Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and Multi-Messenger Astronomy
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. Although numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued for many years by a host of instabilities, recent breakthroughs have conquered these problems and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, astrophysics, and testing general relativity.
Black Hole Mergers and Gravitational Waves: Opening the New Frontier
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational waves, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. Since these mergers take place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists tried to simulate these mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. In the past several years, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will highlight these breakthroughs and the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.
Binary Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
Centrella, Joan; Baker, J.; Boggs, W.; Kelly, B.; McWilliams, S.; vanMeter, J.
2008-01-01
The final merger of comparable mass binary black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for LISA. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. We will present the results of new simulations of black hole mergers with unequal masses and spins, focusing on the gravitational waves emitted and the accompanying astrophysical "kicks." The magnitude of these kicks has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive black holes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.
2016-02-01
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 ×10-21. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ . The source lies at a luminosity distance of 41 0-180+160 Mpc corresponding to a redshift z =0.0 9-0.04+0.03 . In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ , and the final black hole mass is 6 2-4+4M⊙ , with 3. 0-0.5+0.5M⊙ c2 radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A
2016-02-12
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Binary Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
Centrella, Joan; Baker, J.; Boggs, W.; Kelly, B.; McWilliams, S.; van Meter, J.
2007-12-01
The final merger of comparable mass binary black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for LISA. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. We will present the results of new simulations of black hole mergers with unequal masses and spins, focusing on the gravitational waves emitted and the accompanying astrophysical "kicks.” The magnitude of these kicks has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive blackholes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. This work was supported by NASA grant 06-BEFS06-19, and the simulations were carried out using Project Columbia at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division (Ames Research Center) and at the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (Goddard Space Flight Center).
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
,
2016-01-01
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of $1.0 \\times 10^{-21}$. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 {\\sigma}. The source lies at a luminosity distance of $410^{+160}_{-180}$ Mpc corresponding to a redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are $36^{+5}_{-4} M_\\odot$ and $29^{+4}_{-4} M_\\odot$, and the final black hole mass is $62^{+4}_{-4} M_\\odot$, with $3.0^{+0.5}_{-0.5} M_\\odot c^2$ radiated in gravitational waves. ...
Nonspinning black hole-neutron star mergers: a model for the amplitude of gravitational waveforms
Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru
2013-01-01
Black hole-neutron star binary mergers display a much richer phenomenology than black hole-black hole mergers, even in the relatively simple case - considered in this paper - in which both the black hole and the neutron star are nonspinning. When the neutron star is tidally disrupted, the gravitational wave emission is radically different from the black hole-black hole case and it can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. We present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain that encompasses the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild", and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to general relativistic numerical simulations using piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. It should prove useful to extract information on the nuclear equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, and also to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron ...
Aligned spin neutron star-black hole mergers: a gravitational waveform amplitude model
Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru
2015-01-01
The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave...
Dvorkin, Irina; Silk, Joseph; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Olive, Keith A
2016-01-01
The recent detection of the binary black hole merger GW150914 demonstrates the existence of black holes more massive than previously observed in X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This article explores different scenarios of black hole formation in the context of self-consistent cosmic chemical evolution models that simultaneously match observations of the cosmic star formation rate, optical depth to reionization and metallicity of the interstellar medium. This framework is used to calculate the mass distribution of merging black hole binaries and its evolution with redshift. We also study the implications of the black hole mass distribution for the stochastic gravitational wave background from mergers and from core collapse events.
Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John
2016-11-01
We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.
Search for gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral, merger and ringdown
Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G S; Ceron, E Amador; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Antonucci, F; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aronsson, M; Aso, Y; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballinger, T; Ballmer, S; Barker, D; Barnum, S; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Beker, M G; Belletoile, A; Benacquista, M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birindelli, S; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Boccara, C; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Boyle, M; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Budzyński, R; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cain, J; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campagna, E; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia`, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coulon, J -P; Coward, D M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Culter, R M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Das, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Davier, M; Davies, G; Davis, A; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; del Prete, M; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Devanka, P; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Dorsher, S; Douglas, E S D; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Dueck, J; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gholami, I; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hall, P; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hoyland, D; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Jaranowski, P; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kanner, J B; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, H; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Krause, T; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kullman, J; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lang, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Leong, J; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J; Li, T G F; Liguori, N; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lu, P; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Lundgren, A D; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Mak, C; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K
2011-01-01
We present the first modeled search for gravitational waves using the complete binary black hole gravitational waveform from inspiral through the merger and ringdown for binaries with negligible component spin. We searched approximately 2 years of LIGO data taken between November 2005 and September 2007 for systems with component masses of 1-99 solar masses and total masses of 25-100 solar masses. We did not detect any plausible gravitational-wave signals but we do place upper limits on the merger rate of binary black holes as a function of the component masses in this range. We constrain the rate of mergers for binary black hole systems with component masses between 19 and 28 solar masses and negligible spin to be no more than 2.0 per Mpc^3 per Myr at 90% confidence.
Search for gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aronsson, M.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballinger, T.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Boyle, M.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Budzyński, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cain, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Coward, D. M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Derosa, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Prete, M.; Dergachev, V.; de Rosa, R.; Desalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Palma, I.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J.-C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Ely, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gholami, I.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hoyland, D.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.
2011-06-01
We present the first modeled search for gravitational waves using the complete binary black-hole gravitational waveform from inspiral through the merger and ringdown for binaries with negligible component spin. We searched approximately 2 years of LIGO data, taken between November 2005 and September 2007, for systems with component masses of 1-99M⊙ and total masses of 25-100M⊙. We did not detect any plausible gravitational-wave signals but we do place upper limits on the merger rate of binary black holes as a function of the component masses in this range. We constrain the rate of mergers for 19M⊙≤m1, m2≤28M⊙ binary black-hole systems with negligible spin to be no more than 2.0Mpc-3Myr-1 at 90% confidence.
Electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves from black hole mergers and naked singularities
Malafarina, Daniele
2016-01-01
We consider the question here whether the proposed electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave signals in binary black hole coalescence may be due to the appearance of a `short lived' naked singularity during the merger. We point out that the change in topology that the spacetime undergoes during the merger can cause the appearance of a naked singularity. In case some matter, in the form of a small accretion disk, is present in the surroundings of the black hole system then the emitted luminosity during the merger would allow to distinguish the scenario where the naked singularity forms from the scenario where the horizon exists at all times. In fact the emitted luminosity spectrum would be much higher in the case where a naked singularity forms as opposed to the `pure' black hole case. We suggest that the presence of such a transient naked singularity will explain the high luminosity of an electromagnetic counterpart during the merger much more easily.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.
Centrella, Joan
2010-03-01
The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z > 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts. This research is supported in part by NASA grant 06-BEFS06-19 to Goddard Space Flight Center.
Dvorkin, Irina; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Olive, Keith A.
2016-10-01
The recent detection of the binary black hole merger GW150914 demonstrates the existence of black holes more massive than previously observed in X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This article explores different scenarios of black hole formation in the context of self-consistent cosmic chemical evolution models that simultaneously match observations of the cosmic star formation rate, optical depth to reionization and metallicity of the interstellar medium. This framework is used to calculate the mass distribution of merging black hole binaries and its evolution with redshift. We also study the implications of the black hole mass distribution for the stochastic gravitational wave background from mergers and from core-collapse events.
Salcido, Jaime; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John
2016-01-01
We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with a model to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the black holes. The EAGLE models predict $\\sim2$ detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between $10^5 \\textrm{M}_{\\odot} h^{-1}$ seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between $z\\sim2.5...
Gravitational-wave cutoff frequencies of tidally disruptive neutron star-black hole binary mergers
Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru
2015-01-01
Tidal disruption has a dramatic impact on the outcome of neutron star-black hole mergers. The phenomenology of these systems can be divided in three classes: nondisruptive, mildly disruptive or disruptive. The cutoff frequency of the gravitational radiation produced during the merger (which is potentially measurable by interferometric detectors) is very different in each regime, and when the merger is disuptive it carries information on the neutron star equation of state. Here we use semianalytical tools to derive a formula for the critical binary mass ratio $Q=M_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\rm NS}$ below which mergers are disruptive as a function of the stellar compactness $\\mathcal{C}=M_{\\rm NS}/R_{\\rm NS}$ and the dimensionless black hole spin $\\chi$. We then employ a new gravitational waveform amplitude model, calibrated to $134$ general relativistic numerical simulations of binaries with black hole spin (anti-)aligned with the orbital angular momentum, to obtain a fit to the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency in the di...
Search for gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral, merger and ringdown
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; G. Allen; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, W.
2011-01-01
We present the first modeled search for gravitational waves using the complete binary black hole gravitational waveform from inspiral through the merger and ringdown for binaries with negligible component spin. We searched approximately 2 years of LIGO data taken between November 2005 and September 2007 for systems with component masses of 1-99 solar masses and total masses of 25-100 solar masses. We did not detect any plausible gravitational-wave signals but we do place upper limits on the m...
Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers.
Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias
2016-11-11
Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.
Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers
Mandic, Vuk; Cholis, Ilias
2016-01-01
Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational wave detectors, and discuss the possibility of using the stochastic gravitational-wave background measurement to constrain the dark matter component in the form of black holes.
Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers
Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias
2016-11-01
Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.
The Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
Reitze, David
2016-03-01
On September 14, 2015, the two LIGO detectors operating at Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA nearly simultaneously recorded a strong trigger consistent with the passage of gravitational waves. An extensive and thorough analysis by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration over the following months determined the gravitational waves to originate from the final stage of the inspiral of two black holes with masses approximately 36 and 29 Msun merging to form a 62 Msun black hole located at a distance of roughly 410 Mpc.This discovery is remarkable in many ways. In addition to being the first direct measurement of a gravitational wave by an earth-based detector, this is the first observation of coalescing binary black hole system and the first evidence that ``heavy'' stellar mass black holes exist. The measured gravitational waveform was determined to be highly consistent with that predicted by general relativity for the merger of two black holes. In this talk, the first of two in this special session on the discovery of GW150914, I'll cover a number of topics related to the detection, including a brief description of the operation and performance of the Advanced LIGO detectors during the first `O1' Observing Run as well as the data quality verification methods used to determine the validity of the detection. I'll also present the searches that were used to find and establish the statistical confidence of the event, as well as provide an estimate of its sky localization. Finally, I will discuss the plans for future observations by LIGO, Virgo and other gravitational wave detectors over the next few years and, time permitting, present the short term and longer term programs for improving the sensitivity and range of gravitational wave detectors over the next ten years.
Mergers of non-spinning black-hole binaries: Gravitational radiation characteristics
Baker, John G; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T; van Meter, James R
2008-01-01
We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from black-hole binary mergers of non-spinning black holes, based on numerical simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our primary goal is to present relatively complete information about the waveforms, including all the leading multipolar components, to interested researchers. In our analysis, we pursue the simplest physical description of the dominant features in the radiation, providing an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an {\\em implicit rotating source}. This interpretation applies uniformly to the full wavetrain, from inspiral through ringdown. We emphasize strong relationships among the $\\ell=m$ modes that persist through the full wavetrain. Exploring the structure of the waveforms in more detail, we conduct detailed analytic fitting of the late-time frequency evolution, identifying a key quantitative feature shared by the $\\ell=m$ modes among all mass-ratios. We identify relationships, with...
Mergers of Non-spinning Black-hole Binaries: Gravitational Radiation Characteristics
Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; vanMeter, James R.
2008-01-01
We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from black-hole binary mergers of non-spinning black holes, based on numerical simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our primary goal is to present relatively complete information about the waveforms, including all the leading multipolar components, to interested researchers. In our analysis, we pursue the simplest physical description of the dominant features in the radiation, providing an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This interpretation applies uniformly to the full wavetrain, from inspiral through ringdown. We emphasize strong relationships among the l = m modes that persist through the full wavetrain. Exploring the structure of the waveforms in more detail, we conduct detailed analytic fitting of the late-time frequency evolution, identifying a key quantitative feature shared by the l = m modes among all mass-ratios. We identify relationships, with a simple interpretation in terms of the implicit rotating source, among the evolution of frequency and amplitude, which hold for the late-time radiation. These detailed relationships provide sufficient information about the late-time radiation to yield a predictive model for the late-time waveforms, an alternative to the common practice of modeling by a sum of quasinormal mode overtones. We demonstrate an application of this in a new effective-one-body-based analytic waveform model.
Aranha, R F; Tonini, E V
2012-01-01
We examine numerically the process of gravitational wave recoil in the merger of two black holes in non head-on collision, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system are constructed, and the evolution covers the post-merger phase up to the final configuration of the remnant black hole. The net momentum flux carried out by gravitational waves and the associated impulses are evaluated. Our analysis is based on the Bondi-Sachs conservation laws for the energy momentum of the system. The net kick velocity $V_{k}$ imparted to the merged system by the total gravitational wave impulse is also evaluated. Typically for a non head-on collision the net momentum flux carried out by gravitational waves is nonzero for equal-mass colliding black holes. The distribution of $V_{k}$ as a function of the symmetric mass ratio $\\eta$ is well fitted by a modified Fitchett $\\eta$-scaling law, the additional parameter modifying the law being a measure of the nonzero gravitational wave mo...
Bhagwat, Swetha; Brown, Duncan; Ballmer, Stefan
2017-01-01
Motivated by the recent discoveries of binary black-hole mergers by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO), we investigate the prospects of ground based detectors to perform a spectroscopic analysis of signals emitted during the ringdown of the Kerr black-hole formed by a stellar mass binary black-hole merger. We investigate the detectability and resolvability of the sub-dominant modes l = m = 3, l = m = 4 and l = 2;m = 1. We find that new ground-based facilities such as Einstein Telescope or Cosmic Explorer could measure multiple ringdown modes in over 300 events per year. We also investigate detector tuning for ringdown oriented searches.
Bhagwat, Swetha; Ballmer, Stefan W
2016-01-01
Motivated by the recent discoveries of binary black-hole mergers by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO), we investigate the prospects of ground-based detectors to perform a spectroscopic analysis of signals emitted during the ringdown of the final Kerr black-hole formed by a stellar mass binary black-hole merger. Although it is unlikely that Advanced LIGO can measure multiple modes of the ringdown, assuming an optimistic rate of 240 Gpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$, upgrades to the existing LIGO detectors could measure multiple ringdown modes in $\\sim$6 detections per year. New ground-based facilities such as Einstein Telescope or Cosmic Explorer could measure multiple ringdown modes in over 300 events per year. We perform Monte-Carlo injections of $10^{6}$ binary black-hole mergers in a search volume defined by a sphere of radius 1500 Mpc centered at the detector, for various proposed ground-based detector models. We assume a uniform random distribution in component masses of ...
Kalaghatgi, Chinmay; Arun, K G
2015-01-01
Searches for gravitational waves (GWs) from binary black holes using interferometric GW detectors require the construction of template banks for performing matched filtering while analyzing the data. Placement of templates over the parameter space of binaries, as well as coincidence tests of GW triggers from multiple detectors make use of the definition of a metric over the space of gravitational waveforms. Although recent searches have employed waveform templates coherently describing the inspiral, merger and ringdown (IMR) of the coalescence, the metric used in the template banks and coincidence tests was derived from post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms. In this paper, we compute the template-space metric of the IMR waveform family IMRPhenomB over the parameter space of masses and the effective spin parameter. We also propose a coordinate system, which is a modified version of post-Newtonian chirp time coordinates, in which the metric is slowly varying over the parameter space. The match function analytically...
Ghosh, Archisman; Del Pozzo, Walter; Ajith, Parameswaran
2016-11-01
We characterize the expected statistical errors with which the parameters of black hole binaries can be measured from gravitational-wave (GW) observations of their inspiral, merger, and ringdown by a network of second-generation ground-based GW observatories. We simulate a population of black hole binaries with uniform distribution of component masses in the interval (3 ,80 )M⊙, distributed uniformly in comoving volume, with isotropic orientations. From signals producing signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 in at least two detectors, we estimate the posterior distributions of the binary parameters using the Bayesian parameter estimation code LALInference. The GW signals will be redshifted due to the cosmological expansion, and we measure only the "redshifted" masses. By assuming a cosmology, it is possible to estimate the gravitational masses by inferring the redshift from the measured posterior of the luminosity distance. We find that the measurement of the gravitational masses will be, in general, dominated by the error in measuring the luminosity distance. In spite of this, the component masses of more than 50% of the population can be measured with accuracy better than ˜25 % using the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network. Additionally, the mass of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy ˜18 %. Spin of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy ˜5 %(17 %) for binaries with nonspinning (aligned-spin) black holes. Additional detectors in Japan and India significantly improve the accuracy of sky localization, and moderately improve the estimation of luminosity distance, and hence, that of all mass parameters. We discuss the implication of these results on the observational evidence of intermediate-mass black holes and the estimation of cosmological parameters using GW observations.
Aranha, Rafael Fernandes; Soares, Ivano Damião; Tonini, Eduardo Valentino
2016-09-01
We show that gravitational wave radiative patterns from a point test particle falling radially into a Schwarzschild black hole, as derived by Davis, Ruffini, Press and Price [M. Davis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1466 (1971).], are present in the nonlinear regime of head-on mergers of black holes. We use the Bondi-Sachs characteristic formulation and express the gravitational wave luminosity and the net momentum flux in terms of the news functions. We then evaluate the (-2 )-spin-weighted ℓ-multipole decomposition of these quantities via exact expressions valid in the nonlinear regime and defined at future null infinity. Our treatment is made in the realm of Robinson-Trautman dynamics, with characteristic initial data corresponding to the head-on merger of two black holes. We consider mass ratios in the range 0.01 ≤α ≤1 . We obtain the exponential decay with ℓ of the total energy contributed by each multipole ℓ, with an accurate linear correlation in the log-linear plot of the points up to α ≃0.7 . Above this mass ratio the contribution of the odd modes to the energy decreases faster than that of the even modes, leading to the breaking of the linear correlation; for α =1 the energy in all odd modes is zero. The dominant contribution to the total radiated energy comes from the quadrupole mode ℓ=2 corresponding, for instance, to about ≃84 % for small mass ratios up to ≃99.8 % for the limit case α =1 . The total rescaled radiated energy EWtotal/m0α2 decreases linearly with decreasing α , yielding for the point particle limit α →0 the value ≃0.0484 , about 5 times larger than the result of Davis et al. [1]. The mode decomposition of the net momentum flux and of the associated gravitational wave impulses results in an adjacent-even-odd mode-mixing pattern. We obtain that the impulses contributed by each (ℓ,ℓ+1 ) mixed mode also accurately satisfy the exponential decay with ℓ, for the whole mass ratio domain considered, 0.01 ≤α 0
Gravitational Waves From Supermassive Black Holes
di Girolamo, Tristano
2016-10-01
In this talk, I will present the first direct detections of gravitational waves from binary stellar-mass black hole mergers during the first observing run of the two detectors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, which opened the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, and then discuss prospects for observing gravitational waves from supermassive black holes with future detectors.
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
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2012-01-01
We report a search for gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black holes (BBH) with total mass between 25 and 100 solar masses, in data taken at the LIGO and Virgo observatories between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010. The maximum sensitive distance of the detectors over this period for a (20,20) Msun coalescence was 300 Mpc. No gravitational wave signals were found. We thus report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of BBH as a function of the component masses for non-spinning components, and also evaluate the dependence of the search sensitivity on component spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We find an upper limit at 90% confidence on the coalescence rate of BBH with non-spinning components of mass between 19 and 28 Msun of 3.3 \\times 10^-7 mergers /Mpc^3 /yr.
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Bao, Y.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorsher, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Farr, B. F.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M. A.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gelencser, G.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.
