules. Subsequent autoionization, either via Auger decay, ICD or ETMD, then occurs from any of such structure transients. This relaxation process is termed proton transfer mediated charge separation, PTM-CS. It has been found in a number of experiments that the probability of PTM-CS to occur depends on the hydrogen-bond strength between the core-ionized molecule and solvent molecules.

  14. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  15. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Cross relaxation, and mI-dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We, are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin......-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...... the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI-dependent....

  16. Eliminating dependence of hole depth on aspect ratio by forming ammonium bromide during plasma etching of deep holes in silicon nitride and silicon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Taku; Yokogawa, Kenetsu; Mori, Masahito

    2018-06-01

    The reaction mechanism during etching to fabricate deep holes in SiN/SiO2 stacks by using a HBr/N2/fluorocarbon-based gas plasma was investigated. To etch SiN and SiO2 films simultaneously, HBr/fluorocarbon gas mixture ratio was controlled to achieve etching selectivity closest to one. Deep holes were formed in the SiN/SiO2 stacks by one-step etching at several temperatures. The surface composition of the cross section of the holes was analyzed by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry. It was found that bromine ions (considered to be derived from NH4Br) were detected throughout the holes in the case of low-temperature etching. It was also found that the dependence of hole depth on aspect ratio decreases as temperature decreases, and it becomes significantly weaker at a substrate temperature of 20 °C. It is therefore concluded that the formation of NH4Br supplies the SiN/SiO2 etchant to the bottom of the holes. Such a finding will make it possible to alleviate the decrease in etching rate due to a high aspect ratio.

  17. Time-dependence hole and electron trapping effects in SIMOX buried oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesch, H.E. Jr.; Taylor, T.L.; Hite, L.R.; Bailey, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    Back-channel threshold shift associated with the buried oxide layers of separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX) and zone-melted recrystallization (ZMR) field-effect transistors (FETs) was measured following pulsed irradiation as a function of temperature and back-gate bias using a fast time-resolved I-V measurement technique. The SIMOX FETs showed large initial negative voltage shifts at 0.2 ms after irradiation followed by temperature- and bias-dependent additional negative shifts to 800s. Analysis and modeling of the results indicate efficient deep trapping of radiation-generated holes in the bulk of the oxide, substantial initial trapping of radiation-generated electrons in the oxide, and rapid removal of the trapped electrons by a thermal detrapping process. The ZMR FETs showed evidence of substantial trapping of holes alone in the oxide bulk

  18. Temperature and momentum transfer dependence of the dynamics of the α-relaxation in polymer melts. A quasielastic neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, J.; Alegría, A.; Arbe, A.; Frick, B.

    1992-12-01

    The dynamics of the α-relaxation in three glass-forming polymeric systems, poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and poly(bisphenol A, 2-hydroxypropylether) (PH) has been studied by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and compared with the results obtained from relaxation techniques. The results indicate that the dynamics of the α-relaxation in a wide timescale shows a clear non-Debye behaviour and can be well described by means of the same spectral shape, which is found to be independent of temperature and momentum transfer ( Q). Moreover, the Havriliak-Negami characteristic times deduced from the fitting of the experimental data can also be described using only one Vogel-Fulcher functional form. This implies a self-consistent description of the dynamics of the α-relaxation obtained by very different probes. Besides, we found that the Q-dependence of the characteristic times obtained by QENS is given by a power law, τ(Q) ∝ Q - n ( n > 2), n being dependent on the system, and that the Q-behaviour and the non-Debye behaviour are directly correlated. These results have main implications about the physical mechanisms behind the dynamics of the α-relaxation.

  19. Strain relaxation and ambipolar electrical transport in GaAs/InSb core-shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Torsten; Zellekens, Patrick; Demarina, Natalia; Hassan, Ali Al; Hackemüller, Franz Josef; Lüth, Hans; Pietsch, Ullrich; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2017-11-30

    The growth, crystal structure, strain relaxation and room temperature transport characteristics of GaAs/InSb core-shell nanowires grown using molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb of 14%, a transition from island-based to layer-like growth occurs during the formation of the shell. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in combination with geometric phase analyses as well as X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation are used to investigate the strain relaxation and prove the existence of different dislocations relaxing the strain on zinc blende and wurtzite core-shell nanowire segments. While on the wurtzite phase only Frank partial dislocations are found, the strain on the zinc blende phase is relaxed by dislocations with perfect, Shockley partial and Frank partial dislocations. Even for ultrathin shells of about 2 nm thickness, the strain caused by the high lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb is relaxed almost completely. Transfer characteristics of the core-shell nanowires show an ambipolar conductance behavior whose strength strongly depends on the dimensions of the nanowires. The interpretation is given based on an electronic band profile which is calculated for completely relaxed core/shell structures. The peculiarities of the band alignment in this situation implies simultaneously occupied electron and hole channels in the InSb shell. The ambipolar behavior is then explained by the change of carrier concentration in both channels by the gate voltage.

  20. Influence of strain relaxation in axial [Formula: see text] nanowire heterostructures on their electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Oliver; Krause, Thilo; Kaganer, Vladimir; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Hanke, Michael; Brandt, Oliver

    2017-05-26

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the influence of elastic strain relaxation on the built-in electrostatic potentials and the electronic properties of axial [Formula: see text] nanowire (NW) heterostructures. Our simulations reveal that for a sufficiently large ratio between the thickness of the [Formula: see text] disk and the diameter of the NW, the elastic relaxation leads to a significant reduction of the built-in electrostatic potential in comparison to a planar system of similar layer thickness and In content. In this case, the ground state transition energies approach constant values with increasing thickness of the disk and only depend on the In content, a behavior usually associated to that of a quantum well free of built-in electrostatic potentials. We show that the structures under consideration are by no means field-free, and the built-in potentials continue to play an important role even for ultrathin NWs. In particular, strain and the resulting polarization potentials induce complex confinement features of electrons and holes, which depend on the In content, shape, and dimensions of the heterostructure.

  1. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...... or longitudinal relaxation function depending on the sign of the axial anisotropy....

  2. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Effect of Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract via Src/PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Siang Lau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Botanical herbs are consumed globally not only as an essential diet but also as medicines or as functional/recreational food supplements. The extract of the Apocynum venetum leaves (AVLE, also known as Luobuma, exerts its antihypertensive effect via dilating the blood vessels in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner with optimal effect seen at as low as 10 µg/mL. A commercial Luoboma “antihypertensive tea” is available commercially in the western province of China. The present study seeks to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms of the nitric oxide (NO-releasing property of AVLE in rat aortas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by AVLE was assessed in organ chambers in the presence or absence of polyethyleneglycol catalase (PP2, 20 µM; inhibitor of Src kinase, wortmannin (30 nM and LY294002 (20 µM; PI3 (phosphatidylinositol3-Kinase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine (L-NAME, 100 µM; endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (eNOS and ODQ (1 µM; soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx level and protein expression of p-Akt and p-eNOS were measured. AVLE-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002 and abolished by L-NAME and ODQ. AVLE significantly increased total NOx level in rat aortas and in HUVECs compared to control. It also instigated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in cultured HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner and this was markedly suppressed by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002. AVLE also inhibited superoxide generated from both NADPH oxidase and xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Taken together, AVLE causes endothelium-dependent NO mediated relaxations of rat aortas through Src/PI3K/Akt dependent NO signalling pathway and possesses superoxide scavenging activity.

  3. Electron excitation relaxation in wide-gap single crystal insulators under swift heavy-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavlinskii, Yu.N.

    2000-01-01

    A heavy, multicharged ion moving in a solid interacts with nuclei and electrons of the matter atoms. If the projectile velocity exceeds the typical orbital velocity of the target electrons, the main process is excitation of the electronic subsystem, i.e., excitation and ionization of bound electrons. Initially, relaxation of the electron excitations results from electronic processes alone, and energy transfer from electrons to lattice happens later. Since free charge carriers are absent in insulators before irradiation, the motion of the excited electrons is possible only together with holes. Due to inner pressure of the electron-hole plasma the expansion takes place. The velocity of the expansion is determined by the heat velocity of electron-hole pairs. As the excitation region expands, the density of the electron-hole pairs decreases, the average distance between pairs increases, and excitons are produced. The expansion can be terminated in the time t≅10 -13 s, when, due to the electron-phonon interaction, self-trapped holes (and excitons) are formed. The annihilation of the trapped excitons gives rise to Frenkel defects. The set of equations comprising the continuity equation, the Euler equation and energy conservation is considered. The analytic dependence on time of the electron temperature and the radius of the excitation region is derived. The observation of projectile traces in a target is discussed in the single projectile regime

  4. Pharmacology of Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Relaxation of Rabbit Aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate several aspects of the acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of blood vessels: methodologic aspects; gender; storage; elevated glucose incubation; the signal transduction pathway; and effects of prolonged exposure. Furthermore, the relaxing effect of some ad...

  5. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  6. Scale-dependent three-dimensional charged black holes in linear and non-linear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, Angel; Koch, Benjamin [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Instituto de Fisica, Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Ernesto; Bargueno, Pedro; Hernandez-Arboleda, Alejandro [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota, Distrito Capital (Colombia); Panotopoulos, Grigorios [Universidade de Lisboa, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-07-15

    In the present work we study the scale dependence at the level of the effective action of charged black holes in Einstein-Maxwell as well as in Einstein-power-Maxwell theories in (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes without a cosmological constant. We allow for scale dependence of the gravitational and electromagnetic couplings, and we solve the corresponding generalized field equations imposing the null energy condition. Certain properties, such as horizon structure and thermodynamics, are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  7. Optical spin orientation of minority holes in a modulation-doped GaAs/(Ga,Al)As quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudinov, A. V.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.; Sapega, V. F.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.

    2016-04-01

    The optical spin orientation effect in a GaAs/(Ga,Al)As quantum well containing a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas was found to be due to spin-polarized minority carriers, the holes. The observed oscillations of both the intensity and polarization of the photoluminescence in a magnetic field are well described in a model whose main elements are resonant absorption of the exciting light by the Landau levels and mixing of the heavy- and light-hole subbands. After subtraction of these effects, the observed influence of magnetic fields on the spin polarization can be well interpreted by a standard approach of the optical orientation method. The spin relaxation of holes is controlled by the Dyakonov-Perel' mechanism. Deceleration of the spin relaxation by the magnetic field occurs through the Ivchenko mechanism—due to the cyclotron motion of holes. Mobility of holes was found to be two orders of magnitude smaller than that of electrons, being determined by the scattering of holes by the electron gas.

  8. Kaempferol enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary artery through activation of large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y C; Leung, S W S; Leung, G P H; Man, R Y K

    2015-06-01

    Kaempferol, a plant flavonoid present in normal human diet, can modulate vasomotor tone. The present study aimed to elucidate the signalling pathway through which this flavonoid enhanced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. The effect of kaempferol on the relaxation of porcine coronary arteries to endothelium-dependent (bradykinin) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxing agents was studied in an in vitro organ chamber setup. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of kaempferol on potassium channels in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs). At a concentration without direct effect on vascular tone, kaempferol (3 × 10(-6) M) enhanced relaxations produced by bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside. The potentiation by kaempferol of the bradykinin-induced relaxation was not affected by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthase (10(-4) M) or TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684, inhibitors of intermediate- and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively (10(-6) M each), but was abolished by tetraethylammonium chloride, a non-selective inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels (10(-3) M), and iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa 1.1; 10(-7) M). Iberiotoxin also inhibited the potentiation by kaempferol of sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. Kaempferol stimulated an outward-rectifying current in PCASMCs, which was abolished by iberiotoxin. The present results suggest that, in smooth muscle cells of the porcine coronary artery, kaempferol enhanced relaxations caused by endothelium-derived and exogenous NO as well as those due to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. This vascular effect of kaempferol involved the activation of KCa 1.1 channels. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Monte Carlo studies of thermalization of electron-hole pairs in spin-polarized degenerate electron gas in monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2018-02-01

    Monte Carlo method is applied to the study of relaxation of excited electron-hole (e-h) pairs in graphene. The presence of background of spin-polarized electrons, with high density imposing degeneracy conditions, is assumed. To such system, a number of e-h pairs with spin polarization parallel or antiparallel to the background is injected. Two stages of relaxation: thermalization and cooling are clearly distinguished when average particles energy and its standard deviation σ _E are examined. At the very beginning of thermalization phase, holes loose energy to electrons, and after this process is substantially completed, particle distributions reorganize to take a Fermi-Dirac shape. To describe the evolution of and σ _E during thermalization, we define characteristic times τ _ {th} and values at the end of thermalization E_ {th} and σ _ {th}. The dependence of these parameters on various conditions, such as temperature and background density, is presented. It is shown that among the considered parameters, only the standard deviation of electrons energy allows to distinguish between different cases of relative spin polarizations of background and excited electrons.

  10. The ent-15α-Acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic Acid Relaxes Rat Artery Mesenteric Superior via Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Êurica Adélia Nogueira Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of the ent-15α-acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA-acetoxy. In rat mesenteric artery rings, KA-acetoxy induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine. In the absence of endothelium, the vasorelaxation was significantly shifted to the right without reduction of the maximum effect. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of the NO-synthase (NOS, indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase, L-NAME + indomethacin, atropine, a nonselective antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, ODQ, selective inhibitor of the guanylyl cyclase enzyme, or hydroxocobalamin, a nitric oxide scavenger. The relaxation was completely reversed in the presence of L-NAME + 1 mM L-arginine or L-arginine, an NO precursor. Diterpene-induced relaxation was not affected by TEA, a nonselective inhibitor of K+ channels. The KA-acetoxy antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner and also inhibited an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction. The KA-acetoxy did not interfere with Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The vasorelaxant induced by KA-acetoxy seems to involve the inhibition of the Ca2+ influx and also, at least in part, by endothelial muscarinic receptors activation, NO and PGI2 release.

  11. Simulation of magnetic holes formation in the magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Narges; Germaschewski, Kai; Raeder, Joachim

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic holes have been frequently observed in the Earth's magnetosheath and are believed to be the consequence of the nonlinear evolution of the mirror instability. Mirror mode perturbations mainly form as magnetic holes in regions where the plasma is marginally mirror stable with respect to the linear instability criterion. We present an expanding box particle-in-cell simulation to mimic the changing conditions in the magnetosheath as the plasma is convected through it that produces mirror mode magnetic holes. We show that in the initial nonlinear evolution, where the plasma conditions are mirror unstable, the magnetic peaks are dominant, while later, as the plasma relaxes toward marginal stability, the fluctuations evolve into deep magnetic holes. While the averaged plasma parameters in the simulation remain close to the mirror instability threshold, the local plasma in the magnetic holes is highly unstable to mirror instability and locally mirror stable in the magnetic peaks.

  12. SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.; Bramsoe, Erik

    1983-01-01

    Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

  13. The generalized second law and the black hole evaporation in an empty space as a nonequilibrium process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    When a black hole is in an empty space in which there is no matter field except that of the Hawking radiation (Hawking field), then the black hole evaporates and the entropy of the black hole decreases. The generalized second law guarantees the increase of the total entropy of the whole system which consists of the black hole and the Hawking field. That is, the increase of the entropy of the Hawking field is faster than the decrease of the black hole entropy. In a naive sense, one may expect that the entropy increase of the Hawking field is due to the self-interaction among the composite particles of the Hawking field, and that the self-relaxation of the Hawking field results in the entropy increase. Then, when one considers a non-self-interacting matter field as the Hawking field, it is obvious that self-relaxation does not take place, and one may think that the total entropy does not increase. However, using nonequilibrium thermodynamics which has been developed recently, we find for the non-self-interacting Hawking field that the rate of entropy increase of the Hawking field (the entropy emission rate by the black hole) grows faster than the rate of entropy decrease of the black hole during the black hole evaporation in empty space. The origin of the entropy increase of the Hawking field is the increase of the black hole temperature. Hence an understanding of the generalized second law in the context of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is suggested; even if the self-relaxation of the Hawking field does not take place, the temperature increase of the black hole during the evaporation process causes the entropy increase of the Hawking field to result in the increase of the total entropy

  14. Classical and quantum aspects of BPS black holes in N=2,D=4 heterotic string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, S.-J.

    1997-01-01

    We study classical and quantum aspects of D=4, N=2 BPS black holes for T 2 compactification of D=6, N=1 heterotic string vacua. We extend dynamical relaxation phenomena of moduli fields to a background consisting of a BPS soliton or a black hole and provide a simpler but more general derivation of the Ferrara-Kallosh extremized black hole mass and entropy. We study quantum effects to the BPS black hole mass spectra and to their dynamical relaxation. We show that, despite non-renormalizability of string effective supergravity, the quantum effect modifies BPS mass spectra only through coupling constant and moduli field renormalizations. Based on target-space duality, we establish a perturbative non-renormalization theorem and obtain the exact BPS black hole mass and entropy in terms of the renormalized string loop-counting parameter and renormalized moduli fields. We show that a similar conclusion holds, in the large T 2 limit, for leading non-perturbative correction. We finally discuss implications to type-I and type-IIA Calabi-Yau black holes. (orig.)

  15. Tocotrienol rich tocomin attenuates oxidative stress and improves endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from rats fed a high-fat western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher F Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat or control rat chow (SD, 6% fat for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc or its vehicle (peanut oil was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin-Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and calcium activated potassium (KCa channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggests that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity.

  16. Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models

  17. The laser second threshold: Its exact analytical dependence on detuning and relaxation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakasov, A.A.; Abraham, N.B.

    1992-11-01

    An exact analysis has been carried out for general analytical expressions for the second threshold of a single-mode homogeneously broadened laser and for the initial pulsation frequency at the second threshold for arbitrary physical values of the relaxation rates, and at arbitrary detuning between the cavity frequency and the atomic resonance frequency. These expressions also give correspondingly exact forms for asymptotic cases that have previously studied with some approximations. Earlier approximate results are partly confirmed and partly improved by these more general expressions. The physical status of various expressions and approximations is re-considered and specified more clearly, including an analysis of which reasonably can be attained in lasers or masers. A general analytical proof is given that for larger detuning of the laser cavity from resonance a higher value of the laser excitation is required to destabilize the steady state solution (the second threshold). We also present results for the minimum value of the second threshold at fixed detuning as a function of the other parameters of the system and on the dependence of the ratio of the second threshold to the first threshold as a function of detuning. Minima of the second threshold and of the threshold ratio occur only if the population relaxation rate is equal to zero. The minima of the threshold ratio are shown to be bounded from above as well as from below (as functions of the relaxation rates, so long as the second threshold exists). The upper bound on the threshold ratio is equal to 17. The variation of the second threshold in the semi-infinite parameter space of the decay rates is shown at various detunings in plots with a finite domain by normalizing the material relaxation rates to the cavity decay rate. (author). 53 refs, 22 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Kaempferol enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary artery through activation of large-conductance a2+-activated K+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y C; Leung, S W S; Leung, G P H; Man, R Y K

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Kaempferol, a plant flavonoid present in normal human diet, can modulate vasomotor tone. The present study aimed to elucidate the signalling pathway through which this flavonoid enhanced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Experimental Approach The effect of kaempferol on the relaxation of porcine coronary arteries to endothelium-dependent (bradykinin) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxing agents was studied in an in vitro organ chamber setup. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of kaempferol on potassium channels in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs). Key Results At a concentration without direct effect on vascular tone, kaempferol (3 × 10−6 M) enhanced relaxations produced by bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside. The potentiation by kaempferol of the bradykinin-induced relaxation was not affected by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthase (10−4 M) or TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684, inhibitors of intermediate- and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively (10−6 M each), but was abolished by tetraethylammonium chloride, a non-selective inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels (10−3 M), and iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa1.1; 10−7 M). Iberiotoxin also inhibited the potentiation by kaempferol of sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. Kaempferol stimulated an outward-rectifying current in PCASMCs, which was abolished by iberiotoxin. Conclusions and Implications The present results suggest that, in smooth muscle cells of the porcine coronary artery, kaempferol enhanced relaxations caused by endothelium-derived and exogenous NO as well as those due to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. This vascular effect of kaempferol involved the activation of KCa1.1 channels. PMID:25652142

  19. Interstitial relaxations due to hydrostatic stress in niobium--oxygen alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.N.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the anelastic relaxation induced by hydrostatic stress in the range from ambient to 81 ksi were made for niobium--oxygen alloys. The anelastic responses, both for the pressurization and the pressure release experiments, were followed by measuring the relative length change between the oxygenated niobium sample and a pure niobium frame with a precision of about 2 A. The relaxation spectrum observed was shown to be made up of three distinct relaxations with unique relaxation times and strengths. The pressure dependence of the relaxation times gave the apparent activation volume for these relaxations of the order of 4 cm 3 /mole. The relaxations were observed to have relaxation strengths of the order of 10 -4 which were found to be independent of pressure up to 81 ksi. The relaxation times for these relaxations were found to occur in the same general temperature range as those for the Snoek relaxations of oxygen clusters in niobium. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times, however, gave activation energies of about 11 to 15 kcal/mole, as compared with roughly 27 to 29 kcal/mole for the Snoek relaxation of oxygen clusters in niobium. Several possible models for these relaxations were developed, however, none could predict the observed temperature dependence. The best interpretation of the data is that due to some anomalous competing relaxation the actual temperature dependence of these relaxations could not be observed. A completely self-consistent analysis is found which is based upon this assumption. (U.S.)

  20. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps III From Black Hole to Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we continue our study of density cusps that may contain central black holes. Methods. We recall our attempts to use distribution functions with a memory of self-similar relaxation, but mostly they apply only in restricted regions of the global system. We are forced to consider related distribution functions that are steady but not self-similar. Results. One remarkably simple distribution function that has a filled loss cone describes a bulge that transits from a near black hole domain to an outer 'zero flux' regime where$\\rho\\propto r^{-7/4}$. The transition passes from an initial inverse square profile through a region having a 1/r density profile. The structure is likely to be developed at an early stage in the growth of a galaxy. A central black hole is shown to grow exponentially in this background with an e-folding time of a few million years. Conclusions. We derive our results from first principles, using only the angular momentum integral in spherical symmetry. The initial relaxatio...

  1. Local NMR relaxation rates T1-1 and T2-1 depending on the d -vector symmetry in the vortex state of chiral and helical p -wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro

    2018-04-01

    Local NMR relaxation rates in the vortex state of chiral and helical p -wave superconductors are investigated by the quasiclassical Eilenberger theory. We calculate the spatial and resonance frequency dependences of the local NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 and spin-spin relaxation rate T2-1. Depending on the relation between the NMR relaxation direction and the d -vector symmetry, the local T1-1 and T2-1 in the vortex core region show different behaviors. When the NMR relaxation direction is parallel to the d -vector component, the local NMR relaxation rate is anomalously suppressed by the negative coherence effect due to the spin dependence of the odd-frequency s -wave spin-triplet Cooper pairs. The difference between the local T1-1 and T2-1 in the site-selective NMR measurement is expected to be a method to examine the d -vector symmetry of candidate materials for spin-triplet superconductors.

  2. Extreme mass ratio inspiral rates: dependence on the massive black hole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We study the rate at which stars spiral into a massive black hole (MBH) due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs), as a function of the mass M . of the MBH. In the context of our model, it is shown analytically that the rate approximately depends on the MBH mass as M -1/4 . . Numerical simulations confirm this result, and show that for all MBH masses, the event rate is highest for stellar black holes, followed by white dwarfs, and lowest for neutron stars. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to see hundreds of these extreme mass ratio inspirals per year. Since the event rate derived here formally diverges as M . → 0, the model presented here cannot hold for MBHs of masses that are too low, and we discuss what the limitations of the model are.

  3. Hole dephasing caused by hole-hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2017-11-01

    We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole-hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.

  4. Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M

    2008-08-01

    We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.

  5. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  6. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement

  7. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Strachan, Alejandro, E-mail: strachan@purdue.edu [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  8. Temperature dependence of the NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate for spin-1/2 chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coira, E.; Barmettler, P.; Giamarchi, T.; Kollath, C.

    2016-10-01

    We use recent developments in the framework of a time-dependent matrix product state method to compute the nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation rate 1 /T1 for spin-1/2 chains under magnetic field and for different Hamiltonians (XXX, XXZ, isotropically dimerized). We compute numerically the temperature dependence of the 1 /T1 . We consider both gapped and gapless phases, and also the proximity of quantum critical points. At temperatures much lower than the typical exchange energy scale, our results are in excellent agreement with analytical results, such as the ones derived from the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) theory and bosonization, which are valid in this regime. We also cover the regime for which the temperature T is comparable to the exchange coupling. In this case analytical theories are not appropriate, but this regime is relevant for various new compounds with exchange couplings in the range of tens of Kelvin. For the gapped phases, either the fully polarized phase for spin chains or the low-magnetic-field phase for the dimerized systems, we find an exponential decrease in Δ /(kBT ) of the relaxation time and can compute the gap Δ . Close to the quantum critical point our results are in good agreement with the scaling behavior based on the existence of free excitations.

  9. Abrupt relaxation in high-spin molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-R.; Cheng, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mean-field model suggests that the rate of resonant quantum tunneling in high-spin molecules is not only field-dependent but also time-dependent. The relaxation-assisted resonant tunneling in high-spin molecules produces an abrupt magnetization change during relaxation. When the applied field is very close to the resonant field, a time-dependent interaction field gradually shifts the energies of different collective spin states, and magnetization tunneling is observed as two energies of the spin states coincide

  10. Remarks on residual stress measurement by hole-drilling and electronic speckle pattern interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Claudia; Casavola, Caterina; Pappalettera, Giovanni; Pappalettere, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  11. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  12. Thickness-dependent magneto-optical effects in hole-doped GaS and GaSe multilayers: a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhou, Xiaodong; Feng, Wanxiang; Fu, Botao; Yao, Yugui

    2018-04-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) GaS and GaSe nanosheets were successfully fabricated and the measured electronic, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties are excellent. Here, using the first-principles density functional theory, we investigate the magnetic, optical, and magneto-optical (MO) Kerr and Faraday effects in hole-doped GaS and GaSe multilayers. GaS and GaSe monolayers (MLs) manifest ferromagnetic ground states by introducing even a small amount of hole doping, whereas the magnetism in GaS and GaSe multilayers are significantly different under hole doping. Our results show that ferromagnetic states can be easily established in GaS bilayers and trilayers under proper hole doping, however, most of GaSe multilayers are more favorable to nonmagnetic states. The magnetic moments in GaS multilayers are weakened remarkably with the increasing of thin film thickness and are negligible more than three MLs. This leads to the thickness dependence of MO Kerr and Faraday effects. Furthermore, the MO effects strongly depend on the doping concentration and therefore are electrically controllable by adjusting the number of holes via gate voltage. The substrate effects on the MO properties are also discussed. Combining the unique MO and other interesting physical properties make GaS and GaSe a superior 2D material platform for semiconductor MO and spintronic nanodevices.

  13. Remarks on the necessity and implications of state-dependence in the black hole interior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the "state-dependence" of the map that we proposed recently between bulk operators in the interior of a large anti-de Sitter black hole and operators in the boundary CFT. By refining recent versions of the information paradox, we show that this feature is necessary for the CFT to

  14. Comments on the Necessity and Implications of State-Dependence in the Black Hole Interior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the "state-dependence" of the map that we proposed recently between bulk operators in the interior of a large AdS black hole and operators in the boundary CFT. By refining recent versions of the information paradox, we show that this feature is necessary for the CFT to successfully

  15. Thermodynamic scaling of α-relaxation time and viscosity stems from the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the coupling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K L; Habasaki, J; Prevosto, D; Capaccioli, S; Paluch, Marian

    2012-07-21

    By now it is well established that the structural α-relaxation time, τ(α), of non-associated small molecular and polymeric glass-formers obey thermodynamic scaling. In other words, τ(α) is a function Φ of the product variable, ρ(γ)/T, where ρ is the density and T the temperature. The constant γ as well as the function, τ(α) = Φ(ρ(γ)/T), is material dependent. Actually this dependence of τ(α) on ρ(γ)/T originates from the dependence on the same product variable of the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation time, τ(β), or the primitive relaxation time, τ(0), of the coupling model. To support this assertion, we give evidences from various sources itemized as follows. (1) The invariance of the relation between τ(α) and τ(β) or τ(0) to widely different combinations of pressure and temperature. (2) Experimental dielectric and viscosity data of glass-forming van der Waals liquids and polymer. (3) Molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, the Lewis-Wahnström model of ortho-terphenyl, 1,4 polybutadiene, a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, and a molten salt 2Ca(NO(3))(2)·3KNO(3) (CKN). (4) Both diffusivity and structural relaxation time, as well as the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in CKN obey thermodynamic scaling by ρ(γ)/T with the same γ. (5) In polymers, the chain normal mode relaxation time, τ(N), is another function of ρ(γ)/T with the same γ as segmental relaxation time τ(α). (6) While the data of τ(α) from simulations for the full LJ binary mixture obey very well the thermodynamic scaling, it is strongly violated when the LJ interaction potential is truncated beyond typical inter-particle distance, although in both cases the repulsive pair potentials coincide for some distances.

  16. Temperature Dependence of Logarithmic-like Relaxational Dynamics of Hydrated tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiang-Qiang; Mamontov, Eugene; O'Neill, Hugh; Zhang, Qiu

    2013-03-21

    The dynamics of RNA within the β-relaxation region of 10 ps to 1 ns is crucial to its biological function. Because of its simpler chemical building blocks and the lack of the side methyl groups, faster relaxational dynamics of RNA compared to proteins can be expected. However, the situation is actually opposite. In this work, the relaxational dynamics of tRNA is measured by quasielastic neutron scattering and analyzed using the mode coupling theory, originally developed for glass-forming liquids. Our results reveal that the dynamics of tRNA follows a log-decay within the β-relaxation region, which is an important trait demonstrated by the dynamics of proteins. The dynamics of hydrated tRNA and lysozyme compared in the time domain further demonstrate that the slower dynamics of tRNA relative to proteins originates from the difference in the folded states of tRNA and proteins, as well as the influence of their hydration water.

  17. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  18. Charge-transport anisotropy in black phosphorus: critical dependence on the number of layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Swastika; Pati, Swapan K

    2016-06-28

    Phosphorene is a promising candidate for modern electronics because of the anisotropy associated with high electron-hole mobility. Additionally, superior mechanical flexibility allows the strain-engineering of various properties including the transport of charge carriers in phosphorene. In this work, we have shown the criticality of the number of layers to dictate the transport properties of black phosphorus. Trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) has been proposed as an excellent anisotropic material, based on the transport parameters using Boltzmann transport formalisms coupled with density functional theory. The mobilities of both the electron and the hole are found to be higher along the zigzag direction (∼10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 300 K) compared to the armchair direction (∼10(2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), resulting in the intrinsic directional anisotropy. Application of strain leads to additional electron-hole anisotropy with 10(3) fold higher mobility for the electron compared to the hole. Critical strain for maximum anisotropic response has also been determined. Whether the transport anisotropy is due to the spatial or charge-carrier has been determined through analyses of the scattering process of electrons and holes, and their recombination as well as relaxation dynamics. In this context, we have derived two descriptors (S and F(k)), which are general enough for any 2D or quasi-2D systems. Information on the scattering involving purely the carrier states also helps to understand the layer-dependent photoluminescence and electron (hole) relaxation in black phosphorus. Finally, we justify trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) as the material of interest with excellent transport properties.

  19. The Force-Free Magnetosphere of a Rotating Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the Blandford-Znajek process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on the distributions of the magnetic field angular velocity and the poloidal electric current. These are not arbitrary. They are determined self-consistently by requiring that magnetic field lines cross smoothly the two singular surfaces of the problem: the inner "light surface" located inside the ergosphere and the outer "light surface" which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder.We find the solution for the simplest possible magnetic field configuration, the split monopole, through a numerical iterative relaxation method analogous to the one that yields the structure of the steady-state axisymmetric force-free pulsar magnetosphere. We obtain the rate of electromagnetic extraction of energy and confirm the results of Blandford and Znajek and of previous time-dependent simulations. Furthermore, we discuss the physical applicability of magnetic field configurations that do not cross both "light surfaces."

  20. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aorta to a histamine H3 agonist is reduced by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase and Na+,K+-ATPase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Djuric

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of different effector systems (nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase, β-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, and Na+,K+-ATPase was evaluated in a histamine H3 receptor agonist-induced ((Rα-methylhistamine, (Rα-MeHA endothelium-dependent rat aorta relaxation assay. (Rα-MeHA (0.1 nM – 0.01 mM relaxed endothelium-dependent rat aorta, with a pD2 value of 8.22 ± 0.06, compared with a pD2 value of 7.98 ± 0.02 caused by histamine (50% and 70% relaxation, respectively. The effect of (Rα-MeHA (0.1 nM – 0.01 mM was competitively antagonized by thioperamide (1, 10 and 30 nM (pA2 = 9.21 ± 0.40; slope = 1.03 ± 0.35 but it was unaffected by pyrilamine (100 nM, cimetidine (1 μM, atropine (10 μM, propranolol (1 μM, indomethacin (10 μM or nordthydroguaiaretic acid (0.1 mM. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, L-NG-monomethylarginine (L-NMMA, 10 μM and NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NOARG, 10 μM inhibited the relaxation effect of (Rα-MeHA, by approximately 52% and 70%, respectively. This inhibitory effect of L-NMMA was partially reversed by L-arginine (10 μM. Methylene blue (10 μM and ouabain (10 μM inhibited relaxation (Rα-MeHA-induced by approximately 50% and 90%, respectively. The products of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase are not involved in (Rα-MeHA-induced endothelium-dependent rat aorta relaxation nor are the muscarinic cholinergic and β-adrenergic receptors. The results also suggest the involvement of NO synthase, guanylate cyclase and Na+,K+-ATPase in (Rα-MeHA-induced endothelium-dependent rat aorta relaxation.

  1. Remarks on Residual Stress Measurement by Hole-Drilling and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  2. Strange metal from Gutzwiller correlations in infinite dimensions: Transverse transport, optical response, and rise of two relaxation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenxin; Žitko, Rok; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2017-09-01

    Using two approaches to strongly correlated systems, the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory and the dynamical mean field theory, we compute the transverse transport coefficients, namely, the Hall constants RH and Hall angles θH, and the longitudinal and transverse optical response of the U =∞ Hubbard model in the limit of infinite dimensions. We focus on two successive low-temperature regimes, the Gutzwiller-correlated Fermi liquid (GCFL) and the Gutzwiller-correlated strange metal (GCSM). We find that the Hall angle cotθH is proportional to T2 in the GCFL regime, while upon warming into the GCSM regime it first passes through a downward bend and then continues as T2. Equivalently, RH is weakly temperature dependent in the GCFL regime, but becomes strongly temperature dependent in the GCSM regime. Drude peaks are found for both the longitudinal optical conductivity σx x(ω ) and the optical Hall angles tanθH(ω ) below certain characteristic energy scales. By comparing the relaxation rates extracted from fitting to the Drude formula, we find that in the GCFL regime there is a single relaxation rate controlling both longitudinal and transverse transport, while in the GCSM regime two different relaxation rates emerge. We trace the origin of this behavior to the dynamical particle-hole asymmetry of the Dyson self-energy, arguably a generic feature of doped Mott insulators.

  3. Process of optical excitation and relaxation of color center in synthetic diamond and its application to optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of high-pressure synthesized diamond is carried out by using a nuclear reactor or a linac. Then, the effect of annealing on the color centers is observed. A study is made to identify different color centers and to provide techniques to control their introduction. Investigations cover the relation of color center formation with annealing temperature, dependence of color center formation on radiation dose, migration of H3 center and hydrogen, and applicability of five different color centers to optoelectronics. Next, a study is made of the formation and relaxation of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a metastable excited state produced by optical excitation. An optical gain is essential to provide laser. Optical amplification is measured at the vibronic emission band of the NV center. An increase in absorption is detected, indicating that the NV center will not provide laser. In the optical excitation-relaxation process, the relaxation proceeds via a metastable state. Finally, hole burning of ZPL of the NV center is observed in the temperature range from 20K to 80K, and some of its features are described. (N.K.)

  4. Theoretical models of the spin-dependent charge-carrier dynamics in metals and semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with spin-dependent carrier dynamics in semiconductors and metals. We are especially interested in the dynamics on ultrashort timescales, which can be driven by ultrashort optical excitation, and use of a theoretical description in terms of the dynamical spin-density matrix. The first part of this thesis is concerned with spin-dependent carrier dynamics in bulk GaAs. For conduction electrons in GaAs, the most important mechanisms, by which an electron spin polarization can be destroyed, are the Dyakonov-Perel and Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanisms. For the Dyakonov-Perel effect, our treatment is the first calculation of the dynamics of the spindensity matrix for bulk GaAs. From our microsopic calculation, we extract spin-dephasing times. In particular, we can describe the dependence of the spin-dephasing time for a wide range of n-doping concentrations and explain the spin-dephasing dynamics in and out of the motional-narrowing regime. For the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism, i.e., the exchange interaction of electronics with holes, approximate relaxation times for limiting cases were derived about 30 years ago. We show that these approaches provide an incomplete picture of spin relaxation, and are only valid for high or low densities, whereas the microscopic calculation is capable of explaining the electronic dynamics also for intermediate doping densities, which are most interesting for typical experiments. The spin-dependent hole dynamics in GaAs is much faster than that of electrons, because the p-like hole bands experience the spin-orbit interaction directly, rather than through the interaction with other bands. The resulting spin relaxation is sometimes referred to as an Elliott-Yafet mechanism. For the first time, we present results for the microscopic dynamics of this mechanism for holes in bulk GaAs, and we discuss the different results that may be obtained with different measurement techniques. We also analyze the importance of ''spin hot

  5. Holographic relaxation of finite size isolated quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abajo-Arrastia, Javier; Silva, Emilia da; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    We study holographically the out of equilibrium dynamics of a finite size closed quantum system in 2+1 dimensions, modelled by the collapse of a shell of a massless scalar field in AdS_4. In global coordinates there exists a variety of evolutions towards final black hole formation which we relate with different patterns of relaxation in the dual field theory. For large scalar initial data rapid thermalization is achieved as a priori expected. Interesting phenomena appear for small enough amplitudes. Such shells do not generate a black hole by direct collapse, but quite generically, an apparent horizon emerges after enough bounces off the AdS boundary. We relate this bulk evolution with relaxation processes at strong coupling which delay in reaching an ergodic stage. Besides the dynamics of bulk fields, we monitor the entanglement entropy, finding that it oscillates quasi-periodically before final equilibration. The radial position of the travelling shell is brought in correspondence with the evolution of the pattern of entanglement in the dual field theory. We propose, thereafter, that the observed oscillations are the dual counterpart of the quantum revivals studied in the literature. The entanglement entropy is not only able to portrait the streaming of entangled excitations, but it is also a useful probe of interaction effects

  6. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  7. Dynamics of the α-relaxation in glass-forming polymers. Study by neutron scattering and relaxation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, J.

    1993-12-01

    The dynamics of the α-relaxation in three different polymeric systems, poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(bisphenol A, 2-hydroxypropylether) (PH) has been studied by means of relaxation techniques and quasielastic neutron scattering (backscattering spectrometers IN10 and IN13 at the ILL-Grenoble). By using these techniques we have covered a wide time scale ranging from mesoscopic to macroscopic times (10 -10 -10 1 s). For analyzing the experimental data we have developed a phenomenological procedure in the frequency domain based on the Havriliak-Negami relaxation function, which in fact implies a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts relaxation function in the time domain. The results obtained indicate that the dynamics of the α-relaxation in a wide time scale shows a clear non-Debye behaviour. The shape of the relaxation functions is found to be similar for the different techniques used and independent of temperature and momentum transfer ( Q). Moreover, the characteristic relaxation times deduced from the fitting of the experimental data can also be described using only one Vogel-Fulcher functional form. Besides we found that the Q-dependence of the relaxation times obtained by QENS is given by a power law, τ( Q) ∞ Q- n ( n>2), n being dependent on the system, and that the Q-behaviour and the non-Debye behaviour are directly correlated. In the case of PVC, time of flight (TOF) neutron scattering experiments confirm these results in a shorter time scale (2×10 -11 -2× 10 -12 s). Moreover, TOF results also suggest the possibility of interpreting the “fast process” usually detected in glass-forming systems as a Debye-like short regime of the α-relaxation.