2013-01-01
We report a search for gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black holes (BBH) with total mass between 25 and 100 solar masses, in data taken at the LIGO and Virgo observatories between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010. The maximum sensitive distance of the detectors over this period for a (20,20)M⊙ coalescence was 300 Mpc. No gravitational wave signals were found. We thus report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of BBH as a function of the component masses for nonspinning components, and also evaluate the dependence of the search sensitivity on component spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We find an upper limit at 90% confidence on the coalescence rate of BBH with nonspinning components of mass between 19 and 28M⊙ of 3.3×10-7 mergers Mpc-3yr-1.
Binary Black Holes: Mergers, Dynamics, and Waveforms
Centrella, Joan
2007-04-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Black hole mergers: beyond general relativity
Stein, Leo; Okounkova, Maria
2017-01-01
One hundred years after the birth of general relativity, advanced LIGO has finally directly detected gravitational waves. The source: two black holes merging into one. Advanced LIGO will soon provide the opportunity to test GR, using gravitational waves, in the dynamical strong-field regime-a setting where GR has not yet been tested. GR has passed all weak-field tests with flying colors. Yet it should eventually break down, so we must look to the strong-field. To perform strong-field tests of GR, we need waveform models from theories beyond GR. To date there are no numerical simulations of black hole mergers in theories which differ from GR. The main obstacle is the mathematical one of well-posedness. I will explain how to overcome this obstacle, and demonstrate the success of this approach by presenting the first numerical simulations of black hole mergers in a theory beyond GR.
Zhang, Bing
2016-08-01
The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH-BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH-BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.
Black-hole Merger Simulations for LISA Science
Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan M.; McWilliams, Sean T.
2009-01-01
The strongest expected sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band are the mergers of massive black holes. LISA may observe these systems to high redshift, z>10, to uncover details of the origin of massive black holes, and of the relationship between black holes and their host structures, and structure formation itself. These signals arise from the final stage in the development of a massive black-hole binary emitting strong gravitational radiation that accelerates the system's inspiral toward merger. The strongest part of the signal, at the point of merger, carries much information about the system and provides a probe of extreme gravitational physics. Theoretical predictions for these merger signals rely on supercomputer simulations to solve Einstein's equations. We discuss recent numerical results and their impact on LISA science expectations.
Aranha, R F; Tonini, E V
2011-01-01
We examine numerically the post-merger regime of two Schwarzschild black holes in non head-on collision. Our treatment is made in the realm of non-axisymmetric Robinson-Trautman spacetimes which are appropriate for the description of the system. Characteristic initial data for the system are constructed and the Robinson-Trautman equation is integrated using a numerical code based on the Galerkin spectral method. The collision is planar, restricted to the plane determined by the directions of the two initial colliding black holes, with the net momentum fluxes of gravitational waves confined to this plane. We evaluate the efficiency of mass-energy extraction, the total energy and momentum carried out by gravitational waves and the momentum distribution of the remnant black hole. Our analysis is based on the Bondi-Sachs four momentum conservation laws. Head-on collisions and orthogonal collisions constitute, respectively, upper and lower bounds to the power emission and to the efficiency of mass-energy extractio...
Gravitational waves: History of black holes revealed by their spin
Sigurðsson, Steinn
2017-08-01
Four probable detections of gravitational waves have so far been reported, each associated with the merger of two black holes. Analysis of the signals allows formation theories of such black-hole systems to be tested. See Letter p.426
Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics
Baker, John G.
2010-01-01
Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.
Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics
Baker, John G.
2010-01-01
Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.
Flanagan, E E; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Hughes, Scott A.
1998-01-01
We estimate the expected signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) from the three phases (inspiral,merger,ringdown) of coalescing binary black holes (BBHs) for initial and advanced ground-based interferometers (LIGO/VIRGO) and for space-based interferometers (LISA). LIGO/VIRGO can do moderate SNR (a few tens), moderate accuracy studies of BBH coalescences in the mass range of a few to about 2000 solar masses; LISA can do high SNR (of order 10^4) high accuracy studies in the mass range of about 10^5 to 10^8 solar masses. BBHs might well be the first sources detected by LIGO/VIRGO: they are visible to much larger distances(up to 500 Mpc by initial interferometers) than coalescing neutron star binaries (heretofore regarded as the "bread and butter" workhorse source for LIGO/VIRGO, visible to about 30 Mpc by initial interferometers). Low-mass BBHs (up to 50 solar masses for initial LIGO interferometers; 100 for advanced; 10^6 for LISA) are best searched for via their well-understood inspiral waves; higher mass BBHs must be s...
Black Hole Mergers as Probes of Structure Formation
Alicea-Munoz, Emily
2008-01-01
Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole (MBH) mergers can provide us with important clues about the era of structure formation in the early universe. Previous research in this field has been limited to calculating merger rates of MBHs using different models where many assumptions are made about the specific values of physical parameters of the mergers, resulting in merger rate estimates that span 5 to 6 orders of magnitude. We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters involved in the mergers. which we then turn around to determine how well LISA observations will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approximately equal to 5-30 structure formation era. We do this by generating synthetic LISA observable data (masses, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This allows us to constrain the physical parameters of the mergers.
Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Black Hole Mergers
Kotera, Kumiko
2016-01-01
The recent detection of the gravitational wave source GW150914 by the LIGO collaboration motivates a speculative source for the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as a possible byproduct of the immense energies achieved in black hole mergers, provided that the black holes have spin as seems inevitable and there are relic magnetic fields and disk debris remaining from the formation of the black holes or from their accretion history. We argue that given the modest efficiency $< 0.01$ required per event per unit of gravitational wave energy release, merging black holes potentially provide an environment for accelerating cosmic rays to ultrahigh energies.
Using Black Hole Mergers to Explore Structure Formation
Alicea-Munoz, E.; Miller, M. Coleman
2009-01-01
Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers will open a new window into the era of structure formation in the early universe. Past efforts have concentrated on calculating merger rates using different physical assumptions, resulting in merger rate estimates that span a wide range (0.1 - 10(exp 4) mergers/year). We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model of massive black hole mergers that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters, which we then turn around to determine how well observations with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approximately equal to 5-30 epoch. Our approach involves generating synthetic LISA observable data (total BH masses, BH mass ratios, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, thus finding constraints for the physical parameters of the mergers. We find that our method works well at estimating merger parameters and that the number of merger events is a key discriminant among models, therefore making our method robust against observational uncertainties. Our approach can also be extended to more physically-driven models and more general problems in cosmology. This work is supported in part by the Cooperative Education Program at NASA/GSFC.
Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.
Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J
2016-07-01
Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500 km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Black-hole kicks as new gravitational-wave observables
Gerosa, Davide
2016-01-01
Generic black-hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line-of-sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler-shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational-wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black-hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black-hole kick velocities as low as ~500 km/s, which are expected to be a common outcome of black-hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black-hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational-wave astronomy.
Compact Binary Mergers as Multimessenger Sources of Gravitational Waves
Shapiro, Stuart
2015-04-01
On the centennial anniversary of Einstein's theory of general relativity, we are on the verge of directly detecting one of its most remarkable predictions - gravitational waves (GWs). The inspiral and merger of compact binaries - binaries with black hole, neutron star or white dwarf companions - are among the most promising sources of GWs. Many of these sources are likely to generate observable electromagnetic (EM) and/or neutrino counterparts to the GWs, constituting a major advance in multimessenger astronomy. By way of illustration, we describe recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations in general relativity (GRMHD) that show how black hole-neutron star mergers can launch jets, lending support to the idea that such mergers could be the engines that power short-hard gamma-ray bursts. We also discuss other recent GRMHD simulations that show how an inspiraling, supermassive binary black hole in a galaxy core stirs and accretes magnetized plasma that orbits the holes in a circumbinary disk. This process can generate ``precursor'' and ``aftermath'' EM radiation with respect to the peak GW emission at merger. Computer-generated movies highlighting some of these simulations will be shown. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grant PHY-1300903 and NASA Grant NNX13AH44G at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.
Probing Black Holes With Gravitational Radiation
Cornish, Neil J.
2006-09-01
Gravitational radiation can provide unique insights into the dynamics and evolution of black holes. Gravitational waveforms encode detailed information about the spacetime geometry, much as the sounds made by a musical instrument reflect the geometry of the instrument. The LISA gravitational wave observatory will be able to record black holes colliding out to the edge of the visible Universe, with an expected event rate of tens to thousands per year. LISA has unmatched capabilities for studying the role of black holes in galactic evolution, in particular, by studying the mergers of seed black holes at very high redshift, z > 5. Merger events at lower redshift will be detected at extremely high signal-to-noise, allowing for precision tests of the black hole paradigm. Below z=1 LISA will be able to record stellar remnants falling into supermassive black holes. These extreme mass ratio inspiral events will yield insights into the dynamics of galactic cusps, and the brighter events will provide incredibly precise tests of strong field, dynamical gravity.
Gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers
Read, Jocelyn; Cullen, Torrey; Flynn, Eric; Lockett-Ruiz, Veronica; Park, Conner; Vong, Susan
2016-03-01
The inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars is expected to provide many signals for Advanced LIGO at design sensitivity. The waveform models currently used to search for and parameterize these signals ignore effects near the merger: as the stars coalesce, the gravitational waves depend additionally on the properties of matter in the core of the stars. In this talk, I will discuss potential systematic error from neglecting these features and present phenomenological waveform models currently being developed to capture the dynamics of merging neutron stars.
Black Hole Mergers as Probes of Structure Formation
Alicea-Munoz, E.; Miller, M. Coleman
2008-01-01
Intense structure formation and reionization occur at high redshift, yet there is currently little observational information about this very important epoch. Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole (MBH) mergers can provide us with important clues about the formation of structures in the early universe. Past efforts have been limited to calculating merger rates using different models in which many assumptions are made about the specific values of physical parameters of the mergers, resulting in merger rate estimates that span a very wide range (0.1 - 104 mergers/year). Here we develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model of MBH mergers that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters, which we then turn around to determine how well observations with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z 5 - 30 structure formation era. We do this by generating synthetic LISA observable data (total BH mass, BH mass ratio, redshift, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. This allows us to constrain the physical parameters of the mergers. We find that our methodology works well at estimating merger parameters, consistently giving results within 1- of the input parameter values. We also discover that the number of merger events is a key discriminant among models. This helps our method be robust against observational uncertainties. Our approach, which at this stage constitutes a proof of principle, can be readily extended to physical models and to more general problems in cosmology and gravitational wave astrophysics.
Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2013-01-01
We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.
Astrophysics of Super-massive Black Hole Mergers
Schnittman, Jeremy D
2013-01-01
We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.
Gravitational Fragmentation in Galaxy Mergers: A Stability Criteria
Escala, Andres; del Valle, Luciano; Castillo, Esteban
2012-01-01
We study the gravitational stability of gaseous streams in the complex environment of a galaxy merger, because mergers are known to be places of ongoing massive cluster formation and bursts of star formation. We find an analytic stability parameter for case of gaseous streams orbiting around the merger remnant. We test our stability criteria using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers, obtaining satisfactory results. We find that our criteria successfully predicts the streams that will be gravitationally unstable to fragment into clumps.
Energetic constraints on electromagnetic signals from double black hole mergers
Dai, Lixin; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Miller, M. Coleman
2017-09-01
The possible Fermi detection of an electromagnetic counterpart to the double black hole merger GW150914 has inspired many theoretical models, some of which propose that the holes spiralled together inside a massive star. However, we show that the heat produced by the dynamical friction on such black hole orbits can exceed the stellar binding energy by a large factor, which means that this heat could destroy the star. The energy scale of the explosion and the terminal velocity of the gas can be much larger than those in conventional supernovae. If the star unbinds before the merger, it would be hard for enough gas to remain near the holes at the merger to produce a gamma-ray burst, and this consideration should be taken into account when models are proposed for electromagnetic counterparts to the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. We find that only when the two black holes form very close to the centre can the star certainly avoid destruction. In that case, dynamical friction can make the black holes coalesce faster than they would in vacuum, which leads to a modification of the gravitational waveform that is potentially observable by advanced LIGO.
Simulations of binary black hole mergers
Lovelace, Geoffrey
2017-01-01
Advanced LIGO's observations of merging binary black holes have inaugurated the era of gravitational wave astronomy. Accurate models of binary black holes and the gravitational waves they emit are helping Advanced LIGO to find as many gravitational waves as possible and to learn as much as possible about the waves' sources. These models require numerical-relativity simulations of binary black holes, because near the time when the black holes merge, all analytic approximations break down. Following breakthroughs in 2005, many research groups have built numerical-relativity codes capable of simulating binary black holes. In this talk, I will discuss current challenges in simulating binary black holes for gravitational-wave astronomy, and I will discuss the tremendous progress that has already enabled such simulations to become an essential tool for Advanced LIGO.
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Berczik, Peter; Berentzen, Ingo; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer
2012-01-01
Galaxy centers are residing places for Super Massive Black Holes (SMBHs). Galaxy mergers bring SMBHs close together to form gravitationally bound binary systems which, if able to coalesce in less than a Hubble time, would be one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). In spherical galaxy models, SMBH binaries stall at a separation of approximately one parsec, leading to the "final parsec problem" (FPP). On the other hand, it has been shown that merger-induced triaxiality of the remnant in equal-mass mergers is capable of supporting a constant supply of stars on so-called centrophilic orbits that interact with the binary and thus avoid the FPP. In this paper, using a set of direct N-body simulations of mergers of initially spherically symmetric galaxies with different mass ratios, we show that the merger-induced triaxiality is able to drive unequal-mass SMBH binaries to coalescence. The binary hardening rates are high and depend only weakly on the...
Black hole merger estimates in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity
Jai-akson, Puttarak; Chatrabhuti, Auttakit; Evnin, Oleg; Lehner, Luis
2017-01-01
The recent birth of gravitational wave astronomy invites a new generation of precision tests of general relativity. Signatures of black hole (BH) mergers must be systematically explored in a wide spectrum of modified gravity theories. Here, we turn to one such theory in which the initial value problem for BH mergers is well posed, the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton system. We present conservative estimates for the merger parameters (final spins, quasinormal modes) based on techniques that have work...
Growth of Supermassive Black Holes, Galaxy Mergers and Supermassive Binary Black Holes
Komossa, S.; Baker, J. G.; Liu, F. K.
The study of galaxy mergers and supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) is central to our understanding of the galaxy and black hole assembly and (co-)evolution at the epoch of structure formation and throughout cosmic history. Galaxy mergers are the sites of major accretion episodes, they power quasars, grow supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and drive SMBH-host scaling relations. The coalescing SMBBHs at their centers are the loudest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the Universe, and the subsequent GW recoil has a variety of potential astrophysical implications which are still under exploration. Future GW astronomy will open a completely new window on structure formation and galaxy mergers, including the direct detection of coalescing SMBBHs, high-precision measurements of their masses and spins, and constraints on BH formation and evolution in the high-redshift Universe.
Growth of supermassive black holes, galaxy mergers and supermassive binary black holes
Komossa, S; Liu, F K
2016-01-01
The study of galaxy mergers and supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) is central to our understanding of the galaxy and black hole assembly and (co-)evolution at the epoch of structure formation and throughout cosmic history. Galaxy mergers are the sites of major accretion episodes, they power quasars, grow supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and drive SMBH-host scaling relations. The coalescing SMBBHs at their centers are the loudest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe, and the subsequent GW recoil has a variety of potential astrophysical implications which are still under exploration. Future GW astronomy will open a completely new window on structure formation and galaxy mergers, including the direct detection of coalescing SMBBHs, high-precision measurements of their masses and spins, and constraints on BH formation and evolution in the high-redshift universe.
Low-Frequency Gravitational Radiation from Coalescing Massive Black Holes
Sesana, A; Madau, P; Volonteri, M
2005-01-01
We compute the expected low-frequency gravitational wave signal from coalescing massive black hole (MBH) binaries at the center of galaxies. We follow the merging history of halos and associated holes via cosmological Monte Carlo realizations of the merger hierarchy from early times to the present in a LCDM cosmology. MBHs get incorporated through a series of mergers into larger and larger halos, sink to the centre owing to dynamical friction, accrete a fraction of the gas in the merger remnant to become more massive, and form a binary system. Stellar dynamical processes dominates the orbital evolution of the binary at large separations, while gravitational wave emission takes over at small radii, causing the final coalescence of the system. We discuss the observability of inspiraling MBH binaries by a low-frequency gravitational wave experiment such as the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), discriminating between resolvable sources and unresolved confusion noise. Over a 3-year observing perio...
Binary Black Hole merger in f(R) theory
Cao, Zhoujian; Li, Li-Fang
2016-01-01
In the near future, gravitational wave detection is set to become an important observational tool for astrophysics. It will provide us with an excellent means to distinguish different gravitational theories. In effective form, many gravitational theories can be cast into an f(R) theory. In this article, we study the dynamics and gravitational waveform of an equal-mass binary black hole system in f(R) theory. We reduce the equations of motion in f(R) theory to the Einstein-Klein-Gordon coupled equations. In this form, it is straightforward to modify our existing numerical relativistic codes to simulate binary black hole mergers in f(R) theory. We considered binary black holes surrounded by a shell of scalar field. We solve the initial data numerically using the Olliptic code. The evolution part is calculated using the extended AMSSNCKU code. Both codes were updated and tested to solve the problem of binary black holes in f(R) theory. Our results show that the binary black hole dynamics in f(R) theory is more c...
Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can We "See" what LISA will "Hear"?
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of massive black holes produces strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. If the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We will review current efforts to simulate these systems, and discuss possibilities for observing the electromagnetic signals they produce.
Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can We "See" what LISA will "Hear"?
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of massive black holes produces strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. If the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We will review current efforts to simulate these systems, and discuss possibilities for observing the electromagnetic signals they produce.
Energetic constraints on electromagnetic signals from double black hole mergers
Dai, Lixin; Miller, M Coleman
2016-01-01
The possible Fermi detection of an electromagnetic counterpart to the double black hole merger GW150914 has inspired many theoretical models, some of which propose that the holes spiraled together inside a massive star. However, we show that the heat produced by the dynamical friction on such black hole orbits can exceed the stellar binding energy by a large factor, which means that this heat could destroy the star and thus make it difficult for enough gas to be near the holes at merger to produce detectable photons. These considerations must be taken into account when models are proposed for electromagnetic counterparts to the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. We find that only when the two black holes form very close to the center can the star avoid destruction. In that case, dynamical friction can make the black holes coalesce faster than they would in vacuum, which leads to a modification of the gravitational waveform that is potentially observable by advanced LIGO.
Following Black Hole Scaling Relations Through Gas-Rich Mergers
Medling, Anne M; Max, Claire E; Sanders, David B; Armus, Lee; Holden, Bradford; Mieda, Etsuko; Wright, Shelley A; Larkin, James E
2015-01-01
We present black hole mass measurements from kinematic modeling of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of the inner regions of 9 nearby (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies in a variety of merger stages. These observations were taken with OSIRIS and laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck I and Keck II telescopes, and reveal gas and stellar kinematics inside the spheres of influence of these supermassive black holes. We find that this sample of black holes are overmassive ($\\sim10^{7-9}$ M$_{Sun}$) compared to the expected values based on black hole scaling relations, and suggest that the major epoch of black hole growth occurs in early stages of a merger, as opposed to during a final episode of quasar-mode feedback. The black hole masses presented are the dynamical masses enclosed in $\\sim$25pc, and could include gas which is gravitationally bound to the black hole but has not yet lost sufficient angular momentum to be accreted. If present, this gas could in principle eventually fuel AGN f...
Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...
Merging Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Centrella, Joan M.
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes will emit more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. This energy will come in the form of gravitational waves, which are a key prediction of Einstein's general relativity and a new tool for exploring the universe. Observing these mergers with gravitational wave detectors, such as the ground-based LIGO and the space-based LISA, requires knowledge of the radiation waveforms. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were long plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and w aefo rms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Merging Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Centrella, Joan M.