  8. Study of charge-carrier relaxation in a disordered organic semiconductor by simulating impedance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesta, M.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a very sensitive probe of nonstationary charge transport governed by charge-carrier relaxation in devices of disordered organic semiconductors. We simulate impedance spectroscopy measurements of hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based disordered organic semiconductor by

  9. Bifurcation from stable holes to replicating holes in vibrated dense suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, H; Sano, M

    2013-11-01

    In vertically vibrated starch suspensions, we observe bifurcations from stable holes to replicating holes. Above a certain acceleration, finite-amplitude deformations of the vibrated surface continue to grow until void penetrates fluid layers, and a hole forms. We studied experimentally and theoretically the parameter dependence of the holes and their stabilities. In suspensions of small dispersed particles, the circular shapes of the holes are stable. However, we find that larger particles or lower surface tension of water destabilize the circular shapes; this indicates the importance of capillary forces acting on the dispersed particles. Around the critical acceleration for bifurcation, holes show intermittent large deformations as a precursor to hole replication. We applied a phenomenological model for deformable domains, which is used in reaction-diffusion systems. The model can explain the basic dynamics of the holes, such as intermittent behavior, probability distribution functions of deformation, and time intervals of replication. Results from the phenomenological model match the linear growth rate below criticality that was estimated from experimental data.

  10. Stellar dynamics around a massive black hole - III. Resonant relaxation of razor-thin axisymmetric discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2017-02-01

    We study the resonant relaxation (RR) of an axisymmetric, low-mass (or Keplerian) stellar disc orbiting a more massive black hole (MBH). Our recent work on the general kinetic theory of RR is simplified in the standard manner by the neglect of 'gravitational polarization' and applied to a razor-thin axisymmetric disc. The wake of a stellar orbit is expressed in terms of the angular momenta exchanged with other orbits, and used to derive a kinetic equation for RR under the combined actions of self-gravity, 1 PN and 1.5 PN general relativistic effects of the MBH and an arbitrary external axisymmetric potential. This is a Fokker-Planck equation for the stellar distribution function (DF), wherein the diffusion coefficients are given self-consistently in terms of contributions from apsidal resonances between pairs of stellar orbits. The physical kinetics is studied for the two main cases of interest. (1) 'Lossless' discs in which the MBH is not a sink of stars, and disc mass, angular momentum and energy are conserved: we prove that general H-functions can increase or decrease during RR, but the Boltzmann entropy is (essentially) unique in being a non-decreasing function of time. Therefore, secular thermal equilibria are maximum entropy states, with DFs of the Boltzmann form; the two-ring correlation function at equilibrium is computed. (2) Discs that lose stars to the MBH through an 'empty loss cone': we derive expressions for the MBH feeding rates of mass, angular momentum and energy in terms of the diffusive fluxes at the loss-cone boundaries.

  11. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86 g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14 g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48 g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

  12. XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.

  13. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  14. Two-particle one-hole multiple-scattering contribution to 17O energies using an energy-dependent reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.; Krenciglowa, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 2p1h correlations in 17 O is studied within a multiple-scattering formalism. An accurate, energy-dependent reaction matrix with orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states is used to assess the relative importance of particle-particle and particle-hole correlations in the 17 O energies. The effect of energy dependence of the reaction matrix is closely examined. (Auth.)

  15. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  16. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  17. Terahertz-dependent identification of simulated hole shapes in oil-gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ri-Ma; Zhan, Hong-Lei; Miao, Xin-Yang; Zhao, Kun; Feng, Cheng-Jing; Dong, Chen; Li, Yi-Zhang; Xiao, Li-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    Detecting holes in oil-gas reservoirs is vital to the evaluation of reservoir potential. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of identifying general micro-hole shapes, including triangular, circular, and square shapes, in oil-gas reservoirs by adopting terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). We evaluate the THz absorption responses of punched silicon (Si) wafers having micro-holes with sizes of 20 μm-500 μm. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to establish a model between THz absorbance and hole shapes. The positions of samples in three-dimensional spaces for three principal components are used to determine the differences among diverse hole shapes and the homogeneity of similar shapes. In addition, a new Si wafer with the unknown hole shapes, including triangular, circular, and square, can be qualitatively identified by combining THz-TDS and PCA. Therefore, the combination of THz-TDS with mathematical statistical methods can serve as an effective approach to the rapid identification of micro-hole shapes in oil-gas reservoirs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405259), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB744302), and the Specially Founded Program on National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development, China (Grant No. 2012YQ140005).

  18. Real-Time Observation of Ultrafast Intraband Relaxation and Exciton Multiplication in PbS Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala’a O.

    2014-03-19

    We examine ultrafast intraconduction band relaxation and multiple-exciton generation (MEG) in PbS quantum dots (QDs) using transient absorption spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. The intraconduction band relaxation can be directly and excellently resolved spectrally and temporally by applying broadband pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and detect the wavelengths around the exciton absorption peak, which is located in the near-infrared region. The time-resolved data unambiguously demonstrate that the intraband relaxation time progressively increases as the pump-photon energy increases. Moreover, the relaxation time becomes much shorter as the size of the QDs decreases, indicating the crucial role of spatial confinement in the intraband relaxation process. Additionally, our results reveal the systematic scaling of the intraband relaxation time with both excess energy above the effective energy band gap and QD size. We also assess MEG in different sizes of the QDs. Under the condition of high-energy photon excitation, which is well above the MEG energy threshold, ultrafast bleach recovery due to the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple electron-hole pairs provides conclusive experimental evidence for the presence of MEG. For instance, we achieved quantum efficiencies of 159, 129 and 106% per single-absorbed photon at pump photoexcition of three times the band gap for QDs with band gaps of 880 nm (1.41 eV), 1000 nm (1.24 eV) and 1210 nm (1.0 eV), respectively. These findings demonstrate clearly that the efficiency of transferring excess photon energy to carrier multiplication is significantly increased in smaller QDs compared with larger ones. Finally, we discuss the Auger recombination dynamics of the multiple electron-hole pairs as a function of QD size.

  19. Relaxed states with plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Taylor, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the theory of relaxation, a turbulent plasma reaches a state of minimum energy subject to constant magnetic helicity. In this state the plasma velocity is zero. Attempts have been made by introducing a number of different constraints, to obtain relaxed states with plasma flow. It is shown that these alternative constraints depend on two self-helicities, one for ions, and one for electrons. However, whereas there are strong arguments for the effective invariance of the original magnetic-helicity, these arguments do not apply to the self-helicities. Consequently the existence of relaxed states with flow remains in doubt. (author)

  20. The participant Coster-Kronig preceded Auger transition in the resonant L2,3-M2,3V Auger electron spectrum of Ti metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    The L 2,3 -M 2,3 V resonant Auger electron spectroscopy (RAES) spectrum of Ti metal measured by Le Fevre et al. [P. Le Fevre, J. Danger, H. Magnan, D. Chandesris, J. Jupille, S. Bourgeois, M.-A. Arrio, R. Gotter, A. Verdini, A. Morgante, Phys. Rev. B69 (2004) 155421] is analyzed in the light of relaxation and decay of the resonantly excited L 2,3 -hole states. The relaxation time of the resonantly excited L 2,3 -hole state to the fully relaxed (screened) one is much shorter than the L 2,3 -hole Auger decay time, whereas the participant Coster-Kronig (CK) decay time of the resonantly excited L 2 -hole state to the fully relaxed L 3 -hole state at the L 2 resonance is as short as the relaxation time of the resonantly excited L 2 -hole state to the fully relaxed one. The excited electron is predominantly either rapidly decoupled from the L 2,3 -hole decay or annihilated by the participant CK decay. Thus, near the L 2,3 edges the L 2,3 -M 2,3 V RAES spectral peak appears at constant kinetic energy. The L 2,3 -M 2,3 V RAES spectrum shows a normal L 2,3 -M 2,3 V Auger decay profile not modulated by the density of empty d states probed by the resonant excitation. Not only the relaxation time but also the participant CK decay time depends on photon energy because they depend on the density of empty d states probed by the resonant excitation. As a result, the L 2,3 X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectral line broadening depends on photon energy

  1. Correlation of carrier localization with relaxation time distribution and electrical conductivity relaxation in silver-nanoparticle-embedded moderately doped polypyrrole nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2014-02-01

    The electrical conductivity relaxation in moderately doped polypyrrole and its nanocomposites reinforced with different proportion of silver nanoparticles was investigated in both frequency and time domain. An analytical distribution function of relaxation times is constructed from the results obtained in the frequency domain formalism and is used to evaluate the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type decay function in the time domain. The thermal evolution of different relaxation parameters was analyzed. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity, estimated from the average conductivity relaxation time is observed to depend strongly on the nanoparticle loading and follows Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The extent of charge carrier localization calculated from the VRH mechanism is well correlated to the evidences obtained from the structural characterizations of different nanostructured samples.

  2. Potential thermoelectric performance of hole-doped Cu2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Parker, David; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J

    2013-01-01

    High thermoelectric performance in oxides requires stable conductive materials that have suitable band structures. Here we show, based on an analysis of the thermopower and related properties using first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory in the relaxation time approximation, that hole-doped Cu 2 O may be such a material. We find that hole-doped Cu 2 O has a high thermopower of above 200 μV K −1 even with doping levels as high as 5.2 × 10 20 cm −3 at 500 K, mainly attributed to the heavy valence bands of Cu 2 O. This is reminiscent of the cobaltate family of high-performance oxide thermoelectrics and implies that hole-doped Cu 2 O could be an excellent thermoelectric material if suitably doped. (paper)

  3. Global structure of exact scalar hairy dynamical black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,No. 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing, 100871 P.R. (China); Chen, Bin [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,No. 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing, 100871 P.R. (China); Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University, No. 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing, 100871 P.R. (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,No. 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing, 100871 P.R. (China); Lü, H. [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing, 100875 P.R. (China)

    2016-05-30

    We study the global structure of some exact scalar hairy dynamical black holes which were constructed in Einstein gravity either minimally or non-minimally coupled to a scalar field. We find that both the apparent horizon and the local event horizon (measured in luminosity coordinate) monotonically increase with the advanced time as well as the Vaidya mass. At late advanced times, the apparent horizon approaches the event horizon and gradually becomes future outer. Correspondingly, the space-time arrives at stationary black hole states with the relaxation time inversely proportional to the 1/(n−1) power of the final black hole mass, where n is the space-time dimension. These results strongly support the solutions describing the formation of black holes with scalar hair. We also obtain new charged dynamical solutions in the non-minimal theory by introducing an Maxwell field which is non-minimally coupled to the scalar. The presence of the electric charge strongly modifies the dynamical evolution of the space-time.

  4. Muon spin relaxation in ferromagnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.; Karlsson, E.B.

    1991-04-01

    Expressions for the dipolar and hyperfine contributions to the relaxation rate of muons implanted in a ferromagnet are presented and analysed using the Heisenberg model of spin-waves including dipolar and Zeeman energies. Calculations for EuO indicate that relaxation is likely to be dominated by the hyperfine mechanism, even if the ratio of the hyperfine and dipolar coupling constants is small. The hyperfine mechanism is sensitive to the dipolar energy of the atomic spins, whereas the dipolar mechanisms depend essentially on the exchange energy. For both mechanisms there is an almost quadratic dependence on temperature, throughout much of the ordered magnetic phase, which reflects two-spin-wave difference events from the Raman-type relaxation processes. (author)

  5. Relaxation of entangled model H-shaped polymers a SANS investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, M; Richter, D; Straube, E; Wiedenmann, A

    2002-01-01

    This study is related to the understanding of rheology of long-chain branched polymers. A model compound for long-chain branching (H-shaped architecture) was investigated in elongational flow as a function of time after a step strain to lambda=2. The experiments were performed in a strain rig with temperature and strain-rate control. The structure factor was measured after specific relaxation times intimately connected to the microscopic hierarchy of the polymer structure. The correlation hole effect and the quenched disorder in the scattering were described in a random phase approximation approach. This approach, already used for permanent rubber-elastic networks, has been modified to permit the observation of strain locally along the faster-relaxing arms. The data roughly follow the time scale of linear-shear rheology from which shift factors were derived. They confirm that bridge and arm relaxations can be treated in a decoupled, hierarchical way in time, although details of the analysis remain unsolved. (...

  6. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-10-04

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  7. Collisional relaxation of electron tail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Masao.

    1985-05-01

    Relaxation due to the Coulomb collisions of the electron velocity distribution function with a high energy tail is investigated in detail. In the course of the relaxation, a 'saddle' point can be created in velocity space owing to upsilon -3 dependence of the deflection rate and a positive slope or a 'dip' appears in the tail direction. The time evolution of the electron tail is studied analytically. A comparison is made with numerical results by using a Fokker-Planck code. Also discussed is the kinetic instability concerned with the positive slope during the relaxation. (author)

  8. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...

  9. Spin relaxation of iron in mixed state hemoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Kalinowski, H.J.; Bemski, G.; Helman, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    In pure states hemoproteins the relaxation of iron depends on its spin state. It is found that in both mixed state met-hemoglobin and met-myoglobin, the low and high spin states relax through an Orbach-like process. Also, very short (approx. 1 ns) and temperature independent transverse relaxation times T 2 were estimated. This peculiar behaviour of the relaxation may result from the unusual electronic structure of mixed state hemoproteins that allows thermal equilibrium and interconversion of the spin states. (Author) [pt

  10. Do stringy corrections stabilize colored black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    We consider hairy black hole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory, coupled to a Gauss-Bonnet curvature term, and we study their stability under small, spacetime-dependent perturbations. We demonstrate that stringy corrections do not remove the sphaleronic instabilities of colored black holes with the number of unstable modes being equal to the number of nodes of the background gauge function. In the gravitational sector and in the limit of an infinitely large horizon, colored black holes are also found to be unstable. Similar behavior is exhibited by magnetically charged black holes while the bulk of neutral black holes are proved to be stable under small, gauge-dependent perturbations. Finally, electrically charged black holes are found to be characterized only by the existence of a gravitational sector of perturbations. As in the case of neutral black holes, we demonstrate that for the bulk of electrically charged black holes no unstable modes arise in this sector. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Deriving the coronal hole electron temperature: electron density dependent ionization / recombination considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, John Gerard; Perez-Suarez, David; Singh, Avninda; Chapman, Steven; Bryans, Paul; Summers, Hugh; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of appropriate theoretically derived line ratios with observational data can yield estimates of a plasma's physical parameters, such as electron density or temperature. The usual practice in the calculation of the line ratio is the assumption of excitation by electrons/protons followed by radiative decay. Furthermore, it is normal to use the so-called coronal approximation, i.e. one only considers ionization and recombination to and from the ground-state. A more accurate treatment is to include ionization/recombination to and from metastable levels. Here, we apply this to two lines from adjacent ionization stages, Mg IX 368 A and Mg X 625 A, which has been shown to be a very useful temperature diagnostic. At densities typical of coronal hole conditions, the difference between the electron temperature derived assuming the zero density limit compared with the electron density dependent ionization/recombination is small. This, however, is not the case for flares where the electron density is orders of magnitude larger. The derived temperature for the coronal hole at solar maximum is around 1.04 MK compared to just below 0.82 MK at solar minimum.

  12. Interlayer electron-hole pair multiplication by hot carriers in atomic layer semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Fatemeh; Grossnickle, Max; Su, Shanshan; Lake, Roger; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel

    Two-dimensional heterostructures composed of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides provide the opportunity to design novel devices for the study of electron-hole pair multiplication. We report on highly efficient multiplication of interlayer electron-hole pairs at the interface of a tungsten diselenide / molybdenum diselenide heterostructure. Electronic transport measurements of the interlayer current-voltage characteristics indicate that layer-indirect electron-hole pairs are generated by hot electron impact excitation. Our findings, which demonstrate an efficient energy relaxation pathway that competes with electron thermalization losses, make 2D semiconductor heterostructures viable for a new class of hot-carrier energy harvesting devices that exploit layer-indirect electron-hole excitations. SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  13. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishveshwara, C.

    2006-01-01

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  14. F19 relaxation in non-magnetic hexafluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigny, P.

    1969-01-01

    The interesting properties of the fluorine magnetic resonance in the hexafluorides of molybdenum, tungsten and uranium, are very much due to large anisotropies of the chemical shift tensors. In the solid phases these anisotropies, the values of which are deduced from line shape studies, allow one to show that the molecules undergo hindered rotations about the metal atom. The temperature and frequency dependence of the fluorine longitudinal relaxation times shows that the relaxation is due to the molecular motion. The dynamical parameters of this motion are then deduced from the complete study of the fluorine relaxation in the rotating frame. In the liquid phases, the existence of anisotropies allows an estimation of the different contributions to the relaxation. In particular, the frequency and temperature dependence of the relaxation shows it to be dominated by the spin-rotation interaction. We have shown that the strength of this interaction can be deduced from the chemical shifts, and the angle through which the molecule rotates quasi-freely can be determined. In the hexafluorides, this angle is roughly one radian at 70 C, and with the help of this value, the friction coefficients which describe the intermolecular interactions are discussed. (author) [fr

  15. Vibrational relaxation of matrix-isolated CH3F and HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.

    1981-08-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on CH 3 F and HCl as a function of host matrix and temperature. Temporally and spectrally resolved infrared fluorescence was used to monitor the populations of both the initially excited state and the lower lying levels which participate in the relaxation process. For CH 3 F, relaxation from any of the levels near 3.5 μ, i.e. the CH stretching fundamentals or bend overtones, occurs via rapid ( 3 with subsequent relaxation of the ν 3 (CF stretch) manifold. Lifetimes of 2ν 3 and ν 3 were determined through overtone, ΔV = 2, and fundamental fluorescence. These lifetimes show a dramatic dependence on host lattice, an increase of two orders of magnitude in going from Xe and Ar matrices. Lifetimes depend only weakly on temperature. The relaxation of 2ν 3 and ν 3 is consistent with a model in which production of a highly rotationally excited guest via collisions with the repulsive wall of the host is the rate limiting step. For HCl, lifetimes of v = 1,2,3 have been determined. In all hosts, the relaxation is non-radiative. For a given vibrational state, v, the relaxation rate increases in the series k(Ar) < k(Kr) < k(Xe). The dependence of the relaxation rate; on v is superlinear in all matrices, the deviation from linearity increasng in the order Ar < Kr < Xe. The relaxation rates become more strongly temperature dependent with increasing vibrational excitation. The results are consistent with a mechanism in which complex formation introduces the anisotropy necessary to induce a near resonant V → R transition in the rate limiting step

  16. Selective optical switching of interface-coupled relaxation dynamics in carbon nanotube-Si heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Ponzoni, Stefano

    2014-10-16

    By properly tuning the photon energy of a femtosecond laser pump, we disentangle, in carbon nanotube-Si (CNT/Si) heterojunctions, the fast relaxation dynamics occurring in CNT from the slow repopulation dynamics due to hole charge transfer at the junction. In this way we are able to track the transfer of the photogenerated holes from the Si depletion layer to the CNT layer, under the action of the built-in heterojunction potential. This also clarifies that CNT play an active role in the junction and do not act only as channels for charge collection and transport.

  17. Selective optical switching of interface-coupled relaxation dynamics in carbon nanotube-Si heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Ponzoni, Stefano; Galimberti, Gianluca; Sangaletti, L.; Castrucci, Paola; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Morbidoni, Maurizio; Scarselli, Manuela A.; Pagliara, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    By properly tuning the photon energy of a femtosecond laser pump, we disentangle, in carbon nanotube-Si (CNT/Si) heterojunctions, the fast relaxation dynamics occurring in CNT from the slow repopulation dynamics due to hole charge transfer at the junction. In this way we are able to track the transfer of the photogenerated holes from the Si depletion layer to the CNT layer, under the action of the built-in heterojunction potential. This also clarifies that CNT play an active role in the junction and do not act only as channels for charge collection and transport.

  18. Effect of thallium impurity on hole scattering in lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdanov, V.I.; Nemov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hole mobility in PbTe monocrystalline specimens in the temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K has been investigated. Detected is a sharp increase in scattering cross section of light and heavy holes in the specimens having the Hall hole concentration p approximately (5+-9)x10 19 cm -3 explained by resonant scattering into a band of quasilocal states of thallium located lower than the ceiling of heavy carrier zone by 0.01+-0.01 eV. Very large differences in resonant scattering of current carriers into the quasilocal states of In and Tl in PbTe result from the inertial polarizability of a crystal. The same mechanism is used to explain long-lived relaxation of zone electron concentration in lead telluride and Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te doped with indium [ru

  19. Formation and relaxation processes of photoinduced defects in a Ge-doped SiO2 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Saito, K.; Ikushima, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The defect centers induced by ArF laser irradiation in Ge-doped SiO 2 have been investigated by the electron-spin resonance method. In order to observe formation and relaxation processes of the defects, step annealing has been carried out after the irradiation at 77 K. The thermally induced decay of the self-trapped hole (STH) and formation of the so-called Ge(2) centers have been observed with increasing temperature. The result suggests that the holes are transferred from the STH to the Ge(2)

  20. Polydatin Restores Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Rat Aorta Rings Impaired by High Glucose: A Novel Insight into the PPARβ-NO Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    Full Text Available Polydatin, a natural component from Polygonum Cuspidatum, has important therapeutic effects on metabolic syndrome. A novel therapeutic strategy using polydatin to improve vascular function has recently been proposed to treat diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. However, the biological role and molecular basis of polydatin's action on vascular endothelial cells (VECs-mediated vasodilatation under diabetes-related hyperglycemia condition remain elusive. The present study aimed to assess the contribution of polydatin in restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation and to determine the details of its underlying mechanism. By measuring endothelium-dependent relaxation, we found that acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was impaired by elevated glucose (55 mmol/L; however, polydatin (1, 3, 10 μmol/L could restore the relaxation in a dose-dependent manner. Polydatin could also improve the histological damage to endothelial cells in the thoracic aorta. Polydatin's effects were mediated via promoting the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, enhancing eNOS activity and decreasing the inducible NOS (iNOS level, finally resulting in a beneficial increase in NO release, which probably, at least in part, through activation of the PPARβ signaling pathway. The results provided a novel insight into polydatin action, via PPARβ-NO signaling pathways, in restoring endothelial function in high glucose conditions. The results also indicated the potential utility of polydatin to treat diabetes related cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Stress relaxation under cyclic electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, L.N.; Reznitskij, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of deformation process in a relaxating sample under 2 MeV electron cyclic irradiation was studied experimentally. The Al-Mg alloys with controllable and different (in dislocation density precipitate presence and their character) structure were used in experiments. It was established that after the beam was switched on the deformation rate increased sharply and then, during prolonged irradiation, in a gradual manner. After the switching-off the relaxation rate decreases by jumps up to values close to extrapolated rates of pre-radiation relaxation. The exhibition of these effects with radiation switching-off and switchin-on is dependent on the initial rate of thermal relaxation, the test temperature, the preliminary cold deformation and the dominating deformation dislocation mechanism. The preliminary cold deformation and test temperature elevation slightly decrease the effect of instantaneous relaxation acceleration with the irradiation switch-on. 17 refs., 5 figs

  2. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Anharmonic Phonon Relaxation Rate in Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation rate of phonon modes in the (10, 10) single wall carbon nanotube undergoing three-phonon interactions at various temperatures has been studied using both qualitative and quantitative approaches based upon Fermi's Golden Rule and a quasi-elastic continuum model for the anharmonic potential. For the quantitative calculations, dispersion relations for the phonon modes were obtained from analytic expressions developed by Zhang et al. The qualitative expressions were derived using simple linear phonon dispersions relations. We show that in the high temperature regime the relaxation rate varies linearly with temperature and with the square of the frequency. In the low temperature regime we show that the relaxation rate varies exponentially with the inverse of temperature. These results have some very interesting implifications for effects for mean free path and thermal conductivity calculations

  3. Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a σ-polarized D 1 -light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D 0 = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm 2 s -1 at 0 0 C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, σ/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10 -23 cm 2 ; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, σ/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10 -14 cm 2

  4. Relaxation behavior and dose dependence of radiation induced radicals in irradiated mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Kakita, Daisuke; Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2010-01-01

    Mangoes are imported to Japan after treated with hot water. Recently, irradiated mangoes imported to U. S. are widely used. This paper reports on the ESR method for analyzing the radiation induced radicals of irradiated mangoes. Upon the γ ray irradiation, a strong single peak in the flesh and skin of mangoes was observed at g=2.004. This singlet peak may be attributed to organic free radicals. The ESR spectra of the flesh and skin of mangoes showed the radiation induced radicals due to cellulose by irradiation over 12 kGy. The relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the singlet signal were calculated. T 2 showed dose response according to increasing the irradiation dose levels, while T 1 was almost constant. The value of (T 1 T 2 ) 1/2 showed the dependence of irradiation dose level. (author)

  5. Production of spinning black holes at colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. C.; Song, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    When the Planck scale is as low as TeV, there will be chances to produce Black holes at future colliders. Generally, black holes produced via particle collisions can have non-zero angular momenta. We estimate the production cross-section of rotating Black holes in the context of low energy gravitation theories by taking the effects of rotation into account. The production cross section is shown to be enhanced by a factor of 2 - 3 over the naive estimate σ = π ∼ R S 2 , where R S denotes the Schwarzschild radius of black hole for a given energy. We also point out that the decay spectrum may have a distinguishable angular dependence through the grey-body factor of a rotating black hole. The angular dependence of decaying particles may give a clear signature for the effect of rotating black holes.

  6. MEASURING THE LUMINOSITY AND VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS DEPENDENCE OF QUASAR–GALAXY CLUSTERING AT z ∼ 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolewski, Alex G.; Eisenstein, Daniel J., E-mail: akrolewski@college.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We study the dependence of quasar clustering on quasar luminosity and black hole mass by measuring the angular overdensity of photometrically selected galaxies imaged by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) about z ∼ 0.8 quasars from SDSS. By measuring the quasar–galaxy cross-correlation function and using photometrically selected galaxies, we achieve a higher density of tracer objects and a more sensitive detection of clustering than measurements of the quasar autocorrelation function. We test models of quasar formation and evolution by measuring the luminosity dependence of clustering amplitude. We find a significant overdensity of WISE galaxies about z ∼ 0.8 quasars at 0.2–6.4 h{sup −1} Mpc in projected comoving separation. We find no appreciable increase in clustering amplitude with quasar luminosity across a decade in luminosity, and a power-law fit between luminosity and clustering amplitude gives an exponent of −0.01 ± 0.06 (1 σ error). We also fail to find a significant relationship between clustering amplitude and black hole mass, although our dynamic range in true mass is suppressed due to the large uncertainties in virial black hole mass estimates. Our results indicate that a small range in host dark matter halo mass maps to a large range in quasar luminosity.

  7. MEASURING THE LUMINOSITY AND VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS DEPENDENCE OF QUASAR–GALAXY CLUSTERING AT z ∼ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolewski, Alex G.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dependence of quasar clustering on quasar luminosity and black hole mass by measuring the angular overdensity of photometrically selected galaxies imaged by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) about z ∼ 0.8 quasars from SDSS. By measuring the quasar–galaxy cross-correlation function and using photometrically selected galaxies, we achieve a higher density of tracer objects and a more sensitive detection of clustering than measurements of the quasar autocorrelation function. We test models of quasar formation and evolution by measuring the luminosity dependence of clustering amplitude. We find a significant overdensity of WISE galaxies about z ∼ 0.8 quasars at 0.2–6.4 h −1 Mpc in projected comoving separation. We find no appreciable increase in clustering amplitude with quasar luminosity across a decade in luminosity, and a power-law fit between luminosity and clustering amplitude gives an exponent of −0.01 ± 0.06 (1 σ error). We also fail to find a significant relationship between clustering amplitude and black hole mass, although our dynamic range in true mass is suppressed due to the large uncertainties in virial black hole mass estimates. Our results indicate that a small range in host dark matter halo mass maps to a large range in quasar luminosity

  8. Femtosecond tracking of carrier relaxation in germanium with extreme ultraviolet transient reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Christopher J.; Kraus, Peter M.; Ross, Andrew D.; Zürch, Michael; Cushing, Scott K.; Jager, Marieke F.; Chang, Hung-Tzu; Gullikson, Eric M.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2018-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient reflectivity around the germanium M4 ,5 edge (3 d core-level to valence transition) at 30 eV is advanced to obtain the transient dielectric function of crystalline germanium [100] on femtosecond to picosecond time scales following photoexcitation by broadband visible-to-infrared (VIS/NIR) pulses. By fitting the transient dielectric function, carrier-phonon induced relaxations are extracted for the excited carrier distribution. The measurements reveal a hot electron relaxation rate of 3.2 ±0.2 ps attributed to the X -L intervalley scattering and a hot hole relaxation rate of 600 ±300 fs ascribed to intravalley scattering within the heavy hole (HH) band, both in good agreement with previous work. An overall energy shift of the XUV dielectric function is assigned to a thermally induced band gap shrinkage by formation of acoustic phonons, which is observed to be on a timescale of 4-5 ps, in agreement with previously measured optical phonon lifetimes. The results reveal that the transient reflectivity signal at an angle of 66∘ with respect to the surface normal is dominated by changes to the real part of the dielectric function, due to the near critical angle of incidence of the experiment (66∘-70∘) for the range of XUV energies used. This work provides a methodology for interpreting XUV transient reflectivity near core-level transitions, and it demonstrates the power of the XUV spectral region for measuring ultrafast excitation dynamics in solids.

  9. Biexciton relaxation associated with dissociation into a surface polariton pair in semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Matsuura, Shimpei; Uchiyama, Shoichi; Saito, Kentarao; Edamatsu, Keiichi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Ajiki, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    We study the biexciton relaxation process in CuCl films ranging from 6 to 200 nm. The relaxation time is measured as the dephasing time and the lifetime. We observe a unique thickness dependence of the biexciton relaxation time and also obtain an ultrafast relaxation time with a timescale as short as 100 fs, while the exciton lifetime monotonically decreases with increasing thickness. By analyzing the exciton-photon coupling energy for a surface polariton, we theoretically calculate the biexciton relaxation time as a function of the thickness. The calculated dependence qualitatively reproduces the observed relaxation time, indicating that the biexciton dissociation into a surface polariton pair is one of the major biexciton relaxation processes.

  10. Black holes and the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse

  11. Black holes and the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  12. Relaxation oscillations induced by amplitude-dependent frequency in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Ware, A.S.; Newman, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear frequency shift in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence is shown to give rise to a relaxation oscillation in the saturated power density spectrum. A simple non-Markovian closure for the coupled evolution of ion momentum and electron density response is developed to describe the oscillations. From solutions of a nonlinear oscillator model based on the closure, it is found that the oscillation is driven by the growth rate, as modified by the amplitude-dependent frequency shift, with inertia provided by the memory of the growth rate of prior amplitudes. This memory arises from time-history integrals common to statistical closures. The memory associated with a finite time of energy transfer between coupled spectrum components does not sustain the oscillation in the simple model. Solutions of the model agree qualitatively with the time-dependent numerical solutions of the original dissipative trapped electron model, yielding oscillations with the proper phase relationship between the fluctuation energy and the frequency shift, the proper evolution of the wave number spectrum shape and particle flux, and a realistic period

  13. The contrasting roles of creep and stress relaxation in the time-dependent deformation during in-situ cooling of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D'Souza, Neil; Collins, David M; Bhowmik, Ayan

    2017-09-11

    Time dependent plastic deformation in a single crystal nickel-base superalloy during cooling from casting relevant temperatures has been studied using a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and modelling. Visco-plastic deformation during cooling was found to be dependent on the stress and constraints imposed to component contraction during cooling, which mechanistically comprises creep and stress relaxation. Creep results in progressive work hardening with dislocations shearing the γ' precipitates, a high dislocation density in the γ channels and near the γ/γ' interface and precipitate shearing. When macroscopic contraction is restricted, relaxation dominates. This leads to work softening from a decreased dislocation density and the presence of long segment stacking faults in γ phase. Changes in lattice strains occur to a similar magnitude in both the γ and γ' phases during stress relaxation, while in creep there is no clear monotonic trend in lattice strain in the γ phase, but only a marginal increase in the γ' precipitates. Using a visco-plastic law derived from in-situ experiments, the experimentally measured and calculated stresses during cooling show a good agreement when creep predominates. However, when stress relaxation dominates accounting for the decrease in dislocation density during cooling is essential.

  14. Influence of strain relaxation in axial {{In}}_{x}{{Ga}}_{1-x}{\\rm{N}}/{GaN} nanowire heterostructures on their electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Oliver; Krause, Thilo; Kaganer, Vladimir; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Hanke, Michael; Brandt, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the influence of elastic strain relaxation on the built-in electrostatic potentials and the electronic properties of axial {{In}}x{{Ga}}1-x{{N}}/{GaN} nanowire (NW) heterostructures. Our simulations reveal that for a sufficiently large ratio between the thickness of the {{In}}x{{Ga}}1-x{{N}} disk and the diameter of the NW, the elastic relaxation leads to a significant reduction of the built-in electrostatic potential in comparison to a planar system of similar layer thickness and In content. In this case, the ground state transition energies approach constant values with increasing thickness of the disk and only depend on the In content, a behavior usually associated to that of a quantum well free of built-in electrostatic potentials. We show that the structures under consideration are by no means field-free, and the built-in potentials continue to play an important role even for ultrathin NWs. In particular, strain and the resulting polarization potentials induce complex confinement features of electrons and holes, which depend on the In content, shape, and dimensions of the heterostructure.

  15. Adaptive under relaxation factor of MATRA code for the efficient whole core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Kim, S. J.; Seo, K. W.; Hwang, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    Such nonlinearities are handled in MATRA code using outer iteration with Picard scheme. The Picard scheme involves successive updating of the coefficient matrix based on the previously calculated values. The scheme is a simple and effective method for the nonlinear problem but the effectiveness greatly depends on the under-relaxing capability. Accuracy and speed of calculation are very sensitively dependent on the under-relaxation factor in outer-iteration updating the axial mass flow using the continuity equation. The under-relaxation factor in MATRA is generally utilized with a fixed value that is empirically determined. Adapting the under-relaxation factor to the outer iteration is expected to improve the calculation effectiveness of MATRA code rather than calculation with the fixed under-relaxation factor. The present study describes the implementation of adaptive under-relaxation within the subchannel code MATRA. Picard iterations with adaptive under-relaxation can accelerate the convergence for mass conservation in subchannel code MATRA. The most efficient approach for adaptive under relaxation appears to be very problem dependent

  16. Electron-hole pairing and anomalous properties of layered high-Tc compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efetov, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Band-structure pictures for layered high-T c materials available in the literature show that, besides the dispersive broad band responsible for metallic properties, there are at least two additional bands having minima and maxima near the Fermi surface. These additional bands belong to different planes (for example, CuO planes and BiO planes in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 ) or to planes and chains (in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ). Provided the Coulomb repulsion is not very weak, pairing of electrons and holes belonging to these additional bands in different planes or planes and chains is possible. It is shown that, if this possibility is realized, a transition in the additional bands into a state of an excitonic dielectric occurs. The spin of an electron-hole pair can be both 0 and 1. Due to the fact that the electron and the hole of the pair belong to different planes, there are no charge- or spin-density waves. This excitonic insulator can serve as a polarizing substance and give a strong attraction between electrons of the metallic band even if the bare interaction is repulsive. It is also shown that some interesting gapless excitations exist. Provided there are impurities in the system that scatter from plane to plane, these excitations are coupled to the electrons of the metallic band. This effective interaction can be described in terms of an effective mode P(ω) with ImP(ω)∼-sgnω. As a result, one can obtain such properties of the normal state as a linear dependence of the resistivity on temperature, linear dependence of the density of states on energy, constant background in the Raman-scattering intensity, large nuclear relaxation rate, etc., which are very well known from experiments

  17. Simulation of polarization-dependent film with subwavelength nano-hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Wei, Dong; Long, Huabao; Xin, Zhaowei; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    When lightwave passes through a metal thin film with a periodic subwavelength hole arrays structure, its transmittance is significantly improved in the partial band compared to other wavelength. Changing the size of the hole, the period or metal material, will make the transmission curve different. Here, we add a layer of dielectric material on the surface of the metal film, such as liquid crystal(LC), by controlling voltage on LC to change the refractive index of this layer, then we can change the transmission curve, and achieve using voltage to move the transmission curve. When there is need for polarization, the holes can be made of a rectangle whose length and width are different or other shapes, for different polarization state of the light, and the film will display different transmission characteristics.

  18. Relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhutayeva, Yu. R.; Khatipov, S. A.

    1999-05-01

    The paper suggests a relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in polymers. According to the model, the transfer of charges generated in the polymer volume by ionizing radiation takes place with the participation of molecular relaxation processes. The mechanism of electron transport consists in the transfer of the charge directly between traps when they draw close to one another due to the rotation of macromolecule segments. The numerical solutions of the corresponding kinetic equations for different distribution functions Q( τ) of the times of molecular relaxation and for different functions of the probability P( τ, τ') of charge transfer in the `overlapping' regions of the diffusion spheres of the segments are analyzed. The relaxation model provides an explanation of the non-Arrhenius behavior of the RIC temperature dependence, the power dependence of RIC on the dose rate with a power index in the interval 0.5-1.0, the appearance of maxima in the curves of the RIC temporal dependence and their irreversible character in the region of large dose rates (more than 1 Gy/s). The model can be used for interpreting polymer RIC in conditions of kinetic mobility of macromolecules.

  19. Electron Hole Plasma in Solids Induced by Ultrashort XUV Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rethfeld, B.; Medvedev, N.

    2013-01-01

    Irradiation of solids with ultrashort XUV laser pulses leads to an excitation of electrons from the valence band and deeper shells to the conduction band leading to a nonequilibrium highly energetic electron hole plasma. We investigate the transient electron dynamics in a solid semiconductor and metal (silicon and aluminum, respectively) under irradiation with a femtosecond VUV to XUV laser pulse as used in experiments with the Free Electron Laser FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. Applying the Asymptotical Trajectory Monte-Carlo technique, we obtain the transient energy distribution of the excited and ionized electrons within the solid. Photon absorption by electrons in different bands and secondary excitation and ionization processes are simulated event by event. The method was extended in order to take into account the electronic band structure and Pauli's principle for electrons in the conduction band. In this talk we review our results on the dynamics of the transient electron-hole plasma, in particular its transient density and energy distribution in dependence on laser and material parameters. For semiconductors we introduce the concept of an ''effective energy gap'' for collective electronic excitation, which can be applied to estimate the free electron density after high-intensity ultrashort XUV laser pulse irradiation. For aluminum we demonstrate that the electronic spectra depend on the relaxation kinetics of the excited electronic subsystem. Experimentally observed spectra of emitted photons from irradiated aluminum can be explained well with our results. (author)

  20. On the Volterra integral equation relating creep and relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderssen, R S; De Hoog, F R; Davies, A R

    2008-01-01

    The evolving stress–strain response of a material to an applied deformation is causal. If the current response depends on the earlier history of the stress–strain dynamics of the material (i.e. the material has memory), then Volterra integral equations become the natural framework within which to model the response. For viscoelastic materials, when the response is linear, the dual linear Boltzmann causal integral equations are the appropriate model. The choice of one rather than the other depends on whether the applied deformation is a stress or a strain, and the associated response is, respectively, a creep or a relaxation. The duality between creep and relaxation is known explicitly and is referred to as the 'interconversion equation'. Rheologically, its importance relates to the fact that it allows the creep to be determined from knowledge of the relaxation and vice versa. Computationally, it has been known for some time that the recovery of the relaxation from the creep is more problematic than the creep from the relaxation. Recent research, using discrete models for the creep and relaxation, has confirmed that this is an essential feature of interconversion. In this paper, the corresponding result is generalized for continuous models of the creep and relaxation

  1. Relaxation strain measurements in cellular dislocation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.Y.; Quesnel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The conventional picture of what happens during a stress relaxation usually involves imagining the response of a single dislocation to a steadily decreasing stress. The velocity of this dislocation decreases with decreasing stress in such a way that we can measure the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity. Analysis of the data from a different viewpoint enables us to calculate the apparent activation volume for the motion of the dislocation under the assumption of thermally activated glie. Conventional thinking about stress relaxation, however, does not consider the eventual fate of this dislocation. If the stress relaxes to a low enough level, it is clear that the dislocation must stop. This is consistent with the idea that we can determine the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity from relaxation data only for those cases where the dislocation's velocity is allowed to approach zero asymptotically, in short, for those cases where the dislocation never stops. This conflict poses a dilemma for the experimentalist. In real crystals, however, obstacles impede the dislocation's progress so that those dislocations which are stopped at a given stress will probably never resume motion under the influence of the steadily declining stress present during relaxation. Thus one could envision stress relaxation as a process of exhaustion of mobile dislocations, rather than a process of decreasing dislocation velocity. Clearly both points of view have merit and in reality both mechanisms contribute to the phenomena

  2. Temperature dependence of hole mobility in Mott insulators: Normal-state resistivity of high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the diffusion of a hole injected in a Mott insulator described by a one-band Hubbard Hamiltonian at half-filling and in the atomic limit. The diffusion coefficient turns out to be temperature independent exactly giving 1/T dependence for the drift mobility via the Einstein relation. This is in marked disagreement with the (1/T)/sup 1/2/ dependence obtaining in the self-retracing path approximation at low temperatures. We note the possible relevance of our result to the linear T dependence of the normal-state resistivity observed in the high-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors

  3. Relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wai Sum Li

    Full Text Available The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels.The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5' nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate.Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5' nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries.Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may not be related to

  4. On Electron Hole Evolution in Inhomogeneous Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzichev, I.; Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.