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes will emit more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. This energy will come in the form of gravitational waves, which are a key prediction of Einstein's general relativity and a new tool for exploring the universe. Observing these mergers with gravitational wave detectors, such as the ground-based LIGO and the space-based LISA, requires knowledge of the radiation waveforms. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were long plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and w aefo rms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Black-Hole Binaries, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Understanding the predictions of general relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes has been a long-standing unsolved problem in theoretical physics. Black-hole mergers are monumental astrophysical events ' releasing tremendous amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation ' and are key sources for both ground- and spacebased gravitational wave detectors. The black-hole merger dynamics and the resulting gravitational waveforms can only he calculated through numerical simulations of Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, numerical relativists attempting to model these mergers encountered a host of problems, causing their codes to crash after just a fraction of a binary orbit cnuld be simulated. Recently ' however, a series of dramatic advances in numerical relativity has ' for the first time, allowed stable / robust black hole merger simulations. We chronicle this remarkable progress in the rapidly maturing field of numerical relativity, and the new understanding of black-hole binary dynamics that is emerging. We also discuss important applications of these fundamental physics results to astrophysics, to gravitationalwave astronomy, and in other areas.
Black-Hole Binaries, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Understanding the predictions of general relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes has been a long-standing unsolved problem in theoretical physics. Black-hole mergers are monumental astrophysical events ' releasing tremendous amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation ' and are key sources for both ground- and spacebased gravitational wave detectors. The black-hole merger dynamics and the resulting gravitational waveforms can only he calculated through numerical simulations of Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, numerical relativists attempting to model these mergers encountered a host of problems, causing their codes to crash after just a fraction of a binary orbit cnuld be simulated. Recently ' however, a series of dramatic advances in numerical relativity has ' for the first time, allowed stable / robust black hole merger simulations. We chronicle this remarkable progress in the rapidly maturing field of numerical relativity, and the new understanding of black-hole binary dynamics that is emerging. We also discuss important applications of these fundamental physics results to astrophysics, to gravitationalwave astronomy, and in other areas.
LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes
Kohler, Susanna
2016-02-01
Big news: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected its first gravitational-wave signal! Not only is the detection of this signal a major technical accomplishment and an exciting confirmation of general relativity, but it also has huge implications for black-hole astrophysics.What did LIGO see?LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in space-time created by two massive objects orbiting each other. These waves can reach observable amplitudes when a binary system consisting of two especially massive objects i.e., black holes or neutron stars reach the end of their inspiral and merge.LIGO has been unsuccessfully searching for gravitational waves since its initial operations in 2002, but a recent upgrade in its design has significantly increased its sensitivity and observational range. The first official observing run of Advanced LIGO began 18 September 2015, but the instruments were up and running in engineering mode several weeks before that. And it was in this time frame before official observing even began! that LIGO spotted its first gravitational wave signal: GW150914.One of LIGOs two detection sites, located near Hanford in eastern Washington. [LIGO]The signal, detected on 14 September, 2015, provides astronomers with a remarkable amount of information about the merger that caused it. From the detection, the LIGO team has extracted the masses of the two black holes that merged, 36+5-4 and 29+4-4 solar masses, as well as the mass of the final black hole formed by the merger, ~62 solar masses. The team also determined that the merger happened roughly a billion light-years away (at a redshift of z~0.1), and the direction of the signal was localized to an area of ~600 square degrees (roughly 1% of the sky).Why is this detection a big deal?This is the firstdirect detection of gravitational waves, providing spectacular further confirmation of Einsteins theory of general relativity. But the implications of GW150914 go far beyond this
de Mink, S E
2016-01-01
We explore the predictions for detectable gravitational-wave signals from merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in massive short-period stellar binaries. We find that ~500 events per year could be detected with advanced ground-based detectors operating at full sensitivity. We analyze the distribution of detectable events, and conclude that there is a very strong preference for detecting events with nearly equal components (mass ratio >0.66 at 90% confidence in our default model) and high masses (total source-frame mass between 57 and $103\\, M_\\odot$ at 90% confidence). We consider multiple alternative variations to analyze the sensitivity to uncertainties in the evolutionary physics and cosmological parameters, and conclude that while the rates are sensitive to assumed variations, the mass distributions are robust predictions. Finally, we consider the recently reported results of the analysis of the first 16 double-coincident days of the O1 LIGO observing run, and find tha...
Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers Detected by LIGO
Loeb, Abraham
2016-01-01
Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by LIGO, are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified of a gamma-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a gamma-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.
Hotokezaka, Kenta; Hallinan, Gregg; Lazio, T Joseph W; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
2016-01-01
Mergers of binary neutron stars and black hole-neutron star binaries produce gravitational-wave (GW) emission and outflows with significant kinetic energies. These outflows result in radio emissions through synchrotron radiation of accelerated electrons in shocks formed with the circum-merger medium. We explore the detectability of these synchrotron generated radio signals by follow-up observations of GW merger events lacking a detection of electromagnetic counterparts in other wavelengths. We model radio light curves arising from (i) sub-relativistic merger ejecta and (ii) ultra-relativistic jets. The former produces radio remnants on timescales of a few years and the latter produces $\\gamma$-ray bursts in the direction of the jet and orphan radio afterglows extending over wider angles on timescales of a week to a month. The intensity and duration of these radio counterparts depend on the kinetic energies of the outflows and on circum-merger densities. We estimate the detectability of the radio counterparts ...
Experimentally, How Dark Are Black Hole Mergers?
Annis, James
2016-01-01
The first Advanced LIGO observing run detected two black hole merger events with confidence and likely a third. Many groups organized to followup the events in the optical even though the strong theoretical prior that no optical emission should be seen. We carry through the logic of this by asking about the experimental upper limits to the optical light from Advanced LIGO black hole mergere events. We inventory the published optical searches for transient events associated with the black hole mergers. We describe the factors that go into a formal limit on the visibility of an event (sky area coverage, the coverage factor of the camera, the fraction of sky not covered by intervening objects), and list what is known from the literature of the followup teams quantitative assessment of each factor. Where possible we calculate the total probability from each group that the source was imaged. The calculation of confidence level is reviewed for the case of no background. We find that an experimental 95% upper limit ...
Binary black holes, gravitational waves, and numerical relativity
Centrella, Joan M.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; van Meter, James R.
2007-07-01
The final merger of comparable mass binary black holes produces an intense burst of gravitational radiation and is one of the strongest sources for both ground-based and space-based gravitational wave detectors. Since the merger occurs in the strong-field dynamical regime of general relativity, numerical relativity simulations of the full Einstein equations in 3-D are required to calculate the resulting gravitational dynamics and waveforms. While this problem has been pursued for more than 30 years, the numerical codes have long been plagued by various instabilities and, overall, progress was incremental. Recently, however, dramatic breakthrough have occurred, resulting in robust simulations of merging black holes. In this paper, we examine these developments and the exciting new results that are emerging.
Mergers of black-hole binaries with aligned spins: Waveform characteristics
Kelly, Bernard J; Boggs, William D; McWilliams, Sean T; Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
We conduct a descriptive analysis of the multipolar structure of gravitational-radiation waveforms from equal-mass aligned-spin mergers, following an approach first presented in the complementary context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [Baker et al., Phys. Rev. D 78:044046 (2008)]. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform mode phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous waveform description in terms of an adiabatically rigid rotator driving gravitational-wave emission -- an implicit rotating source (IRS). We further apply the late-time merger-ringdown model for the rotational frequency introduced in Baker et al. (2008), along with an improved amplitude model appropriate for the dominant (2,+/- 2) modes. This provides a quantitative description of the merger-ringdown waveforms, and suggests that the major features of these waveforms can be described with reference only to the intrinsic parameters associated with the state...
Massive black hole binary evolution in gas-rich mergers
Colpi, M; Dotti, M; Mayer, L
2009-01-01
We report on key studies on the dynamics of black holes (BHs) in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by gas dissipation in promoting BH inspiral down to the smallest scales ever probed with use of high-resolution numerical simulations. In major mergers, the BHs sink rapidly under the action of gas-dynamical friction while orbiting inside the massive nuclear disc resulting from the merger. The BHs then bind and form a Keplerian binary on a scale of 5 pc. In minor mergers, BH pairing proceeds down to the minimum scale explored of 10-100 pc only when the gas fraction in the less massive galaxy is comparatively large to avoid its tidal and/or ram pressure disruption and the wandering of the light BH in the periphery of the main halo. Binary BHs enter the gravitational wave dominated inspiral only when their relative distance is typically of 0.001 pc. If the gas preserves the degree of dissipation expected in a star-burst environment, binary decay continues down to 0.1 pc, the smallest le...
Learning about Black-Hole Formation from Gravitational Waves
Kesden, Michael H.
2017-01-01
The first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves from two binary black-hole mergers. Although astrophysical black holes are simple objects fully characterized by their masses and spins, key features of binary black-hole formation such as mass transfer, natal kicks, and common-envelope evolution can misalign black-hole spins with the orbital angular momentum of the binary. These misaligned spins will precess as gravitational-wave emission causes the black holes to inspiral to separations at which the waves are detectable by observatories like LIGO. Spin precession modulates the amplitude and frequency of the gravitational waves observed by LIGO, allowing it to not only test general relativity but also reveal the secrets of black-hole formation. This talk will briefly describe those elements of binary black-hole formation responsible for initial spin misalignments, how spin precession and radiation reaction in general relativity determine how spins evolve from formation until the black holes enter LIGO’s sensitivity band, and how spin-induced gravitational-wave modulation in band can be used as a diagnostic of black-hole formation.
Models of Kilonova/macronova emission from black hole-neutron star mergers
Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi
2016-01-01
Black hole-neutron star mergers are among the promising gravitational-wave sources for ground-based detectors, and gravitational waves from black hole-neutron mergers are expected to be detected in the next few years. Simultaneous detection of electromagnetic counterparts with gravitational-wave detection provides rich information about the merger events. Among the possible electromagnetic counterparts from the black hole-neutron merger, the emission powered by the decay of radioactive r-process nuclei, so called kilonova/macronova, is one of the best targets for follow-up observation. We derive fitting formulas for the mass and the velocity of ejecta from a generic black hole-neutron merger based on recently performed numerical relativity simulations. We combined these fitting formulas with a new semi-analytic model for a black hole-neutron kilonova/macronova lightcurve which reproduces the results of radiation-transfer simulations. Specifically, the semi-analytic model reproduces the result of each band mag...
On black holes and gravitational waves
Loinger, Angelo
2002-01-01
Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.
Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D; Grudich, Michael; Kidder, Lawrence E; MacDonald, Ilana; Mroue, Abdul; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela
2013-01-01
We present the first direct comparison of numerical simulations of neutron star-black hole and black hole-black hole mergers in full general relativity. We focus on a configuration with non spinning objects and within the most likely range of mass ratio for neutron star-black hole systems (q=6). In this region of the parameter space, the neutron star is not tidally disrupted prior to merger, and we show that the two types of mergers appear remarkably similar. The effect of the presence of a neutron star on the gravitational wave signal is not only undetectable by the next generation of gravitational wave detectors, but also too small to be measured in the numerical simulations: even the plunge, merger and ringdown signals appear in perfect agreement for both types of binaries. The characteristics of the post-merger remnants are equally similar, with the masses of the final black holes agreeing within dM< 5 10^{-4}M_BH and their spins within da< 10^{-3}M_BH. The rate of periastron advance in the mixed bi...
Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
Baker, John
2009-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are central to many key science objectives of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). For many systems the strongest part of the signal is only understood by numerical simulations. Gravitational wave emissions are understood by simulations of vacuum General Relativity (GR). I discuss numerical simulation results from the perspective of LISA's needs, with indications of work that remains to be done. Some exciting scientific opportunities associated with LISA observations would be greatly enhanced if prompt electromagnetic signature could be associated. I discuss simulations to explore this possibility. Numerical simulations are important now for clarifying LISA's science potential and planning the mission. We also consider how numerical simulations might be applied at the time of LISA's operation.
Probing seed black holes using future gravitational-wave detectors
Gair, Jonathan R; Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto
2009-01-01
Identifying the properties of the first generation of seeds of massive black holes is key to understanding the merger history and growth of galaxies. Mergers between ~100 solar mass seed black holes generate gravitational waves in the 0.1-10Hz band that lies between the sensitivity bands of existing ground-based detectors and the planned space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). However, there are proposals for more advanced detectors that will bridge this gap, including the third generation ground-based Einstein Telescope and the space-based detector DECIGO. In this paper we demonstrate that such future detectors should be able to detect gravitational waves produced by the coalescence of the first generation of light seed black-hole binaries and provide information on the evolution of structure in that era. These observations will be complementary to those that LISA will make of subsequent mergers between more massive black holes. We compute the sensitivity of va...
Braneworld Black Hole Gravitational Lensing
Liang, Jun
2017-04-01
A class of braneworld black holes, which I called as Bronnikov-Melnikov-Dehen (BMD) black holes, are studied as gravitational lenses. I obtain the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, and further calculate the angular positions and magnifications of relativistic images as well as the time delay between different relativistic images. I also compare the results with those obtained for Schwarzschild and two braneworld black holes, i.e., the tidal Reissner-Nordström (R-N) and the Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati (CFM) black holes. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Shannxi Provincial Government under Grant No. 15JK1077, and Doctorial Scientific Research Starting Fund of Shannxi University of Science and Technology under Grant No. BJ12-02
Numerical simulation of binary black hole and neutron star mergers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kastaun, W.; Rezzolla, L. [Albert Einstein Institut, Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2016-11-01
One of the last predictions of general relativity that still awaits direct observational confirmation is the existence of gravitational waves. Those fluctuations of the geometry of space and time are expected to travel with the speed of light and are emitted by any accelerating mass. Only the most violent events in the universe, such as mergers of two black holes or neutron stars, produce gravitational waves strong enough to be measured. Even those waves are extremely weak when arriving at Earth, and their detection is a formidable technological challenge. In recent years sufficiently sensitive detectors became operational, such as GEO600, Virgo, and LIGO. They are expected to observe around 40 events per year. To interpret the observational data, theoretical modeling of the sources is a necessity, and requires numerical simulations of the equations of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics. Such computations can only be carried out on large scale supercomputers, given that many scenarios need to be simulated, each of which typically occupies hundreds of CPU cores for a week. Our main goal is to predict the gravitational wave signal from the merger of two compact objects. Comparison with future observations will provide important insights into the fundamental forces of nature in regimes that are impossible to recreate in laboratory experiments. The waveforms from binary black hole mergers would allow one to test the correctness of general relativity in previously inaccessible regimes. The signal from binary neutron star mergers will provide input for nuclear physics, because the signal depends strongly on the unknown properties of matter at the ultra high densities inside neutron stars, which cannot be observed in any other astrophysical scenario. Besides mergers, we also want to improve the theoretical models of close encounters between black holes. A gravitational wave detector with even higher sensitivity, the Einstein Telescope, is already in the
Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Mergers and Metallicity Evolution of Galaxies
Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Sago, Norichika
2016-01-01
The cosmological evolution of the binary black hole (BH) merger rate and the energy density of the gravitational-wave (GW) background are investigated. To evaluate the redshift dependence of the BH formation rate, BHs are assumed to originate from low-metallicity stars, and the relations between the star formation rate, metallicity and stellar mass of galaxies are combined with the stellar mass function at each redshift. As a result, it is found that when the energy density of the GW background is scaled with the merger rate at the local Universe, the scaling factor does not depend on the critical metallicity for the formation of BHs. Also taking into account the merger of binary neutron stars, a simple formula to express the energy spectrum of the GW background is constructed for the inspiral phase. The relation between the local merger rate and the energy density of the GW background will be examined by future GW observations.
Triplets of supermassive black holes: Astrophysics, Gravitational Waves and Detection
Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Hoffman, Loren; Benacquista, Matthew; Eichhorn, Christoph; Makino, Junichiro; Spurzem, Rainer
2009-01-01
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) found in the centers of many galaxies have been recognized to play a fundamental active role in the cosmological structure formation process. In hierarchical formation scenarios, SMBHs are expected to form binaries following the merger of their host galaxies. If these binaries do not coalesce before the merger with a third galaxy, the formation of a black hole triple system is possible. Numerical simulations of the dynamics of triples within galaxy cores exhibit phases of very high eccentricity (as high as $e \\sim 0.99$). During these phases, intense bursts of gravitational radiation can be emitted at orbital periapsis. This produces a gravitational wave signal at frequencies substantially higher than the orbital frequency. The likelihood of detection of these bursts with pulsar timing and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna ({\\it LISA}) is estimated using several population models of SMBHs with masses $\\gtrsim 10^7 {\\rm M_\\odot}$. Assuming a fraction of binaries $\\ge 0.1$ ...
Modeling the Complete Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Neutron Star Mergers.
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Nagar, Alessandro
2015-08-28
In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency f2 related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that f(2) is correlated with the tidal coupling constant κ(2)^T that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral merger. The relation f(2)(κ(2)^T) depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.
Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.
Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A
2015-07-31
The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.
Analysis Framework for the Prompt Discovery of Compact Binary Mergers in Gravitational-wave Data
Messick, Cody; Brady, Patrick; Brockill, Patrick; Cannon, Kipp; Caudill, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney J; Creighton, Jolien D E; Everett, Ryan; Hanna, Chad; Lang, Ryan N; Li, Tjonnie G F; Meacher, Duncan; Pankow, Chris; Privitera, Stephen; Qi, Hong; Sachdev, Surabhi; Sadeghian, Laleh; Sathyaprakash, B; Singer, Leo; Thomas, E Gareth; Wade, Leslie; Wade, Madeline; Weinstein, Alan
2016-01-01
We describe a stream-based analysis pipeline to detect gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and neutron-star-black-hole binaries within ~ 1 minute of the arrival of the merger signal at Earth. Such low-latency detection is crucial for the prompt response by electromagnetic facilities in order to observe any fading electromagnetic counterparts that might be produced by mergers involving at least one neutron star. Even for systems expected not to produce counterparts, analysis of the data in low-latency for their GW signals is useful for deciding when not to point telescopes, and as feedback to observatory operations. The pipeline also operates in an offline mode, in which it incorporates more refined information about data quality and employs acausal methods that are inapplicable to the online mode.
ELECTROMAGNETIC COUNTERPARTS TO BLACK HOLE MERGERS DETECTED BY LIGO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2016-03-10
Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified a γ-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a γ-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.
Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers Detected by LIGO
Loeb, Abraham
2016-03-01
Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified a γ-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a γ-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.
Are merging black holes born from stellar collapse or previous mergers?
Gerosa, Davide; Berti, Emanuele
2017-06-01
Advanced LIGO detectors at Hanford and Livingston made two confirmed and one marginal detection of binary black holes during their first observing run. The first event, GW150914, was from the merger of two black holes much heavier that those whose masses have been estimated so far, indicating a formation scenario that might differ from "ordinary" stellar evolution. One possibility is that these heavy black holes resulted from a previous merger. When the progenitors of a black hole binary merger result from previous mergers, they should (on average) merge later, be more massive, and have spin magnitudes clustered around a dimensionless spin ˜0.7 . Here we ask the following question: can gravitational-wave observations determine whether merging black holes were born from the collapse of massive stars ("first generation"), rather than being the end product of earlier mergers ("second generation")? We construct simple, observationally motivated populations of black hole binaries, and we use Bayesian model selection to show that measurements of the masses, luminosity distance (or redshift), and "effective spin" of black hole binaries can indeed distinguish between these different formation scenarios.
Electromagnetic Counterparts of Gravitational Wave Sources : Mergers of Compact Objects
Kamble, Atish
2016-01-01
Mergers of compact objects are considered prime sources of gravitational waves (GW) and will soon be targets of GW observatories such as the Advanced-LIGO, VIRGO etc. Finding electromagnetic counterparts of these GW sources will be important to understand their nature. We discuss possible electromagnetic signatures of the mergers. We show that the BH-BH mergers could have luminosities which exceed Eddington luminosity from unity to several orders of magnitude depending on the masses of the merging BHs. As a result these mergers could be explosive, release up to $10^{51}$ erg of energy and shine as radio transients. At any given time we expect about a few such transients in the sky at GHz frequencies which could be detected out to about 300 Mpc. It has also been argued that these radio transients would look alike radio supernovae with comparable detection rates. Multi-band follow up could, however, distinguish between the mergers and supernovae.
Merger of binary neutron stars: Gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shibata, Masaru
2016-12-15
Late inspiral and merger phases of binary neutron stars are the valuable new experimental fields for exploring nuclear physics because (i) gravitational waves from them will bring information for the neutron-star equation of state and (ii) the matter ejected after the onset of the merger could be the main site for the r-process nucleosynthesis. We will summarize these aspects of the binary neutron stars, describing the current understanding for the merger process of binary neutron stars that has been revealed by numerical-relativity simulations.
Mergers of Black-Hole Binaries with Aligned Spins: Waveform Characteristics
Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
"We apply our gravitational-waveform analysis techniques, first presented in the context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [1], to the complementary case of equal-mass spinning black-hole binary systems. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform modes phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous model of the binary system as an adiabatically rigid rotator driving gravitational-wave emission - an implicit rotating source (IRS). We further apply the late-merger model for the rotational frequency introduced in [1], along with a new mode amplitude model appropriate for the dominant (2, plus or minus 2) modes. We demonstrate that this seven-parameter model performs well in matches with the original numerical waveform for system masses above - 150 solar mass, both when the parameters are freely fit, and when they are almost completely constrained by physical considerations."
Rapid formation of supermassive black hole binaries in galaxy mergers with gas.
Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Madau, P; Colpi, M; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J
2007-06-29
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that after the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink because of stellar or gas dynamical processes, and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas because of the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years after the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent, nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than 1 million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars.
Rapid Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Galaxy Mergers with Gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayer, L.; /Zurich U. /Zurich, ETH; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Madau, P.; /UC, Santa Cruz /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Colpi, M.; /Milan Bicocca U.; Quinn, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Wadsley, J.; /McMaster U.
2008-03-24
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that, following the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink due to stellar or gas dynamical processes and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas due to the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years following the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than a million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Gravitational Wave Signal from Assembling the Lightest Supermassive Black Holes
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Rubbo, Louis
2010-01-01
We calculate the gravitational wave signal from the growth of 10 million solar mass supermassive black holes (SMBH) from the remnants of Population III stars. The assembly of these lower mass black holes is particularly important because observing SMBHs in this mass range is one of the primary science goals for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a planned NASA/ESA mission to detect gravitational waves. We use high resolution cosmological N-body simulations to track the merger history of the host dark matter halos, and model the growth of the SMBHs with a semi-analytic approach that combines dynamical friction, gas accretion, and feedback. We find that the most common source in the LISA band from our volume consists of mergers between intermediate mass black holes and SMBHs at redshifts less than 2. This type of high mass ratio merger has not been widely considered in the gravitational wave community; detection and characterization of this signal will likely require a different technique than is us...
Possible Short Gamma-Ray Bursts Associated with Black Hole - Black Hole Mergers
Zhang, Bing
2016-01-01
The discovery of GW 150914 suggests that double black hole (BH-BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes carries a small amount of charge, the inspiral of the BH-BH system would drive a magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. A magnetosphere would be developed, and the system would behave like a giant pulsar with increasing wind power. If the BH charge can be as large as a factor of $\\hat q \\sim 10^{-15}$ of the critical charge $Q_c$ of the BH, a detectable short-duration GRB would be generated right before the final coalescence. The GRB is supposed to have a short duration, nearly isotropic emission, and a delay with respect to the gravitational wave chirp signal. The putative short GRB coincident with GW 150914 detected with {\\em Fermi} GBM can be interpreted with this model. The detections or non-detections of such GRBs associated with future BH-BH merger gravitational wave sources would lead to constraints on the charges carried by isolate black holes.
Can supermassive black hole seeds form in galaxy mergers?
Ferrara, A; Salvaterra, R
2013-01-01
It has been recently suggested that supermassive black holes at z = 5-6 might form from super-fast (\\dot M > 10^4 Msun/yr) accretion occurring in unstable, massive nuclear gas disks produced by mergers of Milky-Way size galaxies. Interestingly, such mechanism is claimed to work also for gas enriched to solar metallicity. These results are based on an idealized polytropic equation of state assumption, essentially preventing the gas from cooling. We show that under more realistic conditions, the disk rapidly (< 1 yr) cools, the accretion rate drops, and the central core can grow only to \\approx 100 Msun. In addition, most of the disk becomes gravitationally unstable in about 100 yr, further quenching the accretion. We conclude that this scenario encounters a number of difficulties that possibly make it untenable.
The black hole merger event GW150914 within a modified theory of General Relativity
Hess, Peter O
2016-01-01
In February 2016 the first observation of gravitational waves were reported. The source of this event, denoted as GW150914, was identified as the merger of two black holes with a about 30 solar masses each, at a distance of approximately 400Mpc. These data where deduced using the Theory of General Relativity. Since 2009 a modified theory was proposed which adds near massive objects phenomenologically the contribution of a dark energy, whose origin are vacuum uctuations. The dark energy accumulates toward smaller distances, reducing effec- tively the gravitational constant. In this contribution we show that as a consequence the deduces chirping mass and the luminosity distance are larger. This result suggests that the black hole merger corresponds to two massive black holes near the center of primordial galaxies at large luminosity distance, i.e. large redshifts.
The black hole merger event GW150914 within a modified theory of general relativity
Hess, P. O.
2016-11-01
In 2016 February the first observation of gravitational waves were reported. The source of this event, denoted as GW150914, was identified as the merger of two black holes with about 30 solar masses each, at a distance of approximately 400 Mpc. These data were deduced using the theory of general relativity. Since 2009 a modified theory was proposed which adds near massive objects phenomenologically the contribution of a dark energy, whose origin are vacuum fluctuations. The dark energy accumulates towards smaller distances, reducing effectively the gravitational constant. In this contribution we show that as a consequence the deduces chirping mass and the luminosity distance are larger. This result suggests that the black hole merger corresponds to two massive black holes near the centre of primordial galaxies at large luminosity distance, i.e. large redshifts.
Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gaebel, S.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-10-01
The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper, we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100 M⊙ and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational-wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5 σ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance and with an 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and we place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations, we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9 - 240 Gpc-3 yr-1 . These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational-wave detections.
Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper, we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100M_{⊙} and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational-wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5σ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance and with an 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and we place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations, we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9–240 Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}. These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational-wave detections.
The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914
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S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magaña; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. 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R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.
2017-01-01
The first direct gravitational-wave detection was made by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory on September 14, 2015. The GW150914 signal was strong enough to be apparent, without using any waveform model, in the filtered detector strain data. Here, features of the signal visible in the data are analyzed using concepts from Newtonian physics and general relativity, accessible to anyone with a general physics background. The simple analysis presented here is consistent with the fully general-relativistic analyses published elsewhere,in showing that the signal was produced by the inspiral and subsequent merger of two black holes. The black holes were each of approximately 35 Msun, still orbited each other as close as ~350 km apart, and subsequently merged to form a single black hole. Similar reasoning, directly from the data, is used to roughly estimate how far these black holes were from the Earth, and the energy that they radiated in gravitational waves.
Merger of Black Holes in the Galactic Center
Koch, F Elliott
2008-01-01
We present the results of three body simulations focused on understanding the fates of intermediate mass black holes (IBH) that drift within the central 0.5 pc of the Galaxy. In particular, we modeled the interactions between pairs of $4000 {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ black holes as they orbit a central blac k hole of mass $4 \\times 10^6 {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$. The simulations performed assume a Schwarzschild geometry and account for Chandrasekhar dynamical friction as well as acceleration resulting from energy lost due to gravitational radiation. We found the branching ratio for one of the orbiting IBHs to merge with the CBH was 0.95 and is independent of the inner IBH's initial eccentricity as well as the rate of sinking. This, coupled with an infall rate of $\\sim 10^7 $ yrs for an IBH to drift into the Galactic center, results in an IBH-CBH merger every $\\lesssim 11$ Myrs. Lastly we found that the IBH-IBH-CBH triple body system ``resets'' itself, in the sense that a system with an inner I BH with an initially circular orbi...
2016-01-01
In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the det...
Search for gravitational waves from intermediate mass binary black holes
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.
2012-05-01
We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of nonspinning intermediate mass black holes in the total mass range 100-450M⊙ and with the component mass ratios between 1∶1 and 4∶1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the intermediate mass black holes mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88M⊙, for nonspinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.
The Binary Black Hole Merger Rate from Ultraluminous X-ray Source Progenitors
Finke, Justin; Razzaque, Soebur
2017-01-01
Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) exceed the Eddington luminosity for an approximately 10 solar mass black hole. The recent detection of a black hole merger event GW 150914 by the gravitational wave detector ALIGO indicates that black holes with mass greater than 10 do indeed exist. Motivated by this, we explore a scenario where ULXs consist of black holes formed by the collapse of high-mass, low-metallicity stars, and that these ULXs become binary black holes (BBHs) that eventually merge. We use empirical relations between the number of ULXs and the star formation rate and host galaxy metallicity to estimate the ULX formation rate and the BBH merger rate at all redshifts. This assumes the ULX rate is directly proportional to the star formation rate for a given metallicity, and that the black hole accretion rate is distributed as a log-normal distribution. We include an enhancement in the ULX formation rate at earlier epochs due to lower mean metallicities. Our model is able to reproduce both the rate and mass distribution of BBH mergers in the nearby universe inferred from the detection of GW 150914, LVT 151012, and GW 151226 by LIGO if the median accretion rate of ULXs is a factor 1 to 30 greater than the Eddington rate. Our predictions of the BBH merger rate, mass distribution.
Black hole merger estimates in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity
Jai-akson, Puttarak; Chatrabhuti, Auttakit; Evnin, Oleg; Lehner, Luis
2017-08-01
The recent birth of gravitational wave astronomy invites a new generation of precision tests of general relativity. Signatures of black hole (BH) mergers must be systematically explored in a wide spectrum of modified gravity theories. Here, we turn to one such theory in which the initial value problem for BH mergers is well posed, the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton system. We present conservative estimates for the merger parameters (final spins, quasinormal modes) based on techniques that have worked well for ordinary gravity mergers and utilize information extracted from test particle motion in the final BH metric. The computation is developed in parallel for the modified gravity BHs (we specifically focus on the Kaluza-Klein value of the dilaton coupling, for which analytic BH solutions are known) and ordinary Kerr-Newman BHs. We comment on the possibility of obtaining final BHs with spins consistent with current observations.
Digging deeper: Observing primordial gravitational waves below black hole binary confusion noise
Regimbau, T; Christensen, N; Katsavounidis, E; Sathyaprakash, B; Vitale, S
2016-01-01
The merger rate of black hole binaries inferred from the recent LIGO detections implies that a stochastic background produced by a cosmological population of mergers will likely mask the primordial gravitational-wave background. Here we demonstrate that the next generation of ground-based detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, will be able to observe binary black hole mergers throughout the universe with sufficient efficiency that the confusion background can be subtracted to observe the primordial background at the level of $\\Omega_{\\mathrm{GW}} \\simeq 10^{-13}$ after five years of observation.
Regimbau, T; Evans, M; Christensen, N; Katsavounidis, E; Sathyaprakash, B; Vitale, S
2017-04-14
The merger rate of black hole binaries inferred from the detections in the first Advanced LIGO science run implies that a stochastic background produced by a cosmological population of mergers will likely mask the primordial gravitational wave background. Here we demonstrate that the next generation of ground-based detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, will be able to observe binary black hole mergers throughout the Universe with sufficient efficiency that the confusion background can potentially be subtracted to observe the primordial background at the level of Ω_{GW}≃10^{-13} after 5 years of observation.
Palenzuela, Carlos; Yoshida, Shin
2009-01-01
In addition to producing loud gravitational waves (GW), the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic (EM) radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.
Kiuchi, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke
2010-04-09
We elucidate the feature of gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary-neutron-star merger collapsing to a black hole by general relativistic simulation. We show that GW spectrum imprints the coalescence dynamics, formation process of disk, equation of state for neutron stars, total masses, and mass ratio. A formation mechanism of the central engine of short-gamma-ray bursts, which are likely to be composed of a black hole and surrounding disk, therefore could be constrained by GW observation.
Bright Transients from Black Hole - Neutron Star Mergers
D'Orazio, Daniel J; Murray, Norman W; Price, Larry
2016-01-01
Direct detection of black hole-neutron star (BHNS) pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet BHNS star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the X-ray to gamma-rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from $10^{12}$G to $10^{16}$G respectively and a $10M_{\\odot}$ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the NS magnetic field strength, and may be observa...
Black hole mass function from gravitational wave measurements
Kovetz, Ely D.; Cholis, Ilias; Breysse, Patrick C.; Kamionkowski, Marc
2017-05-01
We examine how future gravitational-wave measurements from merging black holes (BHs) can be used to infer the shape of the black-hole mass function, with important implications for the study of star formation and evolution and the properties of binary BHs. We model the mass function as a power law, inherited from the stellar initial mass function, and introduce lower and upper mass cutoff parametrizations in order to probe the minimum and maximum BH masses allowed by stellar evolution, respectively. We initially focus on the heavier BH in each binary, to minimize model dependence. Taking into account the experimental noise, the mass measurement errors and the uncertainty in the redshift dependence of the merger rate, we show that the mass function parameters, as well as the total rate of merger events, can be measured to years of advanced LIGO observations at its design sensitivity. This can be used to address important open questions such as the upper limit on the stellar mass which allows for BH formation and to confirm or refute the currently observed mass gap between neutron stars and BHs. In order to glean information on the progenitors of the merging BH binaries, we then advocate the study of the two-dimensional mass distribution to constrain parameters that describe the two-body system, such as the mass ratio between the two BHs, in addition to the merger rate and mass function parameters. We argue that several years of data collection can efficiently probe models of binary formation, and show, as an example, that the hypothesis that some gravitational-wave events may involve primordial black holes can be tested. Finally, we point out that in order to maximize the constraining power of the data, it may be worthwhile to lower the signal-to-noise threshold imposed on each candidate event and amass a larger statistical ensemble of BH mergers.
On the Gravitational Wave Background from Black Hole Binaries after the First LIGO Detections
Cholis, Ilias
2016-01-01
The detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary black holes by the LIGO Collaboration has opened a new window to astrophysics. With the sensitivities of ground based detectors in the coming years we can only detect the local black hole binary mergers. The integrated merger rate can instead be probed by the gravitational-wave background, the incoherent superposition of the released energy in gravitational waves during binary-black-hole coalescence. Through that, the properties of the binary black holes can be studied. In this work we show that by measuring the energy density $\\Omega_{GW}$ (in units of the cosmic critical density) of the gravitational-wave background, we can search for the rare $\\sim 100 M_{\\odot}$ massive black holes formed in the Universe. In addition, we can answer how often the least massive BHs of mass $> 3 M_{\\odot}$ form. Finally, if there are multiple channels for the formation of binary black holes and if any of them predicts a narrow mass range for the black holes, then...
Black hole mergers and the QCD axion at Advanced LIGO
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Baryakhtar, Masha; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dubovsky, Sergei; Lasenby, Robert
2017-02-01
In the next few years, Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) may see gravitational waves (GWs) from thousands of black hole (BH) mergers. This marks the beginning of a new precision tool for physics. Here we show how to search for new physics beyond the standard model using this tool, in particular the QCD axion in the mass range μa˜10-14 to 10-10 eV . Axions (or any bosons) in this mass range cause rapidly rotating BHs to shed their spin into a large cloud of axions in atomic Bohr orbits around the BH, through the effect of superradiance (SR). This results in a gap in the mass vs spin distribution of BHs when the BH size is comparable to the axion's Compton wavelength. By measuring the spin and mass of the merging objects observed at LIGO, we could verify the presence and shape of the gap in the BH distribution produced by the axion. The axion cloud can also be discovered through the GWs it radiates via axion annihilations or level transitions. A blind monochromatic GW search may reveal up to 1 05 BHs radiating through axion annihilations, at distinct frequencies within ˜3 % of 2 μa . Axion transitions probe heavier axions and may be observable in future GW observatories. The merger events are perfect candidates for a targeted GW search. If the final BH has high spin, a SR cloud may grow and emit monochromatic GWs from axion annihilations. We may observe the SR evolution in real time.
Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes
Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.
2012-01-01
We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.
Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes
Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Baragoya, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Diaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endroczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gaspar, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; Gonzalez, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kranz, O; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Krolak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J; Li, T G F; Liguori, N; Lindquist, P E; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lundgren, A P; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marandi, A; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marka, S; Marka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McKechan, D J A; McWilliams, S; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Peiris, P; Pekowsky, L; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pold, J; Postiglione, F; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Racz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Redwine, K; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosinska, D; Rover, C; Rowan, S; Rudiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sainathan, P; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Soto, J; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Stein, A J; Stein, L C; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thuring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tseng, K; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yu, P; Yvert, M; Zadrozny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J
2012-01-01
We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100--450 solar masses and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88 solar masses, for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc^3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.
Gravitational waves from binary black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bala R Iyer
2011-07-01
It is almost a century since Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves as one of the consequences of his general theory of relativity. A brief historical overview including Chandrasekhar’s contribution to the subject is ﬁrst presented. The current status of the experimental search for gravitational waves and the attendant theoretical insights into the two-body problem in general relativity arising from computations of gravitational waves from binary black holes are then broadly reviewed.
Swift coalescence of supermassive black holes in cosmological mergers of massive galaxies
Khan, Fazeel M; Mayer, Lucio; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas
2016-01-01
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies with a sizable mass. It is expected that a pair of SMBHs originally in the nuclei of two merging galaxies would form a binary and eventually coalesce via a burst of gravitational waves. So far theoretical models and simulations have been unable to predict directly the SMBH merger timescale from ab-initio galaxy formation theory, focusing only on limited phases of the orbital decay of SMBHs under idealized conditions of the galaxy hosts. The predicted SMBH merger timescales are long, of order Gyrs, which could be problematic for future gravitational wave searches. Here we present the first multi-scale $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological simulation that follows the orbital decay of a pair of SMBHs in a merger of two typical massive galaxies at $z\\sim3$, all the way to the final coalescence driven by gravitational wave emission. The two SMBHs, with masses $\\sim10^{8}$ M$_{\\odot}$, settle quickly in the nucleus of the merger remnant. The remnant is triaxial and ex...
Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Samajdar, Anuradha; Ajith, Parameswaran; Del Pozzo, Walter
2016-03-01
We describe a variety of self-consistent modifications of the effective-one-body framework that yield kludge modified gravity inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) waveforms. These waveforms do not correspond to any particular modified theory of gravity, but offer parametrized deviations from general relativity in various regimes. They can thus be used to test the performance of various gravitational wave tests of general relativity (GR). As an example, we introduce the IMR consistency test, which tests for consistency between the estimations of the final mass and spin from the inspiral and merger-ringdown portions of a binary black hole waveform. We show that for reasonable source parameters and SNRs in Advanced LIGO, this test is able to detect a deviation from GR with high confidence for certain modifications of the GR energy flux that are not constrained by observations of the double pulsar. We also consider the performance of a parameterized test of GR on these kludge modified gravity waveforms.
Black Hole Mergers and the QCD Axion at Advanced LIGO
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dubovsky, Sergei; Lasenby, Robert
2016-01-01
In the next few years Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) may see gravitational waves (GWs) from thousands of black hole (BH) mergers. This marks the beginning of a new precision tool for physics. Here we show how to search for new physics beyond the standard model using this tool, in particular the QCD axion in the mass range ma ~ 10^-14 to 10^-10 eV. Axions (or any bosons) in this mass range cause rapidly rotating BHs to shed their spin into a large cloud of axions in atomic Bohr orbits around the BH, through the effect of superradiance. This results in a gap in the mass vs. spin distribution of BHs when the BH size is comparable to the axion's Compton wavelength. By measuring the spin and mass of the merging objects observed at LIGO, we could verify the presence and shape of the gap in the BH distribution produced by the axion. The axion cloud can also be discovered through the GWs it radiates via axion annihilations or level transitions. A blind monochromatic GW search may reveal up to 10^5 BHs radiating through axion ...