    2017-12-01

    Electron holes (EHs) are the stationary localized non-linear structures in phase space existing due to an electron population trapped within EH electrostatic potential. EHs were found to be a common phenomenon in the Earth's magnetosphere. Such structures were observed in reconnecting current sheets, injection fronts in the outer radiation belt, and in many other situations. EHs usually propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities about electron thermal velocity, are localized on the scale of about 4-10 Debye lengths, and have the field amplitude up to hundreds of mV/m. Generation of these structures, evolution, and their role in relaxation of instabilities and energy dissipation, particle energization, supporting large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. In this report, we present the results of 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of the EH evolution in plasmas with inhomogeneous magnetic field and inhomogeneous density. Our calculations show that the inhomogeneity has a critical effect on the EH dynamics. EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. During the deceleration of EH, the potential drop (weak double layer) along EH is generated. Such a potential drop might be experimentally observable even for single EH in the reconnecting current sheets. The same holds for the propagation in the plasma with inhomogeneous density. For some parameters of the system, the deceleration results in the turning of the hole. The interesting feature of this process is that the turning point depends only on the EH parameters, being independent of the average inhomogeneity scale. Our calculations also demonstrate the significant difference between "quasi-particle" concept and real evolution of the hole. Indeed, the EH is accelerated (decelerated) faster than it follows from a quasi-particle energy conservation law. It indicates

  5. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob

    Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  6. Holographic grating relaxation technique for soft matter science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesnichii, Vasilii, E-mail: vasilii.lesnichii@physchem.uni-freiburg.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Albertstraße 21, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Stefan-Meier-Str. 31, Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg im Breisgau 79104 (Germany); ITMO University, Kronverksky prospekt 49, Saint-Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Kiessling, Andy [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Albertstraße 21, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Stefan-Meier-Str. 31, Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg im Breisgau 79104 (Germany); Current address: Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 West 33rd Street, Chicago,IL60616 (United States); Bartsch, Eckhard [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Albertstraße 21, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Stefan-Meier-Str. 31, Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg im Breisgau 79104 (Germany); Veniaminov, Andrey, E-mail: veniaminov@phoi.ifmo.ru [ITMO University, Kronverksky prospekt 49, Saint-Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The holographic grating relaxation technique also known as forced Rayleigh scattering consists basically in writing a holographic grating in the specimen of interest and monitoring its diffraction efficiency as a function of time, from which valuable information on mass or heat transfer and photoinduced transformations can be extracted. In a more detailed view, the shape of the relaxation curve and the relaxation rate as a function of the grating period were found to be affected by the architecture of diffusing species (molecular probes) that constitute the grating, as well as that of the environment they diffuse in, thus making it possible to access and study spatial heterogeneity of materials and different modes of e.g., polymer motion. Minimum displacements and spatial domains approachable by the technique are in nanometer range, well below spatial periods of holographic gratings. In the present paper, several cases of holographic relaxation in heterogeneous media and complex motions are exemplified. Nano- to micro-structures or inhomogeneities comparable in spatial scale with holographic gratings manifest themselves in relaxation experiments via non-exponential decay (stepwise or stretched), spatial-period-dependent apparent diffusion coefficient, or unusual dependence of diffusion coefficient on molecular volume of diffusing probes.

  7. Black hole multiplicity at particle colliders (Do black holes radiate mainly on the brane?)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    If gravity becomes strong at the TeV scale, we may have the chance to produce black holes at particle colliders. In this Letter we revisit some phenomenological signatures of black hole production in TeV-gravity theories. We show that the bulk-to-brane ratio of black hole energy loss during the Hawking evaporation phase depends crucially on the black hole greybody factors and on the particle degrees of freedom. Since the greybody factors have not yet been calculated in the literature, and the particle content at trans-Planckian energies is not known, it is premature to claim that the black hole emits mainly on the brane. We also revisit the decay time and the multiplicity of the decay products of black hole evaporation. We give general formulae for black hole decay time and multiplicity. We find that the number of particles produced during the evaporation phase may be significantly lower than the average multiplicity which has been used in the past literature

  8. Conductivity of a spin-polarized two-dimensional hole gas at very low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlimi, S., E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Kaaouachi, A. El, E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Limouny, L., E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Sybous, A.; Narjis, A.; Errai, M.; Daoudi, E. [Research Group ESNPS , Physics department, University Ibn Zohr, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 8106, Hay Dakhla, 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Idrissi, H. El [Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Mohammedia, Département de physique. BP 146 Quartier Yasmina Mohammedia (Morocco); Zatni, A. [Laboratoire MSTI. Ecole de technologied' Agadir, B.P33/S Agadir (Morocco)

    2014-01-27

    In the ballistic regime where k{sub B}Tτ / ħ ≥1, the temperature dependence of the metallic conductivity in a two-dimensional hole system of gallium arsenide, is found to change non-monotonically with the degree of spin polarization. In particular, it fades away just before the onset of complete spin polarization, but reappears again in the fully spin-polarized state, being, however, suppressed relative to the zero magnetic field case. The analysis of the degree of suppression can distinguish between screening and interaction-based theories. We show that in a fully polarized spin state, the effects of disorder are dominant and approach a strong localization regime, which is contrary to the behavior of 2D electron systems in a weakly disordered unpolarized state. It was found that the elastic relaxation time correction, depending on the temperature, changed significantly with the degree of spin polarization, to reach a minimum just below the start of the spin-polarized integer, where the conductivity is practically independent of temperature.

  9. Relaxation of synchronization on complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong; Hong, Hyunsuk

    2008-07-01

    We study collective synchronization in a large number of coupled oscillators on various complex networks. In particular, we focus on the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization, which is important from the viewpoint of information transfer or the dynamics of system recovery from a perturbation. We measure the relaxation time tau that is required to establish global synchronization by varying the structural properties of the networks. It is found that the relaxation time in a strong-coupling regime (K>Kc) logarithmically increases with network size N , which is attributed to the initial random phase fluctuation given by O(N-1/2) . After elimination of the initial-phase fluctuation, the relaxation time is found to be independent of the system size; this implies that the local interaction that depends on the structural connectivity is irrelevant in the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization in the strong-coupling regime. The relaxation dynamics is analytically derived in a form independent of the system size, and it exhibits good consistency with numerical simulations. As an application, we also explore the recovery dynamics of the oscillators when perturbations enter the system.

  10. Instability of charged anti-de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Ro, Daeho

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the instability of charged anti-de Sitter black holes in four- or higher-dimensions under fragmentation. The unstable black holes under fragmentation can be broken into two black holes. Instability depends not only on the mass and charge of the black hole but also on the ratio between the fragmented black hole and its predecessor. We have found that the near extremal black holes are unstable, and Schwarzschild-AdS black holes are stable. These are qualitatively similar to black holes in four dimensions and higher. The detailed instabilities are numerically investigated.

  11. Spin-polarization dependent carrier recombination dynamics and spin relaxation mechanism in asymmetrically doped (110) n-GaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lihua; Jiang, Tianran; Wang, Xia; Lai, Tianshu

    2018-05-01

    Carrier recombination and electron spin relaxation dynamics in asymmetric n-doped (110) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells are investigated with time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy. The experiment results reveal that the measured carrier recombination time depends strongly on the polarization of pump pulse. With the same pump photon flux densities, the recombination time of spin-polarized carriers is always longer than that of the spin-balanced carriers except at low pump photon flux densities, this anomaly originates from the polarization-sensitive nonlinear absorption effect. Differing from the traditional views, in the low carrier density regime, the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) mechanism can be more important than the Bir-Aronov-Pikus (BAP) mechanism, since the DP mechanism takes effect, the spin relaxation time in (110) GaAs QWs is shortened obviously via asymmetric doping.

  12. Cross-relaxation in multiple pulse NQR spin-locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltjukov, P. A.; Kibrik, G. E. [Perm State University, Physics Department (Russian Federation); Furman, G. B., E-mail: gregoryf@bgu.ac.il; Goren, S. D. [Ben Gurion University, Physics Department (Israel)

    2008-01-15

    The experimental and theoretical NQR multiple-pulse spin locking study of cross-relaxation process in solids containing nuclei of two different sorts I > 1/2 and S = 1/2 coupled by the dipole-dipole interactions and influenced by an external magnetic field. Two coupled equations for the inverse spin temperatures of the both spin systems describing the mutual spin lattice relaxation and the cross-relaxation were obtained using the method of the nonequilibrium state operator. It is shown that the relaxation process is realized with non-exponential time dependence describing by a sum of two exponents. The cross relaxation time is calculated as a function of the multiple-pulse field parameters which agree with the experimental data. The calculated magnetization cross relaxation time vs the strength of the applied magnetic field agrees well with the obtained experimental data.

  13. Spin current relaxation time in thermally evaporated pentacene films

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Yasuo; Kondo, Takuya; Teki, Yoshio; Shikoh, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    The spin current relaxation time [tau] in thermally evaporated pentacene films was evaluated with the spin-pump-induced spin transport properties and the charge current transport properties in pentacene films. Under an assumption of a diffusive transport of the spin current in pentacene films, the zero-field mobility and the diffusion constant of holes in pentacene films were experimentally obtained to be ~8.0x10^-7 m^2/Vs and ~2.0x10^-8 m^2/s, respectively. Using those values and the previou...

  14. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation of the guinea pig fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Tey, Shu-Leei; Lee, Ming-Che; Liu, Ching-Wen; Su, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Shih-Che

    2018-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that can be isolated from plants and also is a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Impaired gastric accommodation plays an important role in functional dyspepsia and fundic relaxation and is a therapeutic target of functional dyspepsia. Although drugs for fundic relaxation have been developed, these types of drugs are still rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundus. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundus. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation on the guinea pig fundus by using tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channel blocker), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na + channel blocker), ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca 2+ channel blocker) and G-15 (a G-protein coupled estrogen receptor antagonist). The results of this study showed that resveratrol has potent and dose-dependent relaxant effects on the guinea pig fundic muscle. In addition, the results showed that resveratrol-induced relaxation of the guinea pig fundus occurs through nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundic muscle strips. Furthermore, resveratrol may be a potential drug to relieve gastrointestinal dyspepsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. GRAVITATIONAL ENCOUNTERS AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC NUCLEI. III. ANOMALOUS RELAXATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, David [Department of Physics and Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This paper is the third in a series presenting the results of direct numerical integrations of the Fokker–Planck equation for stars orbiting a supermassive black hole (SBH) at the center of a galaxy. The algorithm of Paper II included diffusion coefficients that described the effects of random (“classical”) and correlated (“resonant”) relaxation. In this paper, the diffusion coefficients of Paper II have been generalized to account for the effects of “anomalous relaxation,” the qualitatively different way in which eccentric orbits evolve in the regime of rapid relativistic precession. Two functional forms for the anomalous diffusion coefficients are investigated, based on power-law or exponential modifications of the resonant diffusion coefficients. The parameters defining the modified coefficients are first constrained by comparing the results of Fokker–Planck integrations with previously published N-body integrations. Steady-state solutions are then obtained via the Fokker–Planck equation for models with properties similar to those of the Milky Way nucleus. Inclusion of anomalous relaxation leads to the formation of less prominent cores than in the case of resonant relaxation alone, due to the lengthening of diffusion timescales for eccentric orbits. Steady-state capture rates of stars by the SBH are found to always be less than capture rates in the presence of resonant relaxation alone.

  16. GRAVITATIONAL ENCOUNTERS AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC NUCLEI. III. ANOMALOUS RELAXATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series presenting the results of direct numerical integrations of the Fokker–Planck equation for stars orbiting a supermassive black hole (SBH) at the center of a galaxy. The algorithm of Paper II included diffusion coefficients that described the effects of random (“classical”) and correlated (“resonant”) relaxation. In this paper, the diffusion coefficients of Paper II have been generalized to account for the effects of “anomalous relaxation,” the qualitatively different way in which eccentric orbits evolve in the regime of rapid relativistic precession. Two functional forms for the anomalous diffusion coefficients are investigated, based on power-law or exponential modifications of the resonant diffusion coefficients. The parameters defining the modified coefficients are first constrained by comparing the results of Fokker–Planck integrations with previously published N-body integrations. Steady-state solutions are then obtained via the Fokker–Planck equation for models with properties similar to those of the Milky Way nucleus. Inclusion of anomalous relaxation leads to the formation of less prominent cores than in the case of resonant relaxation alone, due to the lengthening of diffusion timescales for eccentric orbits. Steady-state capture rates of stars by the SBH are found to always be less than capture rates in the presence of resonant relaxation alone

  17. Star clusters containing massive, central black holes: evolution calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents a detailed, two-dimensional simulations of star cluster evolution. A Monte-Carlo method is adapted to simulate the development with time of isolated star clusters. Clusters which evolve on relaxation timescales with and without central black holes are treated. The method is flexible and rugged, rather than highly accurate. It treats the boundary conditions of stellar evaporation and tidal disruption by a central black hole in a precise, stochastic fashion. Dynamical cloning and renormalization and the use of a time-step adjustment algorithm enhance the feasibility of the method which simulates systems with wide ranges of intrinsic length and time scales. First, the method is applied to follow the development and core collapse of an initial Plummer-model cluster without a central black hole. Agreement of these results for early times with the results of previous authors serves as a verification of this method. Three calculations of cluster re-expansion, each beginning with the insertion of a black hole at the center of a highly collapsed cluster core is presented. Each case is characterized by a different value of initial black hole mass or black hole accretion efficiency for the consumption of debris from disrupted stars. It is found that for the special cases examined here substantial, but not catastrophic, growth of the central black hole may accompany core re-expansion. Also, the observability of the evolutionary phases associated with core collapse and re-expansion, constraints on x-ray sources which could be associated with growing black holes, and the observable signature of the cusp of stars surrounding a central black hole are discussed

  18. X-ray atomic scattering factors of low-Z ions with a core hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2007-01-01

    Short and intense x-ray pulses may be used for atomic-resolution diffraction imaging of single biological molecules. One of the dominant damage mechanisms is atomic ionization, resulting in a large fraction of atoms with core holes. We calculated the atomic scattering factor of atoms with atomic charge numbers between 3 and 10 in different ionization states with and without a core hole. Our results show that orbital occupation and the change of the orbitals upon core ionization (core relaxation) have a significant impact on the diffraction pattern

  19. Delayed electron relaxation in CdTe nanorods studied by spectral analysis of the ultrafast transient absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegel, I.; Scotognella, F.; Soavi, G.; Brescia, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.; Feldmann, J.; Lanzani, G.; Tassone, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the photophysics of CdTe nanorods by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy. • We fit photobleaching and photoinduced absorption features at all time delays. • Dynamics are extracted from superpositions of bleaches (Gaussians) and derivatives. • Fast non-radiative recombination and slower hole trapping processes are extracted. • A potential approach to unveil ultrafast non-radiative recombination processes. - Abstract: In transient absorption (TA) spectra, the bleach features originating from state filling are overlapped by their energy-shifted derivatives, arising from excited state energy level shifts. This makes the direct extraction of carrier dynamics from a single-wavelength time-trace misleading. Fitting TA spectra in time, as Gaussian functions and their derivative-like shifted Gaussians, allows to individually extract the real dynamics of both photobleached transitions, and their energy shifts. In CdTe nanorods (NRs) we found a delayed heating of holes due to the release of the large excess energy in the electron relaxation process. The slow hole-trapping process is consistent with a high number of surface trap states in these model NRs. Our results show that only a correct disentanglement of bleaching and energy shift contributions provides a reliable framework to extract the underlying carrier relaxation dynamics, including trapping, non-radiative recombination, and eventually carrier multiplication.

  20. Delayed electron relaxation in CdTe nanorods studied by spectral analysis of the ultrafast transient absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, I., E-mail: ilka.kriegel@iit.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Scotognella, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); CNST of IIT@POLIMI, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Soavi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Brescia, R. [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Rodríguez-Fernández, J.; Feldmann, J. [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Department of Physics and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80799 Munich (Germany); Lanzani, G., E-mail: guglielmo.lanzani@iit.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); CNST of IIT@POLIMI, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Tassone, F. [CNST of IIT@POLIMI, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-01

    Highlights: • We study the photophysics of CdTe nanorods by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy. • We fit photobleaching and photoinduced absorption features at all time delays. • Dynamics are extracted from superpositions of bleaches (Gaussians) and derivatives. • Fast non-radiative recombination and slower hole trapping processes are extracted. • A potential approach to unveil ultrafast non-radiative recombination processes. - Abstract: In transient absorption (TA) spectra, the bleach features originating from state filling are overlapped by their energy-shifted derivatives, arising from excited state energy level shifts. This makes the direct extraction of carrier dynamics from a single-wavelength time-trace misleading. Fitting TA spectra in time, as Gaussian functions and their derivative-like shifted Gaussians, allows to individually extract the real dynamics of both photobleached transitions, and their energy shifts. In CdTe nanorods (NRs) we found a delayed heating of holes due to the release of the large excess energy in the electron relaxation process. The slow hole-trapping process is consistent with a high number of surface trap states in these model NRs. Our results show that only a correct disentanglement of bleaching and energy shift contributions provides a reliable framework to extract the underlying carrier relaxation dynamics, including trapping, non-radiative recombination, and eventually carrier multiplication.

  1. Relaxivity of blood pool contrast agent depends on the host tissue as suggested by semianalytical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G

    Concentration of MRI contrast agents (CA) is commonly determined indirectly using their relaxation effect. In quantitative perfusion studies, the change in the relaxation following a bolus passage is converted into concentrations assuming identical relaxivities for tissue and blood. Simulations...

  2. Before Inflation and after Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Henry

    This dissertation covers work from three research projects relating to the physics before the start of inflation and information after the decay of a black hole. For the first project, we analyze the cosmological role of terminal vacua in the string theory landscape, and point out that existing work on this topic makes very strong assumptions about the properties of the terminal vacua. We explore the implications of relaxing these assumptions (by including "arrival" as well as "departure" terminals) and demonstrate that the results in earlier work are highly sensitive to their assumption of no arrival terminals. We use our discussion to make some general points about tuning and initial conditions in cosmology. The second project is a discussion of the black hole information problem. Under certain conditions the black hole information puzzle and the (related) arguments that firewalls are a typical feature of black holes can break down. We first review the arguments of Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) favoring firewalls, focusing on entanglements in a simple toy model for a black hole and the Hawking radiation. By introducing a large and inaccessible system entangled with the black hole (representing perhaps a de Sitter stretched horizon or inaccessible part of a landscape) we show complementarity can be restored and firewalls can be avoided throughout the black hole's evolution. Under these conditions black holes do not have an "information problem". We point out flaws in some of our earlier arguments that such entanglement might be generically present in some cosmological scenarios, and call out certain ways our picture may still be realized. The third project also examines the firewall argument. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and

  3. Soft hair of dynamical black hole and Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chong-Sun; Koyama, Yoji

    2018-04-01

    Soft hair of black hole has been proposed recently to play an important role in the resolution of the black hole information paradox. Recent work has emphasized that the soft modes cannot affect the black hole S-matrix due to Weinberg soft theorems. However as soft hair is generated by supertranslation of geometry which involves an angular dependent shift of time, it must have non-trivial quantum effects. We consider supertranslation of the Vaidya black hole and construct a non-spherical symmetric dynamical spacetime with soft hair. We show that this spacetime admits a trapping horizon and is a dynamical black hole. We find that Hawking radiation is emitted from the trapping horizon of the dynamical black hole. The Hawking radiation has a spectrum which depends on the soft hair of the black hole and this is consistent with the factorization property of the black hole S-matrix.

  4. Measuring the spins of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou, Lijun; Kulkarni, Akshay; Penna, Robert F; Steiner, James F; Davis, Shane W; Orosz, Jerome A; Remillard, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    A typical galaxy is thought to contain tens of millions of stellar-mass black holes, the collapsed remnants of once massive stars, and a single nuclear supermassive black hole. Both classes of black holes accrete gas from their environments. The accreting gas forms a flattened orbiting structure known as an accretion disk. During the past several years, it has become possible to obtain measurements of the spins of the two classes of black holes by modeling the x-ray emission from their accretion disks. Two methods are employed, both of which depend upon identifying the inner radius of the accretion disk with the innermost stable circular orbit, whose radius depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. In the Fe Kα method, which applies to both classes of black holes, one models the profile of the relativistically broadened iron line with a special focus on the gravitationally redshifted red wing of the line. In the continuum-fitting (CF) method, which has so far only been applied to stellar-mass black holes, one models the thermal x-ray continuum spectrum of the accretion disk. We discuss both methods, with a strong emphasis on the CF method and its application to stellar-mass black holes. Spin results for eight stellar-mass black holes are summarized. These data are used to argue that the high spins of at least some of these black holes are natal, and that the presence or absence of relativistic jets in accreting black holes is not entirely determined by the spin of the black hole.

  5. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongling [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Bo, Maolin [Yangtze Normal University, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Chongqing 408100 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Liu, Yonghui [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Sun, Chang Q. [NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O{sup 2−} lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta{sup +} electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta{sup +}; the sp{sup 3}-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent

  6. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yongling; Bo, Maolin; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yonghui; Sun, Chang Q.; Huang, Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O"2"− lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta"+ electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta"+; the sp"3-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent insight into the

  7. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, A.M., E-mail: pan@bgu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Sergeev, N.A. [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Interpretation of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation data in the carbon nanostructures is usually based on the analysis of fluctuations of dipole-dipole interactions of nuclear spins and anisotropic electron-nuclear interactions responsible for chemical shielding, which are caused by molecular dynamics. However, many nanocarbon systems such as fullerene and nanotube derivatives, nanodiamonds and carbon onions reveal noticeable amount of paramagnetic defects with unpaired electrons originating from dangling bonds. The interaction between nuclear and electron spins strongly influences the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, but usually is not taken into account, thus the relaxation data are not correctly interpreted. Here we report on the temperature dependent NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation measurements of intercalated fullerenes C{sub 60}(MF{sub 6}){sub 2} (M=As and Sb), where nuclear relaxation is caused by both molecular rotation and interaction between nuclei and unpaired electron spins. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the spin-lattice relaxation data taking into account both these contributions. Good agreement between the experimental data and calculations is obtained. The developed approach would be useful in interpreting the NMR relaxation data in different nanostructures and their intercalation compounds.

  8. Dynamic study of a compressed electron layer during the hole-boring stage in a sharp-front laser interaction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the dynamics of a compressed electron layer (CEL when a circularly polarized laser pulse with a sharp front irradiates a high-density foil. A time-dependent model for CEL motion during the hole-boring stage is proposed to describe details of the interaction for any shape of laser pulse. The opacity case, where the laser pulse is totally reflected, is investigated using this model. The results obtained are consistent with the results from particle-in-cell (PIC simulations. A relaxation distance determined by the laser-front steepness is necessary to build a stable CEL state before ions rejoin into the CEL. For the transparent case, the laser-front steepness is important for the formation of the stable CEL state at the back surface of the target. Considering the motion of ions, both the CEL and ion dynamics are important to rebalance the laser pressure and electrostatic charge-separation force as the hole-boring stage changes to the light-sail stage.

  9. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  10. β-adrenergic relaxation of smooth muscle: differences between cells and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheid, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were carried out in an attempt to resolve the controversy about the Na + dependence of β-adrenergic relaxation in smooth muscle. Previous studies on isolated smooth muscle cells from the toad stomach had suggested that at least some of the actions of β-adrenergic agents, including a stimulatory effect on 45 Ca efflux, were dependent on the presence of a normal transmembrane Na + gradient. Studies by other investigators using tissues derived from mammalian sources had suggested that the relaxing effect of β-adrenergic agents was Na + independent. Uncertainty remained as to whether these discrepancies reflected differences between cells and tissues or differences between species. Thus, in the present studies, the authors utilized both tissues and cells from the same source, the stomach muscle of the toad Bufo marinus, and assessed the Na + dependence of β-adrenergic relaxation. They found that elimination of a normal Na + gradient abolished β-adrenergic relaxation of isolated cells. In tissues, however, similar manipulations had no effect on relaxation. The reasons for this discrepancy are unclear but do not appear to be attributable to changes in smooth muscle function following enzymatic dispersion. Thus the controversy concerning the mechanisms of β-adrenergic relaxation may reflect inherent differences between tissues and cells

  11. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RELAXATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEED LECITHIN

    OpenAIRE

    Lisovaya E. V.; Victorova E. P.; Agafonov O. S.; Kornen N. N.; Shahray T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comparative assessment and peculiarities of nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of rapeseed and sunflower lecithin. It was established, that lecithin’s nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, namely, protons’ spin-spin relaxation time and amplitudes of nuclear magnetic relaxation signals of lecithin components, depend on content of oil’s fat acids and phospholipids, contained in the lecithin. Comparative assessment of protons’ spin-spin relaxation time of r...

  12. Effect of prolonged incubation with copper on endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat isolated aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alberto; Pitari, Giovanni Mario; Costa, Rosa; Ferrante, Margherita; Villari, Loredana; Amico-Roxas, Matilde; Godfraind, Théophile; Bianchi, Alfredo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effects of prolonged exposure to copper (Cu2+) on vascular functioning of isolated rat aorta. Aortic rings were exposed to CuSO4 (3–24 h) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with or without 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and then challenged with vasoconstrictors or vasodilators in the absence of Cu2+. Exposure to 2 μM Cu2+ in the absence of FBS did not modify the response to phenylephrine (PE) or acetylcholine (ACh) in aortic rings incubated for 24 h. Identical exposure in the presence of FBS increased the contractile response to 1 μM PE by 30% (P<0.05) and impaired the relaxant response to 3 μM ACh or 1 μM A23187 (ACh, from 65.7±7.1 to 6.2±1.1%, n=8; A23187, from 74.6±8.2 to 12.0±0.8%, n=6; P<0.01 for both). Cu2+ exposure did not affect the relaxant response to NO-donors. Impairment of vasorelaxation appeared 3 h after incubation with 2 μM Cu2+ and required 12 h to attain a steady state. Vasorelaxation to ACh was partially restored by 1 mM tiron (intracellular scavenger of superoxide ions; maximum relaxation 34.2±6.4%, n=10, P<0.01 vs Cu2+ alone), whereas catalase, superoxide dismutase or cycloheximide were ineffective. Twenty-four hour-exposure to 2 μM Cu2+ did not affect endothelium integrity or eNOS expression, and increased the Cu content in arterial rings from 6.8±1.1 to 18.9±2.9 ng mg−1 wet weight, n=8; P<0.01. Our results show that, in the presence of FBS, prolonged exposure to submicromolar concentrations of Cu2+ impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings, probably through an intracellular generation of superoxide ions. PMID:12163352

  13. Perinatal development influences mechanisms of bradykinin-induced relaxations in pulmonary resistance and conduit arteries differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, P J; Deutsch, J; Gao, B; Haworth, S G

    2001-07-01

    As bradykinin (BYK) relaxes conduit (EPA) and resistance (RPA) pulmonary arteries from both perinatal and adult lungs, we investigated whether this vasodilator's relaxation-mechanisms were altered during perinatal development, differed between EPA and RPA and differed with other endothelium-dependent vasodilators, acetyicholine (ACH) and substance P (SP). Arteries from mature foetal (5 days), neonatal (approximately 5 min), newborn (60-84 h) and adult pigs (> or =6 months) were isolated, mounted for in vitro isometric force recording, activated with PGF(2alpha) (30 micromol/l) and relaxed with BYK (10 pmol/l-1 micromol/l), SP (10 pmol/l-0.1 micromol/l) or ACH (1 nmol/l-1 mmol/l). (i) BYK: L-NAME (100 micromol/l) attenuated relaxations in foetal EPA ( approximately 55%) but nearly abolished them in the adult ( approximately 80%). In RPA, L-NAME nearly abolished ( approximately 90%) relaxations in the foetus and this effect diminished progressively with age to approximately 20% in the adult. Indomethacin (IND, micromol/l) attenuated relaxations in neonatal (approximately 25%), new-born and adult EPA (both approximately 45%). Together, L-NAME and IND abolished relaxations in all EPA and in neonatal RPA but not in older RPA. SKF525a (100 micromol/l) attenuated relaxations in foetal RPA ( approximately 4%), diminishing in the adult RPA to approximately 10%. Together, SKF52Sa and L-NAME largely abolished relaxations in postnatal RPA (approximately 80%). Activation with K(+)=125 mmol/l attenuated relaxations in adult EPA (approximately 80%), foetal RPA ( approximately 45%) and neonatal RPA (approximately 75%) and abolished relaxations in RPA from older ages. (ii) ACH: L-NAME abolished relaxations in new-born EPA and RPA. In adult EPA, combined L-NAME and IND moderately attenuated relaxations. (iii) SP: Combined application of L-NAME and IND attenuated relaxations to a similar degree in new-born and adult EPA and RPA. In postnatal EPA, BYK-relaxations depend completely on

  14. Self-gravitating black hole scalar wigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    It has long been known that no static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat Klein-Gordon scalar field configuration surrounding a nonrotating black hole can exist in general relativity. In a series of previous papers, we proved that, at the effective level, this no-hair theorem can be circumvented by relaxing the staticity assumption: for appropriate model parameters, there are quasibound scalar field configurations living on a fixed Schwarzschild background which, although not being strictly static, have a larger lifetime than the age of the universe. This situation arises when the mass of the scalar field distribution is much smaller than the black hole mass, and following the analogies with the hair in the literature we dubbed these long-lived field configurations wigs. Here we extend our previous work to include the gravitational backreaction produced by the scalar wigs. We derive new approximate solutions of the spherically symmetric Einstein-Klein-Gordon system which represent self-gravitating scalar wigs surrounding black holes. These configurations interpolate between boson star configurations and Schwarzschild black holes dressed with the long-lived scalar test field distributions discussed in previous papers. Nonlinear numerical evolutions of initial data sets extracted from our approximate solutions support the validity of our approach. Arbitrarily large lifetimes are still possible, although for the parameter space that we analyze in this paper they seem to decay faster than the quasibound states. Finally, we speculate about the possibility that these configurations could describe the innermost regions of dark matter halos.

  15. Composition effect of potassium-borate glasses on their relaxation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomovskoj, V.A.; Bartenev, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Relaxation processes in potassium-borate glasses have been investigated in detail for the first time. It is shown that low-temperature β-process of relaxation relating to rotational mobility of the B-O bond is the same for all potassium-borate glasses and B 2 O 3 . The process of β k -relaxation related to diffusion mobility of potassium ions depends on the composition of the glasses in the same way as α-relaxation (glass formation).12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  16. STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-04-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.

  17. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  18. SECULAR STELLAR DYNAMICS NEAR A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madigan, Ann-Marie; Hopman, Clovis; Levin, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The angular momentum evolution of stars close to massive black holes (MBHs) is driven by secular torques. In contrast to two-body relaxation, where interactions between stars are incoherent, the resulting resonant relaxation (RR) process is characterized by coherence times of hundreds of orbital periods. In this paper, we show that all the statistical properties of RR can be reproduced in an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. We use the ARMA model, calibrated with extensive N-body simulations, to analyze the long-term evolution of stellar systems around MBHs with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that for a single-mass system in steady state, a depression is carved out near an MBH as a result of tidal disruptions. Using Galactic center parameters, the extent of the depression is about 0.1 pc, of similar order to but less than the size of the observed 'hole' in the distribution of bright late-type stars. We also find that the velocity vectors of stars around an MBH are locally not isotropic. In a second application, we evolve the highly eccentric orbits that result from the tidal disruption of binary stars, which are considered to be plausible precursors of the 'S-stars' in the Galactic center. We find that RR predicts more highly eccentric (e > 0.9) S-star orbits than have been observed to date.

  19. Secular Stellar Dynamics near a Massive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Ann-Marie; Hopman, Clovis; Levin, Yuri

    2011-09-01

    The angular momentum evolution of stars close to massive black holes (MBHs) is driven by secular torques. In contrast to two-body relaxation, where interactions between stars are incoherent, the resulting resonant relaxation (RR) process is characterized by coherence times of hundreds of orbital periods. In this paper, we show that all the statistical properties of RR can be reproduced in an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. We use the ARMA model, calibrated with extensive N-body simulations, to analyze the long-term evolution of stellar systems around MBHs with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that for a single-mass system in steady state, a depression is carved out near an MBH as a result of tidal disruptions. Using Galactic center parameters, the extent of the depression is about 0.1 pc, of similar order to but less than the size of the observed "hole" in the distribution of bright late-type stars. We also find that the velocity vectors of stars around an MBH are locally not isotropic. In a second application, we evolve the highly eccentric orbits that result from the tidal disruption of binary stars, which are considered to be plausible precursors of the "S-stars" in the Galactic center. We find that RR predicts more highly eccentric (e > 0.9) S-star orbits than have been observed to date.

  20. Electronic correlations in the hole-doped superconductor RbFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} probed via {sup 75}As NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molatta, S.; Wosnitza, J. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); DFG, GRK-1621 (Germany); Zhang, Z.; Dmytriieva, D.; Kuehne, H. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Khim, S.; Grafe, H.J. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, S.; Buechner, B. [TU Dresden (Germany); DFG, GRK-1621 (Germany); IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We will present latest {sup 75}As NMR data in the normal state of the stoichiometric superconductor RbFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. This will be put into context to known results for the heavily hole-doped compound KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The static and dynamic magnetic correlations were probed via measurements of the Knight shift and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in a wide temperature range from 0.3 to 300 K. Although neither a magnetic nor a structural transition were observed down to lowest temperatures, the very close proximity of the ground state to a magnetic instability is indicated by a pronounced Curie-Weiss-like behavior of spin fluctuations. At around 100 K, we find a maximum of the Knight shift and a changing exponent of the temperature-dependent relaxation rate. This is phenomenologically similar to the case of KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and was proposed to stem from a incoherence-coherence crossover mechanism of electronic correlations.

  1. Empty black holes, firewalls, and the origin of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravani, Mehdi; Afshordi, Niayesh; Mann, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel solution for the endpoint of gravitational collapse, in which spacetime ends (and is orbifolded) at a microscopic distance from black hole event horizons. This model is motivated by the emergence of singular event horizons in the gravitational aether theory, a semiclassical solution to the cosmological constant problem(s) and thus suggests a catastrophic breakdown of general relativity close to black hole event horizons. A similar picture emerges in fuzzball models of black holes in string theory, as well as the recent firewall proposal to resolve the information paradox. We then demonstrate that positing a surface fluid in thermal equilibrium with Hawking radiation, with vanishing energy density (but nonvanishing pressure) at the new boundary of spacetime, which is required by Israel junction conditions, yields a thermodynamic entropy that is identical to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law, SBH, for charged rotating black holes. To our knowledge, this is the first derivation of black hole entropy that only employs local thermodynamics. Furthermore, a model for the microscopic degrees of freedom of the surface fluid (which constitute the microstates of the black hole) is suggested, which has a finite, but Lorentz-violating, quantum field theory. Finally, we comment on the effects of physical boundary on Hawking radiation and show that relaxing the assumption of equilibrium with Hawking radiation sets SBH as an upper limit for Black Hole entropy.

  2. Aging of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation in the glass-forming liquids sorbitol and xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Leheny, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Employing frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility we characterize the aging in two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibility of both liquids possesses a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench through the glass transition, the susceptibility slowly approaches the equilibrium behavior. For both liquids, the magnitude of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation displays a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is quantitatively very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak frequency. The Johari-Goldstein relaxation time remains constant during aging for sorbitol while it decreases slightly with age for xylitol. Hence, one cannot sensibly assign a fictive temperature to the Johari-Goldstein relaxation. This behavior contrasts with that of liquids lacking distinct Johari-Goldstein peaks for which the excess wing of the alpha peak tracks the main part of the peak during aging, enabling the assignment of a single fictive temperature to the entire spectrum. The aging behavior of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation time further calls into question the possibility that the relaxation time possesses stronger temperature dependence in equilibrium than is observed in the out-of-equilibrium state below the glass transition.

  3. NMR relaxation dispersion of Miglyol molecules confined inside polymeric micro-capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechifor, Ruben; Ardelean, Ioan; Mattea, Carlos; Stapf, Siegfried; Bogdan, Mircea

    2011-11-01

    Frequency dependent NMR relaxation studies have been carried out on Miglyol molecules confined inside core shell polymeric capsules to obtain a correlation between capsule dimension and the measurable parameters. The polymeric capsules were prepared using an interfacial polymerization technique for three different concentrations of Miglyol. It was shown that the variation of Miglyol concentration influences the capsule dimension. Their average size was estimated using the pulsed field gradient diffusometry technique. The relaxation dispersion curves were obtained at room temperature by a combined use of a fast field cycling instrument and a high-field instrument. The frequency dependence of relaxation rate shows a transition from a diffusion-limited to a surface-limited relaxation regime. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Numerical simulation of residual stresses at holes near edges and corners in tempered glass: A parametric study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourmoghaddam, Navid; Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Schneider, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This work presents 3D results of the thermal tempering simulation by the Finite Element Method in order to calculate the residual stresses in the area of the holes near edges and corners of a tem-pered glass plate. A viscoelastic material behavior of the glass is considered for the tempering...... process. The structural relaxation is taken into account using Narayanaswamy’s model. The motiva-tion for this work is to study the effect of the reduction of the hole and edge minimum distances, which are defined according to EN 12150-1. It is the objective of the paper to demonstrate and elucidate...... the influence of the hole and edge distances on the minimal residual compressive stress-es at holes after the tempering process. The residual stresses in the area of the holes are calculat-ed varying the following parameters: the hole diameter, the plate thickness and the interaction between holes and edges...

  5. Increased CEST specificity for amide and fast-exchanging amine protons using exchange-dependent relaxation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Junzhong; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang

    2018-02-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of amides at 3.5 ppm and fast-exchanging amines at 3 ppm provides a unique means to enhance the sensitivity of detection of, for example, proteins/peptides and neurotransmitters, respectively, and hence can provide important information on molecular composition. However, despite the high sensitivity relative to conventional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in practice, CEST often has relatively poor specificity. For example, CEST signals are typically influenced by several confounding effects, including direct water saturation (DS), semi-solid non-specific magnetization transfer (MT), the influence of water relaxation times (T 1w ) and nearby overlapping CEST signals. Although several editing techniques have been developed to increase the specificity by removing DS, semi-solid MT and T 1w influences, it is still challenging to remove overlapping CEST signals from different exchanging sites. For instance, the amide proton transfer (APT) signal could be contaminated by CEST effects from fast-exchanging amines at 3 ppm and intermediate-exchanging amines at 2 ppm. The current work applies an exchange-dependent relaxation rate (R ex ) to address this problem. Simulations demonstrate that: (1) slowly exchanging amides and fast-exchanging amines have distinct dependences on irradiation powers; and (2) R ex serves as a resonance frequency high-pass filter to selectively reduce CEST signals with resonance frequencies closer to water. These characteristics of R ex provide a means to isolate the APT signal from amines. In addition, previous studies have shown that CEST signals from fast-exchanging amines have no distinct features around their resonance frequencies. However, R ex gives Lorentzian lineshapes centered at their resonance frequencies for fast-exchanging amines and thus can significantly increase the specificity of CEST imaging for amides and fast-exchanging amines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  6. Composition-dependent hot carrier relaxation dynamics in cesium lead halide (CsPbX{sub 3}, X=Br and I) perovskite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Heejae; Jung, Seok Il; Kim, Hyo Jin; Cha, Wonhee; Sim, Eunji; Kim, Dongho [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Weon-Kyu [Device Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiwon [School of Integrated Technology and Underwood International College, Yonsei University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-03

    Cesium-based perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have outstanding photophysical properties improving the performances of lighting devices. Fundamental studies on excitonic properties and hot-carrier dynamics in perovskite NCs further suggest that these materials show higher efficiencies compared to the bulk form of perovskites. However, the relaxation rates and pathways of hot-carriers are still being elucidated. By using ultrafast transient spectroscopy and calculating electronic band structures, we investigated the dependence of halide in Cs-based perovskite (CsPbX{sub 3} with X=Br, I, or their mixtures) NCs on the hot-carrier relaxation processes. All samples exhibit ultrafast (<0.6 ps) hot-carrier relaxation dynamics with following order: CsPbBr{sub 3} (310 fs)>CsPbBr{sub 1.5}I{sub 1.5} (380 fs)>CsPbI{sub 3} NC (580 fs). These result accounts for a reduced light emission efficiency of CsPbI{sub 3} NC compared to CsPbBr{sub 3} NC. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Molecular order and T1-relaxation, cross-relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Derek

    2018-05-01

    Interpretation of saturation-recovery EPR experiments on nitroxide spin labels whose angular rotation is restricted by the orienting potential of the environment (e.g., membranes) currently concentrates on the influence of rotational rates and not of molecular order. Here, I consider the dependence on molecular ordering of contributions to the rates of electron spin-lattice relaxation and cross relaxation from modulation of N-hyperfine and Zeeman anisotropies. These are determined by the averages and , where θ is the angle between the nitroxide z-axis and the static magnetic field, which in turn depends on the angles that these two directions make with the director of uniaxial ordering. For saturation-recovery EPR at 9 GHz, the recovery rate constant is predicted to decrease with increasing order for the magnetic field oriented parallel to the director, and to increase slightly for the perpendicular field orientation. The latter situation corresponds to the usual experimental protocol and is consistent with the dependence on chain-labelling position in lipid bilayer membranes. An altered dependence on order parameter is predicted for saturation-recovery EPR at high field (94 GHz) that is not entirely consistent with observation. Comparisons with experiment are complicated by contributions from slow-motional components, and an unexplained background recovery rate that most probably is independent of order parameter. In general, this analysis supports the interpretation that recovery rates are determined principally by rotational diffusion rates, but experiments at other spectral positions/field orientations could increase the sensitivity to order parameter.