Rodriguez, Carl L; Rasio, Frederic A
2016-01-01
Expanding upon our previous work (Rodriguez et al., 2015), we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N-body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ...
A simple estimate of gravitational wave memory in binary black hole systems
Garfinkle, David
2016-01-01
A simple estimate is given of gravitational wave memory for the inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. Here the memory is proportional to the total energy radiated and has a simple angular dependence. This estimate might be helpful in finding better numerical relativity memory waveforms.
Rapid and Bright Stellar-mass Binary Black Hole Mergers in Active Galactic Nuclei
Bartos, Imre; Kocsis, Bence; Haiman, Zoltán; Márka, Szabolcs
2017-02-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) found direct evidence for double black hole binaries emitting gravitational waves. Galactic nuclei are expected to harbor the densest population of stellar-mass black holes. A significant fraction (∼ 30 % ) of these black holes can reside in binaries. We examine the fate of the black hole binaries in active galactic nuclei, which get trapped in the inner region of the accretion disk around the central supermassive black hole. We show that binary black holes can migrate into and then rapidly merge within the disk well within a Salpeter time. The binaries may also accrete a significant amount of gas from the disk, well above the Eddington rate. This could lead to detectable X-ray or gamma-ray emission, but would require hyper-Eddington accretion with a few percent radiative efficiency, comparable to thin disks. We discuss implications for gravitational-wave observations and black hole population studies. We estimate that Advanced LIGO may detect ∼20 such gas-induced binary mergers per year.
Wang, Sai; Huang, Qing-Guo; Li, Tjonnie G F
2016-01-01
Advanced LIGO's discovery of gravitational-wave events GW150914 and GW151226 has stimulated extensive studies on the origin of binary black holes. Supposing the gravitational-wave events could be explained by binary primordial black hole (PBH) mergers, we investigate the corresponding stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) and point out the possibility to detect this SGWB spectrum, in particular from the subsolar mass PBHs, by the Advanced LIGO in the near future. We also use the non-detection of SGWB to give a new independent constraint on the abundance of PBHs in dark matter.
Lamb, Gavin P
2016-01-01
Compact binary mergers, with neutron stars or neutron star and black-hole components, are thought to produce various electromagnetic counterparts: short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from ultra-relativistic jets followed by broadband afterglow; semi-isotropic kilonova from radioactive decay of r-process elements; and late time radio flares; etc. If the jets from such mergers follow a similar power-law distribution of Lorentz factors as other astrophysical jets then the population of merger jets will be dominated by low-{\\Gamma} values. The prompt gamma-rays associated with short GRBs would be suppressed for a low-{\\Gamma} jet and the jet energy will be released as X-ray/optical/radio transients when a shock forms in the ambient medium. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the properties of such transients as candidate electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources detectable by LIGO/Virgo. Approximately 78% of merger-jets result in failed GRB with optical peaks 14-22 magnitude and an all-sky rate of ...
Hotokezaka, K.; Nissanke, S.; Hallinan, G.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Nakar, E.; Piran, T.
2016-11-01
Mergers of binary neutron stars and black hole-neutron star binaries produce gravitational-wave (GW) emission and outflows with significant kinetic energies. These outflows result in radio emissions through synchrotron radiation. We explore the detectability of these synchrotron-generated radio signals by follow-up observations of GW merger events lacking a detection of electromagnetic counterparts in other wavelengths. We model radio light curves arising from (i) sub-relativistic merger ejecta and (ii) ultra-relativistic jets. The former produce radio remnants on timescales of a few years and the latter produce γ-ray bursts in the direction of the jet and orphan-radio afterglows extending over wider angles on timescales of weeks. Based on the derived light curves, we suggest an optimized survey at 1.4 GHz with five epochs separated by a logarithmic time interval. We estimate the detectability of the radio counterparts of simulated GW-merger events to be detected by advanced LIGO and Virgo by current and future radio facilities. The detectable distances for these GW merger events could be as high as 1 Gpc. Around 20%-60% of the long-lasting radio remnants will be detectable in the case of the moderate kinetic energy of 3\\cdot {10}50 erg and a circum-merger density of 0.1 {{cm}}-3 or larger, while 5%-20% of the orphan-radio afterglows with kinetic energy of 1048 erg will be detectable. The detection likelihood increases if one focuses on the well-localizable GW events. We discuss the background noise due to radio fluxes of host galaxies and false positives arising from extragalactic radio transients and variable active galactic nuclei, and we show that the quiet radio transient sky is of great advantage when searching for the radio counterparts.
Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru; Brady, Patrick R; Friedman, John L
2011-01-01
The late inspiral, merger, and ringdown of a black hole-neutron star (BHNS) system can provide information about the neutron-star equation of state (EOS). Candidate EOSs can be approximated by a parametrized piecewise-polytropic EOS above nuclear density, matched to a fixed low-density EOS; and we report results from a large set of BHNS inspiral simulations that systematically vary two parameters. To within the accuracy of the simulations, we find that, apart from the neutron-star mass, a single physical parameter Lambda, describing its deformability, can be extracted from the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown waveform. This parameter is related to the radius, mass, and l=2 Love number, k_2, of the neutron star by Lambda = 2k_2 R^5/3M_{NS}^5, and it is the same parameter that determines the departure from point-particle dynamics during the early inspiral. Observations of gravitational waves from BHNS inspiral thus restrict the EOS to a surface of constant Lambda in the parameter space, thickened by the meas...
The status of black-hole binary merger simulations with numerical relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McWilliams, Sean T, E-mail: sean@astro.columbia.edu [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2011-07-07
The advent of long-term stability in numerical relativity has yielded a windfall of answers to long-standing questions regarding the dynamics of space-time, matter, and electromagnetic fields in the strong-field regime of black-hole binary mergers. In this review, we will briefly summarize the methodology currently applied to these problems, emphasizing the most recent advancements. We will discuss recent results of astrophysical relevance, and present some novel interpretation. Although we primarily present a review, we also present a simple analytical model for the time-dependent Poynting flux from two orbiting black holes immersed in a magnetic field, which compares favorably with recent numerical results. Finally, we will discuss recent advancements in our theoretical understanding of merger dynamics and gravitational waveforms that have resulted from interpreting the ever-growing body of numerical relativity results.
The Status of Black-Hole Binary Merger Simulations with Numerical Relativity
McWilliams, Sean T
2010-01-01
The advent of long-term stability in numerical relativity has yielded a windfall of answers to long-standing questions regarding the dynamics of space-time, matter, and electromagnetic fields in the strong-field regime of black-hole binary mergers. In this review, we will briefly summarize the methodology currently applied to these problems, emphasizing the most recent advancements. We will discuss recent results of astrophysical relevance, and present some novel interpretation. Though we primarily present a review, we also present a simple analytical model for the time-dependent Poynting flux from two orbiting black holes immersed in a magnetic field, which compares favorably with recent numerical results. Finally, we will discuss recent advancements in our theoretical understanding of merger dynamics and gravitational waveforms that have resulted from interpreting the ever-growing body of numerical relativity results.
Shapiro, Stuart
2017-01-01
Hans A. Bethe elucidated our understanding of the fundamental forces of Nature by exploring and explaining countless phenomena occurring in nuclear laboratories and in stars. With the dawn of gravitational wave astronomy we now can probe compact binary mergers - Nature's cosmic collision experiments - to deepen our understanding, especially where strong-field gravitation is involved. In addition to gravitational waves, some mergers are likely to generate observable electromagnetic and/or neutrino radiation, heralding a new era of multimessenger astronomy. Robust numerical algorithms now allow us to simulate these events in full general relativity on supercomputers. We will describe some recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations that show how binary black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star mergers can launch jets, lending support to the idea that such mergers could be the engines that power short gamma-ray bursts. We will also show how the magnetorotational collapse of very massive stars to spinning black holes immersed in magnetized accretion disks can launch jets as well, reinforcing the belief that such ``collapsars'' are the progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts. Computer-generated movies highlighting some of these simulations will be shown. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grants 1300903 and 1602536 and NASA Grant NNX13AH44G.
Gravitational Waves from Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Mergers
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca
2010-02-01
Binary neutron stars are among the most important sources of gravitational waves which are expected to be detected by the current or next generation of gravitational wave detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo, and they are also thought to be at the origin of very important astrophysical phenomena, such as short gamma-ray bursts. In order to describe the dynamics of these events one needs to solve the full set of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations through the use of parallel numerical codes. I will report on some recent results obtained with the use of the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky in simulating binary neutron stars which inspiral and merge forming an hypermassive neutron star which eventually collapses to form a black hole surrounded by a torus. I will in particular describe how the magnetic fields can affect the dynamics and consequently the gravitational waves emitted by these systems and discuss about their detectability by current and future gravitational-wave detectors. )
Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.
Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S
2010-08-26
Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk.
Understanding the "antikick" in the merger of binary black holes.
Rezzolla, Luciano; Macedo, Rodrigo P; Jaramillo, José Luis
2010-06-04
The generation of a large recoil velocity from the inspiral and merger of binary black holes represents one of the most exciting results of numerical-relativity calculations. While many aspects of this process have been investigated and explained, the "antikick," namely, the sudden deceleration after the merger, has not yet found a simple explanation. We show that the antikick can be understood in terms of the radiation from a deformed black hole where the anisotropic curvature distribution on the horizon correlates with the direction and intensity of the recoil. Our analysis is focused on Robinson-Trautman spacetimes and allows us to measure both the energies and momenta radiated in a gauge-invariant manner. At the same time, this simpler setup provides the qualitative and quantitative features of merging black holes, opening the way to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of black-hole spacetimes.
Exact Event Horizon of a Black Hole Merger
Emparan, Roberto
2016-01-01
We argue that the event horizon of a binary black hole merger, in the extreme-mass-ratio limit where one of the black holes is much smaller than the other, can be described in an exact analytic way. This is done by tracing in the Schwarzschild geometry a congruence of null geodesics that approaches a null plane at infinity. Its form can be given explicitly in terms of elliptic functions, and we use it to analyze and illustrate the time-evolution of the horizon along the merger. We identify features such as the line of caustics at which light rays enter the horizon, and the critical point at which the horizons touch. We also compute several quantities that characterize these aspects of the merger.
Exact event horizon of a black hole merger
Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina
2016-08-01
We argue that the event horizon of a binary black hole merger, in the extreme-mass-ratio limit where one of the black holes is much smaller than the other, can be described in an exact analytic way. This is done by tracing in the Schwarzschild geometry a congruence of null geodesics that approaches a null plane at infinity. Its form can be given explicitly in terms of elliptic functions, and we use it to analyze and illustrate the time-evolution of the horizon along the merger. We identify features such as the line of caustics at which light rays enter the horizon, and the critical point at which the horizons touch. We also compute several quantities that characterize these aspects of the merger.
Building Interstellar's black hole: the gravitational renderer
James, Oliver; Dieckmann, Sylvan; Pabst, Simon; Roberts, Paul-George H.; Thorne, Kip S.
2015-01-01
Interstellar is the first feature film to attempt depicting a black hole as it would actually be seen by somebody nearby. A close collaboration between the production's Scientific Advisor and the Visual Effects team led to the development of a new renderer, DNGR (Double Negative Gravitational Renderer) which uses novel techniques for rendering in curved space-time. Following the completion of the movie, the code was adapted for scientific research, leading to new insights into gravitational l...
Nagar, Alessandro; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Zenginoğlu, Anıl
2014-01-01
Gravitational waves emitted from a generic binary black-hole merger carry away linear momentum anisotropically, resulting in a gravitational recoil, or "kick", of the center of mass. For certain merger configurations the time evolution of the magnitude of the kick velocity has a local maximum followed by a sudden drop. Perturbative studies of this "antikick" in a limited range of black hole spins have found that the antikick decreases for retrograde orbits as a function of negative spin. We analyze this problem using a recently developed code to evolve gravitational perturbations from a point-particle in Kerr spacetime driven by an effective-one-body resummed radiation reaction force at linear order in the mass ratio $\
Toroidal Horizons in Binary Black Hole Mergers
Bohn, Andy; Teukolsky, Saul A
2016-01-01
We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It had been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology, but such a phase has never been seen prior to this work. In all previous binary black hole simulations, in the coordinate slicing used to evolve the black holes, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We present a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.
Testing Quantum Black Holes with Gravitational Waves
Foit, Valentino F
2016-01-01
We argue that near-future detections of gravity waves from merging black hole binaries will either confirm or conclusively rule out a long-standing proposal, originally due Bekenstein and Mukhanov, that the areas of black hole horizons are quantized in integer multiples of the Planck area times an O(1) constant \\alpha. A single measurement of the "ring down" phase after a binary merger, if consistent with the predictions of classical general relativity, will rule out most or all (depending on the spin of the hole) of the extant proposals in the literature for the value of \\alpha. A measurement of two such events for final black holes with substantially different spins will rule out the proposal for any \\alpha.
Regular phantom black holes as gravitational lenses
Eiroa, Ernesto F
2015-01-01
The distortion of the spacetime structure in the surroundings of black holes affects the trajectories of light rays. As a consequence, black holes can act as gravitational lenses. Observations of type Ia supernovas, show that our Universe is in accelerated expansion. The usual explanation is that the Universe is filled with a negative pressure fluid called dark energy, which accounts for 70 % of its total density, which can be modeled by a self-interacting scalar field with a potential. We consider a class of spherically symmetric regular phantom black holes as gravitational lenses. We study large deflection angles, using the strong deflection limit, corresponding to an asymptotic logarithmic approximation. In this case, photons passing close to the photon sphere of the black hole experiment several loops around it before they emerge towards the observer, giving place to two infinite sets of relativistic images. Within this limit, we find analytical expressions for the positions and the magnifications of thes...
BPASS predictions for Binary Black-Hole Mergers
Eldridge, J J
2016-01-01
Using the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis code BPASS, we have calculated the rates, timescales and mass distributions for binary black hole mergers as a function of metallicity. We consider these in the context of the recently reported 1st LIGO event detection. We find that the event has a low probability of arising from a stellar population with initial metallicity mass fraction above $Z=0.010$. Binary black hole merger events with the reported masses are most likely in populations between Z=0.0001 and 0.002 (Z < 0.1Z_sun). The masses inferred for the black holes in the binary progenitor of GW 150914 are close to the predicted peak in the mass distribution for such events. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the electromagnetic follow-up of future LIGO event detections.
Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the mass ratio
Dietrich, Tim; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brügmann, Bernd
2017-01-01
We present new (3 +1 )D numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) merger and postmerger phase. We focus on a previously inaccessible region of the binary parameter space spanning the binary's mass ratio q ˜1.00 - 1.75 for different total masses and equations of state, and up to q ˜2 for a stiff BNS system. We study the mass ratio effect on the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic (EM) emission associated with dynamical mass ejecta. We compute waveforms, spectra, and spectrograms of the GW strain including all the multipoles up to l =4 . The mass ratio has a specific imprint on the GW multipoles in the late-inspiral-merger signal, and it affects qualitatively the spectra of the merger remnant. The multipole effect is also studied by considering the dependency of the GW spectrograms on the source's sky location. Unequal mass BNSs produce more ejecta than equal mass systems with ejecta masses and kinetic energies depending almost linearly on q . We estimate luminosity peaks and light curves of macronova events associated with the mergers using a simple approach. For q ˜2 the luminosity peak is delayed for several days and can be up to 4 times larger than for the q =1 cases. The macronova emission associated with the q ˜2 BNS is more persistent in time and could be observed for weeks instead of a few days (q =1 ) in the near infrared. Finally, we estimate the flux of possible radio flares produced by the interaction of relativistic outflows with the surrounding medium. Also in this case a large q can significantly enhance the emission and delay the peak luminosity. Overall, our results indicate that the BNS merger with a large mass ratio has EM signatures distinct from the equal mass case and more similar to black hole-neutron star binaries.
Observing Gravitational Waves From The Post-Merger Phase Of Binary Neutron Star Coalescence
Clark, James Alexander; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Shoemaker, Deirdre
2015-01-01
We present an effective, low-dimensionality frequency-domain template for the gravitational wave signal from the stellar remnants from binary neutron star coalescence. A principal component decomposition of a suite of numerical simulations of binary neutron star mergers is used to construct orthogonal basis functions for the amplitude and phase spectra of the waveforms for a variety of neutron star equations of state and binary mass configurations. We review the phenomenology of late merger / post-merger gravitational wave emission in binary neutron star coalescence and demonstrate how an understanding of the dynamics during and after the merger leads to the construction of a universal spectrum. We also provide a discussion of the prospects for detecting the post-merger signal in future gravitational wave detectors as a potential contribution to the science case for third generation instruments. The template derived in our analysis achieves $>90\\%$ match across a wide variety of merger waveforms and strain se...
Metallicity evolution in mergers of disk galaxies with black holes
Rantala, Antti; Johansson, Peter H.
2016-10-01
We use the TreeSPH simulation code Gadget-3 including a recently improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) module, a detailed metallicity evolution model and sophisticated subresolution feedback models for supernovae and supermassive black holes in order to study the metallicity evolution in disk galaxy mergers. In addition, we examine the simulated morphology, star formation histories, metallicity gradients and kinematic properties of merging galaxies and merger remnants. We will compare our simulation results with observations of the early-type Centaurus A galaxy and the currently colliding Antennae galaxies.
Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914.
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Laguna, P; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M A; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S; Zlochower, Y
2016-06-17
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36_{-4}^{+5}M_{⊙} and 29_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙}; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be black hole of mass 62_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙} and spin 0.67_{-0.07}^{+0.05}. This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime.
Toroidal horizons in binary black hole mergers
Bohn, Andy; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
2016-09-01
We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It has been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology. However, such a phase has never been seen in numerical simulations. Instead, in all previous simulations, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We find a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon, thus reconciling the numerical work with theoretical expectations. The demonstration requires extremely high numerical precision, which is made possible by a new event horizon code described in a companion paper. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.
Black Holes and Gravitational Properties of Antimatter
Hajdukovic, D
2006-01-01
We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.
Short Gamma-Ray Bursts from the Merger of Two Black Holes
Perna, Rosalba; Giacomazzo, Bruno
2016-01-01
Short Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are explosions of cosmic origin believed to be associated with the merger of two compact objects, either two neutron stars, or a neutron star and a black hole. The presence of at least one neutron star has long been thought to be an essential element of the model: its tidal disruption provides the needed baryonic material whose rapid accretion onto the post-merger black hole powers the burst. The recent tentative detection by the Fermi satellite of a short GRB in association with the gravitational wave signal GW150914 produced by the merger of two black holes has shaken this standard paradigm. Here we show that the evolution of two high-mass, low-metallicity stars with main sequence rotational speeds a few tens of percent of the critical speed eventually undergoing a weak supernova explosion {\\em can} produce a short gamma-ray burst. The outer layers of the envelope of the last exploding star remain bound and circularize at large radii. With time, the disk cools and becomes neutr...
Binary black hole merger rates inferred from luminosity function of ultra-luminous X-ray sources
Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Isobe, Naoki
2016-10-01
The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected direct signals of gravitational waves (GWs) from GW150914. The event was a merger of binary black holes whose masses are 36^{+5}_{-4} M_{{⊙}} and 29^{+4}_{-4} M_{{⊙}}. Such binary systems are expected to be directly evolved from stellar binary systems or formed by dynamical interactions of black holes in dense stellar environments. Here we derive the binary black hole merger rate based on the nearby ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) luminosity function (LF) under the assumption that binary black holes evolve through X-ray emitting phases. We obtain the binary black hole merger rate as 5.8(tULX/0.1 Myr)- 1λ- 0.6exp ( - 0.30λ) Gpc- 3 yr- 1, where tULX is the typical duration of the ULX phase and λ is the Eddington ratio in luminosity. This is coincident with the event rate inferred from the detection of GW150914 as well as the predictions based on binary population synthesis models. Although we are currently unable to constrain the Eddington ratio of ULXs in luminosity due to the uncertainties of our models and measured binary black hole merger event rates, further X-ray and GW data will allow us to narrow down the range of the Eddington ratios of ULXs. We also find the cumulative merger rate for the mass range of 5 M⊙ ≤ MBH ≤ 100 M⊙ inferred from the ULX LF is consistent with that estimated by the aLIGO collaboration considering various astrophysical conditions such as the mass function of black holes.
Conference: Seeing two black holes merge (with gravitational waves!) | 14 September | Uni Dufour
2016-01-01
GW150914: the first direct observation of gravitational waves from the inspiral and merger of two black holes - Conference by Prof. Bruce Allen, Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. "Seeing two black holes merge (with gravitational waves!)" Uni Dufour - Auditorium U300 Wednesday, 14 September at 7 p.m. Bruce Allen. (Photo: ©F. Vinken/MPG) Abstract: On 14 September 2015, the advanced LIGO gravitational wave instruments detected the gravitational wave signal emitted as two black holes, about one billion light years away from Earth, made a final few orbits around each other then merged together. This was big news around the world, because scientists have tried to make such observations for more than half a century. Before they merged, the two black holes were about 29 and 36 times as massive as the sun; after the merger was complete, a single black hole about 62 times the sun's mass was left behind. I'll describe what black holes are, how they (...
A gravitational wave afterglow in binary neutron star mergers
Doneva, Daniela D; Pnigouras, Pantelis
2015-01-01
We study in detail the f-mode secular instability for rapidly rotating neutron stars, putting emphasis on supermassive models which do not have a stable nonrotating counterpart. Such neutron stars are thought to be the generic outcome of the merger of two standard mass neutron stars. In addition we take into account the effects of strong magnetic field and r-mode instability, that can drain a substantial amount of angular momentum. We find that the gravitational wave signal emitted by supramassive neutron stars can reach above the Advance LIGO sensitivity at distance of about 20Mpc and the detectability is substantially enhanced for the Einstein Telescope. The event rate will be of the same order as the merging rates, while the analysis of the signal will carry information for the equation of state of the post-merging neutron stars and the strength of the magnetic fields.
Binary Black Hole Mergers in the first Advanced LIGO Observing Run
,
2016-01-01
The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to $100 M_\\odot$ and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than $5\\sigma$ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance, which has a 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We d...
Small mass plunging into a Kerr black hole: Anatomy of the inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms
Taracchini, Andrea; Khanna, Gaurav; Hughes, Scott A
2014-01-01
We numerically solve the Teukolsky equation in the time domain to obtain the gravitational-wave emission of a small mass inspiraling and plunging into the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. We account for the dissipation of orbital energy using the Teukolsky frequency-domain gravitational-wave fluxes for circular, equatorial orbits, down to the light-ring. We consider Kerr spins $-0.99 \\leq q \\leq 0.99$, and compute the inspiral-merger-ringdown (2,2), (2,1), (3,3), (3,2), (4,4), and (5,5) modes. We study the large-spin regime, and find a great simplicity in the merger waveforms, thanks to the extremely circular character of the plunging orbits. We also quantitatively examine the mixing of quasinormal modes during the ringdown, which induces complicated amplitude and frequency modulations in the waveforms. Finally, we explain how the study of small mass-ratio black-hole binaries helps extending effective-one-body models for comparable-mass, spinning black-hole binaries to any mass ratio and spin magnitude.
Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes
Ryder, Lewis
1973-01-01
The newest and most exotic manner in which stars die is investigated. A brief outline is presented, along with a discussion of the role supernova play, followed by a description of how the black holes originate, exist, and how they might be detected. (DF)
Hayasaki, Kimitake; Loeb, Abraham
2016-10-21
Galaxy mergers produce supermassive black hole binaries, which emit gravitational waves prior to their coalescence. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to study the tidal disruption of stars by such a binary in the final centuries of its life. We find that the gas stream of the stellar debris moves chaotically in the binary potential and forms accretion disks around both black holes. The accretion light curve is modulated over the binary orbital period owing to relativistic beaming. This periodic signal allows to detect the decay of the binary orbit due to gravitational wave emission by observing two tidal disruption events that are separated by more than a decade.
Hayasaki, Kimitake; Loeb, Abraham
2016-10-01
Galaxy mergers produce supermassive black hole binaries, which emit gravitational waves prior to their coalescence. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to study the tidal disruption of stars by such a binary in the final centuries of its life. We find that the gas stream of the stellar debris moves chaotically in the binary potential and forms accretion disks around both black holes. The accretion light curve is modulated over the binary orbital period owing to relativistic beaming. This periodic signal allows to detect the decay of the binary orbit due to gravitational wave emission by observing two tidal disruption events that are separated by more than a decade.
Hayasaki, Kimitake
2015-01-01
Galaxy mergers produce binaries of supermassive black holes, which emit gravitational waves prior to their coalescence. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to study the tidal disruption of stars by such a binary in the final centuries of its life. We find that the gas stream of the stellar debris moves chaotically in the binary potential and forms accretion disks around both black holes. The accretion light curve is modulated over the binary orbital period owing to relativistic beaming. This periodic signal allows to detect the decay of the binary orbit due to gravitational wave emission by observing two tidal disruption events that are separated by more than a decade.
The Black Hole Mass Function from Gravitational Wave Measurements
Kovetz, Ely D; Breysse, Patrick C; Kamionkowski, Marc
2016-01-01
We examine how future gravitational-wave measurements from merging black holes (BHs) can be used to infer the shape of the black-hole mass function, with important implications for the study of star formation and evolution and the properties of binary BHs. We model the mass function as a power law, inherited from the stellar initial mass function, and introduce lower and upper mass cutoff parameterizations in order to probe the minimum and maximum BH masses allowed by stellar evolution, respectively. We initially focus on the heavier BH in each binary, to minimize model dependence. Taking into account the experimental noise, the mass measurement errors and the uncertainty in the redshift-dependence of the merger rate, we show that the mass function parameters, as well as the total rate of merger events, can be measured to <10% accuracy within a few years of advanced LIGO observations at its design sensitivity. This can be used to address important open questions such as the upper limit on the stellar mass ...
Gravitational lens models for cosmological black holes
Zakharov, A. F.; Capozziello, S.; Stornaiolo, C.
2017-03-01
If really such objects like cosmological black holes exist they may be studied with a standard technique like strong and weak gravitational lensing. Cosmological voids can be explained as the result the collapse of large perturbations into black hole with masses of the order of 1014 M ⊙ and the expansion of the universe. The resulting image of the universe is that it is more homogeneous than expected from present observations. In this paper we discuss some lensing properties related to the cosmological black holes (CBHs), namely we consider differences in gravitational lensing for point like mass and extended mass distributions. We consider the singular isothermal sphere model as a toy (illustrative) model for an extended distribution of dark matter and a slightly more complicated isothermal sphere with a core.
Tanaka, Takamitsu
2011-12-01
Supermassive black holes permeate the observable Universe, residing in the nuclei of all or nearly all nearby massive galaxies and powering luminous quasars as far as ten billion light years away. These monstrous objects must grow through a combination of gas accretion and mergers of less massive black holes. The direct detection of the mergers by future gravitational-wave detectors will be a momentous scientific achievement, providing tests of general relativity and revealing the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes. An additional --- and arguably equally rewarding --- challenge is the concomitant observation of merging supermassive black holes with both gravitational and electromagneticwaves. Such synergistic, "multi-messenger" studies can probe the expansion history of the Universe and shed light on the details of accretion astrophysics. This thesis examines the mergers of supermassive black hole binaries and the observable signatures of these events. First, we consider the formation scenarios for the earliest supermassive black holes. This investigation is motivated by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observation of a quasar that appears to be powered by a supermassive black hole with a mass of billions of solar masses, already in place one billion years after the Big Bang. Second, we develop semianalytic, time-dependent-models for the thermal emission from circumbinary gas disks around merging black holes. Our calculations corroborate the qualitative conclusion of a previous study that for black hole mergers detectable by a space-based gravitational-wave observatory, a gas disk near the merger remnant may exhibit a dramatic brightening of soft X-rays on timescales of several years. Our results suggest that this "afterglow" may become detectable more quickly after the merger than previously estimated. Third, we investigate whether these afterglow episodes could be observed serendipitously by forthcoming wide-field, high-cadence electromagnetic surveys
Gold, Roman
2012-01-01
We perform a parameter study of non-spinning, equal and unequal mass black hole binaries on generic, eccentric orbits in numerical relativity. The linear momentum considered ranges from that of a circular orbit to ten times that value. We discuss the different manifestations of zoom-whirl behavior in the hyperbolic and the elliptic regime. The hyperbolic data set applies to dynamical capture scenarios (e.g. in globular clusters). Evolutions in the elliptic regime correspond to possible end states of supermassive black hole binaries. We spot zoom-whirl behavior for eccentricities as low as $e\\sim0.5$, i.e. within the expected range of eccentricities in massive black hole binaries from galaxy mergers and binaries near galactic centers. The resulting gravitational waveforms reveal a rich structure, which will effectively break degeneracies in parameter space improving parameter estimation.
Ultrafast Outflows from Black Hole Mergers with a Mini-Disk
Murase, Kohta; Meszaros, Peter; Shoemaker, Ian; Senno, Nicholas
2016-01-01
Recently, the direct detection of gravitational waves from black hole (BH) mergers was announced by the Advanced LIGO Collaboration. Multi-messenger counterparts of stellar-mass BH mergers are now of great interest, and it has been suggested that a small disk or celestial body may be involved in the coalescence of two BHs. We consider the fate of a wind powered by an active mini-disk in a short accretion episode onto the merged BH with about 10-100 solar masses, and find that its thermal emission could be seen as a fast optical transient with the duration of hours. We also show that the coasting outflow forms external shocks due to interaction with the interstellar medium, whose synchrotron emission might be detected in the radio band on a time scale of years. Finally, we also discuss a possible jet component and the associated high-energy emission.
The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914
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2016-01-01
The first direct gravitational-wave detection was made by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory on September 14, 2015. The GW150914 signal was strong enough to be apparent, without using any waveform model, in the filtered detector strain data. Here those features of the signal visible in these data are used, along with only such concepts from Newtonian and General Relativity as are accessible to anyone with a general physics background. The simple analysis presented here is consistent with the fully general-relativistic analyses published elsewhere, in showing that the signal was produced by the inspiral and subsequent merger of two black holes. The black holes were each of approximately 35 Msun, still orbited each other as close as 350 km apart and subsequently merged to form a single black hole. Similar reasoning, directly from the data, is used to roughly estimate how far these black holes were from the Earth, and the energy that they radiated in gravitational waves.
Observing Mergers of Non-Spinning Black-Hole Binaries
McWilliams, Sean T.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.
2010-01-01
Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied m8BS ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our equal-mass and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This is an indicator of the amount of degeneracy in mass ratio for mergers of moderate mass ratio systems.
Foucart, F.; Desai, D.; Brege, W.; Duez, M. D.; Kasen, D.; Hemberger, D. A.; Kidder, L. E.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Scheel, M. A.
2017-02-01
Neutron star-black hole binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves detectable by current observatories. They can also power bright electromagnetic signals (gamma-ray bursts, kilonovae), and may be a significant source of production of r-process nuclei. A misalignment of the black hole spin with respect to the orbital angular momentum leads to precession of that spin and of the orbital plane, and has a significant effect on the properties of the post-merger remnant and of the material ejected by the merger. We present a first set of simulations of precessing neutron star-black hole mergers using a hot, composition dependent, nuclear-theory based equation of state (DD2). We show that the mass of the remnant and of the dynamical ejecta are broadly consistent with the result of simulations using simpler equations of state, while differences arise when considering the dynamics of the merger and the velocity of the ejecta. We show that the latter can easily be understood from assumptions about the composition of low-density, cold material in the different equations of state, and propose an updated estimate for the ejecta velocity which takes those effects into account. We also present an updated mesh-refinement algorithm which allows us to improve the numerical resolution used to evolve neutron star-black hole mergers.
Spacelike gravitational radiation extraction from rotating binary black holes
Imbiriba, Breno C. O.
2016-07-01
We introduce an alternate method for gravitational radiation extraction for binary black hole mergers where we do not use a single extraction radius at the intermediate field region but instead use a whole spherical shell of three-dimensional (3D) data and continue its evolution using the linearized (Teukolsky) evolution to a final distant radiation extraction radius. We implement this using the Hahndol code for the 3D evolution, and use the “Lazarus” procedure to convert the numerical data into the linearized data. The final waveform is compatible with the ones obtained from the full 3D evolutions with some minor variations that require further study. In the process, we tested the “Lazarus” method with our numerical 3D implementation and gauges showing that even with the advanced gauges suitable for 3D rotating binary evolutions, we recover the same type of limited results obtained in the original work.
Binary black hole mergers: large kicks for generic spin orientations
Tichy, W; Tichy, Wolfgang; Marronetti, Pedro
2007-01-01
We present results from several simulations of equal mass black holes with spin. The spin magnitudes are $S/m^2=0.8$ in all cases, but we vary the spin orientations arbitrarily, in and outside the orbital plane. We find that in all but one case the final merged black hole acquires a kick of more than 1000 km/s, indicating that kicks of this magnitude are likely to be generic and should be expected for mergers with general spin orientations. The maximum kick velocity we find is 2500 km/s and occurs for initial spins which are anti-aligned in the initial orbital plane.
Do the Most Massive Black Holes at z = 2 Grow via Major Mergers?
Mechtley, M.; Jahnke, K.; Windhorst, R. A.; Andrae, R.; Cisternas, M.; Cohen, S. H.; Hewlett, T.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schramm, M.; Schulze, A.; Silverman, J. D.; Villforth, C.; van der Wel, A.; Wisotzki, L.
2016-10-01
The most frequently proposed model for the origin of quasars holds that the high accretion rates seen in luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) are primarily triggered during major mergers between gas-rich galaxies. While plausible for decades, this model has only begun to be tested with statistical rigor in the past few years. Here, we report on a Hubble Space Telescope study to test this hypothesis for z = 2 quasars with high supermassive black hole masses ({M}{BH}={10}9{--}{10}10 {M}⊙ ), which dominate cosmic black hole growth at this redshift. We compare Wide Field Camera 3 F160W (rest-frame V-band) imaging of 19 point source-subtracted quasar hosts to a matched sample of 84 inactive galaxies, testing whether the quasar hosts have greater evidence for strong gravitational interactions. Using an expert ranking procedure, we find that the quasar hosts are uniformly distributed within the merger sequence of inactive galaxies, with no preference for quasars in high-distortion hosts. Using a merger/non-merger cutoff approach, we recover distortion fractions of {f}{{m},{qso}}=0.39+/- 0.11 for quasar hosts and {f}{{m},{gal}}=0.30+/- 0.05 for inactive galaxies (distribution modes, 68% confidence intervals), with both measurements subjected to the same observational conditions and limitations. The slight enhancement in distorted fraction for quasar hosts over inactive galaxies is not significant, with a probability that the quasar fraction is higher P({f}{{m},{qso}}\\gt {f}{{m},{gal}})=0.78 (0.78σ ), in line with results for lower mass and lower z AGN. We find no evidence that major mergers are the primary triggering mechanism for the massive quasars that dominate accretion at the peak of cosmic quasar activity.
SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM THE MERGER OF TWO BLACK HOLES
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Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States); Lazzati, Davide [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, 301 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy)
2016-04-10
Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are explosions of cosmic origins believed to be associated with the merger of two compact objects, either two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole (BH). The presence of at least one neutron star has long been thought to be an essential element of the model: its tidal disruption provides the needed baryonic material whose rapid accretion onto the post-merger BH powers the burst. The recent tentative detection by the Fermi satellite of a short GRB in association with the gravitational wave signal GW150914 produced by the merger of two BHs has challenged this standard paradigm. Here, we show that the evolution of two high-mass, low-metallicity stars with main-sequence rotational speeds a few tens of percent of the critical speed eventually undergoing a weak supernova explosion can produce a short GRB. The outer layers of the envelope of the last exploding star remain bound and circularize at large radii. With time, the disk cools and becomes neutral, suppressing the magnetorotational instability, and hence the viscosity. The disk remains “long-lived dead” until tidal torques and shocks during the pre-merger phase heat it up and re-ignite accretion, rapidly consuming the disk and powering the short GRB.
Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black-hole Merger GW150914
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.
2016-02-01
The discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black hole (BH) systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the universe. Such BH mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively “heavy” BHs (≳ 25 {M}⊙ ) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with a metallicity lower than about 1/2 of the solar value. The rate of binary-BH (BBH) mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions (≳ 1 Gpc-3 yr-1) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift (z≃ 0.1) of GW150914 and the low inferred metallicity of the stellar progenitor imply either BBH formation in a low-mass galaxy in the local universe and a prompt merger, or formation at high redshift with a time delay between formation and merger of several Gyr. This discovery motivates further studies of binary-BH formation astrophysics. It also has implications for future detections and studies by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, and GW detectors in space.
Bright transients from strongly-magnetized neutron star-black hole mergers
D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Levin, Janna; Murray, Norman W.; Price, Larry
2016-07-01
Direct detection of black hole-neutron star pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet black hole-neutron star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the x ray to γ rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from 1012 to 1016 G respectively and a 10 M⊙ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the neutron star magnetic-field strength, and may be observable with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor with a rate up to a few per year for neutron star field strengths ≳1014 G . We also discuss a possible decaying post-merger event which could accompany this signal. As an electromagnetic counterpart to these otherwise dark pairs, the black-hole battery should be of great value to the development of multi-messenger astronomy in the era of aLIGO.
Remnant of binary black-hole mergers: New simulations and peak luminosity studies
Healy, James
2016-01-01
We present the results of 61 new simulations of nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries with mass ratios $q=m_1/m_2$ in the range $1\\leq q\\leq1/3$ and individual spins covering the parameter space $-0.85\\leq\\alpha_{1,2}\\leq0.85$. We additionally perform 10 new simulations of nonspinning black hole binaries with mass ratios covering the range $1/6\\leq q<1$. We follow the evolution for typically the last ten orbits before merger down to the formation of the final remnant black hole. This allows for assessment of the accuracy of our previous empirical formulae for relating the binary parameters to the remnant final black hole mass, spin and recoil. We use the new simulation to improve the fit to the above remnant formulae and add a formula for the peak luminosity of gravitational waves, produced around the merger of the two horizons into one. We find excellent agreement (typical errors $\\sim0.1-0.2\\%$) for the mass and spin, and $\\sim5\\%$ for the recoil and peak luminosity. These formulae have direct appli...
Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black-Hole Merger GW150914
,
2016-01-01
The discovery of the gravitational-wave source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black-hole systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the Universe. Such black-hole mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively "heavy" black holes ($\\gtrsim 25\\, M_\\odot$) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with metallicity lower than $\\sim 1/2$ of the solar value. The rate of binary black-hole mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions ($\\gtrsim 1 \\, \\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3} \\, \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift ($z \\sim 0.1$) of GW150914 and the low inferr...
Extreme Gravitational Lensing near Rotating Black Holes
Beckwith, K; Beckwith, Kris; Done, Chris
2004-01-01
We describe a new approach to calculating photon trajectories and gravitational lensing effects in the strong gravitational field of the Kerr black hole. These techniques are applied to explore both the imaging and spectral properties of photons that perform multiple orbits of the central mass before escaping to infinity. Viewed at large inclinations, these higher order photons contribute $\\sim 20 %$ of the total luminosity of the system for a Schwarzschild hole, whilst for an extreme Kerr black hole this fraction rises to $\\sim 60 %$. In more realistic models these photons will be re-absorbed by the disc at large distances from the hole, but this returning radiation could provide a physical mechanism to resolve the discrepancy between the predicted and observed optical/UV colours in AGN. Conversely, at low inclinations, higher order images re-intercept the disc plane close to the black hole, so need not be absorbed by the disc if this is within the plunging region. These photons form a bright ring carrying a...