  8. Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Rachwał, Lesław [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Porey, Shiladitya, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: lmodesto@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: shilp@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rachwal@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, 208016 Kanpur (India)

    2017-09-01

    We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.

  9. Agmatine induced NO dependent rat mesenteric artery relaxation and its impairment in salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Tushar V; Cortes, Natalie; Madrasi, Kumpal; Tsoukias, Nikolaos M; Joshi, Mahesh S

    2013-11-30

    l-Arginine and its decarboxylated product, agmatine are important mediators of NO production and vascular relaxation. However, the underlying mechanisms of their action are not understood. We have investigated the role of arginine and agmatine in resistance vessel relaxation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Second or 3rd-order mesenteric arterioles were cannulated in an organ chamber, pressurized and equilibrated before perfusing intraluminally with agonists. The vessel diameters were measured after mounting on the stage of a microscope fitted with a video camera. The gene expression in Dahl rat vessel homogenates was ascertained by real-time PCR. l-Arginine initiated relaxations (EC50, 5.8±0.7mM; n=9) were inhibited by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor, difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) (EC50, 18.3±1.3mM; n=5) suggesting that arginine-induced vessel relaxation was mediated by agmatine formation. Agmatine relaxed the SD rat vessels at significantly lower concentrations (EC50, 138.7±12.1μM; n=22), which was compromised by l-NAME (l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, an eNOS inhibitor), RX821002 (α-2 AR antagonist) and pertussis toxin (G-protein inhibitor). The agmatine-mediated vessel relaxation from high salt Dahl rats was abolished as compared to that from normal salt rats (EC50, 143.9±23.4μM; n=5). The α-2A AR, α-2B AR and eNOS mRNA expression was downregulated in mesenteric arterioles of high-salt treated Dahl hypertensive rats. These findings demonstrate that agmatine facilitated the relaxation via activation of α-2 adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor and NO synthesis, and this pathway is compromised in salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hole burning with pressure and electric field: A window on the electronic structure and energy transfer dynamics of bacterial antenna complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.M.

    1999-02-12

    Light-harvesting (LH) complexes of cyclic (C{sub n}) symmetry from photosynthetic bacteria are studied using absorption and high pressure- and Stark-hole burning spectroscopies. The B800 absorption band of LH2 is inhomogeneously broadened while the B850 band of LH2 and the B875 band of the LH1 complex exhibit significant homogeneous broadening due to ultra-fast inter-exciton level relaxation. The B800{r_arrow}B850 energy transfer rate of ({approximately}2 ps){sup {minus}1} as determined by hole burning and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopies, is weakly dependent on pressure and temperature, both of which significantly affect the B800-B850 energy gap. The resilience is theoretically explained in terms of a modified Foerster theory with the spectral overlap provided by the B800 fluorescence origin band and weak vibronic absorption bands of B850. Possible explanations for the additional sub-picosecond relaxation channel of B800 observed with excitation on the blue side of B800 are given. Data from pressure and temperature dependent studies show that the B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are weakly and strongly excitonically coupled, respectively, which is consistent with the X-ray structure of LH2. The B875 BChl a molecules are also strongly coupled. It is concluded that electron-exchange, in addition to electrostatic interactions, is important for understanding the strong coupling of the B850 and B875 rings. The large linear pressure shifts of {approximately}{minus}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1}/MPa associated with B850 and B875 can serve as important benchmarks for electronic structure calculations.

  11. Dielectric and mechanical relaxation in isooctylcyanobiphenyl (8*OCB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlus, S; Mierzwa, M; Paluch, M; Rzoska, S J [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Roland, C M, E-mail: michal.mierzwa@us.edu.p [Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)

    2010-06-16

    The dynamics of isooctylcyanobiphenyl (8*OCB) was characterized using dielectric and mechanical spectroscopies. This isomer of the liquid crystalline octylcyanobiphenyl (8OCB) vitrifies during cooling or on application of pressure, exhibiting the typical features of glass-forming liquids: non-Debye relaxation function, non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the relaxation times, {tau}{sub {alpha}}, a dynamic crossover at T {approx} 1.6T{sub g}. This crossover is evidenced by changes in the behavior of both the peak shape and the temperature dependence of {tau}{sub {alpha}}. The primary relaxation time at the crossover, 2 ns at ambient pressure, is the smallest value reported to date for any molecular liquid or polymer. Interestingly, at all temperatures below this crossover, {tau}{sub {alpha}}and the dc conductivity remain coupled (i.e., conform to the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relation). Two secondary relaxations are observed in the glassy state, one of which is identified as the Johari-Goldstein process. Unlike the case for 8OCB, no liquid crystalline phase could be attained for 8*OCB, demonstrating that relatively small differences in chemical structure can effect substantial changes in the intermolecular potential.

  12. Temperature dependence of levitation force and its relaxation in a HTS levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jun; Zhang Xingyi [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou Youhe, E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2010-03-01

    Using a modified Gifford-McMahon refrigerator to cool the cylindrical bulk YBaCuO superconductor within the region of 100-10 K, and using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, the levitation force and its time relaxation at different temperatures between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under zero-field cooling. It is found that decrease the cooling temperature of HTS can decrease the hysteresis of magnetization and increase the maximum levitation force of each hysteresis loop. For the relaxation of levitation force, if the temperature is continually lowered to 10 K after the relaxation measurement at given cooling temperature is performed for 600 s, the levitation force will continue to decrease sharply with the lowering of temperature even though it will get stable if the temperature is not lowered. Our results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

  13. The age dependence of T2 relaxation times of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine and choline in the human brain at 3 and 4T

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirů, F.; Škoch, A.; Wágnerová, D.; Dezortová, M.; Visková, J.; Profant, Oliver; Syka, Josef; Hájek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2016), s. 284-292 ISSN 0952-3480 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : MRS * T2 relaxation times of metabolites * age dependence of T2 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2016

  14. Interaction between Electron Holes in a Strongly Magnetized Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans

    1980-01-01

    The interaction between electron holes in a strongly magnetized, plasma-filled waveguide is investigated by means of computer simulation. Two holes may or may not coalesce, depending on their amplitudes and velocities. The interaction between holes and Trivelpiece-Gould solitons is demonstrated...

  15. Localized hole effects in inner-shell excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescigno, T.N.; Orel, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of valence shell ionization potentials have shown that orbital relaxation and correlation differences usually make contributions of comparable magnitude. In marked contrast to this observation is the situation for deep core ionization, where correlation differences (approx. 1 eV) play a relatively minor role compared to orbital relaxation (approx. 20 eV). Theoretical calculations have shown that this relaxation is most easily described if the 1s-vacancy created by a K-shell excitation is allowed to localize on one of the atomic centers. For molecules possessing a center of inversion, this means that the molecular orbitals that best describe the final state do not transform as any irreducible representation of the molecular point group. Recent experimental work by Shaw, King, Read and Cvejanovic and by Stefani and coworkers has prompted us to carry out further calculations on N 2 , as well as analogous investigations of 1s/sub N/ → π* excitation in NO and N 2 O. The generalized oscillator strengths display a striking similarity and point to the essential correctness of the localized hole picture for N 2 . The theoretical calculations are briefly described, followed by a summary of the results and comparison to experiment, followed by a short discussion

  16. Electron spin-lattice relaxation in fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.N.

    1986-08-01

    We have developed the theory of the spin-fracton interaction for paramagnetic ions in fractal structures. The interaction is exponentially damped by the self-similarity length of the fractal and by the range dimensionality d Φ . The relaxation time of the spin due to the absorption and emission of the fracton has been calculated for a general dimensionality called the Raman dimensionality d R , which for the fractons differs from the Hausdorff (fractal) dimensionality, D, as well as from the Euclidean dimensionality, d. The exponent of the energy level separation in the relaxation rate varies with d R d Φ /D. We have calculated the spin relaxation rate due to a new type of Raman process in which one fracton is absorbed to affect a spin transition from one electronic level to another and later another fracton is emitted along with a spin transition such that the difference in the energies of the two fractons is equal to the electronic energy level separation. The temperature and the dimensionality dependence of such a process has been found in several approximations. In one of the approximations where the van Vleck relaxation rate for a spin in a crystal is known to vary with temperature as T 9 , our calculated variation for fractals turns out to be T 6.6 , whereas the experimental value for Fe 3+ in frozen solutions of myoglobin azide is T 6.3 . Since we used d R =4/3 and the fracton range dimensionality d Φ =D/1.8, we expect to measure the dimensionalities of the problem by measuring the temperature dependence of the relaxation times. We have also calculated the shift of the paramagnetic resonance transition for a spin in a fractal for general dimensionalities. (author)

  17. Black Holes and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...

  18. Relaxed Bell inequalities and Kochen-Specker theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Michael J. W. [Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    The combination of various physically plausible properties, such as no signaling, determinism, and experimental free will, is known to be incompatible with quantum correlations. Hence, these properties must be individually or jointly relaxed in any model of such correlations. The necessary degrees of relaxation are quantified here via natural distance and information-theoretic measures. This allows quantitative comparisons between different models in terms of the resources, such as the number of bits of randomness, communication, and/or correlation, that they require. For example, measurement dependence is a relatively strong resource for modeling singlet-state correlations, with only 1/15 of one bit of correlation required between measurement settings and the underlying variable. It is shown how various ''relaxed'' Bell inequalities may be obtained, which precisely specify the complementary degrees of relaxation required to model any given violation of a standard Bell inequality. The robustness of a class of Kochen-Specker theorems, to relaxation of measurement independence, is also investigated. It is shown that a theorem of Mermin remains valid unless measurement independence is relaxed by 1/3. The Conway-Kochen ''free will'' theorem and a result of Hardy are less robust, failing if measurement independence is relaxed by only 6.5% and 4.5%, respectively. An appendix shows that existence of an outcome-independent model is equivalent to existence of a deterministic model.

  19. The relaxation of plasmas with dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutov, Yu.I.; Kravchenko, A.Yu.; Schram, P.P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Various parameters of relaxing plasmas with dust particles including the electron and ion energy distributions function are numerically simulated at various parameters of the dust particles using the PIC method and taking into account the dynamics of the dust particle charge without the assumption about the equilibrium of electrons and ions. Coulomb collisions are taken into account in the framework of the method of stochastic differential equations. The relaxation of bounded plasma clouds expanding into a vacuum as well as the relaxation of a uniform plasma, in which dust particles appear at some initial time, are investigated. The obtained results show that the relaxation of plasmas can be accompanied by a deviation of the ion distribution function from equilibrium as well as a change of the mean energy of electrons and ions because of the dependence of the collection of electrons and ions by dust particles on their energy. (author)

  20. Quantum black holes and Planck's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Planck-scale black holes of quantum gravity must obey a consistency condition relating Planck's constant to the integral of the mass of the black holes over time, if the usual path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is to make sense on physical spacetime. It is also shown, using time-dependent perturbation theory in ordinary quantum mechanics, that a massless particle will not propagate on physical spacetime with the black holes present unless the same condition is met. (author)

  1. Vibrational relaxation in liquids: Comparisons between gas phase and liquid phase theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.J.

    1990-12-01

    The vibrational relaxation of iodine in liquid xenon was studied to understand what processes are important in determining the density dependence of the vibrational relaxation. This examination will be accomplished by taking simple models and comparing the results to both experimental outcomes and the predictions of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibration relaxation of iodine is extremely sensitive to the iodine potential. The anharmonicity of iodine causes vibrational relaxation to be much faster at the top of the iodine well compared to the vibrational relaxation at the bottom. A number of models are used in order to test the ability of the Isolated Binary Collision theory's ability to predict the density dependence of the vibrational relaxation of iodine in liquid xenon. The models tested vary from the simplest incorporating only the fact that the solvent occupies volume to models that incorporate the short range structure of the liquid in the radial distribution function. None of the models tested do a good job of predicting the actual relaxation rate for a given density. This may be due to a possible error in the choice of potentials to model the system

  2. Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2000-01-01

    recovery of the spectral hole within ~100 fs is measured, comparable to bulk and quantum-well amplifiers, which is contradicting a carrier relaxation bottleneck in electrically pumped QD devices. The CH dynamics in the QD is quantitatively compared with results on an InGaAsP bulk amplifier. Reduced CH......The ultrafast gain and index dynamics in a set of InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum-dot (QD) amplifiers are measured at room temperature with femtosecond resolution. The role of spectral hole-burning (SHB) and carrier heating (CH) in the recovery of gain compression is investigated in detail. An ultrafast...

  3. PDE1A inhibition elicits cGMP-dependent relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khammy, Makhala Michell; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Larsen, Peter Hjorringgaard

    2017-01-01

    (EC50 = 32 nM). Inhibition of NOS with L-NAME, soluble GC with ODQ, or PKG with Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMP all attenuated PDE1 inhibition-induced relaxation, whereas PKA inhibition with H89 had no effect. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Pde1a was the dominant PDE1 isoform present in VSMC and relaxation mediated...... by PDE1A-inhibition was predominantly driven by enhanced cGMP signalling. These results imply that isoform-selective PDE1 inhibitors are powerful investigative tools allowing examination of physiological and pathological roles of PDE1 isoforms....

  4. Nuclear magnetic relaxation of methyl group in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blicharska, B.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical description of the relaxation process of methyl group in liquids and some results of the measurements of relaxation function and relaxation times for cryoprotective solutions are presented. Starting from the application of the operator formalism the general equation for spin operators e.g. components of the nuclear spin and magnetization is founded. Next, the spin Hamiltonian is presented as contraction of the symmetry adapted spherical tensors as well as the correlation functions and spectral densities. On the basis of extended and modified Woessner model of motion the correlation functions and spectral densities are calculated for methyl group in liquids. Using these functions the relaxation matrix elements, the spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times can be expressed. The prediction of the theory agrees with author's previous experiments on cryoprotective solutions. The observed dependence on temperature, frequency and isotopic dilution in methanol-water, methanol-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and DMSO-water solutions is in a satisfactory agreement with theoretical equations. 34 refs. (author)

  5. Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-related relaxations diminish with age in murine saphenous arteries of both sexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chennupati, R.; Lamers, W. H.; Koehler, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    nitroprusside and to ACh in the absence of pharmacological inhibitors (indomethacin and L-NAME), were similar in all age groups and sexes, but those mediated by endothelium-derived NO were slightly but significantly increased in 64-week-old male mice. In the presence of inhibitors, 12-week-old animals showed...... pronounced ACh-induced relaxation, which was significantly reduced in 34- and 64-week-old mice of both sexes. The EDH-related component of ACh-induced relaxations was abolished by TRAM-34 (K(Ca)3.1 blocker) or UCL 1684 (K(Ca)2.3 blocker). Although the maximal relaxation induced by NS309 (K-Ca activator......) was not affected by aging, the sensitivity for NS309 significantly decreased with aging. The presence of SKA-31 (K-Ca modulator) potentiated relaxations induced by ACh in arteries of 12-week-old but not older mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS In a small muscular artery of mice of either sex, total endothelium...

  6. Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, T B; Kim, K; Urayama, J; Wu, Z K; Singh, J; Bhattacharya, P K

    2005-01-01

    We have used two- and three-pulse femtosecond differential transmission spectroscopy to study the dependence of quantum dot carrier dynamics on temperature. At low temperatures and densities, the rates for relaxation between the quantum dot confined states and for capture from the barrier region into the various dot levels could be directly determined. For electron-hole pairs generated directly in the quantum dot excited state, relaxation is dominated by electron-hole scattering, and occurs on a 5 ps time scale. Capture times from the barrier into the quantum dot are of the order of 2 ps (into the excited state) and 10 ps (into the ground state). The phonon bottleneck was clearly observed in low-density capture experiments, and the conditions for its observation (namely, the suppression of electron-hole scattering for nongeminately captured electrons) were determined. As temperature increases beyond about 100 K, the dynamics become dominated by the re-emission of carriers from the lower dot levels, due to the large density of states in the wetting layer and barrier region. Measurements of the gain dynamics show fast (130 fs) gain recovery due to intradot carrier-carrier scattering, and picosecond-scale capture. Direct measurement of the transparency density versus temperature shows the dramatic effect of carrier re-emission for the quantum dots on thermally activated scattering. The carrier dynamics at elevated temperature are thus strongly dominated by the high density of the high energy continuum states relative to the dot confined levels. Deleterious hot carrier effects can be suppressed in quantum dot lasers by resonant tunnelling injection

  7. Calorimetric and relaxation properties of xylitol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Khalid; Sjöström, Johan; Jansson, Helén; Swenson, Jan

    2012-03-01

    We present the first broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and differential scanning calorimetry study of supercooled xylitol-water mixtures in the whole concentration range and in wide frequency (10-2-106 Hz) and temperature (120-365 K) ranges. The calorimetric glass transition, Tg, decreases from 247 K for pure xylitol to about 181 K at a water concentration of approximately 37 wt. %. At water concentrations in the range 29-35 wt. % a plentiful calorimetric behaviour is observed. In addition to the glass transition, almost simultaneous crystallization and melting events occurring around 230-240 K. At higher water concentrations ice is formed during cooling and the glass transition temperature increases to a steady value of about 200 K for all higher water concentrations. This Tg corresponds to an unfrozen xylitol-water solution containing 20 wt. % water. In addition to the true glass transition we also observed a glass transition-like feature at 220 K for all the ice containing samples. However, this feature is more likely due to ice dissolution [A. Inaba and O. Andersson, Thermochim. Acta, 461, 44 (2007)]. In the case of the BDS measurements the presence of water clearly has an effect on both the cooperative α-relaxation and the secondary β-relaxation. The α-relaxation shows a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence and becomes faster with increasing concentration of water. The fragility of the solutions, determined by the temperature dependence of the α-relaxation close to the dynamic glass transition, decreases with increasing water content up to about 26 wt. % water, where ice starts to form. This decrease in fragility with increasing water content is most likely caused by the increasing density of hydrogen bonds, forming a network-like structure in the deeply supercooled regime. The intensity of the secondary β-relaxation of xylitol decreases noticeably already at a water content of 2 wt. %, and at a water content above 5 wt. % it has been replaced by a

  8. The maximal-density mass function for primordial black hole dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Benjamin V.; Profumo, Stefano; Yant, Jackson

    2018-04-01

    The advent of gravitational wave astronomy has rekindled interest in primordial black holes (PBH) as a dark matter candidate. As there are many different observational probes of the PBH density across different masses, constraints on PBH models are dependent on the functional form of the PBH mass function. This complicates general statements about the mass functions allowed by current data, and, in particular, about the maximum total density of PBH. Numerical studies suggest that some forms of extended mass functions face tighter constraints than monochromatic mass functions, but they do not preclude the existence of a functional form for which constraints are relaxed. We use analytical arguments to show that the mass function which maximizes the fraction of the matter density in PBH subject to all constraints is a finite linear combination of monochromatic mass functions. We explicitly compute the maximum fraction of dark matter in PBH for different combinations of current constraints, allowing for total freedom of the mass function. Our framework elucidates the dependence of the maximum PBH density on the form of observational constraints, and we discuss the implications of current and future constraints for the viability of the PBH dark matter paradigm.

  9. Relaxation in the XX quantum chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platini, Thierry; Karevski, Dragi

    2007-01-01

    We present the results obtained on the magnetization relaxation properties of an XX quantum chain in a transverse magnetic field. We first consider an initial thermal kink-like state where half of the chain is initially thermalized at a very high temperature T b while the remaining half, called the system, is put at a lower temperature T s . From this initial state, we derive analytically the Green function associated with the dynamical behaviour of the transverse magnetization. Depending on the strength of the magnetic field and on the temperature of the system, different regimes are obtained for the magnetic relaxation. In particular, with an initial droplet-like state, that is a cold subsystem of the finite size in contact at both ends with an infinite temperature environment, we derive analytically the behaviour of the time-dependent system magnetization

  10. Thickness Dependence of Magnetic Relaxation and E-J Characteristics in Superconducting (Gd-Y)-Ba-Cu-O Films with Strong Vortex Pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Kumar, Dhananjay [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current density Jc on temperature, magnetic field, and film thickness has been investigated in (Gd-Y)BaCu-oxide materials of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 m thickness. Generally, the Jc decreases with film thickness at investigated temperatures and magnetic fields. The nature and strength of the pinning centers for vortices have been identified through angular and temperature measurements, respectively. These films do not exhibit c-axis correlated vortex pinning, but do have correlated defects oriented near the ab-planes. For all film thicknesses studied, strong pinning dominates at most temperatures. The vortex dynamics were investigated through magnetic relaxation studies in the temperature range of 5 77 K in 1 T and 3 T applied magnetic fields, H || surface-normal. The creep rate S is thickness dependent at high temperatures, implying that the pinning energy is also thickness dependent. Maley analyses of the relaxation data show an inverse power law variation for the effective pinning energy Ueff ~ (J0/J) . Finally, the electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics were determined over a wide range of dissipation by combining experimental results from transport, swept field magnetometry (VSM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. We develop a self-consistent model of the combined experimental results, leading to an estimation of the critical current density Jc0(T) in the absence of flux creep.

  11. Nuclear relaxation in semiconductors doped with magnetic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nichuk, S.V.; Tovstyuk, N.K.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences are investigated of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time with account of spin diffusion for degenerated and non-degenerated semicon- ductors doped with magnetic impurities. In case of the non-degenerated semiconductor the time is shown to grow with temperature, while in case of degenerated semiconductor it is practically independent of temperature. The impurity concentration growth results in decreasing the spin-lattice relaxation time

  12. Shaping Globular Clusters with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    How many black holes lurk within the dense environments of globular clusters, and how do these powerful objects shape the properties of the cluster around them? One such cluster, NGC 3201, is now helping us to answer these questions.Hunting Stellar-Mass Black HolesSince the detection of merging black-hole binaries by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the dense environments of globular clusters have received increasing attention as potential birthplaces of these compact binary systems.The central region of the globular star cluster NGC 3201, as viewed by Hubble. The black hole is in orbit with the star marked by the blue circle. [NASA/ESA]In addition, more and more stellar-mass black-hole candidates have been observed within globular clusters, lurking in binary pairs with luminous, non-compact companions. The most recent of these detections, found in the globular cluster NGC 3201, stands alone as the first stellar-mass black hole candidate discovered via radial velocity observations: the black holes main-sequence companion gave away its presence via a telltale wobble.Now a team of scientists led by Kyle Kremer (CIERA and Northwestern University) is using models of this system to better understand the impact that black holes might have on their host clusters.A Model ClusterThe relationship between black holes and their host clusters is complicated. Though the cluster environment can determine the dynamical evolution of the black holes, the retention rate of black holes in a globular cluster (i.e., how many remain in the cluster when they are born as supernovae, rather than being kicked out during the explosion) influences how the host cluster evolves.Kremer and collaborators track this complex relationship by modeling the evolution of a cluster similar to NGC 3201 with a Monte Carlo code. The code incorporates physics relevant to the evolution of black holes and black-hole binaries in globular clusters, such as two-body relaxation

  13. The dielectric α relaxation at a temperature close to T sub(g)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Ribelles, J.L.; Diaz Calleja, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown in this work how the dependence of the mean relaxation times of the dielectric α relaxation on temperature deviates from the Williams, Landel and Ferry model at a temperature close to T sub(g). In some cases, an Arrhenius-like relationship for this relaxation can be observed for temperatures below T sub(g)

  14. Dielectric relaxation in Yb-doped SrZrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamishima, O; Abe, Y; Ishii, T; Kawamura, J; Hattori, T

    2004-01-01

    The dielectric constant of the proton conductor SrZr 1-x Yb x O 3 (x 0-0.1) was measured as a function of temperature and frequency. Two well-defined relaxation peaks were observed in SrZrO 3 doped with more than 1 mol% of Yb. The assignment of the two dielectric relaxations is discussed in terms of IR spectra and by free energy calculation for a miscibility of dopant Yb ions. The Yb concentration dependence of the relaxation strength of the two dielectric relaxations is in agreement with the results calculated from the free energy. The two relaxations can be assigned to a reorientation of a single Yb-OH dipole and of Yb-OH dipoles associated with Yb-clusters. The attractive energy for Yb-clustering in SrZrO 3 is evaluated at about -85 meV

  15. Mechanism of nuclear cross-relaxation in magnetically ordered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buishvili, L L; Volzhan, E B; Giorgadze, N P [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Fiziki

    1975-09-01

    A mechanism of two-step nuclear relaxation in magnetic ordered dielectrics is proposed. The case is considered where the energy conservation in the cross relaxation (CR) process is ensured by the lattice itself without spin-spin interactions. Expressions have been obtained describing the temperature dependence of the CR rate. For a nonuniform broadened NMR line it has been shown that the spin-lattice relaxation time for a spin packet taken out from the equilibrium may be determined by the CR time owing to the mechanism suggested. When the quantization axes for electron and nuclear spins coincide, the spin-lattice relaxation is due to the three-magnon mechanism. The cross-relaxation stage has been shown to play a significant role in the range of low temperatures (T<10 deg K) and to become negligible with a temperature increase.

  16. Variational formulation of relaxed and multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, R. L.; Yoshida, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hudson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    > Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.

  17. Electron, hole and exciton self-trapping in germanium doped silica glass from DFT calculations with self-interaction correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jincheng; Rene Corrales, L.; Tsemekhman, Kiril; Bylaska, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to understand the refractive index change in germanium doped silica glasses for the trapped states of electronic excitations induced by UV irradiation. Local structure relaxation and excess electron density distribution were calculated upon self-trapping of an excess electron, hole, and exciton in germanium doped silica glass. The results show that both the trapped exciton and excess electron are highly localized on germanium ion and, to some extent, on its oxygen neighbors. Exciton self-trapping is found to lead to the formation of a Ge E' center and a non-bridging hole center. Electron trapping changes the GeO 4 tetrahedron structure into trigonal bi-pyramid with the majority of the excess electron density located along the equatorial line. The self-trapped hole is localized on bridging oxygen ions that are not coordinated to germanium atoms that lead to elongation of the Si-O bonds and change of the Si-O-Si bond angles. We carried out a comparative study of standard DFT versus DFT with a hybrid PBE0 exchange and correlation functional. The results show that the two methods give qualitatively similar relaxed structure and charge distribution for electron and exciton trapping in germanium doped silica glass; however, only the PBE0 functional produces the self-trapped hole

  18. Fatal youth of the Universe: black hole threat for the electroweak vacuum during preheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry; Levkov, Dmitry; Panin, Alexander, E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: levkov@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: panin@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    Small evaporating black holes were proposed to be dangerous inducing fast decay of the electroweak false vacuum. We observe that the flat-spectrum matter perturbations growing at the post-inflationary matter dominated stage can produce such black holes in a tiny amount which may nevertheless be sufficient to destroy the vacuum in the visible part of the Universe via the induced process. If the decay probability in the vicinity of Planck-mass black holes was of order one as suggested in literature, the absence of such objects in the early Universe would put severe constraints on inflation and subsequent stages thus excluding many well-motivated models (e.g. the R {sup 2}-inflation) and supporting the need of new physics in the Higgs sector. We give a qualitative argument, however, that exponential suppression of the probability should persist in the limit of small black hole masses. This suppression relaxes our cosmological constraints, and, if sufficiently strong, may cancel them.

  19. Mechanical relaxation in chalcogenide glasses of the Ge-As-S system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanych, V.S.; Melnychenko, T.D.; Rizak, V.M.; Makauz, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    The temperature and frequency-related dependences of the internal friction and the shear modulus in Ge x As 40-x S 60 glasses have been studied. The maxima of internal friction of both the relaxation and non relaxation types have been found in the low-temperature range. A relaxation maximum has been revealed in the vitrification region, and its parameters have been determined. Possible mechanisms of these processes have been discussed

  20. Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo

    2011-01-01

    The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M D-1 xS 1 , where D is the spacetime dimension and M D-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.

  1. Homogeneous magnetic relaxation in iron-yttrium garnets in the vicinity of a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzyanin, I.D.; Khavronin, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of the dynamics of homogeneous magnetization during a phase transition of the second kind in iron-yttrium garnet (IYG) single crystals of various shapes. It is shown that homogeneous relaxation significantly depends on both the magnitude of 4πchisub(st) (chisub(st) is static magnetic susceptibility) as well as on the relation between the variable field frequency (at which the investigation is carried out) and the characteristic energies. It is shown that beginning from temperatures such as 4πchisub(st) approximately 1, the characteristic dipole interaction energy becomes frequency dependent; this indicates that in this case Lorentz coupling between the dynamic susceptibility and homogeneous relaxation time is invalid. This is a principle point in investigations of homogeneous relaxation by radio-frequency techniques. The temperature dependence of the homogeneous relaxation time and static susceptibility is determined in the exchange region. It is found that the phase transition in IYG involves anomalous phenomena which manifest in release and absorption of heat by a sample and in the appearance of additional singularities in the temperature dependence of the homogeneous relaxation time

  2. The modified relaxation time function: A novel analysis technique for relaxation processes. Application to high-temperature molybdenum internal friction peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteo, C.L.; Lambri, O.A.; Zelada-Lambri, G.I.; Sorichetti, P.A.; Garcia, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The modified relaxation time (MRT) function, which is based on a general linear viscoelastic formalism, has several important mathematical properties that greatly simplify the analysis of relaxation processes. In this work, the MRT is applied to the study of the relaxation damping peaks in deformed molybdenum at high temperatures. The dependence of experimental data from these relaxation processes with temperature are adequately described by a Havriliak-Negami (HN) function, and the MRT makes it possible to find a relation between the parameters of the HN function and the activation energy of the process. The analysis reveals that for the relaxation peak appearing at temperatures below 900 K, the physical mechanism is related to a vacancy-diffusion-controlled movement of dislocations. In contrast, when the peak appears at temperatures higher than 900 K, the damping is controlled by a mechanism of diffusion in the low-temperature tail of the peak, and in the high-temperature tail of the peak the creation plus diffusion of vacancies at the dislocation line occurs

  3. Relaxation response of A533B steel from 25 to 600/degree/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Bolling, E.

    1989-01-01

    Relaxation tests were performed on A533B steel over the range 25 to 600/degree/C in order to examine the general features of time- dependent deformation. It was found that the relaxation strength increased with the flow stress at low temperatures and was relatively independent of history at high temperatures. In the temperature range 400 to 600/degree/C the inelastic strain rates calculated from the relaxation rates followed stress dependencies that were consistent with expectations based on a model proposed by Hart and coworkers for matrix deformation. 21 refs., 10 figs

  4. Dirac fermions in nontrivial topology black hole backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozdz, Marek; Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the behavior of the Dirac fermions in a general spherically symmetric black hole background with a nontrivial topology of the event horizon. Both massive and massless cases are taken into account. We will conduct an analytical study of intermediate and late-time behavior of massive Dirac hair in the background of a black hole with a global monopole and dilaton black hole pierced by a cosmic string. In the case of a global monopole swallowed by a static black hole, the intermediate late-time behavior depends on the mass of the Dirac field, the multiple number of the wave mode, and the global monopole parameter. The late-time behavior is quite independent of these factors and has a decay rate proportional to t -5/6 . As far as the black hole pierced by a cosmic string is concerned, the intermediate late-time behavior depends only on the hair mass and the multipole number of the wave mode, while the late-time behavior dependence is the same as in the previous case. The main modification stems from the topology of the S 2 sphere pierced by a cosmic string. This factor modifies the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator acting on the transverse manifold.

  5. Plasma horizons of a charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The most promising way of detecting black holes seems to be through electromagnetic radiation emitted by nearby charged particles. The nature of this radiation depends strongly on the local electromagnetic field, which varies with the charge of the black hole. It has often been purported that a black hole with significant charge will not be observed, because, the dominance of the Coulomb interaction forces its neutralization through selective accretion. This paper shows that it is possible to balance the electric attraction of particles whose charge is opposite that of the black hole with magnetic forces and (assuming an axisymmetric, stationary solution) covariantly define the regions in which this is possible. A Kerr-Newman hole in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and a current ring centered about a Reissner-Nordstroem hole are used as examples, because of their relevance to processes through which black holes may be observed. (Auth.)

  6. Relaxation of magnetization in spinel CuCrZrS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masakazu; Furuta, Tatsuya; Terada, Norio; Ebisu, Shuji; Nagata, Shoichi

    2012-01-01

    We studied time t dependence of magnetization M(t) of thiospinel CuCrZrS 4 which has a spin-glass freezing. The relaxation of M is observed below T f ≃6K and shows a logarithmic time dependence. This means that a relaxation time τ of CuCrZrS 4 is distributed in a wide time range. Randomness of an arrangement of the Cr and Zr ions in CuCrZrS 4 probably gives rise to a distribution of τ. Temperature T dependence of magnetic viscosity β(T) is understood by a conventional after-effect model with a box-type distribution function of τ.

  7. Relaxivity of blood pool contrast agent depends on the host tissue as suggested by semianalytical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij

    Concentration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CA) cannot be measured directly and is commonly determined indirectly using their relaxation effect. This requires knowledge of the relaxivity of the used CA. Quantitative perfusion studies involve measurement of CA concentration...... studies (3,4) as demonstrated in (5). It was previously found (6) that the perfusion measurements using dynamic susceptibility contrast inherently overestimate cerebral blood flow and volume. In view of the present result, this is attributed to the significant difference in the relaxivity of the CA...

  8. Evolutionary Pseudo-Relaxation Learning Algorithm for Bidirectional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Zhi Du; Zeng-Qiang Chen; Zhu-Zhi Yuan

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity to noise in BAM (Bidirectional Associative Memory), and then proves the noise immunity of BAM relates not only to the minimum absolute value of net inputs (MAV) but also to the variance of weights associated with synapse connections. In fact, it is a positive monotonically increasing function of the quotient of MAV divided by the variance of weights. Besides, the performance of pseudo-relaxation method depends on learning parameters (λ and ζ), but the relation of them is not linear. So it is hard to find a best combination of λ and ζ which leads to the best BAM performance. And it is obvious that pseudo-relaxation is a kind of local optimization method, so it cannot guarantee to get the global optimal solution. In this paper, a novel learning algorithm EPRBAM (evolutionary psendo-relaxation learning algorithm for bidirectional association memory) employing genetic algorithm and pseudo-relaxation method is proposed to get feasible solution of BAM weight matrix. This algorithm uses the quotient as the fitness of each individual and employs pseudo-relaxation method to adjust individual solution when it does not satisfy constraining condition any more after genetic operation. Experimental results show this algorithm improves noise immunity of BAM greatly. At the same time, EPRBAM does not depend on learning parameters and can get global optimal solution.

  9. Collective effects, relaxation and localization of hole levels in atoms, molecules, solids, and adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    Recent progress in descriptions of photoelectron spectra is reviewed with emphasis on cases where the one-electron and quasi-particle approximations break down and the hole level becomes spread over a number of discrete lines or a continuum or both. Unifying aspects and similarities between interaction processes in atoms, molecules and solids are stressed. 38 references

  10. Accreting fluids onto regular black holes via Hamiltonian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the accretion of test fluids onto regular black holes such as Kehagias-Sfetsos black holes and regular black holes with Dagum distribution function. We analyze the accretion process when different test fluids are falling onto these regular black holes. The accreting fluid is being classified through the equation of state according to the features of regular black holes. The behavior of fluid flow and the existence of sonic points is being checked for these regular black holes. It is noted that the three-velocity depends on critical points and the equation of state parameter on phase space. (orig.)

  11. Observability of Quantum State of Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    David, J R; Mandal, G; Wadia, S R; David, Justin R.; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze terms subleading to Rutherford in the $S$-matrix between black hole and probes of successively high energies. We show that by an appropriate choice of the probe one can read off the quantum state of the black hole from the S-matrix, staying asymptotically far from the BH all the time. We interpret the scattering experiment as scattering off classical stringy backgrounds which explicitly depend on the internal quantum numbers of the black hole.

  12. Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.

  13. Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Artemenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti3+-V(O charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

  14. Relaxation towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1995-01-01

    We study the relaxation phenomenon towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions. In particular the dependence of the relaxation frequency for the equal time of flight solution on the junction parameters is derived. The analysis is based on a phase-locked map and is compared with direct...... numerical experiments performed both on the map and on the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. As an interesting result we find that very close to a bifurcation the relaxation frequency is exactly equal to the half of the step frequency, i.e., the frequency characterizing the period-one solution....

  15. Non-equilibrium relaxation and near-arrest dynamics in colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Noyola, M; RamIrez-Gonzalez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In this work we propose a theory to describe the irreversible diffusive relaxation of the local concentration of a colloidal dispersion that proceeds toward its stable thermodynamic equilibrium state, but which may in the process be trapped in metastable or dynamically arrested states. The central assumption of this theory is that the irreversible relaxation of the macroscopically observed mean value n-bar(r,t) of the local concentration of colloidal particles is described by a diffusion equation involving a local mobility b*(r,t) that depends not only on the mean value n-bar(r,t) but also on the covariance σ(r,r';t)≡δn(r,t)δn(r',t)-bar of the fluctuations δn(r,t)≡n(r,t)-n-bar(r,t). This diffusion equation must hence be solved simultaneously with the relaxation equation for the covariance σ(r,r';t), and here we also derive the corresponding relaxation equation. The dependence of the local mobility b*(r,t) on the mean value and the covariance is determined by a self-consistent set of equations involving now the spatially and temporally non-local time-dependent correlation functions, which in a uniform system in equilibrium reduces to the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics. The resulting general theory considers the possibility that these relaxation processes occur under the influence of external fields, such as gravitational forces acting in the process of sedimentation. In this paper, however, we describe a simpler application, in which the system remains spatially uniform during the irreversible relaxation process, and discuss the general features of the glass transition scenario predicted by this non-equilibrium theory.

  16. Effect of extender oils on the stress relaxation behavior of thermoplastic vulcanizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The long term mechanical behavior of oil extended thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV based on polypropylene (PP and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR has been characterized by means of stress relaxation experiments. The morphology of TPV and the phase specific oil distribution which depend on the content and type of oil as well as on the mixing regime have been characterized by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA and Differential Scanning Calorimetrie (DSC. The discussion of the stress relaxation behavior was carried out using the two-component model, which allows splitting the initial stress into two components: a thermal activated stress component and an athermal one. A master curve was created by shifting the relaxation curves vertically and horizontally towards the reference curve. The vertical shift factor bT is a function of the temperature dependence of the athermal stress components. It was found that the oil distribution strongly affects the athermal stress component which is related to the contribution of the structural changes, e.g. crystallinity of the PP phase and the average molecular weight between the crosslinks of the NBR phase. From the temperature dependence of the horizontal shift factor aT the main viscoelastic relaxation process was determined as the α-relaxation process of the crystalline PP phase. It is not dependent on the polarity and content of the oil as well as the mixing regime.

  17. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.E.; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  18. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H., E-mail: steve.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  19. An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Remco C E; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; van de Ven, Glenn; van der Wel, Arjen; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2012-11-29

    Most massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres, and the masses of the black holes are believed to correlate with properties of the host-galaxy bulge component. Several explanations have been proposed for the existence of these locally established empirical relationships, including the non-causal, statistical process of galaxy-galaxy merging, direct feedback between the black hole and its host galaxy, and galaxy-galaxy merging and the subsequent violent relaxation and dissipation. The empirical scaling relations are therefore important for distinguishing between various theoretical models of galaxy evolution, and they furthermore form the basis for all black-hole mass measurements at large distances. Observations have shown that the mass of the black hole is typically 0.1 per cent of the mass of the stellar bulge of the galaxy. Until now, the galaxy with the largest known fraction of its mass in its central black hole (11 per cent) was the small galaxy NGC 4486B. Here we report observations of the stellar kinematics of NGC 1277, which is a compact, lenticular galaxy with a mass of 1.2 × 10(11) solar masses. From the data, we determine that the mass of the central black hole is 1.7 × 10(10) solar masses, or 59 per cent of its bulge mass. We also show observations of five other compact galaxies that have properties similar to NGC 1277 and therefore may also contain over-massive black holes. It is not yet known if these galaxies represent a tail of a distribution, or if disk-dominated galaxies fail to follow the usual black-hole mass scaling relations.