Inspiral, merger and ring-down of equal-mass black-hole binaries
Buonanno, A; Pretorius, F; Buonanno, Alessandra; Cook, Gregory B.; Pretorius, Frans
2006-01-01
We investigate the dynamics and gravitational-wave (GW) emission in the binary merger of equal-mass black holes as obtained from numerical relativity simulations. Results from the evolution of three sets of initial data are explored in detail, corresponding to different initial separations of the black holes. We find that to a good approximation the inspiral phase of the evolution is quasi-circular, followed by a "blurred, quasi-circular plunge", then merger and ring down. We present first-order comparisons between analytical models of the various stages of the merger and the numerical results. We provide comparisons between the numerical results and analytical predictions based on the adiabatic Newtonain, post-Newtonian (PN), and non-adiabatic resummed-PN models. From the ring-down portion of the GW we extract the fundamental quasi-normal mode and several of the overtones. Finally, we estimate the optimal signal-to-noise ratio for typical binaries detectable by GW experiments.
Lupi, Alessandro; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica
2015-11-01
Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After ˜10 Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of 0.39 pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass ˜ 105 M⊙. We also test that binary dynamics is robust against the details of the SNa feedback employed in the simulations, while gas dynamics is not. We finally highlight the importance of the SNa time-scale on our results.
Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica
2015-01-01
Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After $\\sim 10$ Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of $0.39$ pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass $...
Sesana, A; Madau, P; Volonteri, M; Sesana, Alberto; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero; Volonteri, Marta
2004-01-01
We compute the expected gravitational wave signal from coalescing massive black hole (MBH) binaries at the center of galaxies in a hierarchical structure formation scenario in which seed holes of intermediate mass form far up in the dark halo merger tree. The merger history of DM halos and MBHs is followed from z=20 to the present in a LCDM cosmology. MBHs get incorporated through halo mergers into larger and larger structures, sink to the center owing to dynamical friction against the DM background, accrete cold material in the merger remnant, and form MBH binary systems. Stellar dynamical interactions cause the hardening of the binary at large separations, while gravitational wave emission takes over at small radii and leads to the final coalescence of the pair. The integrated emission from inspiraling MBH binaries results in a gravitational wave background (GWB). The characteristic strain spectrum has the standard h_c(f)\\propto f^{-2/3} behavior only in the range 1E-91E-6 Hz, the strain amplitude is shaped...
Theoretical physics implications of the binary black-hole mergers GW150914 and GW151226
Yunes, Nicolás; Yagi, Kent; Pretorius, Frans
2016-10-01
The gravitational wave observations GW150914 and GW151226 by Advanced LIGO provide the first opportunity to learn about physics in the extreme gravity environment of coalescing binary black holes. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration have verified that this observation is consistent with Einstein's theory of general relativity, constraining the presence of certain parametric anomalies in the signal. This paper expands their analysis to a larger class of anomalies, highlighting the inferences that can be drawn on nonstandard theoretical physics mechanisms that could otherwise have affected the observed signals. We find that these gravitational wave events constrain a plethora of mechanisms associated with the generation and propagation of gravitational waves, including the activation of scalar fields, gravitational leakage into large extra dimensions, the variability of Newton's constant, the speed of gravity, a modified dispersion relation, gravitational Lorentz violation and the strong equivalence principle. Though other observations limit many of these mechanisms already, GW150914 and GW151226 are unique in that they are direct probes of dynamical strong-field gravity and of gravitational wave propagation. We also show that GW150914 constrains inferred properties of exotic compact object alternatives to Kerr black holes. We argue, however, that the true potential for GW150914 to both rule out exotic objects and constrain physics beyond general relativity is severely limited by the lack of understanding of the coalescence regime in almost all relevant modified gravity theories. This event thus significantly raises the bar that these theories have to pass, both in terms of having a sound theoretical underpinning and reaching the minimal level of being able to solve the equations of motion for binary merger events. We conclude with a discussion of the additional inferences that can be drawn if the lower-confidence observation of an
Baker, Paul T; Hodge, Kari A; Talukder, Dipongkar; Capano, Collin; Cornish, Neil J
2014-01-01
Searches for gravitational waves produced by coalescing black hole binaries with total masses $\\gtrsim25\\,$M$_\\odot$ use matched filtering with templates of short duration. Non-Gaussian noise bursts in gravitational wave detector data can mimic short signals and limit the sensitivity of these searches. Previous searches have relied on empirically designed statistics incorporating signal-to-noise ratio and signal-based vetoes to separate gravitational wave candidates from noise candidates. We report on sensitivity improvements achieved using a multivariate candidate ranking statistic derived from a supervised machine learning algorithm. We apply the random forest of bagged decision trees technique to two separate searches in the high mass $\\left( \\gtrsim25\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot \\right)$ parameter space. For a search which is sensitive to gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger, and ringdown (IMR) of binary black holes with total mass between $25\\,$M$_\\odot$ and $100\\,$M$_\\odot$, we find sensitive volume impr...
:,; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Buchman, L T; Campanelli, M; Chu, T; Etienne, Z B; Hannam, M; Healy, J; Hinder, I; Kidder, L E; Laguna, P; Liu, Y T; London, L; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; MacDonald, I; Marronetti, P; Mösta, P; Müller, D; Mundim, B C; Nakano, H; Paschalidis, V; Pekowsky, L; Pollney, D; Pfeiffer, H P; Ponce, M; Pürrer, M; Reifenberger, G; Reisswig, C; Santamaría, L; Scheel, M A; Shapiro, S L; Shoemaker, D; Sopuerta, C F; Sperhake, U; Szilágyi, B; Taylor, N W; Tichy, W; Tsatsin, P; Zlochower, Y
2014-01-01
The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered w...
Observing mergers of non-spinning black-hole binaries
McWilliams, Sean T; Baker, John G
2010-01-01
Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied mass ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our 1:1 (equal mass) and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This i...
Abbott, B P
2016-01-01
In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the detector's opto-mechanical response and the properties of its feedback control system. The measurements used to validate the model and characterize its uncertainty are derived primarily from a dedicated photon radiation pressure actuator, with cross-checks provided by optical and radio frequency references. We describe how the gravitational-wave readout signal is calibrated into equivalent gravitational-wave-induced strain and how the statistical uncertainties and systematic errors are assessed. Detector data collected over ...
Measurement of Quasi Normal Modes for a population of Binary Black Hole Mergers
da Silva Costa, Carlos Filipe; Klimenko, Sergey; Tiwari, Shubhanshu
2017-01-01
Perturbed solutions of the Kerr Black Hole (BH) are superimposition of damped sinusoids, named Quasi Normal Modes (QNM). These modes are completely defined by the final black hole parameters, mass and spin. Numerical simulations support that Binary BHs (BBH), after merging, produce a final BH emitting gravitational waves as described by the QNMs. This signal is very weak and hence the extraction of a QNM is quite challenging for the current generation of the ground based detectors. I will present a method for extraction of superimposed QNMs from future multiple observations of BBH merger signals in the advanced interferometers. We show that we can coherently sum up QNMs from the different signals and measure QNM parameters to prove the Kerr nature of a detected BHs population. NSF grant PHY 1505308.
Outflows from accretion disks formed in neutron star mergers: effect of black hole spin
Fernández, Rodrigo; Metzger, Brian D; Quataert, Eliot
2014-01-01
The accretion disk that forms after a neutron star merger is a source of neutron-rich ejecta. The ejected material contributes to a radioactively-powered electromagnetic transient, with properties that depend sensitively on the composition of the outflow. Here we investigate how the spin of the black hole remnant influences mass ejection on the thermal and viscous timescales. To this end, we carry out two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations of merger remnant accretion disks including viscous angular momentum transport and approximate neutrino self-irradiation. The gravity of the spinning black hole is included via a pseudo-Newtonian potential. We find that a disk around a spinning black hole ejects more mass, up to a factor of several, relative to the non-spinning case. The enhanced mass loss is due to energy release by accretion occurring deeper in the gravitational potential, raising the disk temperature and hence the rate of viscous heating in regions where neutrino cooling is ineffective....
Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed black holes in LIGO S4 data
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Behnke, B.; Benacquista, M.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brummit, A.; Brunet, G.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Cardoso, V.; Caride, S.; Castaldi, G.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R. C.; Cornish, N.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Daudert, B.; Davies, G.; Daw, E. J.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dueck, J.; Duke, I.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, J. G.; Echols, C.; Edgar, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Faltas, Y.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Finn, L. S.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J. A.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimaldi, F.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G. D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hughey, B.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D. R.; Isogai, T.; Ito, M.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, R.; Khazanov, E.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, H.; Lei, M.; Leindecker, N.; Leonor, I.; Li, C.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McIntyre, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McKenzie, K.; Mehmet, M.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miller, J.; Minelli, J.; Mino, Y.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moreno, G.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Mueller, G.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Muhammad, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, H.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Dell, J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ochsner, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perraca, A.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Punken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raics, Z.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Rehbein, H.
2009-09-01
According to general relativity a perturbed black hole will settle to a stationary configuration by the emission of gravitational radiation. Such a perturbation will occur, for example, in the coalescence of a black hole binary, following their inspiral and subsequent merger. At late times the waveform is a superposition of quasinormal modes, which we refer to as the ringdown. The dominant mode is expected to be the fundamental mode, l=m=2. Since this is a well-known waveform, matched filtering can be implemented to search for this signal using LIGO data. We present a search for gravitational waves from black hole ringdowns in the fourth LIGO science run S4, during which LIGO was sensitive to the dominant mode of perturbed black holes with masses in the range of 10M⊙ to 500M⊙, the regime of intermediate-mass black holes, to distances up to 300 Mpc. We present a search for gravitational waves from black hole ringdowns using data from S4. No gravitational wave candidates were found; we place a 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of ringdowns from black holes with mass between 85M⊙ and 390M⊙ in the local universe, assuming a uniform distribution of sources, of 3.2×10-5yr-1Mpc-3=1.6×10-3yr-1L10-1,where L10 is 1010 times the solar blue-light luminosity.
BRIGHT BROADBAND AFTERGLOWS OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BURSTS FROM MERGERS OF BINARY NEUTRON STARS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao He; Ding Xuan; Wu Xuefeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Dai Zigao, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2013-07-10
If double neutron star mergers leave behind a massive magnetar rather than a black hole, then a bright early afterglow can follow the gravitational wave burst (GWB) even if there is no short gamma-ray burst (SGRB)-GWB association or if there is an association but the SGRB does not beam toward Earth. Besides directly dissipating the proto-magnetar wind, as suggested by Zhang, here we suggest that the magnetar wind could push the ejecta launched during the merger process and, under certain conditions, would reach a relativistic speed. Such a magnetar-powered ejecta, when interacting with the ambient medium, would develop a bright broadband afterglow due to synchrotron radiation. We study this physical scenario in detail and present the predicted X-ray, optical, and radio light curves for a range of magnetar and ejecta parameters. We show that the X-ray and optical light curves usually peak around the magnetar spin-down timescale ({approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} s), reaching brightnesses readily detectable by wide-field X-ray and optical telescopes, and remain detectable for an extended period. The radio afterglow peaks later, but is much brighter than the case without a magnetar energy injection. Therefore, such bright broadband afterglows, if detected and combined with GWBs in the future, would be a probe of massive millisecond magnetars and stiff equations of state for nuclear matter.
Lidov-Kozai Cycles with Gravitational Radiation: Merging Black Holes in Isolated Triple Systems
Silsbee, Kedron
2016-01-01
We show that a black-hole binary with a massive companion on an orbit with semi-major axis no more than $\\sim 10$ times the semi-major axis of the inner binary can undergo Lidov-Kozai cycles which bring the binary within a few times $10^{-4}$ AU at pericenter, causing it to rapidly merge due to gravitational-wave emission. The total predicted rate of these mergers is within the low end of the 90\\% credible interval for the total black-hole black-hole merger rate inferred from the current LIGO results. A few percent of these systems will have eccentricity greater than 0.999 when they first enter the frequency band detectable by aLIGO (above 10 Hz).
Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Carbon Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.
2016-06-01
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ ; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be <0.7 (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is 41 0-180+160 Mpc , corresponding to a redshift 0.0 9-0.04+0.03 assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of 610 deg2 , primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black hole of mass 6 2-4+4M⊙ and spin 0.6 7-0.07+0.05. This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime.
Gravitational Waves from Perturbed Black Holes and Relativistic Stars
Rezzolla, Luciano
2003-01-01
These lectures aim at providing an introduction to the properties of gravitational waves and in particular to those gravitational waves that are expected as a consequence of perturbations of black holes and neutron stars. Imprinted in the gravitational radiation emitted by these objects is, in fact, a wealth of physical information. In the case of black holes, a detailed knowledge of the gravitational radiation emitted as a response to perturbations will reveal us important details about thei...
Lidov–Kozai Cycles with Gravitational Radiation: Merging Black Holes in Isolated Triple Systems
Silsbee, Kedron; Tremaine, Scott
2017-02-01
We show that a black-hole binary with an external companion can undergo Lidov–Kozai cycles that cause a close pericenter passage, leading to a rapid merger due to gravitational-wave emission. This scenario occurs most often for systems in which the companion has a mass comparable to the reduced mass of the binary and the companion orbit has a semimajor axis within a factor of ∼10 of the binary semimajor axis. Using a simple population-synthesis model and three-body simulations, we estimate the rate of mergers in triple black-hole systems in the field to be about six per Gpc3 per year in the absence of natal kicks during black-hole formation. This value is within the low end of the 90% credible interval for the total black hole–black hole merger rate inferred from the current LIGO results. There are many uncertainties in these calculations, the largest of which is the unknown distribution of natal kicks. Even modest natal kicks of 40 km s‑1 will reduce the merger rate by a factor of 40. A few percent of these systems will have eccentricity greater than 0.999 when they first enter the frequency band detectable by aLIGO (above 10 Hz).
Nuclear coups: dynamics of black holes in galaxy mergers
Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Volonteri, Marta; Dotti, Massimo; Bellovary, Jillian M; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio
2013-01-01
We study the dynamical evolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) in merging galaxies on scales of hundreds of kpc to 10 pc, to highlight and identify the physical processes that aid or hinder the orbital decay of BHs down to pc scale. We present hydrodynamical simulations of unequal-mass galaxy mergers ($G_1$ and $G_2$ are the larger and smaller galaxies, respectively), with a variety of orbital configurations, that bridge the gap between large-scale, low-resolution merger simulations and the small-scale, high-resolution simulations of BH-binary evolution. Our simulations resolve $<20$-pc scales in order to accurately track the motion of the nuclei and provide a realistic environment for the evolution of the BHs. We find that, during the late stages of the merger, tidal shocks inject energy in the nuclei ($N_1$ and $N_2$), causing one or both nuclei to be disrupted and leaving their BH 'naked', without any bound gas or stars. In many cases, the nucleus that is ultimately disrupted is $N_1$ ('nuclear coup...
Hierarchical black hole triples in young star clusters: impact of Kozai-Lidov resonance on mergers
Kimpson, Thomas O.; Spera, Mario; Mapelli, Michela; Ziosi, Brunetto M.
2016-12-01
Mergers of compact-object binaries are one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of second-generation ground-based GW detectors (advanced LIGO and Virgo). Dynamical simulations of young dense star clusters (SCs) indicate that ˜27 per cent of all double compact-object binaries are members of hierarchical triple systems (HTs). In this paper, we consider 570 HTs composed of three compact objects (black holes or neutron stars) that formed dynamically in N-body simulations of young dense SCs. We simulate them for a Hubble time with a new code based on the Mikkola's algorithmic regularization scheme, including the 2.5 post-Newtonian term. We find that ˜88 per cent of the simulated systems develop Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations. KL resonance triggers the merger of the inner binary in three systems (corresponding to 0.5 per cent of the simulated HTs), by increasing the eccentricity of the inner binary. Accounting for KL oscillations leads to an increase of the total expected merger rate by ≈50 per cent. All binaries that merge because of KL oscillations were formed by dynamical exchanges (i.e. none is a primordial binary) and have chirp mass >20 M⊙. This result might be crucial to interpret the formation channel of the first recently detected GW events.
Pan, Yi; Taracchini, Andrea; Kidder, Lawrence E; Mroue, Abdul H; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela
2013-01-01
We describe a general procedure to generate spinning, precessing waveforms that include inspiral, merger and ringdown stages in the effective-one-body (EOB) approach. The procedure uses a precessing frame in which precession-induced amplitude and phase modulations are minimized, and an inertial frame, aligned with the spin of the final black hole, in which we carry out the matching of the inspiral-plunge to merger-ringdown waveforms. As a first application, we build spinning, precessing EOB waveforms for the gravitational modes l=2 such that in the nonprecessing limit those waveforms agree with the EOB waveforms recently calibrated to numerical-relativity waveforms. Without recalibrating the EOB model, we then compare EOB and post-Newtonian precessing waveforms to two numerical-relativity waveforms produced by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration. The numerical waveforms are strongly precessing and have 35 and 65 gravitational-wave cycles. We find a remarkable agreement between EOB and numerical-relativity ...
Low mass binary neutron star mergers : gravitational waves and neutrino emission
Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D; Roberts, Luke; Kidder, Lawrence E; Lippuner, Jonas; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A
2015-01-01
Neutron star mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves for advanced ground-based detectors. These mergers are also expected to power bright electromagnetic signals, in the form of short gamma-ray bursts, infrared/optical transients, and radio emission. Simulations of these mergers with fully general relativistic codes are critical to understand the merger and post-merger gravitational wave signals and their neutrinos and electromagnetic counterparts. In this paper, we employ the SpEC code to simulate the merger of low-mass neutron star binaries (two $1.2M_\\odot$ neutron stars) for a set of three nuclear-theory based, finite temperature equations of state. We show that the frequency peaks of the post-merger gravitational wave signal are in good agreement with predictions obtained from simulations using a simpler treatment of gravity. We find, however, that only the fundamental mode of the remnant is excited for long periods of time: emission at the secondary peaks is damped on a milli...
Hierarchical black hole triples in young star clusters: impact of Kozai-Lidov resonance on mergers
Kimpson, Thomas O; Mapelli, Michela; Ziosi, Brunetto M
2016-01-01
Mergers of compact object binaries are one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of second-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors (Advanced LIGO and Virgo). Dynamical simulations of young dense star clusters (SCs) indicate that ~27 per cent of all double compact object binaries are members of hierarchical triple systems (HTs). In this paper, we consider 570 HTs composed of three compact objects (black holes or neutron stars) that formed dynamically in N-body simulations of young dense SCs. We simulate them for a Hubble time with a new code based on the Mikkola's algorithmic regularization scheme, including the 2.5 post-Newtonian term. We find that ~88 per cent of the simulated systems develop Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations. KL resonance triggers the merger of the inner binary in three systems (corresponding to 0.5 per cent of the simulated HTs), by increasing the eccentricity of the inner binary. Accounting for KL oscillations leads to an increase of the...
Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D; Kidder, Lawrence E; MacDonald, Ilana; Ott, Christian D; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela; Teukolsky, Saul A
2012-01-01
Black hole-neutron star mergers resulting in the disruption of the neutron star and the formation of an accretion disk and/or the ejection of unbound material are prime candidates for the joint detection of gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signals when the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors comes online. However, the disruption of the neutron star and the properties of the post-merger remnant are very sensitive to the parameters of the binary. In this paper, we study the impact of the radius of the neutron star and the alignment of the black hole spin for systems within the range of mass ratio currently deemed most likely for field binaries (M_BH ~ 7 M_NS) and for black hole spins large enough for the neutron star to disrupt (J/M^2=0.9). We find that: (i) In this regime, the merger is particularly sensitive to the radius of the neutron star, with remnant masses varying from 0.3M_NS to 0.1M_NS for changes of only 2 km in the NS radius; (ii) 0.01-0.05M_sun of unbound material can be ejected w...