  20. Magnetic-relaxation method of analysis of inorganic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic-relaxation method is considered of the quantitative analysis of inorganic substances based on time dependence of magnetic nuclei relaxation on the quantity of paramagnetic centres in a solution. The characteristic is given of some methods of measuring nuclear magnetic relaxation times: method of weak oscillation generator and pulse methods. The effect of temperature, general solution viscosity, diamagnetic salt concentration, medium acidity on nuclear relaxation velocity is described. The determination sensitivity is estimated and the means of its increase definable concentration intervals and method selectivity are considered. The method application when studying complexing in the solution is described. A particular attention is given to the investigation of heteroligand homocentre, heterocentre and protonated complexes as well as to the problems of particle exchange of the first coordination sphere with particles from the mass of solution. The equations for equilibrium constant calculation in different systems are given. Possibilities of determining diamagnetic ions by the magnetic-relaxation method using paramagnetic indicators are confirmed by the quantitative analysis of indium, gallium, thorium and scandium in their salt solutions

  1. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2007-01-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH

  2. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiş, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutaş, M.; Kiliç, A.; Kiliç, K.

    2007-10-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.

  3. Collision of two rotating Hayward black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Bogeun [Sejong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We investigate the spin interaction and the gravitational radiation thermally allowed in a head-on collision of two rotating Hayward black holes. The Hayward black hole is a regular black hole in a modified Einstein equation, and hence it can be an appropriate model to describe the extent to which the regularity effect in the near-horizon region affects the interaction and the radiation. If one black hole is assumed to be considerably smaller than the other, the potential of the spin interaction can be analytically obtained and is dependent on the alignment of angular momenta of the black holes. For the collision of massive black holes, the gravitational radiation is numerically obtained as the upper bound by using the laws of thermodynamics. The effect of the Hayward black hole tends to increase the radiation energy, but we can limit the effect by comparing the radiation energy with the gravitational waves GW150914 and GW151226. (orig.)

  4. Spin Diffusion and Spin Lattice Relaxation of Dipolar Order in Solids Containing Paramagnetic Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G.B.; Panich, A.M.; Goren, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomena of spin diffusion and spin lattice relaxation of nuclear dipolar order in solids containing paramagnetic impurities (PI) is considered. We show that at the beginning of the relaxation process the diffusion vanishing regime realizes with non-exponential time dependence, R(t) ∼ exp [- (t/T 1d ) α ], where T 1d ∼ C p -1/α , C p is PI's concentration. For a homogeneous distribution of Pis and nuclear spins, α=Q/6, where Q is the sample dimensionality; for an inhomogeneous distribution, the sample is divided into q-dimensional subsystems, each containing one PI, yield- ing α= (Q + q) /6. This result coincides with experimental data for CaF 2 doped with 0.8 - 10 -3 ωt % of Mn 2+ , where the non-exponential decay of the dipolar signal with α= 0.83 has been observed [3]. Fitting the experimental data yields a good agreement with T 1d = 66 ms . For another independent check of the obtained results we use dependence of the relaxation time on impurities concentration. In accordance that 1/α=1.2 , we have T 1d ∼ C p -1 '. 2 . Exactly this dependence on impurity concentration of the relaxation time has been found in the experiment. Then the relaxation regime starts as a non-exponential time dependent, proceed asymptotically to an to an exponential function of time, to so called diffusion limited relaxation regime with relaxation time T 1d D is inversely depends on impurities concentration. This kind of relaxation behavior of the dipolar order takes place in the experiment [2]. Using experimental results [2] from this two regime we can estimate the diffusion coefficient of the nuclear dipolar order in CaF 2 , which gives for typical values of impurity concentration C p ∼ 10 18 cm 3 the diffusion coefficient of dipolar order in the interval D ∼ 10 -11 -i- 10 -12 cm 2 /sec which is coincide to the case of Zeeman energy spin diffusion

  5. A moving mesh method with variable relaxation time

    OpenAIRE

    Soheili, Ali Reza; Stockie, John M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a moving mesh adaptive approach for solving time-dependent partial differential equations. The motion of spatial grid points is governed by a moving mesh PDE (MMPDE) in which a mesh relaxation time \\tau is employed as a regularization parameter. Previously reported results on MMPDEs have invariably employed a constant value of the parameter \\tau. We extend this standard approach by incorporating a variable relaxation time that is calculated adaptively alongside the solution in orde...

  6. White holes and eternal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  7. Peroxynitrite-induced relaxation in isolated rat aortic rings and mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfeng; Li Wenyan; Altura, Bella T.; Altura, Burton M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO - ), the product of superoxide and nitric oxide, on isolated segments of rat aorta. In the absence of any vasoactive agent, ONOO - (from 10 -8 to 10 -4 M) failed to alter the basal tension. In phenylephrine (PE; 5 x 10 -7 M)-precontracted rat aortic rings (RAR), ONOO - elicited concentration-dependent relaxation at concentrations of from 10 -8 to 10 -4 M. The effective concentrations producing approximately 50% of maximal relaxation (ED 5 ) to ONOO - were 1.84 x 10 -5 M and 1.96 x 10 -5 M in intact and denuded RAR, respectively (P > 0.05). No significant differences in the relaxation responses were found between RAR with or without endothelium (P > 0.05). The presence of either 5 μM methylene blue (MB) or 5 μM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly inhibited the relaxations induced by ONOO - . Sildenafil (10 -7 M), on the other hand, significantly potentiated the ONOO - -induced relaxations. Tetraethylammonium chloride (T-2265) significantly decreased the ONOO - -induced relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner. However, ONOO - had no effect on RAR precontracted by high KCL (40 mM, n = 6, P > 0.05). Addition of calyculin A also significantly decreased the ONOO - -induced relaxation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, ONOO - significantly inhibited calcium-induced contractions of K + -depolarized aortic rings in a concentration-related manner. Lastly, a variety of other pharmacological agents and antagonists including L-NMMA, L-arginine, indomethacin, atropine, naloxone, diphenhydramine, cimetine, glibenclamide, haloperidol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase did not influence the relaxant effects of ONOO - on RAR. Our new results suggest that ONOO - -triggered relaxation on rat aortic rings is mediated by elevation of cGMP levels, membrane hyperpolarization via K + -channel activation, activation of myosin phosphatase activity, and

  8. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V; Stapf, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Stapf, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution.

  10. Segmental dynamics in polymer melts by relaxation techniques and quasielastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, J.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of the segmental α-relaxation in three different polymeric systems, poly(vinyl methy ether) (PVME), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(bisphenol A, 2-hydroxypropylether) (PH) has been studied by means of relaxation techniques and quasielastic neutron scattering (backscattering spectrometers IN10 and IN13 at the ILL-Grenoble). By using these techniques we have covered a wide timescale ranging from mesoscopic to macroscopic times (10-10-101s). For analyzing the experimental data we have developed a phenomenological procedure in the frequency domain based on the Havriliak-Negami relaxation function which in fact implies a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts relaxation function in the time domain. The results obtained indicate that the dynamics of the α-relaxation in a wide timescale shows a clear non-Debye behaviour. The shape of the relaxation function is found to be similar for the different techniques used and independent of temperature and momentum transfer (Q). Moreover the characteristic relaxation times deduced from the fitting of the experimental data can also be described using only one Vogel-Fulcher functional form. Besides we found that the Q-dependence of the relaxation times obtained by QENS is given by a power law, τ(Q) propto Q-n (n > 2) n being dependent on the system, and that the Q-behaviour and the non-Debye behaviour are directly correlated. We discuss this correlation taking into account several data of the dynamics of the α-relaxation previously reported in the literature. We also outline a possible scenario for explaining this empirical correlation.

  11. Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes. (paper)

  12. Studies about strength recovery and generalized relaxation behavior of rock (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Masanori; Kishi, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Takebe, Atsuji; Okubo, Seisuke

    2011-11-01

    Surrounding rock failure occurs due to the increasing stress with tunnel excavation and extent of the failure depends on rock strength and rock stress. The NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method) assumes that supporting effects by shotcrete and rock bolt prevent rock failure maximizing the potential capability of rock mass. Recently, it was found that failed rock just behind tunnel support recovers its strength. This phenomenon should take into account in evaluation of tunnel stability and long-term mechanical behavior of rock mass after closure of a repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Visco-elastic behavior of rock is frequently studied by creep testing, but creep occasionally occurs together with relaxation in-situ due to the effect of various supports and rock heterogeneity. Therefore generalized stress relaxation in which both load and displacement are controlled is proper to study such behavior under the complicated conditions. It is also important to understand rock behavior in tensile stress field which may be developed in the surrounding rock of deposition hole or tunnel by swelling of bentonite or volume expansion of overpack with corrosion after the repository closure. Cores sampled at 'Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory' has been tested to reveal the above-mentioned behavior. Quantitative evaluation and modeling of the rock behavior, however, have not been established mainly because of large scatter of data. As a factor of the large scatter of data, it was expected that the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the test piece influences the test outcome because it tested in the nature. In this study, strength recovery, generalized stress relaxation and two tensile strength tests were carried out using shale sampled in the Wakkanai-formation. As the results, recovery of failed rocks in strength and hydraulic conductivity were observed under a certain condition. We believe this result is very important for the stability evaluation

  13. Effectiveness of relaxation techniques before diagnostic screening of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Aiger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological arousal was observed in cancer patients during the application of relaxation techniques prior to a diagnostic scan (PET-CT. The aim of the study is twofold: firstly, it is sought to establish whether such techniques can minimize patient arousal before diagnostic screening begins, and secondly to measure which of them are most effective. The dependent variable is electrodermal activity, recording the attentional level and emotional response, and the independent variable comprises the relaxation techniques used, namely Jacobson, breathing and visualization. The 39 patients were split into experimental groups to whom the relaxation techniques (Jacobson, breathing exercises, and visualization were applied before they went for the PET-CT. An activity-module procedure was applied to track electrodermal activity during the relaxation sessions, consisting of instructions, timeout; wait, task; relaxation and end of the recording session. The control group received no relaxation techniques before the PET-CT. Session-end results show that patients who perform relaxation techniques achieve greater attentional focus using Jacobson's technique (M = .212 and enhanced emotional containment using visualization (M = .206. It is concluded that relaxation techniques minimize the state of activation during the waiting period before a diagnostic scan.

  14. Effect of magnetic field on charge imbalance relaxation of non-equilibrium superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Kazuki; Yagi, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    We have studied relaxation of charge imbalance of non-equilibrium superconductivity in magnetic field. We found that excess current due to charge imbalance showed striking dependence on magnitude of magnetic field and its orientation. We discussed origin of the relaxation.

  15. Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.; Östman, E.; Stein, A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kapaklis, V.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice - we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography. Using time resolved magnetometry we show that the relaxation process can be described using the Kohlrausch law and that the extracted temperature dependent relaxation times of the assemblies follow the Vogel-Fulcher law. The results provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of mesoscopic nano-magnetic model systems, with adjustable energy and time scales, and demonstrates that these can serve as an ideal playground for the studies of collective dynamics and relaxations.

  16. Black hole spectroscopy: Systematic errors and ringdown energy estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibhav, Vishal; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Khanna, Gaurav

    2018-02-01

    The relaxation of a distorted black hole to its final state provides important tests of general relativity within the reach of current and upcoming gravitational wave facilities. In black hole perturbation theory, this phase consists of a simple linear superposition of exponentially damped sinusoids (the quasinormal modes) and of a power-law tail. How many quasinormal modes are necessary to describe waveforms with a prescribed precision? What error do we incur by only including quasinormal modes, and not tails? What other systematic effects are present in current state-of-the-art numerical waveforms? These issues, which are basic to testing fundamental physics with distorted black holes, have hardly been addressed in the literature. We use numerical relativity waveforms and accurate evolutions within black hole perturbation theory to provide some answers. We show that (i) a determination of the fundamental l =m =2 quasinormal frequencies and damping times to within 1% or better requires the inclusion of at least the first overtone, and preferably of the first two or three overtones; (ii) a determination of the black hole mass and spin with precision better than 1% requires the inclusion of at least two quasinormal modes for any given angular harmonic mode (ℓ , m ). We also improve on previous estimates and fits for the ringdown energy radiated in the various multipoles. These results are important to quantify theoretical (as opposed to instrumental) limits in parameter estimation accuracy and tests of general relativity allowed by ringdown measurements with high signal-to-noise ratio gravitational wave detectors.

  17. CUSTOM RELAXATION INDUCED IMPURITY PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY IN THE UNITED AII BVI and AIII BV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Atlukhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of non-standard relaxation induced impurity photoconductivity (IIP observed in photoconductors CdS, ZnSe, GaAs and others, depending on the kinetic characteristics of the traps are described. In one case, at the stage of post flashing monotonic decay which is typical for relaxation associated with slow traps (the ratio of the speed of the electron capture to the recombination rate (R << 1, the photo response is experiencing vibrations of low frequency (f =0.03-0.3Hz. Relaxation of the second type characterized by rapid photoelectric traps (R >> 1: measurement alternating signal (f > 20 Hz relaxation curves take the form of curves usual impurity photoconductivity. Electronic processes responsible for relaxation of non-standard IIP are analyzed. For example, fast-centers, which include the characteristic AIIBVI donor Agi0, for the first time in semiconductors experimentally, investigated the dependence of the cross section of electron capture by traps energy released during localization.

  18. Effect of hypothyroidism on the nitrergic relaxant responses of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Bulent; Yildirim, Mustafa K; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Kaya, Kemal; Kilicarslan, Hakan; Yildirim, Sahin

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of hormonal dysfunction as a cause of impotence remains controversial. However, several recent studies have reported evidence of hormonal abnormalities in 25-35% of impotent men. Hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 6% of impotent men. In the present study, we examined nitrergic responses in hypothyroidism in rabbit corpus cavernosum and compared them with controls. Carbachol-induced relaxation responses and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced frequency-dependent relaxations decreased significantly in hypothyroid rabbits. Papaverine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation responses did not change significantly in hypothyroid rabbits. The contraction responses of phenylephrine and EFS-induced frequency-dependent contractions were significantly decreased in the hypothyroid group. We can speculate that the reduction of relaxant responses to EFS and carbachol in hypothyroid rabbits can depend on a decreased release of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrergic nerves and endothelium or a reduction of muscarinic receptor density. Also, decreases in contraction responses may depend on diminished adrenoceptor density.

  19. Endothelium-dependent relaxation and angiotensin II sensitivity in experimental preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marijn van der Graaf

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated endothelial dysfunction and the role of angiotensin (Ang-II type I (AT1-R and type II (AT2-R receptor in the changes in the Ang-II sensitivity in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. METHODS: Aortic rings were isolated from low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS infused pregnant rats (experimental preeclampsia; n=9, saline-infused pregnant rats (n=8, and saline (n=8 and LPS (n=8 infused non-pregnant rats. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was studied in phenylephrine-preconstricted aortic rings in the presence of vehicle, N(G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and/or indomethacin. To evaluate the role for AT1-R and AT2-R in Ang-II sensitivity, full concentration response curves were obtained for Ang-II in the presence of losartan or PD123319. mRNA expression of the AT1-R and AT2-R, eNOS and iNOS, COX1 and COX2 in aorta were evaluated using real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: The role of vasodilator prostaglandins in the aorta was increased and the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and response of the AT1-R and AT2-R to Ang-II was decreased in pregnant saline infused rats as compared with non-pregnant rats. These changes were not observed during preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy induced adaptations in endothelial function, which were not observed in the rat model for preeclampsia. This role of lack of pregnancy induced endothelial adaptation in the pathophysiology of experimental preeclampsia needs further investigation.

  20. "Iron-Clad" Evidence For Spinning Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    competing explanations that do not require extreme gravitational effects, and provide the best look yet at the geometry of the space-time around a stellar black hole created by the death of a massive star." The orbit of a particle near a black hole depends on the curvature of space around the black hole, which also depends on how fast the black hole is spinning. A spinning black hole drags space around with it and allows atoms to orbit closer to the black hole than is possible for a non-spinning black hole. The latest Chandra data from Cygnus X-1, the first stellar-size black hole discovered, show that the gravitational effects on the signal from the iron atoms can only be due to relativistic effects, and that some of the atoms are no closer than 100 miles to the black hole. There was no evidence that the Cygnus X-1 black hole is spinning. The XMM-Newton data from the black hole, XTE J1650-500, show a very similar distribution of iron atom X-rays with one important exception. More low energy X-rays from iron atoms are observed, an indication that some X-rays are coming from deep in the gravitational well around the black hole, as close as 20 miles to the black hole event horizon. This black hole must be spinning rapidly. Chandra observations of a third stellar black hole, GX 339-4, have revealed that it is also spinning rapidly, and clouds of warm absorbing gas appear to be flowing away from the black hole at speeds of about three hundred thousand miles per hour. Such warm gas flows have been observed in the vicinity of supermassive black holes. Previous observations of some supermassive black holes by Japan's ASCA satellite, XMM-Newton and Chandra have indicated that they may also be rotating rapidly. The latest results presented by Miller indicate that the peculiar geometry of space around spinning stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes is remarkably similar. Stellar and supermassive black holes may be similar in other ways. Powerful jets of high

  1. Stress relaxation behavior and mechanism of AEREX350 and Waspaloy superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzhou; Dong, Jianxin; Zhang, Maicang; Yao, Zhihao

    2016-12-15

    The relaxation properties of AEREX350 and Waspaloy were studied contrastively at temperatures ranging from 600 °C to 800 °C with the same initial stress 510 MPa. The relationship between the microstructure and relaxation properties was elucidated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was found that the relaxation limit and relaxation stability of the two alloys decreased obviously with the increase of temperature, but the relaxation stability of AEREX350 decreased more slowly compared with Waspaloy. Further investigations show that the relaxation behavior is mainly depended on both precipitate characteristics and its interaction with dislocations. The complex precipitates evolution of AEREX350 alloy leads to a higher relaxation limit at high temperature 800 °C, but more quantity of γ′ in Waspaloy results in a higher relaxation limit at the low temperature of 600 °C. Thus it is suggested that as fastener alloys, Waspaloy is more suitable for low temperature service while AEREX350 is the preferred choice for high temperature service.

  2. Nuclear magnetic relaxation in picolines solutions in carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurga, J.; Pajak, Z.; Jurga, K.; Jurga, S.

    1973-01-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation times of the ring and CH 3 group have been measured in order to establish the temperature dependence of the longitudinal relaxation times for picolins in carbon tetrachloride solutions. The information concerning the intramolecular contribution to the relaxation times have been obtained. The high resolution NPR spectrometer operating at 25 MHz has been used. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range from -60degC to 80degC. The experimental results are compared to the predictions given by the Nora Hill and Debye models and it has been found that the Nora Hill model fits the experimental data better than the Debye model. (S.B.)

  3. Hole transfer in DNA studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majima, T.; Kawai, K.; Takada, T.

    2003-01-01

    Attention has been paid to charge transfer in DNA with respect to oxidation damage of DNA and nano bio-devices such as DNA molecular wire. We report hole transfer in DNA during pulse radiolysis of molecule-conjugated DNA (M-DNA). Direct measurement of the charge transfer in DNA has never been reported due to the low extinction coefficient of nucleobase radical ions and to difficult definition of nucleobases. We have used M-DNA in which M radical cation has enough extinction coefficient and distinct absorption. Radical cation was generated in M-DNA during pulse radiolysis in water, and hole transfer through DNA was monitored by time-resolved transient absorption spectra of the radical cations. Hole was generated in Py-DNA by pulse radiolysis in water. Hole transfer to Py through DNA was monitored by transient absorption of Py'+ at 465 nm. The hole hopping rate (k) from G-region to Py was determined to be 104 s-1 which decreased with intervening A-T base-pairs between Py and G-region. We suppose that G(-H+)-radical and C(+H+) basepair can alive in DNA more than 100 us and that this long lifetime is responsible to the long-distance hole transfer. The dependence of k against the distance between the G-region and Py led to the slope of 0.3 Angstroms-1 which is due to multi-step k with the smaller distance dependence. On the other hand, beta = 0.6 Angstroms-1 was found for the single-step k in DNA. On the basis of pulse radiolytic studied on various molecule-conjugated DNA, we found that hole transfer between two chromophores (A and B)-conjugated DNA increased with decreasing the distance between A and B and was accelerated slightly with increasing the number of Gs of the bridge between A and B, and that k was modulated by the bridged base sequences. We also found that weak distance dependent hole transfer in DNA by adenine hopping mechanism

  4. Preservation of endothelium-dependent relaxation in atherosclerotic mice with endothelium-restricted endothelin-1 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman; Idris-Khodja, Noureddine; Li, Melissa W; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Paradis, Pierre; Rautureau, Yohann; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2013-10-01

    In human atherosclerosis, which is associated with elevated plasma and coronary endothelin (ET)-1 levels, ETA receptor antagonists improve coronary endothelial function. Mice overexpressing ET-1 specifically in the endothelium (eET-1) crossed with atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout mice (Apoe(-/-)) exhibit exaggerated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis. Since endothelial dysfunction often precedes atherosclerosis development, we hypothesized that mice overexpressing endothelial ET-1 on a genetic background deficient in apolipoprotein E (eET-1/Apoe(-/-)) would have severe endothelial dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, we investigated endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) to acetylcholine in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) mice. EDR in mesenteric resistance arteries from 8- and 16-week-old mice fed a normal diet or HFD was improved in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) compared with Apoe(-/-) mice. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition abolished EDR in Apoe(-/-). EDR in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) mice was resistant to NOS inhibition irrespective of age or diet. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase, the cytochrome P450 pathway, and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) resulted in little or no inhibition of EDR in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In eET-1/Apoe(-/-) mice, blocking of EDH or soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), in addition to NOS inhibition, decreased EDR by 36 and 30%, respectively. The activation of 4-aminopyridine-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv) during EDR was increased in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) compared with WT mice. We conclude that increasing eET-1 in mice that develop atherosclerosis results in decreased mutual dependence of endothelial signaling pathways responsible for EDR, and that NOS-independent activation of sGC and increased activation of Kv are responsible for enhanced EDR in this model of atherosclerosis associated with elevated endothelial and circulating ET-1.

  5. Picosecond kinetics of the electron-hole layers formation in wide-bandgap II-VI type-II heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filatov, E.V.; Zaitsev, S.V.; Tartakovskii, I.I.; Maksimov, A.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, D.R. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Experimentelle Physik II, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig Technical University, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Considerable slowdown of luminescence kinetics of the direct optical transition was discovered in ZnSe/BeTe type-II heterostructures under high levels of optical pumping. The effect is attributed to forming of a potential barrier for holes in the ZnSe layer due to band bending at high densities of spatially separated carriers. That results in a longer time of the photoexcited holes energy relaxation to their ground state in the BeTe layer. The decrease of overlapping of electron and hole wavefunctions in the ZnSe layer in thick ZnSe/BeTe structures at high levels of optical excitation reveals an additional important effect, that leads to sufficient retardation of radiative recombination time for photoexcited carriers (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Dynamical 3-Space: Black Holes in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothall D. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Black holes are usually studied without including effects of the expanding universe. However in some recent studies black holes have been embedded in an expanding universe, in order to determine the interplay, if any, of these two dynamical processes. Dynamical 3-space theory contains time independent solutions for black holes, which are spatial in-flows, and separately the time dependent Hubble expansion. This theory has explained numerous puzzles in observational astrophysics and contains 3 constants; G, - which from experimental data turns out to be the fine structure constant, and - which is a small but nonzero distance, possibly a Planck-type length. The Hubble expansion in the dynamical 3-space theory cannot be “switched o”, forcing the study, first, of isolated black holes coexisting with the expanding universe. It is shown that a time dependent black hole and expanding universe solution exists. The nature and implications of these solutions are discussed as they evolve over time. A dynamical network of black holes and induced linking cosmic filaments forming bubble structures is discussed, as a consequence of dynamical 3-space undergoing a dynamical breakdown of homogeneity and isotropy, even in the absence of baryonic matter.

  7. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  8. Sensitivity of GRETINA position resolution to hole mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasher, V.S. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Cromaz, M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Merchan, E.; Chowdhury, P. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Crawford, H.L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lister, C.J. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Campbell, C.M.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Radford, D.C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wiens, A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The sensitivity of the position resolution of the gamma-ray tracking array GRETINA to the hole charge-carrier mobility parameter is investigated. The χ{sup 2} results from a fit of averaged signal (“superpulse”) data exhibit a shallow minimum for hole mobilities 15% lower than the currently adopted values. Calibration data on position resolution is analyzed, together with simulations that isolate the hole mobility dependence of signal decomposition from other effects such as electronics cross-talk. The results effectively exclude hole mobility as a dominant parameter for improving the position resolution for reconstruction of gamma-ray interaction points in GRETINA.

  9. Correspondence principle for black holes and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Polchinski, J.

    1997-01-01

    For most black holes in string theory, the Schwarzschild radius in string units decreases as the string coupling is reduced. We formulate a correspondence principle, which states that (i) when the size of the horizon drops below the size of a string, the typical black hole state becomes a typical state of strings and D-branes with the same charges, and (ii) the mass does not change abruptly during the transition. This provides a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy. This approach does not yield the numerical coefficient, but gives the correct dependence on mass and charge in a wide range of cases, including neutral black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Strain Rate Dependence of Compressive Yield and Relaxation in DGEBA Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechederra, Gabriel K.; Reprogle, Riley C.; Clarkson, Caitlyn M.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical response in uniaxial compression of two diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxies were studied. These were 828DEA (Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA)) and 828T403 (Epon 828 cured with Jeffamine T-403). Two types of uniaxial compression tests were performed: A) constant strain rate compression and B) constant strain rate compression followed by a constant strain relaxation. The peak (yield) stress was analyzed as a function of strain rate from Eyring theory for activation volume. Runs at different temperatures permitted the construction of a mastercurve, and the resulting shift factors resulted in an activation energy. Strain and hold tests were performed for a low strain rate where a peak stress was lacking and for a higher strain rate where the peak stress was apparent. Relaxation from strains at different places along the stress-strain curve was tracked and compared. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Paramagnetic relaxation effects in perturbed angular correlations for arbitrary electronic relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, C.; Spanjaard, D.; Hartmann-Boutron, F.

    1975-01-01

    Previous perturbation treatments of paramagnetic relaxation effects in γγ PAC were limited to the case of very short electronic relaxation times. This limitation is circumvented by invoking a new perturbation theory recently elaborated by Hirst and others for handling relaxation effects in Moessbauer spectra. Under the assumption of spherical electronic relaxation the perturbation factors are computed as functions of certain relaxation parameters which are directly related to the microscopic relaxation Hamiltonian. The results are compared to those of the stochastic theory of Scherer and Blume [fr

  12. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Kilic, A. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: kilic_a@ibu.edu.tr; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2007-10-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.

  13. Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudari, Sangameshwar R.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV

  14. Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saudari, Sangameshwar R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Kagan, Cherie R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV.

  15. Boosted black holes on Kaluza-Klein bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi; Tomizawa, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    We construct an exact stationary solution of black-hole-bubble sequence in the five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory by using solitonic solution-generating techniques. The solution describes two stationary black holes with topology S 3 on a Kaluza-Klein bubble and has a linear momentum component in the compactified direction. We call the solution boosted black holes on Kaluza-Klein bubble because it has the linear momentum. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass and the linear momentum depend on the two boosted velocity parameters of black holes. In the effective four-dimensional theory, the solution has an electric charge which is proportional to the linear momentum. The solution includes the static solution found by Elvang and Horowitz. The small and the big black holes limits are investigated. The relation between the solution and the single boosted black string are considered

  16. Tibolone and its metabolites acutely relax rabbit coronary arteries in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Susan Helene

    2004-01-01

    under curve (AUC). RESULTS: Tibolone and its metabolites induced a concentration-dependent vasodilatation comparable to that of 17 beta-estradiol with the rank of potency: 3 beta-OH-tibolone approximately = to tibolone>3 alpha-OH-tibolone>Delta 4-isomer (ANOVA). l-NAME partly inhibited the relaxation.......05, ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the acute relaxation induced by tibolone and its metabolites in coronary arteries in vitro are probably mediated by endothelium independent inhibition of calcium channels but may also involve an endothelium-dependent mechanism via nitric oxide. The effect...

  17. Dynamic regulation of GDP binding to G proteins revealed by magnetic field-dependent NMR relaxation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yuki; Kano, Hanaho; Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2017-02-22

    Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signalling pathways, by coupling the activation of cell surface receptors to intracellular responses. Mutations in the G protein α-subunit (Gα) that accelerate guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation cause hyperactivation of the downstream effector proteins, leading to oncogenesis. However, the structural mechanism of the accelerated GDP dissociation has remained unclear. Here, we use magnetic field-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analyses to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of GDP bound Gα on a microsecond timescale. We show that Gα rapidly exchanges between a ground-state conformation, which tightly binds to GDP and an excited conformation with reduced GDP affinity. The oncogenic D150N mutation accelerates GDP dissociation by shifting the equilibrium towards the excited conformation.

  18. Two types of fundamental luminescence of ionization-passive electrons and holes in optical dielectrics—Intraband-electron and interband-hole luminescence (theoretical calculation and comparison with experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisburd, D. I.; Kharitonova, S. V.

    1997-11-01

    A short high-power pulse of ionizing radiation creates a high concentration of nonequilibrium electrons and holes in a dielectric. They quickly lose their energy, generating a multiplicity of secondary quasiparticles: electron—hole pairs, excitons, plasmons, phonons of all types, and others. When the kinetic energy of an electron becomes less that some value EΔ≈(1.3-2)Eg it loses the ability to perform collisional ionization and electron excitations of the dielectric medium. Such an electron is said to be ionization-passive. It relaxes to the bottom of the lower conduction band by emitting phonons. Similarly a hole becomes ionization-passive when it “floats up” above some level EH and loses the ability for Auger ionization of the dielectric medium. It continues to float upward to the ceiling of the upper valance band only by emitting phonons. The concentrations of ionization-passive electrons and holes are larger by several orders of magnitude than those of the active electrons and holes and consequently make of a far larger contribution to many kinetic processes such as luminescence. Intraband and interband quantum transitions make the greatest contribution to the fundamental (independent of impurities and intrinsic defects) electromagnetic radiation of ionization-passive electrons and holes. Consequently the brightest types of purely fundamental luminescence of strongly nonequilibrium electrons and holes are intraband and interband luminescence. These forms of luminescence, discovered relatively recently, carry valuable information on the high-energy states of the electrons in the conduction band and of the holes in the valence band of a dielectric. Experimental investigations of these types of luminescence were made, mainly on alkali halide crystals which were excited by nanoseconal pulses of high-current-density electrons and by two-photon absorption of the ultraviolet harmonics of pulsed laser radiation beams of nanosecond and picosecond duration. The

  19. Topology Synthesis of Structures Using Parameter Relaxation and Geometric Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    Typically, structural topology optimization problems undergo relaxation of certain design parameters to allow the existence of intermediate variable optimum topologies. Relaxation permits the use of a variety of gradient-based search techniques and has been shown to guarantee the existence of optimal solutions and eliminate mesh dependencies. This Technical Publication (TP) will demonstrate the application of relaxation to a control point discretization of the design workspace for the structural topology optimization process. The control point parameterization with subdivision has been offered as an alternative to the traditional method of discretized finite element design domain. The principle of relaxation demonstrates the increased utility of the control point parameterization. One of the significant results of the relaxation process offered in this TP is that direct manufacturability of the optimized design will be maintained without the need for designer intervention or translation. In addition, it will be shown that relaxation of certain parameters may extend the range of problems that can be addressed; e.g., in permitting limited out-of-plane motion to be included in a path generation problem.

  20. Charged de Sitter-like black holes: quintessence-dependent enthalpy and new extreme solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    We consider Reissner-Nordstroem black holes surrounded by quintessence where both a non-extremal event horizon and a cosmological horizon exist besides an inner horizon (-1 ≤ ω < -1/3). We determine new extreme black hole solutions that generalize the Nariai horizon to asymptotically de Sitter-like solutions for any order relation between the squares of the charge q{sup 2} and the mass parameter M{sup 2} provided q{sup 2} remains smaller than some limit, which is larger than M{sup 2}. In the limit case q{sup 2} = 9ω{sup 2}M{sup 2}/(9ω{sup 2}-1), we derive the general expression of the extreme cosmo-blackhole, where the three horizons merge, and we discuss some of its properties.We also show that the endpoint of the evaporation process is independent of any order relation between q{sup 2} and M{sup 2}. The Teitelboim energy and the Padmanabhan energy are related by a nonlinear expression and are shown to correspond to different ensembles. We also determine the enthalpy H of the event horizon, as well as the effective thermodynamic volume which is the conjugate variable of the negative quintessential pressure, and show that in general the mass parameter and the Teitelboim energy are different from the enthalpy and internal energy; only in the cosmological case, that is, for Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter black hole we have H = M. Generalized Smarr formulas are also derived. It is concluded that the internal energy has a universal expression for all static charged black holes, with possibly a variable mass parameter, but it is not a suitable thermodynamic potential for static-black-hole thermodynamics if M is constant. It is also shown that the reverse isoperimetric inequality holds. We generalize the results to the case of the Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter black hole surrounded by quintessence with two physical constants yielding two thermodynamic volumes. (orig.)

  1. F{sup 19} relaxation in non-magnetic hexafluorides; Contribution a l'etude de la relaxation des fluors dans les hexafluorures non magnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigny, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    The interesting properties of the fluorine magnetic resonance in the hexafluorides of molybdenum, tungsten and uranium, are very much due to large anisotropies of the chemical shift tensors. In the solid phases these anisotropies, the values of which are deduced from line shape studies, allow one to show that the molecules undergo hindered rotations about the metal atom. The temperature and frequency dependence of the fluorine longitudinal relaxation times shows that the relaxation is due to the molecular motion. The dynamical parameters of this motion are then deduced from the complete study of the fluorine relaxation in the rotating frame. In the liquid phases, the existence of anisotropies allows an estimation of the different contributions to the relaxation. In particular, the frequency and temperature dependence of the relaxation shows it to be dominated by the spin-rotation interaction. We have shown that the strength of this interaction can be deduced from the chemical shifts, and the angle through which the molecule rotates quasi-freely can be determined. In the hexafluorides, this angle is roughly one radian at 70 C, and with the help of this value, the friction coefficients which describe the intermolecular interactions are discussed. (author) [French] Les proprietes de la resonance magnetique des fluors dans les hexafluorures de molybdene, tungstene et uranium sont influencees par l'existence de deplacements chimiques tres anisotropes. Dans les phases solides, la valeur de cette anisotropie peut etre determinee par l'analyse des formes de raies et son existence permet de montrer que les molecules sont en rotation empechee autour de leur atome central. L'etude du temps de relaxation longitudinal en fonction de la temperature et de la frequence montre que la relaxation est due aux mouvements moleculaires, aux plus hautes temperatures. Les proprietes dynamiques du mouvement sont obtenues par l'etude complete de la relaxation spin-reseau dans le referentiel

  2. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  3. Communication: Relaxation-limited electronic currents in extended reservoir simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Daniel; Smolyanitsky, Alex; Zwolak, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Open-system approaches are gaining traction in the simulation of charge transport in nanoscale and molecular electronic devices. In particular, "extended reservoir" simulations, where explicit reservoir degrees of freedom are present, allow for the computation of both real-time and steady-state properties but require relaxation of the extended reservoirs. The strength of this relaxation, γ, influences the conductance, giving rise to a "turnover" behavior analogous to Kramers turnover in chemical reaction rates. We derive explicit, general expressions for the weak and strong relaxation limits. For weak relaxation, the conductance increases linearly with γ and every electronic state of the total explicit system contributes to the electronic current according to its "reduced" weight in the two extended reservoir regions. Essentially, this represents two conductors in series—one at each interface with the implicit reservoirs that provide the relaxation. For strong relaxation, a "dual" expression-one with the same functional form-results, except now proportional to 1/γ and dependent on the system of interest's electronic states, reflecting that the strong relaxation is localizing electrons in the extended reservoirs. Higher order behavior (e.g., γ2 or 1/γ2) can occur when there is a gap in the frequency spectrum. Moreover, inhomogeneity in the frequency spacing can give rise to a pseudo-plateau regime. These findings yield a physically motivated approach to diagnosing numerical simulations and understanding the influence of relaxation, and we examine their occurrence in both simple models and a realistic, fluctuating graphene nanoribbon.

  4. Orientation dependence in collision induced electronic relaxation studied through van der Waals complexes with isomeric structures. Invited feature article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, P.Y.; Lapierre, L.; Ju, S.S.; DeRose, P.; Dai, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Weakly bound molecular complexes with more than one well-defined structures provide us with an unique opportunity to investigate dynamic processes induced by intermolecular interactions with specific orientations. The relative orientation of the two interacting molecules or atoms is defined by the complex structure. The effect of the orientation in the spin changing collisions glyoxal (S 1 ) + Ar → glyoxal (T 1 ) + Ar and acetylene (S 1 ) + Ar → acetylene (T) + Ar have been studied by measuring the intersystem crossing (ISC) rates of the glyoxal(S 1 ).Ar and acetylene(S 1 ).Ar complexes with different isomeric structures. Results show that there is a strong orientation dependence in the ISC of glyoxal(S 1 ) induced by interaction with the Ar atom: the Ar atom positioned in the molecular plane is much more effective than in the out-of-plane position in inducing the S 1 → T 1 transition of glyoxal. On the other hand, studies of acetylene(S 1 ).Ar complexes indicate that the Ar-induced ISC rates are nearly identical for the in-plane and out-of-plane positions. Orientation dependence in the collision induced vibrational relaxation process C 2 H 2 (S 1 , v i ) + Ar → C 2 H 2 (S 1 , v f i ) + Ar is also studied by measuring the vibrational predissociation rates of the acetylene(S 1 ).Ar complex isomers. The results indicate that collisions of C 2 H 2 (S 1 , v 3 = 3, 4) with Ar at two orthogonal orientations are equally effective in causing vibrational relaxation of C 2 H 2 . (orig.)

  5. A wrinkling-based method for investigating glassy polymer film relaxation as a function of film thickness and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Young; Douglas, Jack F; Stafford, Christopher M

    2017-10-21

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of thin polymer films at temperatures below the bulk glass transition T g by first compressing polystyrene films supported on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate to create wrinkling patterns and then observing the slow relaxation of the wrinkled films back to their final equilibrium flat state by small angle light scattering. As with recent relaxation measurements on thin glassy films reported by Fakhraai and co-workers, we find the relaxation time of our wrinkled films to be strongly dependent on film thickness below an onset thickness on the order of 100 nm. By varying the temperature between room temperature and T g (≈100 °C), we find that the relaxation time follows an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence to a good approximation at all film thicknesses investigated, where both the activation energy and the relaxation time pre-factor depend appreciably on film thickness. The wrinkling relaxation curves tend to cross at a common temperature somewhat below T g , indicating an entropy-enthalpy compensation relation between the activation free energy parameters. This compensation effect has also been observed recently in simulated supported polymer films in the high temperature Arrhenius relaxation regime rather than the glassy state. In addition, we find that the film stress relaxation function, as well as the height of the wrinkle ridges, follows a stretched exponential time dependence and the short-time effective Young's modulus derived from our modeling decreases sigmoidally with increasing temperature-both characteristic features of glassy materials. The relatively facile nature of the wrinkling-based measurements in comparison to other film relaxation measurements makes our method attractive for practical materials development, as well as fundamental studies of glass formation.

  6. Multi-Phonon Relaxation of H^- Local Modes in CaF_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, C. P.; Happek, U.; Campbell, J. A.; Engholm, J. R.; Schwettman, H. A.

    1998-03-01

    Local modes play an important role in the relaxation of vibrational modes of small molecules in solids (J.R. Engholm, C.W. Rella, H.A. Schwettman, and U. Happek; Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 1302 (1996)., but only few attempts have been reported to study the relaxation of these local modes. Here we report on experiments to investigate the non-radiative relaxation of H^- local modes in CaF_2. Using a pump-probe technique, saturation experiments on the H^- local modes, both interstitial and substitutional, were performed at the Stanford Free Electron Laser Center. At low temperature we find a relaxation time T1 of 45 psec for the substitutional H^- local mode, and a more rapid relaxation for the interstitial H^- local modes next to La^3+ and Lu^3+ impurities. Information on the decay channels of the local modes are obtained from the characteristic temperature dependence of the relaxation rates. This work is supported in part by the ONR, Grant No. N00014-94-1024.

  7. ENHANCED TIDAL DISRUPTION RATES FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xian; Liu, F. K.; Madau, Piero; Sesana, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    'Hard' massive black hole (MBH) binaries embedded in steep stellar cusps can shrink via three-body slingshot interactions. We show that this process will inevitably be accompanied by a burst of stellar tidal disruptions, at a rate that can be several orders of magnitude larger than that appropriate for a single MBH. Our numerical scattering experiments reveal that (1) a significant fraction of stars initially bound to the primary hole are scattered into its tidal disruption loss cone by gravitational interactions with the secondary hole, an enhancement effect that is more pronounced for very unequal mass binaries; (2) about 25% (40%) of all strongly interacting stars are tidally disrupted by an MBH binary of mass ratio q = 1/81 (q = 1/243) and eccentricity 0.1; and (3) two mechanisms dominate the fueling of the tidal disruption loss cone, a Kozai nonresonant interaction that causes the secular evolution of the stellar angular momentum in the field of the binary, and the effect of close encounters with the secondary hole that change the stellar orbital parameters in a chaotic way. For a hard MBH binary of 10 7 M sun and mass ratio 10 -2 , embedded in an isothermal stellar cusp of velocity dispersion σ * = 100 km s -1 , the tidal disruption rate can be as large as N-dot * ∼1 yr -1 . This is 4 orders of magnitude higher than estimated for a single MBH fed by two-body relaxation. When applied to the case of a putative intermediate-mass black hole inspiraling onto Sgr A*, our results predict tidal disruption rates N-dot * ∼0.05-0.1 yr -1 .

  8. AdS Black Hole with Phantom Scalar Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an AdS black hole solution with Ricci flat horizon in Einstein-phantom scalar theory. The phantom scalar fields just depend on the transverse coordinates x and y, which are parameterized by the parameter α. We study the thermodynamics of the AdS phantom black hole. Although its horizon is a Ricci flat Euclidean space, we find that the thermodynamical properties of the black hole solution are qualitatively the same as those of AdS Schwarzschild black hole. Namely, there exists a minimal temperature and the large black hole is thermodynamically stable, while the smaller one is unstable, so there is a so-called Hawking-Page phase transition between the large black hole and the thermal gas solution in the AdS space-time in Poincare coordinates. We also calculate the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry dual to the AdS phantom black holes and find that the behavior of the entanglement entropy is qualitatively the same as that of the black hole thermodynamical entropy.

  9. Thermal fluctuations of dilaton black holes in gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, thermodynamics and phase transition of some new dilaton black hole solutions have been explored in the presence of the rainbow functions. By introducing an energy dependent space time, the dilaton potential has been obtained as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials and three new classes of black hole solutions have been constructed. The conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the new dilaton black holes have been calculated in the energy dependent space times. It has been shown that, even if some of the thermodynamic quantities are affected by the rainbow functions, the thermodynamical first law still remains valid. Also, the impacts of rainbow functions on the stability or phase transition of the new black hole solutions have been investigated. Finally, the quantum gravitational effects on the thermodynamics and phase transition of the solutions have been studied through consideration of the thermal fluctuations.

  10. Relaxed plasma-vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Lortz, D.; Kaiser, R.

    2001-01-01

    Taylor's theory of relaxed toroidal plasmas (states of lowest energy with fixed total magnetic helicity) is extended to include a vacuum between the plasma and the wall. In the extended variational problem, one prescribes, in addition to the helicity and the magnetic fluxes whose conservation follows from the perfect conductivity of the wall, the fluxes whose conservation follows from the assumption that the plasma-vacuum interface is also perfectly conducting (if the wall is a magnetic surface, then one has the toroidal and the poloidal flux in the vacuum). Vanishing of the first energy variation implies a pressureless free-boundary magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with a Beltrami magnetic field in the plasma, and in general with a surface current in the interface. Positivity of the second variation implies that the equilibrium is stable according to ideal magnetohydrodynamics, that it is a relaxed state according to Taylor's theory if the interface is replaced by a wall, and that the surface current is nonzero (at least if there are no closed magnetic field lines in the interface). The plane slab, with suitable boundary conditions to simulate a genuine torus, is investigated in detail. The relaxed state has the same double symmetry as the vessel if, and only if, the prescribed helicity is in an interval that depends on the prescribed fluxes. This interval is determined in the limit of a thin slab

  11. Bulk viscosity of strongly interacting matter in the relaxation time approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Hauksson, Sigtryggur; Shen, Chun; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2018-04-01

    We show how thermal mean field effects can be incorporated consistently in the hydrodynamical modeling of heavy-ion collisions. The nonequilibrium correction to the distribution function resulting from a temperature-dependent mass is obtained in a procedure which automatically satisfies the Landau matching condition and is thermodynamically consistent. The physics of the bulk viscosity is studied here for Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein gases within the Chapman-Enskog and 14-moment approaches in the relaxation time approximation. Constant and temperature-dependent masses are considered in turn. It is shown that, in the small mass limit, both methods lead to the same value of the ratio of the bulk viscosity to its relaxation time. The inclusion of a temperature-dependent mass leads to the emergence of the βλ function in that ratio, and it is of the expected parametric form for the Boltzmann gas, while for the Bose-Einstein case it is affected by the infrared cutoff. This suggests that the relaxation time approximation may be too crude to obtain a reliable form of ζ /τR for gases obeying Bose-Einstein statistics.

  12. Relaxation processes and structural transformations in amorphous Co-Fe-Si-B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dus-Sitek, M.; Olszowski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The thermostimulated electron emission (TSEE) method was applied for determination of relaxation and crystallization processes in amorphous alloys. By using the analogy of DTA-method, the activation energy of relaxation and crystallization processes has been determined from the measurements of changes of TSEE temperature maxima depending on the heating rate

  13. Ferromagnetism versus slow paramagnetic relaxation in Fe-doped Li3N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, M.; Jesche, A.; Jantz, S. G.; Bräuninger, S. A.; Klauss, H.-H.; Manna, R. S.; Pietsch, I. M.; Höppe, H. A.; Canfield, P. C.

    2018-02-01

    We report on isothermal magnetization, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetostriction as well as temperature-dependent alternating-current (ac) susceptibility, specific heat, and thermal expansion of single crystalline and polycrystalline Li2(Li1 -xFex) N with x =0 and x ≈0.30 . Magnetic hysteresis emerges at temperatures below T ≈50 K with coercivity fields of up to μ0H =11.6 T at T =2 K and magnetic anisotropy energies of 310 K (27 meV). The ac susceptibility is strongly frequency-dependent (f =10 -10 000 Hz) and reveals an effective energy barrier for spin reversal of Δ E ≈1100 K (90 meV). The relaxation times follow Arrhenius behavior for T >25 K . For T <10 K , however, the relaxation times of τ ≈1010 s are only weakly temperature-dependent, indicating the relevance of a quantum tunneling process instead of thermal excitations. The magnetic entropy amounts to more than 25 J molFe-1 K-1, which significantly exceeds R ln 2 , the value expected for the entropy of a ground-state doublet. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction indicate a weak magnetoelastic coupling in accordance with slow relaxation of the magnetization. The classification of Li2(Li1 -xFex) N as ferromagnet is stressed and contrasted with highly anisotropic and slowly relaxing paramagnetic behavior.

  14. Ab initio relaxation times and time-dependent Hamiltonians within the steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilki; von Spakovsky, Michael R.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum systems driven by time-dependent Hamiltonians are considered here within the framework of steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT) and used to study the thermodynamic characteristics of such systems. In doing so, a generalization of the SEAQT framework valid for all such systems is provided, leading to the development of an ab initio physically relevant expression for the intrarelaxation time, an important element of this framework and one that had as of yet not been uniquely determined as an integral part of the theory. The resulting expression for the relaxation time is valid as well for time-independent Hamiltonians as a special case and makes the description provided by the SEAQT framework more robust at the fundamental level. In addition, the SEAQT framework is used to help resolve a fundamental issue of thermodynamics in the quantum domain, namely, that concerning the unique definition of process-dependent work and heat functions. The developments presented lead to the conclusion that this framework is not just an alternative approach to thermodynamics in the quantum domain but instead one that uniquely sheds new light on various fundamental but as of yet not completely resolved questions of thermodynamics.

  15. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette D Rieg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH. However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs and humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL. RESULTS: In the IPL (GP, milrinone (10 µM lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP, milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120% and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823, adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536 and protein kinase A (KT 5720, but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME. In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%, however only if pre-constricted. DISCUSSION: Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  16. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Annette D; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  17. Solid state dewetting and stress relaxation in a thin single crystalline Ni film on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, E.; Amram, D.; Alster, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we deposited a 80 nm thick single crystalline Ni film on a sapphire substrate. Heat treatment of this film at 1000 °C followed by slow cooling resulted in the formation of faceted holes, star-like channel instabilities and faceted microwires. The ridges at the rims of faceted holes and channels exhibited a twinning orientation relationship with the rest of the film. A sub-nanometer-high hexagonal topography pattern on the surface of the unperturbed film was observed by atomic force microscopy. No such pattern was observed on the top facets of isolated Ni particles and hole ridges. We discuss the observed dewetting patterns in terms of the effects of Ni surface anisotropy and faceting on solid state dewetting. The hexagonal pattern on the surface of the unperturbed film was attributed to thermal stress relaxation in the film via dislocations glide. This work demonstrates that solid state dewetting of single crystalline metal films can be utilized for film patterning and for producing hierarchical surface topographies

  18. Spin relaxation in InGaN quantum disks in GaN nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Banerjee, Animesh; Dog,; Heo, Junseok; Manchon, Aurelien; Guo, Wei; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    2011-01-01

    The spin relaxation time of photoinduced conduction electrons has been measured in InGaN quantum disks in GaN nanowires as a function of temperature and In composition in the disks. The relaxation times are of the order of ∼100 ps at 300 K and are weakly dependent on temperature. Theoretical considerations show that the Elliott-Yafet scattering mechanism is essentially absent in these materials and the results are interpreted in terms of the D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation mechanism in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling of the wurtzite structure. The calculated spin relaxation times are in good agreement with the measured values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Suppression of Dyakonov-Perel Spin Relaxation in High-Mobility n-GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhioev, R. I.; Kavokin, K. V.; Korenev, V. L.; Lazarev, M. V.; Poletaev, N. K.; Zakharchenya, B. P.; Stinaff, E. A.; Gammon, D.; Bracker, A. S.; Ware, M. E.

    2004-11-01

    We report a large and unexpected suppression of the free electron spin-relaxation in lightly doped n-GaAs bulk crystals. The spin-relaxation rate shows a weak mobility dependence and saturates at a level 30 times less than that predicted by the Dyakonov-Perel theory. The dynamics of the spin-orbit field differs substantially from the usual scheme: although all the experimental data can be self-consistently interpreted as a precessional spin-relaxation induced by a random spin-orbit field, the correlation time of this random field, surprisingly, is much shorter than, and is independent of, the momentum relaxation time determined from transport measurements.

  20. Spin relaxation in InGaN quantum disks in GaN nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Banerjee, Animesh

    2011-12-14

    The spin relaxation time of photoinduced conduction electrons has been measured in InGaN quantum disks in GaN nanowires as a function of temperature and In composition in the disks. The relaxation times are of the order of ∼100 ps at 300 K and are weakly dependent on temperature. Theoretical considerations show that the Elliott-Yafet scattering mechanism is essentially absent in these materials and the results are interpreted in terms of the D\\'yakonov-Perel\\' relaxation mechanism in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling of the wurtzite structure. The calculated spin relaxation times are in good agreement with the measured values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Pomegranate Extract Enhances Endothelium-Dependent Coronary Relaxation in Isolated Perfused Hearts from Spontaneously Hypertensive Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Nathalie T. B.; Rouver, Wender do N.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; de Paula, Tiago D.-C.; Duarte, Andressa; Silva, Josiane F.; Lemos, Virgínia S.; Santos, Alexandre M. C.; Mauad, Helder; Santos, Roger L.; Moysés, Margareth R.

    2017-01-01

    prevented the decreasing in plasmatic nitrite. We observed a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL in the Sham-PHE group. The treatment with PHE enhances the endothelium-dependent coronary relaxation and improves cardiovascular parameters, which suggests a therapeutic role of PHE. PMID:28101057

  2. Thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole where the metric depends on the energy of the test particle. Identifying the black hole temperature with the energy from the modified dispersion relation, we obtain the modified entropy and thermodynamic energy along with the modified local temperature in the cavity to provide well defined black hole states. It is found that apart from the conventional critical temperature related to Hawking-Page phase transition there appears an additional critical temperature which is of relevance to the existence of a locally stable tiny black hole; however, the off-shell free energy tells us that this black hole should eventually tunnel into the stable large black hole. Finally, we discuss the reason why the temperature near the horizon is finite in the rainbow black hole by employing the running gravitational coupling constant, whereas it is divergent near the horizon in the ordinary Schwarzschild black hole

  3. Dressed Hard States and Black Hole Soft Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Porrati, Massimo

    2016-11-18

    A recent, intriguing Letter by Hawking, Perry, and Strominger suggests that soft photons and gravitons can be regarded as black hole hair and may be relevant to the black hole information paradox. In this Letter we make use of factorization theorems for infrared divergences of the S matrix to argue that by appropriately dressing in and out hard states, the soft-quanta-dependent part of the S matrix becomes essentially trivial. The information paradox can be fully formulated in terms of dressed hard states, which do not depend on soft quanta.

  4. Spin Interaction under the Collision of Two Kerr-(Anti-de Sitter Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogeun Gwak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate herein the spin interaction during collisions between Kerr-(anti-de Sitter black holes. The spin interaction potential depends on the relative rotation directions of the black holes, and this potential can be released as gravitational radiation upon collision. The energy of the radiation depends on the cosmological constant and corresponds to the spin interaction potential in the limit that one of the black holes has negligibly small mass and angular momentum. We then determine the approximate overall behaviors of the upper bounds on the radiation using thermodynamics. The results indicate that the spin interaction can consistently contribute to the radiation. In addition, the radiation depends on the stability of the black hole produced by the collision.

  5. Difference Principle and Black-hole Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Pete

    2009-01-01

    The heuristic principle that constructive dynamics may arise wherever there exists a difference, or gradient, is discussed. Consideration of black-hole entropy appears to provide a clue for setting a lower bound on any extensive measure of such collective system difference, or potential to give rise to constructive dynamics. It is seen that the second-power dependence of black-hole entropy on mass is consistent with the difference principle, while consideration of Hawking radiation forces one...

  6. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  7. Perceptual organization reconsidered in the light of the watercolor illusion: The problem of perception of holes and the object-hole effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Tanca, Maria

    2008-05-23

    The watercolor illusion is a long-range color assimilation (coloration effect) imparting a figure-ground segregation (figural effect) across large enclosed areas (B. Pinna, 1987; B. Pinna, G. Brelstaff, & L. Spillmann, 2001; B. Pinna, L. Spillmann, & J. S. Werner, 2003; B. Pinna, J. S. Werner, & L. Spillmann, 2003). The watercolored figure has a very poorly reversible or univocal figure-ground segregation and strongly enhances the unilateral belongingness of the boundaries (E. Rubin, 1915), a principle stating that the boundaries belong only to the figure and not to the background. The figural effect determines grouping and figure-ground segregation more strongly than the well-known Gestalt principles. Under watercolor conditions both the figure and the background assume new properties becoming respectively bulging object and hole both with a 3-D volumetric appearance (object-hole effect). Our purposes were: (i) to demonstrate that the hole induced by the watercolor illusion has unique figural properties comparable to those of the object and not present in the background induced by the known figure-ground principles; (ii) to demonstrate a dissociation of the object-hole effect from the coloration one; (iii) to demonstrate that the object-hole effect depends on a new principle. This was psychophysically tested by weakening (ungrouping) the whole figural organization of the watercolor illusion, i.e. by imparting motion to only some components of a stimulus, while other components remain stationary. The results showed that (i) subjects perceived moving holes more strongly than moving figures or objects enlarging and shrinking. (ii) Paradoxically, moving holes appear more as figures than the bulging surfaces. (iii) When motion was imparted to components that while stationary were perceived as objects, their figurality is further enhanced (summation effect). (iv) When object-hole and coloration effects were dissociated no significant difference compared to illusory

  8. Coulomb drag in electron-hole bilayer: Mass-asymmetry and exchange correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Priya; Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment by Zheng et al. [App. Phys. Lett. 108, 062102 (2016)] on coulomb drag in electron-hole and hole-hole bilayers based on GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructure, we investigate theoretically the influence of mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations on the drag rate. The correlation effects are dealt with using the Vignale-Singwi effective inter-layer interaction model which includes correlations through local-field corrections to the bare coulomb interactions. However, in this work, we have incorporated only the intra-layer correlations using the temperature-dependent Hubbard approximation. Our results display a reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. However, it is crucial to include both the electron-hole mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations. Mass-asymmetry and correlations are found to result in a substantial enhancement of drag resistivity.

  9. Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on Relaxation in Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (ESB relaxes penile corpus cavernosum muscle in organ bath experiments. Materials and methods. Changes in tension of cavernous smooth muscle strips were determined by penile strip chamber model and in penile perfusion model. Isolated endothelium-intact rabbit corpus cavernosum was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE and then treated with ESB. Results. ESB relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, and this was inhibited by pre-treatment with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor, and 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC inhibitor. ESB-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA, a nonselective K+ channel blocker, and charybdotoxin, a selective Ca2+-dependent K+ channel inhibitor. ESB increased the cGMP levels of rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in cAMP levels. In a perfusion model of penile tissue, ESB also relaxed penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB relaxed rabbit cavernous smooth muscle via the NO/cGMP system and Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in the corpus cavernosum.

  10. Tensile, creep and relaxation characteristics of zircaloy cladding at 3850C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, K.L.; McDonald, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    Axial creep tests were carried out at stresses ranging form 30 ksi to 50 ksi. Steady-state creep rates were evaluated from stress change tests to minimize the number of samples. The secondary creep rate was related to the applied stress through a Sinh function. The functional dependence of the strain rate on the stress was also evaluated from load relaxation tests. It is demonstrated that the strain rates derived from load relaxation tests are identical to the creep data when the relaxation testing was carried out at the point of maximum load in a tensile test. In addition, the creep and relaxation results are identical to the true ultimate tensile stress versus applied strain-rate data derived from tensile tests. (orig./HP)

  11. Safety factor profile dependence of turbulent structure formation in relevant to internal transport barrier relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, S.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is widely understood that the improved confinement mode with transport barrier is necessary to achieve the self-ignition condition in ITER. The negative magnetic shear, mean ExB flow shear, and zonal flow are considered to play important roles for ITB formation. In our previous study, it is found that the non-linear interaction between the meso-scale modes produces non-local energy transfer to the off-resonant mode in the vicinity of q min surface and brings global relaxation of the temperature profile involving ITB collapse. Experimental studies indicate that a relationship exists between the ITB formation and safety factor q-profile, with a reversed magnetic shear (RS) configuration. Transitional ITB events occur on the low-order rational resonant surface. The ITB shape and location depend on the q-profile and q min position. These observations indicate that the q-profile might play an essential role in determining the turbulent structure. In this study, the effect of safety factor profile on the ion temperature gradient driven drift wave (ITG) turbulence is investigated using a global non-linear simulation code based on the gyro-fluid model. A heat source and toroidal momentum source are introduced. Dependence of safety factor profiles on ITB formation and its stability is examined to clarify the influence of the radial distribution of the rational surfaces and the q min value. It is found that the nonlinearly excited meso-scale mode in the vicinity of q min depends on the value of q min . A detailed analysis of the structure selection rule is in progress. (author)

  12. Fermionic greybody factors in dilaton black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, Jahed; Arfaei, Hessamaddin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the question of the emission of fermions in the process of dilaton black hole evolution and its characteristics for different dilaton coupling constants α are studied. The main quantity of interest, the greybody factors, are calculated both numerically and in analytical approximation. The dependence of the rates of evaporation and behaviour on the dilaton coupling constant is analysed. Having calculated the greybody factors, we are able to address the question of the final fate of the dilaton black hole. For that we also need to perform dynamical treatment of the solution by considering the backreaction, which will show a crucial effect on the final result. We find a transition line in the (Q/M,α) plane that separates the two regimes for the fate of the black hole, decay regime and extremal regime. In the decay regime the black hole completely evaporates, while in the extremal regime the black hole approaches the extremal limit by radiation and becomes stable. (paper)

  13. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J S

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia per unit mass. In the regime of large moment of inertia the fast relaxation is wave-vector independent and dominated by the coupling between spin and the fluid streaming velocity, whereas for small inertia the relaxation is slow and spin diffusion plays a significant role. The fast wave-vector-independent relaxation is also observed for highly packed systems. The transverse and longitudinal spin modes have, to a good approximation, identical relaxation, indicating that the longitudinal and transverse spin viscosities have same value. The relaxation is also shown to be isomorphic invariant. Finally, the effect of the coupling in the zero frequency and wave-vector limit is quantified by a characteristic length scale; if the system dimension is comparable to this length the coupling must be included into the fluid dynamical description. It is found that the length scale is independent of moment of inertia but dependent on the state point.

  14. PMR spectra and proton magnetic relaxation in uranyl nitrate-hexamethylenetetramine-urea-water gel forming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashman, A.A.; Pronin, I.S.; Brylkina, T.V.; Makarov, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    PMR spectra and proton relaxation in the nitrate-hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-urea-water gelling system are studied. According to PMR spectra products of HMTA chemical decomposition, which are supposed to be formed in the gelling process, have not been detected. Effect of hydrogen exchange upon PMR spectra of urea and water in the presence of HMTA and uranyl nitrate is studied. Periods of spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxations of water and HMTA protons in gels on the base of uranyl nitrate are found. Data on relaxation permitted to make qualitative conclusions upon the gel structure and HMTA molecule distribution over ''phases''. Nonproducibility of the results of period measurements in gels is the result of nonproducibility of the gel structure in the course of transformation of liquid solution into gel. Temperature dependences of proton relaxation in the gels are impossible yet to interpret on the basis of temperature behaviour of one correlation period, controlling dipole-dipole nuclear magnetic relaxation, and obeying Arrhenius dependence on the temperature

  15. Aspects of noncommutative (1+1)-dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mureika, Jonas R.; Nicolini, Piero

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spacetime structure and thermodynamics of (1+1)-dimensional black holes in a noncommutative framework. It is shown that a wider variety of solutions are possible than the commutative case considered previously in the literature. As expected, the introduction of a minimal length √(θ) cures singularity pathologies that plague the standard two-dimensional general relativistic case, where the latter solution is recovered at large length scales. Depending on the choice of input parameters (black hole mass M, cosmological constant Λ, etc.), black hole solutions with zero, up to six, horizons are possible. The associated thermodynamics allows for the either complete evaporation, or the production of black hole remnants.

  16. Eternal higher spin black holes: a thermofield Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Alejandra; Iqbal, Nabil; Llabrés, Eva

    2016-01-01

    We study Lorentzian eternal black holes in the Chern-Simons sector of AdS 3 higher spin gravity. We probe such black holes using bulk Wilson lines and motivate new regularity conditions that must be obeyed by the bulk connections in order for the geometry to be consistent with an interpretation as a thermofield state in the dual CFT 2 . We demonstrate that any higher spin black hole may be placed in a gauge that satisfies these conditions: this is the Chern-Simons analogue of the construction of Kruskal coordinates that permit passage through the black hole horizon. We also argue that the Wilson line provides a higher-spin notion of causality in higher spin gravity that can be used to associate a Penrose diagram with the black hole. We present some applications of the formalism, including a study of the time-dependent entanglement entropy arising from the higher spin black hole interior and evidence for an emergent AdS 2 region in the extremal limit.

  17. Dirac Particles Emission from An Elliptical Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuant Tiandho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the general theory of relativiy, a black hole is defined as a region of spacetime with super-strong gravitational effects and there is nothing can escape from it. So in the classical theory of relativity, it is safe to say that black hole is a "dead" thermodynamical object. However, by using quantum mechanics theory, Hawking has shown that a black hole may emit particles. In this paper, calculation of temperature of an elliptical black hole when emitting the Dirac particles was presented. By using the complexpath method, radiation can be described as emission process in the tunneling pictures. According to relationship between probability of outgoing particle with the spectrum of black body radiation for fermion particles, temperature of the elliptical black hole can be obtained and it depend on the azimuthal angle. This result also showed that condition on the surface of elliptical black hole is not in thermal equilibrium.

  18. Problem of mathematical deduction of the existence of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Shun Chin

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical proof of existence of Black Hole is based on the assumption of mass being independent of speed. Considering the effect of special relativity of the dependence of mass with speed there is no Black hole.

  19. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  20. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-18

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  1. Many-body dynamics of holes in a driven, dissipative spin chain of Rydberg superatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Fabian; Petrosyan, David; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Strong, long-range interactions between atoms in high-lying Rydberg states can suppress multiple Rydberg excitations within a micron-sized trapping volume and yield sizable Rydberg level shifts at larger distances. Ensembles of atoms in optical microtraps then form Rydberg superatoms with collectively enhanced transition rates to the singly excited state. These superatoms can represent mesoscopic, strongly interacting spins. We study a regular array of such effective spins driven by a laser field tuned to compensate the interaction-induced level shifts between neighboring superatoms. During the initial transient, a few excited superatoms seed a cascade of resonantly facilitated excitation of large clusters of superatoms. Due to spontaneous decay, the system then relaxes to the steady state having nearly universal Rydberg excitation density {ρ }{{R}}=2/3. This state is characterized by highly non-trivial equilibrium dynamics of quasi-particles—excitation holes in the lattice of Rydberg excited superatoms. We derive an effective many-body model that accounts for hole mobility as well as continuous creation and annihilation of holes upon collisions with each other. We find that holes exhibit a nearly incompressible liquid phase with highly sub-Poissonian number statistics and finite-range density-density correlations.

  2. Mechanical torques generated by optically pumped atomic spin relaxation at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that a valuable method of observing certain types of surface-atom interactions may lie in mechanical torques generated through the spin-orbit relaxation of valence electronic spins of optically pumped atoms at surfaces. The unusual feature of this phenomenon is that the less probable spin-orbit relaxation becomes highly visible as compared with the much more rapid paramagnetic relaxation, because of an enhancement, typically by as much as a factor 10 9 , in the torques delivered to mechanical structures, by virtue of a very large effective moment arm. Spin-orbit relaxation operates through an exchange of translational momentum which, in turn, can be identified with the delivery of a gigantic angular momentum (in units of h) relative to a distant axis about which mechanical motion is referred. The spin-orbit relaxation strongly depends upon the atomic number of the surface atoms and the strength of interaction with the optically pumped atoms. Being dominated by high-atomic-number surface atoms, spin-orbit relaxation rates may not be too strongly influenced by minor surface contamination of lighter-weight optically active atoms

  3. Mechanical torques generated by optically pumped atomic spin relaxation at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R. M.

    1982-03-01

    It is argued that a valuable method of observing certain types of surface-atom interactions may lie in mechanical torques generated through the spin-orbit relaxation of valence electronic spins of optically pumped atoms at surfaces. The unusual feature of this phenomenon is that the less probable spin-orbit relaxation becomes highly visible as compared with the much more rapid paramagnetic relaxation, because of an enhancement, typically by as much as a factor 109, in the torques delivered to mechanical structures, by virtue of a very large effective moment arm. Spin-orbit relaxation operates through an exchange of translational momentum which, in turn, can be identified with the delivery of a gigantic angular momentum (in units of ℏ) relative to a distant axis about which mechanical motion is referred. The spin-orbit relaxation strongly depends upon the atomic number of the surface atoms and the strength of interaction with the optically pumped atoms. Being dominated by high-atomic-number surface atoms, spin-orbit-relaxation rates may not be too strongly influenced by minor surface contamination of lighter-weight optically active atoms.

  4. Two-dimensional hole systems in indium-based quantum well heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loher, Josef

    2016-08-01

    The complex spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) systems - the relativistic coupling of the hole spin degree of freedom to their movement in an electric field - is of fundamental interest in spin physics due to its key role for spin manipulation in spintronic devices. In this work, we were able to evaluate the tunability of Rashba-SOI-related parameters in the 2DHG system of InAlAs/InGaAs/InAs:Mn quantum well heterostructures experimentally by analyzing the hole density evolution of quantum interference effects at low magnetic fields. We achieved to cover a significant range of hole densities by the joint action of the variation of the manganese modulation doping concentration during molecular beam epitaxy and external field-effect-mediated manipulation of the 2D carrier density in Hall bar devices by a metallic topgate. Within these magnetotransport experiments, a reproducible phenomenon of remarkable robustness emerged in the transverse Hall magnetoresistivity of the indium 2DHG systems which are grown on a special InAlAs step-graded metamorphic buffer layer structure to compensate crystal lattice mismatch. As a consequence of the strain relaxation process, these material systems are characterized by anisotropic properties along different crystallographic directions. We identify a puzzling offset phenomenon in the zero-field Hall magnetoresistance and demonstrate it to be a universal effect in systems with spatially anisotropic transport properties.

  5. Relaxation characteristics of hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    1980-02-01

    Relaxation diagrams of Hastelloy X (relaxation curves, relaxation design diagrams, etc.) were generated from the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, using inelastic stress analysis code TEPICC-J. These data are in good agreement with experimental relaxation data of ORNL-5479. Three typical inelastic stress analyses were performed for various relaxation behaviors of the high-temperature structures. An attempt was also made to predict these relaxation behaviors by the relaxation curves. (author)

  6. Effect of radiation and non-Maxwellian electron distribution on relaxation processes in an atmospheric cesium seeded argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, C.A.; Veefkind, A.; Wetzer, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    A model, describing the time dependent behaviour of a noble gas MHD generator plasma, has been set up. With this model it is possible to calculate the relaxation for ionization or recombination as a response to a stepwise temperature development, once the initial and final conditions are given. In model radiative transitions and a deviation from Maxwellian electron distribution are included. Radiation causes an enhancement of both the ionization relaxation time and the recombination relaxation time. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution results in an increase of the relaxation time for an ionizing plasma because of an underpopulation of the high energy electrons. A decrease of the relaxation time for a recombining plasma is caused by an overpopulation of high energy electrons. The relaxation time is strongly dependent on the seed ratio and the temperature step. (Auth.)

  7. Impairment of the vascular relaxation and differential expression of caveolin-1 of the aorta of diabetic +db/+db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tze Yan; Seto, Sai Wang; Lau, Yee Man; Au, Lai Shan; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Ngai, Sai Ming; Tsui, Kwong Wing

    2006-09-28

    In this study, we compared the endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of the isolated thoracic aorta of control (+db/+m) and diabetic (+db/+db) (C57BL/KsJ) mice. The gene expression (mRNA and protein) level of the muscarinic M(3) receptors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and caveolin-1 of the aorta was also evaluated. Acetylcholine caused a concentration-dependent, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester (20 microM)-sensitive relaxation, with approximately 100% relaxation at 10 microM, in +db/+m mice. In +db/+db mice, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly smaller (maximum relaxation: approximately 80%). The sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation was slightly diminished in +db/+db mice, compared to +db/+m mice. However, there was no significant difference in the isoprenaline- and cromakalim-induced relaxation observed in both species. The mRNA and protein expression levels of caveolin-1 were significantly higher in the aorta of +db/+db mice. In contrast, there was no difference in the mRNA and protein expression levels of eNOS and muscarinic M(3) receptors between these mice. Our results demonstrate that the impairment of the acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation observed in +db/+db mice was probably associated with an enhanced expression of caveolin-1 mRNA and protein.

  8. The dependence of the ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the S2 and S1 states in β-carotene homologs and lycopene on conjugation length studied by femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Masazumi; Fujii, Ritsuko; Cogdell, Richard J.; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    The ultrafast relaxation kinetics of all-trans-β-carotene homologs with varying numbers of conjugated double bonds n(n =7-15) and lycopene (n =11) has been investigated using femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies, both carried out under identical excitation conditions. The nonradiative relaxation rates of the optically allowed S2(1Bu+1) state were precisely determined by the time-resolved fluorescence. The kinetics of the optically forbidden S1(2Ag-1) state were observed by the time-resolved absorption measurements. The dependence of the S1 relaxation rates upon the conjugation length is adequately described by application of the energy gap law. In contrast to this, the nonradiative relaxation rates of S2 have a minimum at n =9 and show a reverse energy gap law dependence for values of n above 11. This anomalous behavior of the S2 relaxation rates can be explained by the presence of an intermediate state (here called the Sx state) located between the S2 and S1 states at large values of n (such as n =11). The presence of such an intermediate state would then result in the following sequential relaxation pathway S2→Sx→S1→S0. A model based on conical intersections between the potential energy curves of these excited singlet states can readily explain the measured relationships between the decay rates and the energy gaps.

  9. Corroborative evidences of TV γ -scaling of the α-relaxation originating from the primitive relaxation/JG β relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.

  10. Transient absorption microscopy studies of energy relaxation in graphene oxide thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean; Huang, Libai

    2013-04-10

    Spatial mapping of energy relaxation in graphene oxide (GO) thin films has been imaged using transient absorption microscopy (TAM). Correlated AFM images allow us to accurately determine the thickness of the GO films. In contrast to previous studies, correlated TAM-AFM allows determination of the effect of interactions of GO with the substrate and between stacked GO layers on the relaxation dynamics. Our results show that energy relaxation in GO flakes has little dependence on the substrate, number of stacked layers, and excitation intensity. This is in direct contrast to pristine graphene, where these factors have great consequences in energy relaxation. This suggests intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic ones dominate the excited state dynamics of GO films.

  11. Transient absorption microscopy studies of energy relaxation in graphene oxide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Sean; Huang, Libai

    2013-01-01

    Spatial mapping of energy relaxation in graphene oxide (GO) thin films has been imaged using transient absorption microscopy (TAM). Correlated AFM images allow us to accurately determine the thickness of the GO films. In contrast to previous studies, correlated TAM–AFM allows determination of the effect of interactions of GO with the substrate and between stacked GO layers on the relaxation dynamics. Our results show that energy relaxation in GO flakes has little dependence on the substrate, number of stacked layers, and excitation intensity. This is in direct contrast to pristine graphene, where these factors have great consequences in energy relaxation. This suggests intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic ones dominate the excited state dynamics of GO films. (paper)

  12. Asymptotic Reissner–Nordström black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    We consider two types of Born–Infeld like nonlinear electromagnetic fields and obtain their interesting black hole solutions. The asymptotic behavior of these solutions is the same as that of a Reissner–Nordström black hole. We investigate the geometric properties of the solutions and find that depending on the value of the nonlinearity parameter, the singularity covered with various horizons. -- Highlights: •We investigate two types of the BI-like nonlinear electromagnetic fields in the Einsteinian gravity. •We analyze the effects of nonlinearity on the electromagnetic field. •We examine the influences of the nonlinearity on the geometric properties of the black hole solutions

  13. Charge Relaxation Dynamics of an Electrolytic Nanocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ion relaxation dynamics in overlapping electric double layers (EDLs) is critical for the development of efficient nanotechnology-based electrochemical energy storage, electrochemomechanical energy conversion, and bioelectrochemical sensing devices as well as the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials. Here, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is employed to simulate an electrolytic nanocapacitor subjected to a step potential at t = 0 for various degrees of EDL overlap, solvent viscosities, ratios of cation-to-anion diffusivity, and electrode separations. The use of a novel continuously varying and Galilean-invariant molecular-speed-dependent relaxation time (MSDRT) with the LB equation recovers a correct microscopic description of the molecular-collision phenomena and enhances the stability of the LB algorithm. Results for large EDL overlaps indicated oscillatory behavior for the ionic current density, in contrast to monotonic relaxation to equilibrium for low EDL overlaps. Further, at low solvent viscosities and large EDL overlaps, anomalous plasmalike spatial oscillations of the electric field were observed that appeared to be purely an effect of nanoscale confinement. Employing MSDRT in our simulations enabled modeling of the fundamental physics of the transient charge relaxation dynamics in electrochemical systems operating away from equilibrium wherein Nernst–Einstein relation is known to be violated. PMID:25678941

  14. Heteronuclear relaxation in time-dependent spin systems: 15N-T1ρ dispersion during adiabatic fast passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrat, Robert; Tollinger, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A novel NMR experiment comprising adiabatic fast passage techniques for the measurement of heteronuclear self-relaxation rates in fully 15N-enriched proteins is described. Heteronuclear self-relaxation is monitored by performing adiabatic fast passage (AFP) experiments at variable adiabaticity (e.g., variation of RF spin-lock field intensity). The experiment encompasses gradient- selection and sensitivity-enhancement. It is shown that transverse relaxation rates derived with this method are in good agreement with the ones measured by the classical Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. An application of this method to the study of the carboxyl-terminal LIM domain of quail cysteine and glycine-rich protein qCRP2(LIM2) is presented

  15. Density functional study of graphene antidot lattices: Roles of geometrical relaxation and spin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Brandbyge, Mads

    2009-01-01

    thereof. We find from DFT that all structures investigated have band gaps ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 eV. Band gap sizes and general trends are well captured by DFTB with band gaps agreeing within about 0.2 eV even for very small structures. A combination of the two methods is found to offer a good trade...... properties. In this work, we perform calculations of the band structure for various hydrogen-passivated hole geometries using both spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) and DFT based tight-binding (DFTB) and address the importance of relaxation of the structures using either method or a combination......-off between computational cost and accuracy. Both methods predict nondegenerate midgap states for certain antidot hole symmetries. The inclusion of spin results in a spin-splitting of these states as well as magnetic moments obeying the Lieb theorem. The local-spin texture of both magnetic and nonmagnetic...

  16. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  17. Creep and relaxation behavior of Inconel-617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osthoff, W.; Ennis, P.J.; Nickel, H.; Schuster, H.

    1984-01-01

    The static and dynamic creep behavior of Inconel alloy 617 has been determined in constant load creep tests, relaxation tests, and stress reduction tests in the temperature range 1023 to 1273 K. The results have been interpreted using the internal stress concept: The dependence of the internal stress on the applied stress and test temperature was determined. In a few experiments, the influence of cold deformation prior to the creep test on the magnitude of the internal stress was also investigated. It was found that the experimentally observed relaxation behavior could be more satisfactorily described using the Norton creep equation modified by incorporation of the internal stress than by the conventional Norton creep equation

  18. Capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the combined effect of the strained Si channel and hole confinement on the memory margin enhancement for a capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator (ε-Si SGOI). The memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell was higher than that of the memory cell fabricated on an unstrained Si-on-insulator (SOI) and increased with increasing Ge concentration of the relaxed SiGe layer; i.e. the memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell (138.6 µA) at a 32 at% Ge concentration was 3.3 times higher than the SOI capacitor-less memory cell (43 µA). (paper)

  19. A study of nuclear relaxation to the electron non-Zeeman system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honten, J. van.

    1979-01-01

    An examination of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation mechanism in a series of diluted copper-caesium Tutton salt crystals, containing different percentages of D 2 O in the waters of hydration, is described. Results of relaxation measurements are presented and a strong angular dependence is observed. It is proved, however, that under most experimental conditions applied, the bottleneck in the relaxation path is not the cross-relaxation but the thermal contact between the proton Zeeman system and the electron dipole-dipole interaction system. Hence the proton spin-lattice relaxation measurements have enabled determination of the time constant of this thermal contact. The microscopic coupling process which provides thermal contact, is a simultaneous transition of two electron spins and one proton spin. This so-called three-spin transition is described and calculations presented. Double resonance experiments are performed, where the resonance signal of deuterium or caesium spins is saturated and the effect on the proton resonance signal observed. (C.F.)

  20. Electron-hole collision limited transport in charge-neutral bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Youngwoo; Ki, Dong-Keun; Soler-Delgado, David; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2017-12-01

    Ballistic transport occurs whenever electrons propagate without collisions deflecting their trajectory. It is normally observed in conductors with a negligible concentration of impurities, at low temperature, to avoid electron-phonon scattering. Here, we use suspended bilayer graphene devices to reveal a new regime, in which ballistic transport is not limited by scattering with phonons or impurities, but by electron-hole collisions. The phenomenon manifests itself in a negative four-terminal resistance that becomes visible when the density of holes (electrons) is suppressed by gate-shifting the Fermi level in the conduction (valence) band, above the thermal energy. For smaller densities, transport is diffusive, and the measured conductivity is reproduced quantitatively, with no fitting parameters, by including electron-hole scattering as the only process causing velocity relaxation. Experiments on a trilayer device show that the phenomenon is robust and that transport at charge neutrality is governed by the same physics. Our results provide a textbook illustration of a transport regime that had not been observed previously and clarify the nature of conduction through charge-neutral graphene under conditions in which carrier density inhomogeneity is immaterial. They also demonstrate that transport can be limited by a fully electronic mechanism, originating from the same microscopic processes that govern the physics of Dirac-like plasmas.

  1. Black hole state evolution, final state and Hawking radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a black hole state evolution on the Hawking radiation is studied using the final state boundary condition. It is found that the thermodynamic or statistical mechanical properties of a black hole depend strongly on the unitary evolution operator S, which determines the black hole state evolution. When the operator S is random unitary or pseudo-random unitary, a black hole emits thermal radiation as predicted by Hawking three decades ago. In particular, when the black hole mass of the final state vanishes, Hawking’s original result is retrieved. On the other hand, it is found that the emission of the Hawking radiation could be suppressed when the evolution of a black hole state is determined by the generator of the coherent state. Such a case can occur for some primordial black holes with Planck scale mass formed by primordial density fluctuations through the process of squeezing the zero-point quantum fluctuation of a scalar field. Those primordial black holes can survive until the present time and can contribute to cold dark matter. (paper)

  2. Phase transitions and critical behaviour for charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S; Vaidya, S

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a four-dimensional charged black hole in a finite cavity in asymptotically flat and asymptotically de Sitter spaces. In each case, we find a Hawking-Page-like phase transition between a black hole and a thermal gas very much like the known transition in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. For a 'supercooled' black hole - a thermodynamically unstable black hole below the critical temperature for the Hawking-Page phase transition - the phase diagram has a line of first-order phase transitions that terminates in a second-order point. For the asymptotically flat case, we calculate the critical exponents at the second-order phase transition and find that they exactly match the known results for a charged black hole in anti-de Sitter space. We find strong evidence for similar phase transitions for the de Sitter black hole as well. Thus many of the thermodynamic features of charged anti-de Sitter black holes do not really depend on asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions; the thermodynamics of charged black holes is surprisingly universal

  3. Free volume from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments in relation to structural relaxation of van der Waals molecular glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubek, G; Shaikh, M Q; Rätzke, K; Paluch, M; Faupel, F

    2010-06-16

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is employed to characterize the temperature dependence of the free volume in two van der Waals liquids: 1, 1'-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane (BMPC) and 1, 1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC). From the PALS spectra analysed with the routine LifeTime9.0, the size (volume) distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes), its mean, [v(h)], and mean dispersion, σ(h), were calculated. A comparison with the macroscopic volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PV T) experiments delivered the hole density and the specific hole free volume and a complete characterization of the free volume microstructure in that sense. These data are used in correlation with structural (α) relaxation data from broad-band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) in terms of the Cohen-Grest and Cohen-Turnbull free volume models. An extension of the latter model allows us to quantify deviations between experiments and theory and an attempt to systematize these in terms of T(g) or of the fragility. The experimental data for several fragile and less fragile glass formers are involved in the final discussion. It was concluded that, for large differences in the fragility of different glass formers, the positron lifetime mirrors clearly the different character of these materials. For small differences in the fragility, additional properties like the character of bonds and chemical structure of the material may affect size, distribution and thermal behaviour of the free volume.

  4. Free volume from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments in relation to structural relaxation of van der Waals molecular glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlubek, G [ITA Institute for Innovative Technologies, Koethen/Halle, Wiesenring 4, D-06120 Lieskau (Germany); Shaikh, M Q; Raetzke, K; Faupel, F [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kaiserstrasse 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Paluch, M, E-mail: guenter.dlubek@gmx.d [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2010-06-16

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is employed to characterize the temperature dependence of the free volume in two van der Waals liquids: 1, 1'-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane (BMPC) and 1, 1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC). From the PALS spectra analysed with the routine LifeTime9.0, the size (volume) distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes), its mean, (v{sub h}), and mean dispersion, {sigma}{sub h}, were calculated. A comparison with the macroscopic volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PV T) experiments delivered the hole density and the specific hole free volume and a complete characterization of the free volume microstructure in that sense. These data are used in correlation with structural ({alpha}) relaxation data from broad-band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) in terms of the Cohen-Grest and Cohen-Turnbull free volume models. An extension of the latter model allows us to quantify deviations between experiments and theory and an attempt to systematize these in terms of T{sub g} or of the fragility. The experimental data for several fragile and less fragile glass formers are involved in the final discussion. It was concluded that, for large differences in the fragility of different glass formers, the positron lifetime mirrors clearly the different character of these materials. For small differences in the fragility, additional properties like the character of bonds and chemical structure of the material may affect size, distribution and thermal behaviour of the free volume.

  5. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  6. Hypercompact Stellar Systems Around Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Komossa, S.

    2009-07-01

    A supermassive black hole ejected from the center of a galaxy by gravitational-wave recoil carries a retinue of bound stars—a "hypercompact stellar system" (HCSS). The numbers and properties of HCSSs contain information about the merger histories of galaxies, the late evolution of binary black holes, and the distribution of gravitational-wave kicks. We relate the structural properties (size, mass, density profile) of HCSSs to the properties of their host galaxies and to the size of the kick in two regimes: collisional (M BH lsim 107 M sun), i.e., short nuclear relaxation times, and collisionless (M BH gsim 107 M sun), i.e., long nuclear relaxation times. HCSSs are expected to be similar in size and luminosity to globular clusters, but in extreme cases (large galaxies, kicks just above escape velocity) their stellar mass can approach that of ultracompact dwarf galaxies. However, they differ from all other classes of compact stellar system in having very high internal velocities. We show that the kick velocity is encoded in the velocity dispersion of the bound stars. Given a large enough sample of HCSSs, the distribution of gravitational-wave kicks can therefore be empirically determined. We combine a hierarchical merger algorithm with stellar population models to compute the rate of production of HCSSs over time and the probability of observing HCSSs in the local universe as a function of their apparent magnitude, color, size, and velocity dispersion, under two different assumptions about the star formation history prior to the kick. We predict that ~102 HCSSs should be detectable within 2 Mpc of the center of the Virgo cluster, and that many of these should be bright enough that their kick velocities (i.e., velocity dispersions) could be measured with reasonable exposure times. We discuss other strategies for detecting HCSSs and speculate on some exotic manifestations.

  7. Black Hole Hair in Higher Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chao; Chen Yixin; Li Jianlong

    2010-01-01

    We study the property of matter in equilibrium with a static, spherically symmetric black hole in D-dimensional spacetime. It requires that this kind of matter has an equation of state ω = p r /ρ = -n/(n + 2k), k, n epsilon N (where n > 1 corresponds to a mixture of vacuum matter and 'hair' matter), which seems to be independent of D. However, when we associate this result with specific models, we find that these hairy black holes can live only in some special dimensional spacetime: (i) D = 2 + 2k/n while the black hole is surrounded by cosmic strings, which requires D is even or D epsilon N, depending on the value of n, this is consistent with some important results in superstring theory, it might reveal the relation between cosmic string and superstring in another aspect; (ii) the black hole can be surrounded by linear dilaton field only in 4-dimensional spacetime. In both cases, D = 4 is special. We also present some examples of such hairy black holes in higher dimensions, including a toy model with negative energy density. (general)

  8. Human whole-blood (1)H2O longitudinal relaxation with normal and high-relaxivity contrast reagents: influence of trans-cell-membrane water exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gregory J; Woods, Mark; Springer, Charles S; Bastawrous, Sarah; Bhargava, Puneet; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2014-12-01

    Accurate characterization of contrast reagent (CR) longitudinal relaxivity in whole blood is required to predict arterial signal intensity in contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). This study measured the longitudinal relaxation rate constants (R1 ) over a concentration range for non-protein-binding and protein-binding CRs in ex vivo whole blood and plasma at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla (T) under physiologic arterial conditions. Relaxivities of gadoteridol, gadobutrol, gadobenate, and gadofosveset were measured for [CR] from 0 to 18 mM [mmol(CR)/L(blood)]: the latter being the upper limit of what may be expected in CE-MRA. In plasma, the (1) H2 O R1 [CR]-dependence was nonlinear for gadobenate and gadofosveset secondary to CR interactions with the serum macromolecule albumin, and was well described by an analytical expression for effective 1:1 binding stoichiometry. In whole blood, the (1) H2 O R1 [CR]-dependence was markedly non-linear for all CRs, and was well-predicted by an expression for equilibrium exchange of water molecules between plasma and intracellular spaces using a priori parameter values only. In whole blood, (1) H2 O R1 exhibits a nonlinear relationship with [CR] over 0 to 18 mM CR. The nonlinearity is well described by exchange of water between erythrocyte and plasma compartments, and is particularly evident for high relaxivity CRs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anomalous behavior of secondary dielectric relaxation in polypropylene glycols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A; Ziolo, J; Rzoska, S J; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-09-19

    A surprising slow down in the dielectric secondary {gamma}-relaxation with temperature increasing near the glass transition is confirmed for several polypropylene glycols. The peculiar behavior diminishes as the molecular weight grows. The minimal model (Dyre and Olsen 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 155703) is applied successfully to describe the temperature dependences of the {gamma}-relaxation times. The minimal model parameters are analyzed for different molecular weights. A molecular explanation of the {gamma}-process anomaly for polypropylene glycols is proposed on the basis of the minimal model prediction.

  10. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc/G1/2∼10−5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as “spacetime foam”, due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG/c31/2∼10−33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called “Black Wormhole”, consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2>1/2, a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2<1/2, the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2=1/2. This solution suggests the “Generalized Cosmic Censorship” by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by “negative” energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the

  11. On the branching of the quasinormal resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.com [The Ruppin Academic Center, 40250, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, 91010, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-11-02

    It has recently been shown by Yang et al. (Phys Rev D 87:041502(R), 2013a; Phys Rev D 88:044047, 2013b) that rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by two distinct sets of quasinormal resonances. These two families of quasinormal resonances display qualitatively different asymptotic behaviors in the extremal (a/M→1) black-hole limit: the zero-damping modes are characterized by relaxation times which tend to infinity in the extremal black-hole limit (Iω→0 as a/M→1), whereas the damped modes (DMs) are characterized by non-zero damping rates (Iω→ finite-values as a/M→1). In this paper we refute the claim made by Yang et al. that co-rotating DMs of near-extremal black holes are restricted to the limited range 0≤μ≲μ{sub c}≈0.74, where μ≡m/l is the dimensionless ratio between the azimuthal harmonic index m and the spheroidal harmonic index l of the perturbation mode. In particular, we use an analytical formula originally derived by Detweiler in order to prove the existence of DMs (damped quasinormal resonances which are characterized by finiteIω values in the a/M→1 limit) of near-extremal black holes in the μ>μ{sub c} regime, the regime which was claimed by Yang et al. not to contain DMs. We show that these co-rotating DMs (in the regime μ>μ{sub c}) are expected to characterize the resonance spectra of rapidly rotating (near-extremal) black holes with a/M≳1-10{sup -9}.

  12. Quasinormal modes of black holes in Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Daiske; Soda, Jiro

    2016-02-01

    We study quasinormal modes of black holes in Lovelock gravity. We formulate the WKB method adapted to Lovelock gravity for the calculation of quasinormal frequencies (QNFs). As a demonstration, we calculate various QNFs of Lovelock black holes in seven and eight dimensions. We find that the QNFs show remarkable features depending on the coefficients of the Lovelock terms, the species of perturbations, and spacetime dimensions. In the case of the scalar field, when we increase the coefficient of the third order Lovelock term, the real part of QNFs increases, but the decay rate becomes small irrespective of the mass of the black hole. For small black holes, the decay rate ceases to depend on the Gauss-Bonnet term. In the case of tensor type perturbations of the metric field, the tendency of the real part of QNFs is opposite to that of the scalar field. The QNFs of vector type perturbations of the metric show no particular behavior. The behavior of QNFs of the scalar type perturbations of the metric field is similar to the vector type. However, available data are rather sparse, which indicates that the WKB method is not applicable to many models for this sector.

  13. Electronic relaxation processes in polyatomic molecules. Progress report, October 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, E.C.

    1976-09-01

    Excitation energy dependence of radiationless decay rate under collision-free conditions was utilized as a probe of intramolecular vibrational relaxation in tetracene and pentacene. The results give evidence of vibrational relaxation which competes with electronic relaxation. The substitution dependence of T 1 (nπ*) → S 0 radiationless transition in monocyclic diazines and the temperature dependence of S 1 non-radiative decay rate in alcoholic solutions of polycyclic monoazines indicate that the vibronic interaction between the lowest energy nπ* and ππ* states leads to a rapid radiationless deactivation of the lower of the two electronic states. Finally, a photon-counting spectrofluorometer of very high sensitivity was constructed, and it was used to record T 2 → T 1 fluorescence in bromoanthracenes and S 2 → S 1 fluorescence in azulene. These spectra represent the first bona-fide, or the most convincing, observation of fluorescence between excited electronic states

  14. Old/Past/Ancient/Historic Frontiers in Black Hole Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    Basic questions about black holes, some of which are fairly old, include (1) What is a black hole? (2) Do black holes exist? And the answer to this depends a good deal on the answer to (1), (3) Where, when, why, and how have they formed? and (4) What are they good for? Here I attempt some elaboration of the questions and partial answers, noting that general relativity is required to described some of the phenomena, while dear old Isaac Newton is OK for others.

  15. σ-holes and π-holes: Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2018-04-05

    σ-Holes and π-holes are regions of molecules with electronic densities lower than their surroundings. There are often positive electrostatic potentials associated with them. Through these potentials, the molecule can interact attractively with negative sites, such as lone pairs, π electrons, and anions. Such noncovalent interactions, "σ-hole bonding" and "π-hole bonding," are increasingly recognized as being important in a number of different areas. In this article, we discuss and compare the natures and characteristics of σ-holes and π-holes, and factors that influence the strengths and locations of the resulting electrostatic potentials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Feast and Famine: regulation of black hole growth in low-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-07-01

    We analyse the observed distribution of Eddington ratios (L/LEdd) as a function of supermassive black hole mass for a large sample of nearby galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We demonstrate that there are two distinct regimes of black hole growth in nearby galaxies. The first is associated with galaxies with significant star formation [M*/starformationrate (SFR) ~ a Hubble time] in their central kiloparsec regions, and is characterized by a broad lognormal distribution of accretion rates peaked at a few per cent of the Eddington limit. In this regime, the Eddington ratio distribution is independent of the mass of the black hole and shows little dependence on the central stellar population of the galaxy. The second regime is associated with galaxies with old central stellar populations (M*/SFR >> a Hubble time), and is characterized by a power-law distribution function of Eddington ratios. In this regime, the time-averaged mass accretion rate on to black holes is proportional to the mass of stars in the galaxy bulge, with a constant of proportionality that depends on the mean stellar age of the stars. This result is once again independent of black hole mass. We show that both the slope of the power law and the decrease in the accretion rate on to black holes in old galaxies are consistent with population synthesis model predictions of the decline in stellar mass loss rates as a function of mean stellar age. Our results lead to a very simple picture of black hole growth in the local Universe. If the supply of cold gas in a galaxy bulge is plentiful, the black hole regulates its own growth at a rate that does not further depend on the properties of the interstellar medium. Once the gas runs out, black hole growth is regulated by the rate at which evolved stars lose their mass.

  17. Electron-Hole Asymmetry of Spin Injection and Transport in Single-Layer Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Wei; Wang, W. H.; Pi, K.; McCreary, K. M.; Bao, W.; Li, Yan; Miao, F.; Lau, C. N.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Spin-dependent properties of single-layer graphene (SLG) have been studied by non-local spin valve measurements at room temperature. Gate voltage dependence shows that the non-local magnetoresistance (MR) is proportional to the conductivity of the SLG, which is the predicted behavior for transparent ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic contacts. While the electron and hole bands in SLG are symmetric, gate voltage and bias dependence of the non-local MR reveal an electron-hole asymmetry in which the non-...

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic geometries of a tidally deformed black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Ian; Poisson, Eric; Massey, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    A description of the event horizon of a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole is provided in terms of the intrinsic and extrinsic geometries of the null hypersurface. This description relies on a Gauss-Codazzi theory of null hypersurfaces embedded in spacetime, which extends the standard theory of spacelike and timelike hypersurfaces involving the first and second fundamental forms. We show that the intrinsic geometry of the event horizon is invariant under a reparameterization of the null generators, and that the extrinsic geometry depends on the parameterization. Stated differently, we show that while the extrinsic geometry depends on the choice of gauge, the intrinsic geometry is gauge invariant. We apply the formalism to solutions to the vacuum field equations that describe a tidally deformed black hole. In a first instance, we consider a slowly varying, quadrupolar tidal field imposed on the black hole, and in a second instance, we examine the tide raised during a close parabolic encounter between the black hole and a small orbiting body.

  19. Investigation of the Temperature Dependence of the Acceptor Center Relaxation Rate in Silicon by the mu^-SR-Method

    CERN Document Server

    Mamedov, T N; Stojkov, A V; Andrianov, D G; Gerlach, D; Zimmermann, U; Gorelkin, V N; Kormann, O; Major, J V; Shevchik, M

    2000-01-01

    Results on the temperature dependence of the residual polarization of negative muons in silicon with phosphorus (3.2 cdot 10^12, 2.3 cdot 10^15 and 4.5 cdot 10^18 cm^-3) and aluminium (2 cdot 10^14 and 2.4 cdot 10^18 cm^-3) impurities are presented. The measurements were carried out in a transverse to the direction of the muon spin magnetic field of 2000 Oe in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the magnetic moment of the Al shallow acceptor centre in undeformed silicon is determined for the first time. The constant of the hyperfine interaction between the magnetic moment of the muon and that of the electron shell of the muonic atom A_hf/2pi approx 3 cdot 10^7 s^-1) and the coefficient for capture of free electrons by a neutral aluminium atom in silicon (beta (Al^0) approx 7 cdot 10^-14 cm^3 s^-1 at 30 K) are estimated.

  20. Magnetic relaxation in sintered Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O/sub x/ and YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub x/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, M.E.; Maley, M.P.; Venturini, E.L.; Ginley, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized the time dependence of the zero-field-cooled magnetization for sintered pellets of the Tl 2:2:2:3 and Y 1:2:3 superconductors. The magnetic relaxation in both cases is large and exhibits a logarithmic time dependence. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate A = dM/d ln(t) has been characterized for both materials for applied fields of 1,2,3, and 10 kG. The relaxation rate for the Y 1:2:3 sintered material is comparable to that observed in similar sintered materials and in single crystals. The Tl 2:2:2:3 material exhibits similar relaxation spectra with a weaker temperature dependence at a given field consistent with stronger pinning in this material. The temperature dependence of the relaxation is analyzed using a phenomenological relaxation model to yield an average pinning energy (0.33 eV at H = 1 kG) and its field dependence

  1. Black holes in an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2010-04-02

    An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 < or = for all w < or = 1). It is an exact solution of the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell system, in which we have two Maxwell-type U(1) fields coupled to the scalar field. The potential of the scalar field is an exponential. We find a regular horizon, which depends on one parameter [the ratio of the energy density of U(1) fields to that of the scalar field]. The horizon is static because of the balance on the horizon between gravitational attractive force and U(1) repulsive force acting on the scalar field. We also calculate the black hole temperature.

  2. Electron spin relaxation in a transition-metal dichalcogenide quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alexander J.; Burkard, Guido

    2017-06-01

    We study the relaxation of a single electron spin in a circular quantum dot in a transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayer defined by electrostatic gating. Transition-metal dichalcogenides provide an interesting and promising arena for quantum dot nano-structures due to the combination of a band gap, spin-valley physics and strong spin-orbit coupling. First we will discuss which bound state solutions in different B-field regimes can be used as the basis for qubits states. We find that at low B-fields combined spin-valley Kramers qubits to be suitable, while at large magnetic fields pure spin or valley qubits can be envisioned. Then we present a discussion of the relaxation of a single electron spin mediated by electron-phonon interaction via various different relaxation channels. In the low B-field regime we consider the spin-valley Kramers qubits and include impurity mediated valley mixing which will arise in disordered quantum dots. Rashba spin-orbit admixture mechanisms allow for relaxation by in-plane phonons either via the deformation potential or by piezoelectric coupling, additionally direct spin-phonon mechanisms involving out-of-plane phonons give rise to relaxation. We find that the relaxation rates scale as \\propto B 6 for both in-plane phonons coupling via deformation potential and the piezoelectric effect, while relaxation due to the direct spin-phonon coupling scales independant to B-field to lowest order but depends strongly on device mechanical tension. We will also discuss the relaxation mechanisms for pure spin or valley qubits formed in the large B-field regime.

  3. Hydration water dynamics in biopolymers from NMR relaxation in the rotating frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicharska, Barbara; Peemoeller, Hartwig; Witek, Magdalena

    2010-12-01

    Assuming dipole-dipole interaction as the dominant relaxation mechanism of protons of water molecules adsorbed onto macromolecule (biopolymer) surfaces we have been able to model the dependences of relaxation rates on temperature and frequency. For adsorbed water molecules the correlation times are of the order of 10(-5)s, for which the dispersion region of spin-lattice relaxation rates in the rotating frame R(1)(ρ)=1/T(1)(ρ) appears over a range of easily accessible B(1) values. Measurements of T(1)(ρ) at constant temperature and different B(1) values then give the "dispersion profiles" for biopolymers. Fitting a theoretical relaxation model to these profiles allows for the estimation of correlation times. This way of obtaining the correlation time is easier and faster than approaches involving measurements of the temperature dependence of R(1)=1/T(1). The T(1)(ρ) dispersion approach, as a tool for molecular dynamics study, has been demonstrated for several hydrated biopolymer systems including crystalline cellulose, starch of different origins (potato, corn, oat, wheat), paper (modern, old) and lyophilized proteins (albumin, lysozyme). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear quadrupole relaxation and viscosity in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmacher, W.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the nuclear quadrupole relaxation rate due to the molecular motions in liquid metals is related to the shear and bulk viscosity and hence to the absorption coefficient of ultrasound. Application of the 'extended liquid phonon' model of Ortoleva and Nelkin - which is the third of a series of continued-fraction-approximations for the van Hove neutron scattering function - gives a relation to the self diffusion constant. The predictions of the theory concerning the temperature dependence are compared with quadrupole relaxation measurements of Riegel et al. and Kerlin et al. in liquid gallium. Agreement is found only with the data of Riegel et al. (orig.) [de

  5. Small polaron formation and motion of holes in a-SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.C.; Emin, D.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray generated holes in SiO 2 are observed to be reduced to low mobility in times of the order of vibrational periods, 10 -12 s. The temperature dependence, electric field dependence and magnitude of this mobility for times up to about 100 ns are consistent with those of hole-like small polarons. The circumstances which favor the occurrence of rapid small polaron formation are a large effective mass (narrow valence band), the presence of the long-range hole-lattice interaction characteristic of an ionic material and the presence of disorder, all of which are found in amorphous SiO 2 . An alternative explanation involving trapping requires an extremely large localized state density and fortuitous temperature and field dependences of the hopping rates

  6. State of health assessment for lithium batteries based on voltage–time relaxation measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Issam; Briat, Olivier; Gyan, Philippe; Vinassa, Jean Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calendar aging under different storage conditions for three different battery technologies studied. • Two scenarios of aging under power cycling at two different temperatures investigated for one battery technology. • Relaxation profile of battery voltage just after full charge is highly correlated to aging. • Linear dependence between just after charge open circuit voltage and remaining capacity demonstrated. • No computational method and direct prediction of battery state of health or remaining capacity. - Abstract: The performance of lithium batteries degrades over time. The degradation rate strongly depends on stress conditions during use and even at rest. Thus, accurate and rapid diagnosis of battery state of health (SOH) is necessary for electric vehicle manufacturers to manage their vehicle fleets and warranties. This paper demonstrates a simple method for assessing SOH related to battery energy capability (SOH E ). The presented method is based on the monitoring of U relax over aging. U relax is the open-circuit voltage of the battery measured after full charging and 30 min of rest. A linear dependence between U relax and remaining capacity is noted. This correlation is demonstrated for three different commercial battery technologies (different chemistries) aged under different calendar and power cycling aging conditions. It was determined that the difference between two U relax voltages measured at two different aging states is proportional to SOH E decay. The mean error of the linear model is less than 2% for certain cases. This method could also be a highly useful and rapid tool for a complete battery pack diagnosis.

  7. A simple measurement method of molecular relaxation in a gas by reconstructing acoustic velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangqun; Li, Caiyun

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a decomposition method of acoustic relaxation absorption spectra was used to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process of gas. In this method, the acoustic attenuation and phase velocity were measured jointly based on the relaxation absorption spectra. However, fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic attenuation remain challenging. In this paper, we present a method of capturing the molecular relaxation process by only measuring acoustic velocity, without the necessity of obtaining acoustic absorption. The method is based on the fact that the frequency-dependent velocity dispersion of a multi-relaxation process in a gas is the serial connection of the dispersions of interior single-relaxation processes. Thus, one can capture the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N decomposed single-relaxation dispersions to reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation dispersion using the measurements of acoustic velocity at 2N  +  1 frequencies. The reconstructed dispersion spectra are in good agreement with experimental data for various gases and mixtures. The simulations also demonstrate the robustness of our reconstructive method.

  8. STM-Induced Hydrogen Desorption via a Hole Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Thirstrup, C.; Sakurai, M.

    1998-01-01

    We report STM-induced desorption of H from Si(100)-H(2 X 1) at negative sample bias. The desorption rate exhibits a power-law dependence on current and a maximum desorption rate at -7 V. The desorption is explained by vibrational heating of H due to inelastic scattering of tunneling holes...... with the Si-H 5 sigma hole resonance. The dependence of desorption rate on current and bias is analyzed using a novel approach for calculating inelastic scattering, which includes the effect of the electric field between tip and sample. We show that the maximum desorption rate at -7 V is due to a maximum...

  9. Stress relaxation in SSC 50mm dipole coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    We are measuring the stress relaxation of SSC 50mm outer coils with the goal of predicting how much of the coil prestress will be lost while the coils are warehoused between manufacture and cooldown. We manufacture 3 inch (76.2mm) long segments of coil with the same materials and techniques that have been used for prototype coils. We are running four simultaneous tests in an attempt to separate the contributions of the different coil materials. Test one is a completely insulated coil section where the insulation is the all polyamide system being tested at Brookhaven; test two is a wire stack insulated only with the normal Kapton overwrap; test three is a stack of bare cable; and test four is a completely insulated normal coil section. All, except for the bare cable, include the ground insulation. The insulated coil sections are carefully dried before loading and testing in order to eliminate stress changes due to varying moisture content. The temperature dependence of the stress relaxation is being studied separately. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: (1) ''Temperature dependence of the viscoelastic properties of SSC coil insulation'' (2) ''Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures'' (3) ''Theoretical methods for creep and stress relaxation studies of SSC coil.''

  10. Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: longitudinal relaxation dispersion for spin I = 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Tomas; Halle, Bertil

    2012-08-07

    The frequency dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate, known as the magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD), can provide a frequency-resolved characterization of molecular motions in complex biological and colloidal systems on time scales ranging from 1 ns to 100 μs. The conformational dynamics of immobilized proteins and other biopolymers can thus be probed in vitro or in vivo by exploiting internal water molecules or labile hydrogens that exchange with a dominant bulk water pool. Numerous water (1)H and (2)H MRD studies of such systems have been reported, but the widely different theoretical models currently used to analyze the MRD data have resulted in divergent views of the underlying molecular motions. We have argued that the essential mechanism responsible for the main dispersion is the exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings when internal water molecules or labile hydrogens escape from orientationally confining macromolecular sites. In the EMOR model, the exchange process is thus not just a means of mixing spin populations but it is also the direct cause of spin relaxation. Although the EMOR theory has been used in several studies to analyze water (2)H MRD data from immobilized biopolymers, the fully developed theory has not been described. Here, we present a comprehensive account of a generalized version of the EMOR theory for spin I = 1 nuclides like (2)H. As compared to a previously described version of the EMOR theory, the present version incorporates three generalizations that are all essential in applications to experimental data: (i) a biaxial (residual) electric field gradient tensor, (ii) direct and indirect effects of internal motions, and (iii) multiple sites with different exchange rates. In addition, we describe and assess different approximations to the exact EMOR theory that are useful in various regimes. In particular, we consider the experimentally

  11. Thermodynamic geometry of black holes in f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroushfar, Saheb; Saffari, Reza; Kamvar, Negin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider three types (static, static charged, and rotating charged) of black holes in f(R) gravity. We study the thermodynamical behavior, stability conditions, and phase transition of these black holes. It is shown that the number and type of phase transition points are related to different parameters, which shows the dependency of the stability conditions to these parameters. Also, we extend our study to different thermodynamic geometry methods (Ruppeiner, Weinhold, and GTD). Next, we investigate the compatibility of curvature scalar of geothermodynamic methods with phase transition points of the above black holes. In addition, we point out the effect of different values of the spacetime parameters on the stability conditions of mentioned black holes. (orig.)

  12. Pair creation of dilaton black holes in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, R.

    1997-01-01

    Dilatonic charged Nariai instantons mediate the nucleation of black hole pairs during extended chaotic inflation. Depending on the dilaton and inflaton fields, the black holes are described by one of two approximations in the Lorentzian regime. For each case we find Euclidean solutions that satisfy the no boundary proposal. The complex initial values of the dilaton and inflaton are determined, and the pair creation rate is calculated from the Euclidean action. Similar to standard inflation, black holes are abundantly produced near the Planck boundary, but highly suppressed later on. An unusual feature we find is that the earlier in inflation the dilatonic black holes are created, the more highly charged they can be. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Black-hole galactic nuclei: a high-energy perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Boldt, E; Loewenstein, M

    2002-01-01

    The gravitational radiation signals to be anticipated from events involving black-hole galactic nuclei depend on the spin of the underlying object. To obtain evidence about the spin of Seyfert AGN black holes, we can rely on future ultra-high resolution spectral/spatial x-ray studies of iron K line fluorescence from the innermost regions of accreting matter. Normal galaxies present more of a challenge. To account for the highest energy cosmic rays, we propose that ultra-relativistic particle acceleration can occur near the event horizons of spun-up supermassive black-holes at the non-active nuclei of giant elliptical galaxies. This conjecture about the black hole spin associated with such nuclei is subject to verification via the characteristic TeV curvature radiation expected to be detected with upcoming gamma-ray observatories.

  14. Phase Transitions for Flat Anti - de Sitter Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surya, Sumati; Schleich, Kristin; Witt, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine the thermodynamics of anti - de Sitter (adS) black holes with Ricci flat horizons using the adS soliton as the thermal background. We find that there is a phase transition which is dependent not only on the temperature but also on the black hole area, which is an independent parameter. As in the spherical adS black hole, this phase transition is related via the adS/conformal-field-theory correspondence to a confinement-deconfinement transition in the large-N gauge theory on the conformal boundary at infinity

  15. Black hole fusion in the extreme mass ratio limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina; Zilhão, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple, general, and accurate construction of the event horizons for the fusion of two neutral, rotating black holes with arbitrary orientation and values of their spins, in the extreme mass ratio limit where one black hole is much larger than the other. We compute several parameters that characterize the fusion and investigate their dependence on the black hole spin and orientation axis. We also exhibit and study the appearance of transient toroidal topology of the horizon. An earlier conjecture about universal critical exponents before and after an axisymmetric pinch is proven.

  16. Volume and structural relaxation in compressed sodium borate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Mouritz N; Youngman, Randall E; Yue, Yuanzheng; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Bockowski, Michal; Jensen, Lars R; Smedskjaer, Morten M

    2016-11-21

    The structure and properties of glass can be modified through compression near the glass transition temperature (T g ), and such modified structure and properties can be maintained at ambient temperature and pressure. However, once the compressed glass undergoes annealing near T g at ambient pressure, the modified structure and properties will relax. The challenging question is how the property relaxation is correlated with both the local and the medium-range structural relaxation. In this paper, we answer this question by studying the volume (density) and structural relaxation of a sodium borate glass that has first been pressure-quenched from its T g at 1 GPa, and then annealed at ambient pressure under different temperature-time conditions. Using 11 B MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy, we find that the pressure-induced densification of the glass is accompanied by a conversion of six-membered rings into non-ring trigonal boron (B III ) units, i.e. a structural change in medium-range order, and an increase in the fraction of tetrahedral boron (B IV ), i.e. a structural change in short-range order. These pressure-induced structural conversions are reversible during ambient pressure annealing near T g , but exhibit a dependence on the annealing temperature, e.g. the ring/non-ring B III ratio stabilizes at different values depending on the applied annealing temperature. We find that conversions between structural units cannot account for the pressure-induced densification, and instead we suggest the packing of structural units as the main densification mechanism.

  17. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  18. Surface exchange kinetics and chemical diffusivities of BaZr{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.65}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} by electrical conductivity relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dae-Kwang; Jeon, Sang-Yun; Singh, Bhupendra [Ionics Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwang-Ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Young [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sun-Ju, E-mail: song@chonnam.ac.kr [Ionics Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwang-Ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Electrical conductivity relaxation in BaCe{sub 0.65}Zr{sub 0.2}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} was monitored. • Monotonic relaxation behavior was observed during oxidation/reduction. • Nonmonotonic twofold relaxation behavior was observed during hydration/dehydration. • Surface exchange coefficients and diffusivities of O and H were calculated. - Abstract: Perovskite-type oxide BaCe{sub 0.65}Zr{sub 0.2}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} (BCZY2015) was synthesized by a solid state reaction method. BCZY2015 samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The time dependent variation in electrical conductivity of BCZY2015 was monitored during the oxidation/reduction in oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) range of −2.28 ⩽ log (pO{sub 2}/atm) ⩽ −0.68 at a fixed water vapor pressure (pH{sub 2}O), and during the hydration/dehydration in −3.15 ⩽ log (pH{sub 2}O/atm) ⩽ −2.35 range in air. The electrical conductivity showed a monotonic relaxation behavior by the ambipolar diffusion of V{sub o}{sup ··} and OH{sub o}{sup ·} during the oxidation/reduction and the relaxation process was governed by the diffusivity of oxygen (D-tilde{sub vO}). On the other hand, during the hydration/dehydration process, a non-monotonic twofold relaxation behavior was observed due to the decoupled diffusion of H and O components with the mediation of holes, and the conductivity relaxation process was governed by the diffusivities of both H (D-tilde{sub iH}) and O (D-tlde{sub vH}). The values of surface exchange coefficients and diffusivities of oxygen and hydrogen were calculated from Fick’s second law by the nonlinear least squares fitting of the conductivity data, as proposed by Yoo et al. (2008)

  19. Peroxynitrite-induced relaxation in isolated canine cerebral arteries and mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfeng; Li Wenyan; Altura, Bella T.; Altura, Burton M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the vascular actions of peroxynitrite (ONOO - ), the product of superoxide and nitric oxide (NO), in isolated canine cerebral arteries and to gain insight into its potential mechanisms of action. In the absence of any vasoactive agent, ONOO - (from 10 -7 to 10 -6 M) was able to reduce the basal tension. In prostaglandin F2α-precontracted canine basilar arterial rings, ONOO - elicited concentration-dependent relaxation at concentrations from 10 -8 to 10 -5 M. The effective concentrations producing approximately 50% maximal relaxation (EC 50 ) to ONOO - were 4.06 x 10 -6 and 4.12 x 10 -6 M in intact and denuded rings, respectively (P > 0.05). No significant differences in relaxation responses were found in ring preparations with or without endothelium (P > 0.05). The presence of either 5 μM methylene blue (MB) or 5 μM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly inhibited the relaxations induced by ONOO - . Tetraethylammonium chloride (T-2265) significantly decreased the ONOO - -induced relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner. However, ONOO - had no effect on rings precontracted by high KCL (P > 0.05). Addition of low concentrations of calyculin A (50 nM) was able to abolish the ONOO - -induced relaxation. Furthermore, ONOO - significantly inhibited calcium-induced contractions of K + -depolarized canine cerebral rings in a concentration-related manner. Lastly, a variety of pharmacological agents and antagonists including L-NMMA, L-arginine, indomethacin, atropine, naloxone, diphenhydramine, cimetine, glibenclamide, haloperidol, etc., did not influence the relaxant effects of ONOO - on the rings. Our new results suggest that ONOO - -triggered relaxation, on canine cerebral arteries, is mediated by elevation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, membrane hyperpolarization via K+ channel activation, activation of myosin light chain phosphatase activity, and interference with

  20. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  1. Relaxivity of Ferumoxytol at 1.5 T and 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Gesine; Colgan, Timothy; Wiens, Curtis N; Wang, Xiaoke; Schubert, Tilman; Hernando, Diego; Sharma, Samir D; Reeder, Scott B

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relaxation properties of ferumoxytol, an off-label alternative to gadolinium-based contrast agents, under physiological conditions at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Ferumoxytol was diluted in gradually increasing concentrations (0.26-4.2 mM) in saline, human plasma, and human whole blood. Magnetic resonance relaxometry was performed at 37°C at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Longitudinal and transverse relaxation rate constants (R1, R2, R2*) were measured as a function of ferumoxytol concentration, and relaxivities (r1, r2, r2*) were calculated. A linear dependence of R1, R2, and R2* on ferumoxytol concentration was found in saline and plasma with lower R1 values at 3.0 T and similar R2 and R2* values at 1.5 T and 3.0 T (1.5 T: r1saline = 19.9 ± 2.3 smM; r1plasma = 19.0 ± 1.7 smM; r2saline = 60.8 ± 3.8 smM; r2plasma = 64.9 ± 1.8 smM; r2*saline = 60.4 ± 4.7 smM; r2*plasma = 64.4 ± 2.5 smM; 3.0 T: r1saline = 10.0 ± 0.3 smM; r1plasma = 9.5 ± 0.2 smM; r2saline = 62.3 ± 3.7 smM; r2plasma = 65.2 ± 1.8 smM; r2*saline = 57.0 ± 4.7 smM; r2*plasma = 55.7 ± 4.4 smM). The dependence of relaxation rates on concentration in blood was nonlinear. Formulas from second-order polynomial fittings of the relaxation rates were calculated to characterize the relationship between R1blood and R2 blood with ferumoxytol. Ferumoxytol demonstrates strong longitudinal and transverse relaxivities. Awareness of the nonlinear relaxation behavior of ferumoxytol in blood is important for ferumoxytol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging applications and for protocol optimization.

  2. Photoproduction of long-lived holes and electronic processes in intrinsic electric fields seen through photoinduced absorption and dichroism in Ca sub 3 Ga sub 2 sub - sub x Mn sub x Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 garnets

    CERN Document Server

    Eremenko, V V; Kachur, I S; Piryatinskaya, V G; Ratner, A M; Kosmyna, M B; Nazarenko, B P; Puzikov, V M

    2003-01-01

    Long-lived photoinduced absorption and dichroism in the Ca sub 3 Ga sub 2 sub - sub x Mn sub x Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 garnets with x < 0.06 were examined versus temperature and pumping intensity. Unusual features of the kinetics of photoinduced phenomena are indicative of the underlying electronic processes. The comparison with the case of Ca sub 3 Mn sub 2 Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 , explored earlier by the authors, permits one to finally establish the main common mechanisms of photoinduced absorption and dichroism caused by random electric fields of photoproduced charges (hole polarons). The rate of their diffusion and relaxation through recombination is strongly influenced by the same fields, whose large statistical straggling is responsible for a broad continuous set of relaxation components (observed in the relaxation time range from 1 to about 1000 min). For Ca sub 3 Ga sub 2 sub - sub x Mn sub x Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 , the time and temperature dependences of photoinduced absorption and dichroism bear ...

  3. Are black holes in alternative theories serious astrophysical candidates? The case for Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Einstein's theory will get some as yet unknown corrections, possibly large in the strong-field regime. An ideal place to look for these modifications is in the vicinities of compact objects such as black holes. Here, we study dilatonic black holes, which arise in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet couplings and one-loop corrected four-dimensional effective theory of heterotic superstrings at low energies. These are interesting objects as a prototype for alternative, yet well-behaved gravity theories: they evade the 'no-hair' theorem of general relativity but were proven to be stable against radial perturbations. We investigate the viability of these black holes as astrophysical objects and try to provide some means to distinguish them from black holes in general relativity. We start by extending previous works and establishing the stability of these black holes against axial perturbations. We then look for solutions of the field equations describing slowly rotating black holes and study geodesic motion around this geometry. Depending on the values of mass, dilaton charge, and angular momentum of the solution, one can have differences in the innermost-stable-circular-orbit location and orbital frequency, relative to black holes in general relativity. In the most favorable cases, the difference amounts to a few percent. Given the current state-of-the-art, we discuss the difficulty of distinguishing the correct theory of gravity from electromagnetic observations or even with gravitational-wave detectors.

  4. Role of Thickness Confinement on Relaxations of the Fast Component in a Miscible A/B Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sharma, Ravi P. [University of Michigan; Dong, Ban Xuan [University of Michigan

    2018-01-18

    Spatial compositional heterogeneity strongly influences the dynamics of the A and B components of bulk miscible blends. Its effects are especially apparent in mixtures, such as poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME)/polystyrene (PS), where there exist significant disparities between the component glass transition temperatures (Tgs) and relaxation times. The relaxation processes characterized by distinct temperature dependencies and relaxation rates manifest different local compositional environments for temperatures above and below the glass transition temperature of the miscible blend. This same behavior is shown to exist in miscible PS/PVME films as thin as 100 nm. Moreover, in thin films, the characteristic segmental relaxation times t of the PVME component of miscible PVME/PS blends confined between aluminum (Al) substrates decrease with increasing molecular weight M of the PS component. These relaxation rates are film thickness dependent, in films up to a few hundred nanometers in thickness. This is in remarkable contrast to homopolymer films, where thickness confinement effects are apparent only on length scales on the order of nanometers. These surprisingly large length scales and M dependence are associated with the preferential interfacial enrichment - wetting layer formation - of the PVME component at the external Al interfaces, which alters the local spatial blend composition within the interior of the film. The implications are that the dynamics of miscible thin film blends are dictated in part by component Tg differences, disparities in component relaxation rates, component-substrate interactions, and chain lengths (entropy of mixing).

  5. Spin-orbit coupling induced two-electron relaxation in silicon donor pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-09-01

    We unravel theoretically a key intrinsic relaxation mechanism among the low-lying singlet and triplet donor-pair states in silicon, an important element in the fast-developing field of spintronics and quantum computation. Despite the perceived weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in Si, we find that our discovered relaxation mechanism, combined with the electron-phonon and interdonor interactions, drives the transitions in the two-electron states over a large range of donor coupling regimes. The scaling of the relaxation rate with interdonor exchange interaction J goes from J5 to J4 at the low to high temperature limits. Our analytical study draws on the symmetry analysis over combined band, donor envelope, and valley configurations. It uncovers naturally the dependence on the donor-alignment direction and triplet spin orientation, and especially on the dominant SOC source from donor impurities. While a magnetic field is not necessary for this relaxation, unlike in the single-donor spin relaxation, we discuss the crossover behavior with increasing Zeeman energy in order to facilitate comparison with experiments.

  6. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  7. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  8. Low-temperature strain ageing in In-Pb alloys under stress relaxation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, L.S.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic strain ageing (DSA) of In-Pb (6 and 8 at. % Pb) substitutional solid solution single crystals is studied at temperatures 77-205 K under stress relaxation conditions. The dependences of the stress increment after relaxation connected with DSA on stress relaxation time, stress relaxation rate at the end of the relaxation, temperature, alloy content, flow stress, and strain are determined. It is shown that the DSA kinetic is described by a Harper-type equation with the exponent equal to 1/3 and a low activation energy value (0.3-0.34 eV). This provides a low temperature of the DSA onset (∼ 0.17 T m , where T m is the melt temperature) and is evidence of pipe-mode diffusion. It is supposed that the obstacles to dislocation motion in the crystals studied consist of the groups of solutes, and the strength of the obstacles increases during the DSA due to the pipe diffusion of the solute atoms along the dislocations

  9. Quantum hair and the string-black hole correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment in which an energetic massless string probes a "stringhole" (a heavy string lying on the correspondence curve between strings and black holes) at large enough impact parameter for the regime to be under theoretical control. The corresponding, explicitly unitary, $S$-matrix turns out to be perturbatively sensitive to the microstate of the stringhole: in particular, at leading order in $l_s/b$, it depends on a projection of the stringhole's Lorentz-contracted quadrupole moment. The string-black hole correspondence is therefore violated if one assumes quantum hair to be exponentially suppressed as a function of black-hole entropy. Implications for the information paradox are briefly discussed.

  10. Higher order corrections to holographic black hole chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinamuli, Musema; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the holographic Smarr relation beyond the large N limit. By making use of the holographic dictionary, we find that the bulk correlates of subleading 1 /N corrections to this relation are related to the couplings in Lovelock gravity theories. We likewise obtain a holographic equation of state and check its validity for a variety of interesting and nontrivial black holes, including rotating planar black holes in Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld gravity, and nonextremal rotating black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We provide an explanation of the N -dependence of the holographic Smarr relation in terms of contributions due to planar and nonplanar diagrams in the dual theory.

  11. On the branching of the quasinormal resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-11-15

    It has recently been shown by Yang et al. (Phys Rev D 87:041502(R), 2013a; Phys Rev D 88:044047, 2013b) that rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by two distinct sets of quasinormal resonances. These two families of quasinormal resonances display qualitatively different asymptotic behaviors in the extremal (a/M → 1) black-hole limit: the zero-damping modes are characterized by relaxation times which tend to infinity in the extremal black-hole limit (Iω → 0 as a/M @→ 1), whereas the damped modes (DMs) are characterized by non-zero damping rates (Iω @→ finite-values as a/M @→ 1). In this paper we refute the claim made by Yang et al. that co-rotating DMs of near-extremal black holes are restricted to the limited range 0 ≤ μ holes in the μ > μ{sub c} regime, the regime which was claimed by Yang et al. not to contain DMs. We show that these co-rotating DMs (in the regime μ > μ{sub c}) are expected to characterize the resonance spectra of rapidly rotating (near-extremal) black holes with a/M >or similar 1 - 10{sup -9}. (orig.)

  12. Spin-lattice relaxation of individual solid-state spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, A.; Muñoz, E.; Dinani, H. T.; Jarmola, A.; Maletinsky, P.; Budker, D.; Maze, J. R.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the effect of vibrations on the relaxation process of individual spins is crucial for implementing nanosystems for quantum information and quantum metrology applications. In this work, we present a theoretical microscopic model to describe the spin-lattice relaxation of individual electronic spins associated to negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, although our results can be extended to other spin-boson systems. Starting from a general spin-lattice interaction Hamiltonian, we provide a detailed description and solution of the quantum master equation of an electronic spin-one system coupled to a phononic bath in thermal equilibrium. Special attention is given to the dynamics of one-phonon processes below 1 K where our results agree with recent experimental findings and analytically describe the temperature and magnetic-field scaling. At higher temperatures, linear and second-order terms in the interaction Hamiltonian are considered and the temperature scaling is discussed for acoustic and quasilocalized phonons when appropriate. Our results, in addition to confirming a T5 temperature dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate at higher temperatures, in agreement with experimental observations, provide a theoretical background for modeling the spin-lattice relaxation at a wide range of temperatures where different temperature scalings might be expected.

  13. Proton NMR relaxation in hydrous melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, J.; Bacarella, A.L.; Benjamin, B.M.; Brown, L.L.; Girard, C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse and continuous wave NMR measurements are reported for protons in hydrous melts of calcium nitrate at temperatures between -4 and 120 0 C. Although measured in different temperature ranges, spin-lattice (T 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times appear to be nearly equal to each other and proportional to the self-diffusion coefficients of solute metal cations such as Cd 2+ . At temperatures near 50 0 C, mean Arrhenius coefficients Δ H/sub T 1 / (kcal/mol) are 7.9, 7.3, and 4.8, respectively, for melts containing 2.8, 4.0, and 8.0 moles of water per mole of calcium nitrate, compared to 4.6 kcal/mol for pure water. Temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 in Ca(NO 3 ) 2 -2.8 H 2 O between -4 and 120 0 C are non-Arrhenius and can be represented by a Fulcher-type equation with a ''zero mobility temperature'' (T 0 ) of 225 0 K, close to the value of T 0 for solute diffusion, electrical conductance and viscosity. Resolution of the relaxation rates into correlation times for intramolecular (rotational) and intermolecular (translational) diffusional motion is discussed in terms of the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound and more recent models for dipolar relaxation

  14. Black holes in a cubic Galileon universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, E.; Charmousis, C.; Lehébel, A.; Moskalets, T., E-mail: eugeny.babichev@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: antoine.lehebel@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: tetiana.moskalets@th.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-01

    We find and study the properties of black hole solutions for a subclass of Horndeski theory including the cubic Galileon term. The theory under study has shift symmetry but not reflection symmetry for the scalar field. The Galileon is assumed to have linear time dependence characterized by a velocity parameter. We give analytic 3-dimensional solutions that are akin to the BTZ solutions but with a non-trivial scalar field that modifies the effective cosmological constant. We then study the 4-dimensional asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions. The latter present three different branches according to their effective cosmological constant. For two of these branches, we find families of black hole solutions, parametrized by the velocity of the scalar field. These spherically symmetric solutions, obtained numerically, are different from GR solutions close to the black hole event horizon, while they have the same de-Sitter asymptotic behavior. The velocity parameter represents black hole primary hair.

  15. On the existence and dynamics of braneworld black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, Andrew Liam; Randall, Lisa; Wiseman, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Based on holographic arguments Tanaka and Emparan et al have claimed that large localized static black holes do not exist in the one-brane Randall-Sundrum model. If such black holes are time-dependent as they propose, there are potentially significant phenomenological and theoretical consequences. We revisit the issue, arguing that their reasoning does not take into account the strongly coupled nature of the holographic theory. We claim that static black holes with smooth metrics should indeed exist in these theories, and give a simple example. However, although the existence of such solutions is relevant to exact and numerical solution searches, such static solutions might be dynamically unstable, again leading to time dependence with phenomenological consequences. We explore a plausible instability, suggested by Tanaka, analogous to that of Gregory and Laflamme, but argue that there is no reliable reason at this point to assume it must exist

  16. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  17. Electron Dynamics in a Subproton-Gyroscale Magnetic Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Dorelli, John C.; Vinas, Adolfo F.; Avanov, Levon A.; Gliese, Ulrik B.; Barrie, Alexander C.; Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Dickson, Charles; MacDonald, Elizabeth A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic holes are ubiquitous in space plasmas, occurring in the solar wind, downstream of planetary bow shocks, and inside the magnetosphere. Recently, kinetic-scale magnetic holes have been observed near Earth's central plasma sheet. The Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission enables measurement of both ions and electrons with 2 orders of magnitude increased temporal resolution over previous magnetospheric instruments. Here we present data from MMS taken in Earth's nightside plasma sheet and use high-resolution particle and magnetometer data to characterize the structure of a subproton-scale magnetic hole. Electrons with gyroradii above the thermal gyroradius but below the current layer thickness carry a current sufficient to account for a 10-20 depression in magnetic field magnitude. These observations suggest that the size and magnetic depth of kinetic-scale magnetic holes is strongly dependent on the background plasma conditions.

  18. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-04-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  19. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Longqing; Syed, Ahad A.; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  20. Black holes from large N singlet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Irene; Sundborg, Bo; Thorlacius, Larus; Wintergerst, Nico

    2018-03-01

    The emergent nature of spacetime geometry and black holes can be directly probed in simple holographic duals of higher spin gravity and tensionless string theory. To this end, we study time dependent thermal correlation functions of gauge invariant observables in suitably chosen free large N gauge theories. At low temperature and on short time scales the correlation functions encode propagation through an approximate AdS spacetime while interesting departures emerge at high temperature and on longer time scales. This includes the existence of evanescent modes and the exponential decay of time dependent boundary correlations, both of which are well known indicators of bulk black holes in AdS/CFT. In addition, a new time scale emerges after which the correlation functions return to a bulk thermal AdS form up to an overall temperature dependent normalization. A corresponding length scale was seen in equal time correlation functions in the same models in our earlier work.

  1. Transverse water relaxation in whole blood and erythrocytes at 3T, 7T, 9.4T, 11.7T and 16.4T; determination of intracellular hemoglobin and extracellular albumin relaxivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgac, Ksenija; Li, Wenbo; Huang, Alan; Qin, Qin; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2017-05-01

    Blood is a physiological substance with multiple water compartments, which contain water-binding proteins such as hemoglobin in erythrocytes and albumin in plasma. Knowing the water transverse (R 2 ) relaxation rates from these different blood compartments is a prerequisite for quantifying the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect. Here, we report the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) based transverse (R 2CPMG ) relaxation rates of water in bovine blood samples circulated in a perfusion system at physiological temperature in order to mimic blood perfusion in humans. R 2CPMG values of blood plasma, lysed packed erythrocytes, lysed plasma/erythrocyte mixtures, and whole blood at 3 T, 7 T, 9.4 T, 11.7 T and 16.4 T were measured as a function of hematocrit or hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and CPMG inter-echo spacing (τ cp ). R 2CPMG in lysed cells showed a small τ cp dependence, attributed to the water exchange rate between free and hemoglobin-bound water to be much faster than τ cp . This was contrary to the tangential dependence in whole blood, where a much slower exchange between cells and blood plasma applies. Whole blood data were fitted as a function of τ cp using a general tangential correlation time model applicable for exchange as well as diffusion contributions to R 2CPMG , and the intercept R 20blood at infinitely short τ cp was determined. The R 20blood values at different hematocrit and the R 2CPMG values of lysed erythrocyte/plasma mixtures at different hemoglobin concentration were used to determine the relaxivity of hemoglobin inside the erythrocyte (r 2Hb ) and albumin (r 2Alb ) in plasma. The r 2Hb values obtained from lysed erythrocytes and whole blood were comparable at full oxygenation. However, while r 2Hb determined from lysed cells showed a linear dependence on oxygenation, this dependence became quadratic in whole blood. This possibly suggests an additional relaxation effect inside intact cells, perhaps due to hemoglobin

  2. Magnetic relaxation phenomena in the chiral magnet Fe1 -xCoxSi : An ac susceptibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannenberg, L. J.; Lefering, A. J. E.; Kakurai, K.; Onose, Y.; Endoh, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Pappas, C.

    2016-10-01

    We present a systematic study of the ac susceptibility of the chiral magnet Fe1 -xCoxSi with x =0.30 covering four orders of magnitude in frequencies from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz, with particular emphasis to the pronounced history dependence. Characteristic relaxation times ranging from a few milliseconds to tens of seconds are observed around the skyrmion lattice A phase, the helical-to-conical transition and in a region above TC. The distribution of relaxation frequencies around the A phase is broad, asymmetric, and originates from multiple coexisting relaxation processes. The pronounced dependence of the magnetic phase diagram on the magnetic history and cooling rates as well as the asymmetric frequency dependence and slow dynamics suggest more complicated physical phenomena in Fe0.7Co0.3Si than in other chiral magnets.

  3. The absence of horizon in black-hole formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Pei-Ming, E-mail: pmho@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2016-08-15

    With the back-reaction of Hawking radiation taken into consideration, the work of Kawai, Matsuo and Yokokura [1] has shown that, under a few assumptions, the collapse of matter does not lead to event horizon nor apparent horizon. In this paper, we relax their assumptions and elaborate on the space-time geometry of a generic collapsing body with spherical symmetry. The geometry outside the collapsing sphere is found to be approximated by the geometry outside the white-hole horizon, hence the collapsing matter remains outside the Schwarzschild radius. As particles in Hawking radiation are created in the vicinity of the collapsing matter, the information loss paradox is alleviated. Assuming that the collapsing body evaporates within finite time, there is no event horizon.

  4. The absence of horizon in black-hole formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ming Ho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the back-reaction of Hawking radiation taken into consideration, the work of Kawai, Matsuo and Yokokura [1] has shown that, under a few assumptions, the collapse of matter does not lead to event horizon nor apparent horizon. In this paper, we relax their assumptions and elaborate on the space-time geometry of a generic collapsing body with spherical symmetry. The geometry outside the collapsing sphere is found to be approximated by the geometry outside the white-hole horizon, hence the collapsing matter remains outside the Schwarzschild radius. As particles in Hawking radiation are created in the vicinity of the collapsing matter, the information loss paradox is alleviated. Assuming that the collapsing body evaporates within finite time, there is no event horizon.

  5. The absence of horizon in black-hole formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With the back-reaction of Hawking radiation taken into consideration, the work of Kawai, Matsuo and Yokokura [1] has shown that, under a few assumptions, the collapse of matter does not lead to event horizon nor apparent horizon. In this paper, we relax their assumptions and elaborate on the space-time geometry of a generic collapsing body with spherical symmetry. The geometry outside the collapsing sphere is found to be approximated by the geometry outside the white-hole horizon, hence the collapsing matter remains outside the Schwarzschild radius. As particles in Hawking radiation are created in the vicinity of the collapsing matter, the information loss paradox is alleviated. Assuming that the collapsing body evaporates within finite time, there is no event horizon.

  6. A nuclear magnetic relaxation study on internal motion of polyelectrolytes in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriever, J.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the significance and the amount of information which can be extracted from the study of frequency dependence of magnetic relaxation rates in solutions of a synthetic macromolecule. Solutions of poly(methacrylic acid), PMA, in water were chosen as the object of the present work. A short survey of nuclear magnetic relaxation in solutions of simple macromolecules is presented. Results obtained by continuous wave experiments on PMA solutions are shown (viz. the information about the transverse relaxation from line width analysis of 60 MHz proton spectra). Water enriched in 17 O is used in magnetic relaxation studies; the results of the determination of hydrogen lifetimes in aqueous solutions of acetic acid and poly(methacrylic acid) are given. The possibility of obtaining information about the dynamics of deuterons in the acid side groups of weak polyacids by measuring deuteron relaxation in heavy water solutions of those acids is considered. The use of deuteron relaxation rate experiments on solutions of selectively methylene deuterated poly(methacrylic acid), [-CD 2 -CCH 3 COOH-]n, is demonstrated and the backbone methylene C-atom motion is charachterized. The magne-tic relaxation of nuclei in the side groups of methylene deuterated PMA, viz. protons in the methyland deuterons in the acid side groups is presented

  7. CHAOTIC MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN AN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING A ROTATING BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The observational data from some black hole candidates suggest the importance of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of a black hole. Highly magnetized disk accretion may play an importance rule, and large-scale magnetic field may be formed above the disk surface. Then, we expect that the nature of the black hole spacetime would be revealed by magnetic phenomena near the black hole. We will start investigating the motion of a charged test particle which depends on the initial parameter setting in the black hole dipole magnetic field, which is a test field on the Kerr spacetime. Particularly, we study the spin effects of a rotating black hole on the motion of the charged test particle trapped in magnetic field lines. We make detailed analysis for the particle's trajectories by using the Poincare map method, and show the chaotic properties that depend on the black hole spin. We find that the dragging effects of the spacetime by a rotating black hole weaken the chaotic properties and generate regular trajectories for some sets of initial parameters, while the chaotic properties dominate on the trajectories for slowly rotating black hole cases. The dragging effects can generate the fourth adiabatic invariant on the particle motion approximately.

  8. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  9. SHRINKING THE BRANEWORLD: BLACK HOLE IN A GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Large extra dimensions have been proposed as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem in physics. In one of the suggested models, the RS2 braneworld model, black holes may evaporate by Hawking radiation faster than in general relativity, on a timescale that depends on the black hole mass and on the asymptotic radius of curvature of the extra dimensions. Thus the size of the extra dimensions can be constrained by astrophysical observations. Here we point out that the black hole, recently discovered in an extragalactic globular cluster, places the strongest upper limit on the size of the extra dimensions in the RS2 model, L ∼< 0.003 mm. This black hole has the virtues of old age and relatively small mass. The derived upper limit is within an order of magnitude of the absolute limit afforded by astrophysical observations of black holes.

  10. The Relaxation of Some Classes of Variational Integrals with Pointwise Continuous-Type Gradient Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Arcangelis, Riccardo; Zappale, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    Relaxation problems for a functional are analyzed. Identity and integral representation results are proved under continuity-type assumptions, together with the description of the common density by means of convexification arguments. Classical relaxation results are extended to the case of the continuous variable dependence, and the non-identity features described in the measurable dependence case are shown to be non-occurring. Proofs are based on the properties of certain limits of multi-functions, and on an approximation result for functions. Results in more general settings are also obtained

  11. Vibrational relaxation dynamics of SD molecules in As2S3: Observation of an anomalous isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, J.R.; Happek, U.; Rella, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the vibrational relaxation of molecular impurities in crystals and glasses mainly depends on the order of the decay process, with lower order processes leading to more rapid relaxation (a behavior that is known under the term open-quotes gap-lawclose quotes). Here we present measurements that contradict this assumption. Using high intensity psec pulses of the Stanford FEL we measured the relaxation rate of the SD vibrational stretch mode (at a frequency of 1800 cm) by applying a pump-probe technique. We find relaxation rates on the order of 2x10 9 sec -1 , which are a factor of 2 lower than those found for the isotope molecule SH (at a frequency of about 2500 cm - 1 ) in the same host 1 . We recall that the relaxation of the SD vibrational stretch mode is controlled by a lower order process as compared to the SH molecule, which is due to the smaller number of host vibrational quanta to match the energy of the stretch mode; a fact we have confirmed experimentally by temperature dependent relaxation measurements. Thus our remits are in marked contrast to the so-called open-quotes Gap-Lawclose quotes and emphasize the importance of the molecule - host coupling in the relaxation dynamics

  12. Donor-driven spin relaxation in multivalley semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Chalaev, Oleg; Dery, Hanan

    2014-10-17

    The observed dependence of spin relaxation on the identity of the donor atom in n-type silicon has remained without explanation for decades and poses a long-standing open question with important consequences for modern spintronics. Taking into account the multivalley nature of the conduction band in silicon and germanium, we show that the spin-flip amplitude is dominated by short-range scattering off the central-cell potential of impurities after which the electron is transferred to a valley on a different axis in k space. Through symmetry arguments, we show that this spin-flip process can strongly affect the spin relaxation in all multivalley materials in which time-reversal cannot connect distinct valleys. From the physical insights gained from the theory, we provide guidelines to significantly enhance the spin lifetime in semiconductor spintronics devices.

  13. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  14. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  15. Geometrical and band-structure effects on phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional germanium nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Mori, S.; Morioka, N.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-01-01

    We calculated the phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional [001], [110], [111], and [112]-oriented germanium nanowires, and the hole transport characteristics were investigated. A tight-binding approximation was used for holes, and phonons were described by a valence force field model. Then, scattering probability of holes by phonons was calculated taking account of hole-phonon interaction atomistically, and the linearized Boltzmann's transport equation was solved to calculate the hole mobility at low longitudinal field. The dependence of the hole mobility on nanowire geometry was analyzed in terms of the valence band structure of germanium nanowires, and it was found that the dependence was qualitatively reproduced by considering an average effective mass and the density of states of holes. The calculation revealed that [110] germanium nanowires with large height along the [001] direction show high hole mobility. Germanium nanowires with this geometry are also expected to exhibit high electron mobility in our previous work, and thus they are promising for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications

  16. A unified aggregation and relaxation approach for stress-constrained topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbart, Alexander; Langelaar, Matthijs; Keulen, Fred van

    2017-01-01

    design-independent set of constraints. The next step is to perform constraint aggregation over the reformulated local constraints using a lower bound aggregation function. We demonstrate that this approach concurrently aggregates the constraints and relaxes the feasible domain, thereby making singular...... optima accessible. The main advantage is that no separate constraint relaxation techniques are necessary, which reduces the parameter dependence of the problem. Furthermore, there is a clear relationship between the original feasible domain and the perturbed feasible domain via this aggregation parameter....

  17. Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj, E-mail: cpankaj@iitk.ac.in; Sengupta, Gautam, E-mail: sengupta@iitk.ac.in

    2017-02-10

    The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN–AdS and rotating Kerr–AdS black holes in a generalized Randall–Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.

  18. Influence of alloy disorder scattering on the hole mobility of SiGe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Blanque, Celso; Ruiz, Francisco G., E-mail: franruiz@ugr.es; Godoy, Andres, E-mail: agodoy@ugr.es; Marin, Enrique G.; Donetti, Luca; Gámiz, Francisco [Dpto. de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Av. Fuentenueva S/N, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-12-28

    In this work, we analyze the influence of the alloy disorder (AD) scattering on the low-field hole mobility of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} nanowires (NWs). To do it, the electrostatic description is achieved through a self-consistent solution of the Poisson equation and the six-band k⋅p method in the cross section of the NW. The momentum relaxation time approximation is used to calculate the hole mobility, including alloy disorder and phonon scattering mechanisms, and the use of approximations to calculate the overlap integrals for the scattering matrix elements is discussed. We study the influence of the alloy disorder scattering on the total mobility compared to the phonon contribution, for different values of the AD scattering parameter proposed in the literature, and analyze the performance of SiGe NWs as a function of the Ge molar fraction for both low and high inversion charge densities.

  19. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time in mixed alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannus, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using magneto-optic techniques the ground state spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of 'F' centers in mixed Alkali Halide cristals (KCl-KBr), was studied. A computer assisted system to optically measure short relaxation times (approx. = 1mS), was described. The technique is based on the measurement of the Magnetic Circular Dicroism (MCD) presented by F centers. The T1 magnetic field dependency at 2 K (up to 65 KGauss), was obtained as well as the MCD spectra for different relative concentration at the mixed matrices. The theory developed by Panepucci and Mollenauer for F centers spin-lattice relaxation in pure matrices was modified to explain the behaviour of T1 in mixed cristals. The Direct Process results (T approx. = 2.0 K) compared against that theory shows that the main relaxation mecanism, up to 25 KGauss, continues to be phonon modulation of the hiperfine iteraction between F electrons and surrounding nuclei. (Author) [pt

  20. Acceleration of particles by black holes: Kinematic explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2011-01-01

    A new simple and general explanation of the effect of acceleration of particles by black holes to infinite energies in the center of mass frame is suggested. It is based on kinematics of particles moving near the horizon. This effect arises when particles of two kinds collide near the horizon. For massive particles, the first kind represents a particle with the generic energy and angular momentum (I call them ''usual''). Near the horizon, such a particle has a velocity almost equal to that of light in the frame that corotates with a black hole (the frame is static if a black hole is static). The second kind (called ''critical'') consists of particles with the velocity v< c near the horizon due to special relationship between the energy and angular momentum (or charge). As a result, the relative velocity approaches the speed of light c, and the Lorentz factor grows unbound. This explanation applies both to generic rotating black holes and charged ones (even for radial motion of particles). If one of the colliding particles is massless (photon), the critical particle is distinguished by the fact that its frequency is finite near the horizon. The existence (or absence) of the effect is determined depending on competition of two factors--gravitational blue shift for a photon propagating towards a black hole and the Doppler effect due to transformation from the locally nonrotating frame to a comoving one. Classification of all possible types of collisions is suggested depending on whether massive or massless particle is critical or usual.

  1. Spin-dependent electron many-body effects in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, P.; Kerachian, Y.; van Driel, H. M.; Smirl, Arthur L.

    2005-12-01

    Time- and polarization-resolved differential transmission measurements employing same and oppositely circularly polarized 150fs optical pulses are used to investigate spin characteristics of conduction band electrons in bulk GaAs at 295K . Electrons and holes with densities in the 2×1016cm-3-1018cm-3 range are generated and probed with pulses whose center wavelength is between 865 and 775nm . The transmissivity results can be explained in terms of the spin sensitivity of both phase-space filling and many-body effects (band-gap renormalization and screening of the Coulomb enhancement factor). For excitation and probing at 865nm , just above the band-gap edge, the transmissivity changes mainly reflect spin-dependent phase-space filling which is dominated by the electron Fermi factors. However, for 775nm probing, the influence of many-body effects on the induced transmission change are comparable with those from reduced phase space filling, exposing the spin dependence of the many-body effects. If one does not take account of these spin-dependent effects one can misinterpret both the magnitude and time evolution of the electron spin polarization. For suitable measurements we find that the electron spin relaxation time is 130ps .

  2. Hole drift mobility in poly(hexylphenylsilane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimi, Y.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Poly(n-alkylphenylsilane)s in which n-alkyl were changed from methyl to octyl were polymerized. Hole transport properties of poly(alkyllphenylsilane)s were systematically studied by the DC time-of-flight (TOF) technique. While the hole drift mobility of poly(methylphenylsilane) increased monotonously in entire field, those of poly(hexylphenylsilane) and poly(octylphenylsilane) decreased with increase in the field strength. Temperature dependence of hole drift mobility in those polymers was small. On the basis of Baessler's disorder formalism the mobility was analyzed quantitatively to disserve complex contributions of charge transport. The analyzed results indicated that with increase in the length of n-alkyl side-groups, the energetic disorder of hopping sites became smaller and the disorder of distance between hopping sites became larger. These results were supported by the results obtained by UV absorption measurement and positron annihilation life-time spectroscopy measurement. (author)

  3. Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arise from ultra-Planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simultaneous description of modes that have fallen into the black hole and outgoing Hawking modes can be given without appearance of a large kinematic invariant, or other dependence on ultra-Planckian physics. This indicates that a reliable argument for information loss has not been constructed, and that strong gravitational dynamics is important. Such dynamics has been argued to be fundamentally nonlocal in extreme situations, such as those required to investigate the fate of information

  4. Enhanced Circular Dichroism of Gold Bilayered Slit Arrays Embedded with Rectangular Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yongkai; Luo, Lina; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2017-01-01

    Gold bilayered slit arrays with rectangular holes embedded into the metal surface are designed to enhance the circular dichroism (CD) effect of gold bilayered slit arrays. The rectangular holes in these arrays block electric currents and generate localized surface plasmons around these holes, thereby strengthening the CD effect. The CD enhancement factor depends strongly on the rotational angle and the structural parameters of the rectangular holes; this factor can be enhanced further by drilling two additional rectangular holes into the metal surfaces of the arrays. These results help facilitate the design of chiral structures to produce a strong CD effect and large electric fields.

  5. Mass and free energy of Lovelock black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie; Ray, Sourya

    2011-01-01

    An explicit formula for the ADM mass of an asymptotically AdS black hole in a generic Lovelock gravity theory is presented, identical in form to that in Einstein gravity, but multiplied by a function of the Lovelock coupling constants and the AdS curvature radius. A Gauss' law-type formula relates the mass, which is an integral at infinity, to an expression depending instead on the horizon radius. This and other thermodynamic quantities, such as the free energy, are then analyzed in the limits of small and large horizon radius, yielding results that are independent of the detailed choice of Lovelock couplings. In even dimensions, the temperature diverges in both limits, implying the existence of a minimum temperature for black holes. The negative free energy of sufficiently large black holes implies the existence of a Hawking-Page transition. In odd dimensions, the temperature still diverges for large black holes, which again have negative free energy. However, the temperature vanishes as the horizon radius tends to zero and sufficiently small black holes have positive specific heat.

  6. Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: General theory with applications to two-spin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2016-02-28

    In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. We have embarked on a systematic program to develop, from the stochastic Liouville equation, a general and rigorous theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole coupling strengths, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we present a general theoretical framework applicable to spin systems of arbitrary size with symmetric or asymmetric exchange. So far, the dipolar EMOR theory is only available for a two-spin system with symmetric exchange. Asymmetric exchange, when the spin system is fragmented by the exchange, introduces new and unexpected phenomena. Notably, the anisotropic dipole couplings of non-exchanging spins break the axial symmetry in spin Liouville space, thereby opening up new relaxation channels in the locally anisotropic sites, including longitudinal-transverse cross relaxation. Such cross-mode relaxation operates only at low fields; at higher fields it becomes nonsecular, leading to an unusual inverted relaxation dispersion that splits the extreme-narrowing regime into two sub-regimes. The general dipolar EMOR theory is illustrated here by a detailed analysis of the asymmetric two-spin case, for which we present relaxation dispersion profiles over a wide range of conditions as well as analytical results for integral relaxation rates and time-dependent spin modes in the zero-field and motional-narrowing regimes. The general theoretical framework presented here will enable a quantitative analysis of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation in model systems with immobilized macromolecules and, ultimately, will provide a rigorous link between relaxation-based magnetic resonance image contrast and molecular parameters.

  7. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  8. Thermalization with chemical potentials, and higher spin black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We study the long time behaviour of local observables following a quantum quench in 1+1 dimensional conformal field theories possessing additional conserved charges besides the energy. We show that the expectation value of an arbitrary string of local observables supported on a finite interval exponentially approaches an equilibrium value. The equilibrium is characterized by a temperature and chemical potentials defined in terms of the quenched state. For an infinite number of commuting conserved charges, the equilibrium ensemble is a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). We compute the thermalization rate in a systematic perturbation in the chemical potentials, using a new technique to sum over an infinite number of Feynman diagrams. The above technique also allows us to compute relaxation times for thermal Green’s functions in the presence of an arbitrary number of chemical potentials. In the context of a higher spin (hs[λ]) holography, the partition function of the final equilibrium GGE is known to agree with that of a higher spin black hole. The thermalization rate from the CFT computed in our paper agrees with the quasinormal frequency of a scalar field in this black hole.

  9. Longitudinal relaxation of initially straight flexible and stiff polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis; Dissanayake, Inuka

    2004-11-01

    The present talk considers the relaxation of a single flexible or stiff polymer chain from an initial straight configuration in a viscous solvent. This problem commonly arises when strong flows are turned off in both industrial and biological applications. The problem is also motivated by recent experiments with single biopolymer molecules relaxing after being fully extended by applied forces as well as by the recent development of micro-devices involving stretched tethered biopolymers. Our results are applicable to a wide array of synthetic polymers such as polyacrylamides, Kevlar and polyesters as well as biopolymers such as DNA, actin filaments, microtubules and MTV. In this talk we discuss the mechanism of the polymer relaxation as was revealed through Brownian Dynamics simulations covering a broad range of time scales and chain stiffness. After the short-time free diffusion, the chain's longitudinal reduction at early intermediate times is shown to constitute a universal behavior for any chain stiffness caused by a quasi-steady relaxation of tensions associated with the deforming action of the Brownian forces. Stiff chains are shown to exhibit a late intermediate-time longitudinal reduction associated with a relaxation of tensions affected by the deforming Brownian and the restoring bending forces. The longitudinal and transverse relaxations are shown to obey different laws, i.e. the chain relaxation is anisotropic at all times. In the talk, we show how from the knowledge of the relaxation mechanism, we can predict and explain the polymer properties including the polymer stress and the solution birefringence. In addition, a generalized stress-optic law is derived valid for any time and chain stiffness. All polymer properties which depend on the polymer length are shown to exhibit two intermediate-time behaviors with the early one to constitute a universal behavior for any chain stiffness. This work was supported in part by the Minta Martin Research Fund. The

  10. CD-SEM metrology of spike detection on sub-40 nm contact holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Yoshinori; Osabe, Taro; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Mclellan Martin, Erin; Koyanagi, Hajime; Colburn, Matthew E.; Torii, Kazuyoshi

    2010-03-01

    In this work, for the purpose of contact-hole process control, new metrics for contact-hole edge roughness (CER) are being proposed. The metrics are correlated to lithographic process variation which result in increased electric fields; a primary driver of time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB). Electric field strength at the tip of spoke-shaped CER has been simulated; and new hole-feature metrics have been introduced. An algorithm for defining critical features like spoke angle, spoke length, etc has been defined. In addition, a method for identifying at-risk holes has been demonstrated. The number of spike holes can determine slight defocus conditions that are not detected though the conventional CER metrics. The newly proposed metrics can identify contact holes with a propensity for increased electric field concentration and are expected to improve contact-hole reliability in the sub-40-nm contact-hole process.

  11. Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderfer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)

  12. Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2015-11-20

    In the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly.

  13. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  14. Minimal Length Effects on Tunnelling from Spherically Symmetric Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benrong Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of the minimal length on quantum tunnelling from spherically symmetric black holes using the Hamilton-Jacobi method incorporating the minimal length. We first derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for scalars and fermions, both of which have the same expressions. The minimal length correction to the Hawking temperature is found to depend on the black hole’s mass and the mass and angular momentum of emitted particles. Finally, we calculate a Schwarzschild black hole's luminosity and find the black hole evaporates to zero mass in infinite time.

  15. Membrane viewpoint on black holes: Dynamical electromagnetic fields near the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.A.; Suen, W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers with the aim of developing a complete self-consistent formalism for the treatment of electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the neighborhood of a black-hole horizon. In this membrane formalism, the horizon is treated as a closed two-dimensional membrane lying in a curved three-dimensional space, and endowed with familiar physical properties such as entropy and temperature, surface pressure and viscosity, and electrical conductivity, charge, and current. This paper develops the concept of the ''stretched horizon,'' which will be vital for both the electromagnetic and gravitational aspects of the formalism, and it presents several model problems illustrating the interaction of dynamical electromagnetic fields with stationary black-hole horizons: The field of a test charge in various states of motion outside the Schwarzschild horizon is analyzed in the near-horizon limit, where the spatial curvature may be ignored and the metric may be approximated by that of Rindler. This analysis elucidates the influence of the horizon on the shapes and motions of electric and magnetic field lines when external agents move the field lines in arbitrary manners. It also illustrates how the field lines interact with the horizon's charge and current to produce an exchange of energy and momentum between the external agent and the horizon. A numerical calculation of the dynamical relaxation of a magnetic field threading a Schwarzschild black hole is also presented, illustrating the ''cleaning'' of a complicated field structure by a black-hole horizon, and elucidating the constraints on the location of the stretched horizon

  16. Quasinormal modes of brane-localized standard model fields. II. Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the fundamental quasinormal modes of all standard model fields propagating on a brane embedded in a higher-dimensional rotating black-hole spacetime. The equations of motion for fields with spin s=0, 1/2 and 1 propagating in the induced-on-the-brane background are solved numerically, and the dependence of their QN spectra on the black-hole angular momentum and dimensionality of spacetime is investigated. It is found that the brane-localized field perturbations are longer-lived when the higher-dimensional black hole rotates faster, while an increase in the number of transverse-to-the-brane dimensions reduces their lifetime. Finally, the quality factor Q, that determines the best oscillator among the different field perturbations, is investigated and found to depend on properties of both the particular field studied (spin, multipole numbers) and the gravitational background (dimensionality, black-hole angular momentum parameter)

  17. A study of vibrational relaxation of electronically-excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsyuk, V.V.; Izmailov, I.A.; Kochelap, V.A.

    1992-09-01

    The time kinetics of the vibrational relaxation of excimers is studied in the diffusional approximation. Simple formulae for functions of nonstationary vibrational distribution are found for the electronically excited molecules. Some spectral-kinetic dependencies of the excimer luminescence are explained in a new way. The possibilities of the determination of excimer parameters are discussed. The dependence of energetical characteristics of excimer lasers on these parameters is particularly emphasized. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  18. Observation of orientation- and k-dependent Zeeman spin-splitting in hole quantum wires on (100)-oriented AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J C H; Klochan, O; Micolich, A P; Hamilton, A R; Martin, T P; Ho, L H; Zuelicke, U; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, We study the Zeeman spin-splitting in hole quantum wires oriented along the [011] and [01 1-bar] crystallographic axes of a high mobility undoped (100)-oriented AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. Our data show that the spin-splitting can be switched 'on' (finite g*) or 'off' (zero g*) by rotating the field from a parallel to a perpendicular orientation with respect to the wire, and the properties of the wire are identical for the two orientations with respect to the crystallographic axes. We also find that the g-factor in the parallel orientation decreases as the wire is narrowed. This is in contrast to electron quantum wires, where the g-factor is enhanced by exchange effects as the wire is narrowed. This is evidence for a k-dependent Zeeman splitting that arises from the spin-3/2 nature of holes.

  19. Muon spin relaxation in random spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu Yamazaki

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation function Gsub(z)(t) of the positive muon can reflect dynamical characters of local field in a unique way even when the correlation time is longer than the Larmor period of local field. This method has been applied to studies of spin dynamics in spin glass systems, revealing sharp but continuous temperature dependence of the correlation time. Its principle and applications are reviewed. (author)

  20. Pharmacological characterization of the relaxant effect induced by adrenomedullin in rat cavernosal smooth muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, L.N. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas, Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Gonzaga, N.A. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, D.P.C.; Tirapelli, L.F. [Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, C.R. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas, Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) and the expression of AM system components in this tissue. Functional assays using standard muscle bath procedures were performed in CSM isolated from male Wistar rats. Protein and mRNA levels of pre-pro-AM, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and Subtypes 1, 2 and 3 of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family were assessed by Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Nitrate and 6-keto-prostaglandin F{sub 1α} (6-keto-PGF{sub 1α}; a stable product of prostacyclin) levels were determined using commercially available kits. Protein and mRNA of AM, CRLR, and RAMP 1, -2, and -3 were detected in rat CSM. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that AM and CRLR were expressed in rat CSM. AM relaxed CSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. AM{sub 22-52}, a selective antagonist for AM receptors, reduced the relaxation induced by AM. Conversely, CGRP{sub 8-37},