Gravitational Effects Near the Kerr-Newman Black Hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王永久; 唐智明
2001-01-01
e have reached a solution of the Dirac equation and the energy spectrum of electrons in the gravitational field of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The results are interesting in astrophysics for observations of the black hole.
Foucart, Francois; Brege, Wyatt; Duez, Matthew D; Kasen, Daniel; Hemberger, Daniel A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A
2016-01-01
Neutron star-black hole binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves detectable by current observatories. They can also power bright electromagnetic signals (gamma-ray bursts, kilonovae), and may be a significant source of production of r-process nuclei. A misalignment of the black hole spin with respect to the orbital angular momentum leads to precession of that spin and of the orbital plane, and has a significant effect on the properties of the post-merger remnant and of the material ejected by the merger. We present a first set of simulations of precessing neutron star-black hole mergers using a hot, composition dependent, nuclear-theory based equation of state (DD2). We show that the mass of the remnant and of the dynamical ejecta are broadly consistent with the result of simulations using simpler equations of state, while differences arise when considering the dynamics of the merger and the velocity of the ejecta. We show that the latter can easily be understood from assumptions about ...
Gravitational Tension, Spacetime Pressure and Black Hole Volume
Armas, Jay; Sanchioni, Marco
2015-01-01
We study the first law of black hole thermodynamics in the presence of surrounding gravitational fields and argue that variations of these fields are naturally incorporated in the first law by defining gravitational tension or gravitational binding energy. We demonstrate that this notion can also be applied in Anti-de Sitter spacetime, in which the surrounding gravitational field is sourced by a cosmological fluid, therefore showing that spacetime volume and gravitational tension encode the same physics as spacetime pressure and black hole volume. We furthermore show that it is possible to introduce a definition of spacetime pressure and black hole volume for any spacetime with characteristic length scales which does not necessarily require a cosmological constant sourcing Einstein equations. However, we show that black hole volume is non-universal in the flat spacetime limit, questioning its significance. We illustrate these ideas by studying the resulting black hole volume of Kaluza-Klein black holes and of...
Reaction of Accretion Disks to Abrupt Mass Loss During Binary Black Hole Merger
O'Neill, Sean M; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S; Schnittman, Jeremy
2008-01-01
The association of an electromagnetic signal with the merger of a pair of supermassive black holes would have many important implications. For example, it would provide new information about gas and magnetic field interactions in dynamical spacetimes as well as a combination of redshift and luminosity distance that would enable precise cosmological tests. A proposal first made by Bode & Phinney (2007) is that because radiation of gravitational waves during the final inspiral and merger of the holes is abrupt and decreases the mass of the central object by a few percent, there will be waves in the disk that can steepen into shocks and thus increase the disk luminosity in a characteristic way. We evaluate this process analytically and numerically. We find that shocks only occur when the fractional mass loss exceeds the half-thickness (h/r) of the disk, hence significant energy release only occurs for geometrically thin disks which are thus at low Eddington ratios. This strongly limits the effective energy r...
The Role of the Kozai-Lidov Mechanism in Black Hole Binary Mergers in Galactic Centers
VanLandingham, John H; Hamilton, Douglas P; Richardson, Derek C
2016-01-01
In order to understand the rate of merger of stellar-mass black hole binaries (BHBs) by gravitational wave (GW) emission it is important to determine the major pathways to merger. We use numerical simulations to explore the evolution of BHBs inside the radius of influence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centers. In this region the evolution of binaries is dominated by perturbations from the central SMBH. In particular, as first pointed out by Antonini and Perets, the Kozai-Lidov (KL) mechanism trades relative inclination of the BHB to the SMBH for eccentricity of the BHB, and for some orientations can bring the BHB to an eccentricity near unity. At very high eccentricities, GW emission from the BHB can become efficient, causing the members of the BHB to coalesce. We use a novel combination of two N-body codes to follow this evolution. We are forced to simulate small systems to follow the behavior accurately. We have completed 400 simulations that range from $\\sim$ 300 stars around a $10^{3}$ M...
Do the Most Massive Black Holes at $z=2$ Grow via Major Mergers?
Mechtley, M; Windhorst, R A; Andrae, R; Cisternas, M; Cohen, S H; Hewlett, T; Koekemoer, A M; Schramm, M; Schulze, A; Silverman, J D; Villforth, C; van der Wel, A; Wisotzki, L
2015-01-01
The most frequently proposed model for the origin of quasars holds that the high accretion rates seen in luminous active galactic nuclei are primarily triggered during major mergers between gas-rich galaxies. While plausible for decades, this model has only begun to be tested with statistical rigor in the past few years. Here we report on a Hubble Space Telescope study to test the merger-triggering hypothesis for $z=2$ quasars with high super-massive black hole masses ($M_\\mathrm{BH}=10^9-10^{10}~M_\\odot{}$), which dominate cosmic black hole growth at this redshift. We compare Wide Field Camera 3 $F160W$ (rest-frame $V$-band) imaging of 19 point source-subtracted quasar hosts to a matched sample of 84 inactive galaxies, testing whether the quasar hosts have a statistically higher fraction of strong gravitational interaction signatures. We recover strong distortion fractions of $f_\\mathrm{m,qso}=0.39\\pm{}0.11$ for the quasar hosts and $f_\\mathrm{m,gal}=0.30\\pm{}0.05$ for the inactive galaxies (distribution mod...
Detection of gravitational waves from black holes: Is there a window for alternative theories?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konoplya, Roman, E-mail: konoplya@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Zhidenko, Alexander, E-mail: zhidenko@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Rua Abolição, CEP: 09210-180, Santo André, SP (Brazil)
2016-05-10
Recently the LIGO and VIRGO Collaborations reported the observation of gravitational-wave signal corresponding to the inspiral and merger of two black holes, resulting into formation of the final black hole. It was shown that the observations are consistent with the Einstein theory of gravity with high accuracy, limited mainly by the statistical error. Angular momentum and mass of the final black hole were determined with rather large allowance of tens of percents. Here we shall show that this indeterminacy in the range of the black-hole parameters allows for some non-negligible deformations of the Kerr spacetime leading to the same frequencies of the black-hole ringing. This means that at the current precision of the experiment there remains some possibility for alternative theories of gravity.
Detection of gravitational waves from black holes: Is there a window for alternative theories?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman Konoplya
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Recently the LIGO and VIRGO Collaborations reported the observation of gravitational-wave signal corresponding to the inspiral and merger of two black holes, resulting into formation of the final black hole. It was shown that the observations are consistent with the Einstein theory of gravity with high accuracy, limited mainly by the statistical error. Angular momentum and mass of the final black hole were determined with rather large allowance of tens of percents. Here we shall show that this indeterminacy in the range of the black-hole parameters allows for some non-negligible deformations of the Kerr spacetime leading to the same frequencies of the black-hole ringing. This means that at the current precision of the experiment there remains some possibility for alternative theories of gravity.
Towards a description of the complete gravitational wave spectrum of neutron star mergers
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro
2015-01-01
In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency $f_2$ related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot massive or hypermassive neutron star. We show that $f_2$ is correlated with the tidal coupling constant $\\kappa^T_2$ that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral--merger. The relation $f_2(\\kappa^T_2)$ depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass-ratio, equation-of-state, and on thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of \\textit{every} neutron star binary merger which unifies the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.
Searching for the QCD Axion with Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
Baryakhtar, Masha
2017-01-01
The LIGO detection of gravitational waves has opened a new window on the universe. I will discuss how the process of superradiance, combined with gravitational wave measurements, makes black holes into nature's laboratories to search for new light bosons. When a bosonic particle's Compton wavelength is comparable to the horizon size of a black hole, superradiance of these bosons into bound ``Bohr orbitals'' extracts energy and angular momentum from the black hole. The occupation number of the levels grows exponentially and the black hole spins down. For efficient superradiance of stellar black holes, the particle must be ultralight, with mass below 10-10 eV; one candidate for such an ultralight boson is the QCD axion with decay constant above the GUT scale. Measurements of BH spins in X-ray binaries and in mergers at Advanced LIGO can exclude or provide evidence for an ultralight axion. Axions transitioning between levels of the gravitational ``atom'' and annihilating to gravitons may produce thousands of monochromatic gravitational wave signals, turning LIGO into a particle detector.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM MASSIVE MAGNETARS FORMED IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Osso, Simone [Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, auf der Morgenstelle 10 D-72076 (Germany); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Stella, Luigi, E-mail: simone.dallosso@uni-tuebingen.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)
2015-01-01
Binary neutron star (NS) mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), as well as candidate progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Depending on the total initial mass of the system and the NS equation of state (EOS), the post-merger phase can be characterized by a prompt collapse to a black hole or by the formation of a supramassive NS, or even a stable NS. In the latter cases of post-merger NS (PMNS) formation, magnetic field amplification during the merger will produce a magnetar and induce a mass quadrupole moment in the newly formed NS. If the timescale for orthogonalization of the magnetic symmetry axis with the spin axis is smaller than the spindown time, the NS will radiate its spin down energy primarily via GWs. Here we study this scenario for the various outcomes of NS formation: we generalize the set of equilibrium states for a twisted torus magnetic configuration to include solutions that, for the same external dipolar field, carry a larger magnetic energy reservoir; we hence compute the magnetic ellipticity for such configurations, and the corresponding strength of the expected GW signal as a function of the relative magnitude of the dipolar and toroidal field components. The relative number of GW detections from PMNSs and from binary NSs is a very strong function of the NS EOS, being higher (∼1%) for the stiffest EOSs and negligibly small for the softest ones. For intermediate-stiffness EOSs, such as the n = 4/7 polytrope recently used by Giacomazzo and Perna or the GM1 used by Lasky et al., the relative fraction is ∼0.3%; correspondingly, we estimate a GW detection rate from stable PMNSs of ∼0.1-1 yr{sup –1} with advanced detectors, and of ∼100-1000 yr{sup –1} with detectors of third generation such as the Einstein Telescope. Measurement of such GW signals would provide constraints on the NS EOS and, in connection with an SGRB, on the nature of the binary progenitors giving rise to these events.
Camp, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Blackburn, L.; Carpenter, K. G.; Gehrels, N.; Kanner, J.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sakamoto, T.
2013-01-01
The International Space Station offers a unique platform for rapid and inexpensive deployment of space telescopes. A scientific opportunity of great potential later this decade is the use of telescopes for the electromagnetic follow-up of ground-based gravitational wave detections of neutron star and black hole mergers. We describe this possibility for OpTIIX, an ISS technology demonstration of a 1.5 m diffraction limited optical telescope assembled in space, and ISS-Lobster, a wide-field imaging X-ray telescope now under study as a potential NASA mission. Both telescopes will be mounted on pointing platforms, allowing rapid positioning to the source of a gravitational wave event. Electromagnetic follow-up rates of several per year appear likely, offering a wealth of complementary science on the mergers of black holes and neutron stars.
Camp, Jordan; Blackburn, Lindy; Carpenter, Kenneth; Gehrels, Neil; Kanner, Jonah; Marshall, Frank E; Racusin, Judith L; Sakamoto, Takanori
2013-01-01
The International Space Station offers a unique platform for rapid and inexpensive deployment of space telescopes. A scientific opportunity of great potential later this decade is the use of telescopes for the electromagnetic follow-up of ground-based gravitational wave detections of neutron star and black hole mergers. We describe this possibility for OpTIIX, an ISS technology demonstration of a 1.5 m diffraction limited optical telescope assembled in space, and ISS-Lobster, a wide-field imaging X-ray telescope now under study as a potential NASA mission. Both telescopes will be mounted on pointing platforms, allowing rapid positioning to the source of a gravitational wave event. Electromagnetic follow-up rates of several per year appear likely, offering a wealth of complementary science on the mergers of black holes and neutron stars.
Gravitational correlation, black hole entropy, and information conservation
He, DongShan; Cai, QingYu
2017-04-01
When two objects have gravitational interaction between them, they are no longer independent of each other. In fact, there exists gravitational correlation between these two objects. Inspired by Verlinde's paper, we first calculate the entropy change of a system when gravity does positive work on this system. Based on the concept of gravitational correlation entropy, we prove that the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole originates from the gravitational correlations between the interior matters of the black hole. By analyzing the gravitational correlation entropies in the process of Hawking radiation in a general context, we prove that the reduced entropy of a black hole is exactly carried away by the radiation and the gravitational correlations between these radiating particles, and the entropy or information is conserved at all times during Hawking radiation. Finally, we attempt to give a unified description of the non-extensive black-hole entropy and the extensive entropy of ordinary matter.
Ultra-low frequency gravitational radiation from massive black hole binaries
Rajagopal, M; Rajagopal, Mohan; Romani, Roger W
1994-01-01
For massive black hole binaries produced in galactic mergers, we examine the possibility of inspiral induced by interaction with field stars. We model the evolution of such binaries for a range of galaxy core and binary parameters, using numerical results from the literature to compute the binary's energy and angular momentum loss rates due to stellar encounters and including the effect of back-action on the field stars. We find that only a small fraction of binary systems can merge within a Hubble time via unassisted stellar dynamics. External perturbations may, however, cause efficient inspiral. Averaging over a population of central black holes and galaxy mergers, we compute the expected background of gravitational radiation with periods Pw ~1-10y. Comparison with sensitivities from millisecond pulsar timing suggests that the strongest sources may be detectable with modest improvements to present experiments.
Massive black hole and gas dynamics in galaxy nuclei mergers. I. Numerical implementation
Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo
2014-01-01
Numerical effects are known to plague adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) codes when treating massive particles, e.g. representing massive black holes (MBHs). In an evolving background, they can experience strong, spurious perturbations and then follow unphysical orbits. We study by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a pair MBHs in the rapidly and violently evolving gaseous and stellar background that follows a galaxy major merger. We confirm that spurious numerical effects alter the MBH orbits in AMR simulations, and show that numerical issues are ultimately due to a drop in the spatial resolution during the simulation, drastically reducing the accuracy in the gravitational force computation. We therefore propose a new refinement criterion suited for massive particles, able to solve in a fast and precise way for their orbits in highly dynamical backgrounds. The new refinement criterion we designed enforces the region around each massive particle to remain at the maximum resolution allowed, ...
Properties of the binary black hole merger GW150914
,
2016-01-01
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterise the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analysed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of $36^{+5}_{-4} M_\\odot$ and $29^{+4}_{-4} M_\\odot$ (for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval). The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be $0.7$ (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is $410^{+160}_{-180}$ Mpc, corresponding to a redshift $0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$ assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of $590$ deg$^2$, primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black h...
Gravitational lensing by black holes: The case of Sgr A*
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)
2014-01-14
The strong gravitational fields created by black holes dramatically affect the propagation of photons by bending their trajectories. Gravitational lensing thus stands as the main source of information on the space-time structure in such extreme regimes. We will review the theory and phenomenology of gravitational lensing by black holes, with the generation of higher order images and giant caustics by rotating black holes. We will then focus on Sgr A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, for which next-to-come technology will be able to reach resolutions of the order of the Schwarzschild radius and ultimately test the existence of an event horizon.
Mergers and ejections of black holes in globular clusters
Aarseth, Sverre
2012-01-01
We report on results of fully consistent N-body simulations of globular cluster models with N = 100 000 members containing neutron stars and black holes. Using the improved `algorithmic regularization' method of Hellstrom and Mikkola for compact subsystems, the new code NBODY7 enables for the first time general relativistic coalescence to be achieved for post-Newtonian terms and realistic parameters. Following an early stage of mass segregation, a few black holes form a small dense core which usually leads to the formation of one dominant binary. The subsequent evolution by dynamical shrinkage involves the competing processes of ejection and mergers by radiation energy loss. Unless the binary is ejected, long-lived triple systems often exhibit Kozai cycles with extremely high inner eccentricity (e > 0.999) which may terminate in coalescence at a few Schwarzschild radii. A characteristic feature is that ordinary stars as well as black holes and even BH binaries are ejected with high velocities. On the basis of...
Fully General Relativistic Simulations of Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers
Etienne, Zachariah B; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Baumgarte, Thomas W
2007-01-01
Black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binaries are expected to be among the leading sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based detectors, and may be the progenitors of short-hard gamma ray bursts (SGRBs) as well. Here, we discuss our new fully general relativistic calculations of merging BHNS binaries, which use high-accuracy, low-eccentricity, conformal thin-sandwich configurations as initial data. Our evolutions are performed using the moving puncture method and include a fully relativistic, high-resolution shock-capturing hydrodynamics treatment. Focusing on systems in which the neutron star is irrotational and the black hole is nonspinning with a 3:1 mass ratio, we investigate the inspiral, merger, and disk formation in the system. We find that the vast majority of material is promptly accreted and no more than 3% of the neutron star's rest mass is ejected into a tenuous, gravitationally bound disk. We find similar results for mass ratios of 2:1 and 1:1, even when we reduce the NS compaction in th...
Dynamics and gravitational-wave emission of neutron-star merger remnants
Bauswein, A; Stergioulas, N; Janka, H -T
2016-01-01
The coalescence of a neutron-star binary is likely to result in the formation of a neutron-star merger remnant for a large range of binary mass configurations. The massive merger remnant shows strong oscillations, which are excited by the merging process, and emits gravitational waves. Here we discuss possibilities and prospects of inferring unknown stellar properties of neutron stars by the detection of postmerger gravitational-wave emission, which thus leads to constraints of the equation of state of high-density matter. In particular, the dominant oscillation frequency of the postmerger remnant provides tight limits to neutron-star radii. We mention first steps towards a practical implementation of future gravitational-wave searches for the postmerger emission. Moreover, we outline possibilities to estimate the unknown maximum mass of nonrotating neutron stars from such types of measurements. Finally, we review the origin and scientific implications of secondary peaks in the gravitational-wave spectrum of ...
Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments
Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Hernquist, Lars
2016-01-01
Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar 'loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disk. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most...
Black Hole Spectroscopy: Testing General Relativity through Gravitational Wave Observations
Dreyer, O; Krishnan, B; Finn, L S; Garrison, D; López-Aleman, R; Dreyer, Olaf; Kelly, Bernard; Krishnan, Badri; Finn, Lee Samuel; Garrison, David; Lopez-Aleman, Ramon
2004-01-01
Assuming that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity in the strong field limit, can gravitational wave observations distinguish between black hole and other compact object sources? Alternatively, can gravitational wave observations provide a test of one of the fundamental predictions of general relativity? Here we describe a definitive test of the hypothesis that observations of damped, sinusoidal gravitational waves originated from a black hole or, alternatively, that nature respects the general relativistic no-hair theorem. For astrophysical black holes, which have a negligible charge-to-mass ratio, the black hole quasi-normal mode spectrum is characterized entirely by the black hole mass and angular momentum and is unique to black holes. In a different theory of gravity, or if the observed radiation arises from a different source (e.g., a neutron star, strange matter or boson star), the spectrum will be inconsistent with that predicted for general relativistic black holes. We give a statistica...
Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves.
Nakamura, Takashi
2006-12-01
Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed.
A comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with Gasoline and Ramses
Gabor, J M; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas
2015-01-01
Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We here compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code Gasoline, and the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code Ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of sub-grid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they "fly-by" within 10 kpc at first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star fo...
Systematic Biases in Parameter Estimation of Binary Black-Hole Mergers
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Baker, John G.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kelly, Bernard J.
2012-01-01
Parameter estimation of binary-black-hole merger events in gravitational-wave data relies on matched filtering techniques, which, in turn, depend on accurate model waveforms. Here we characterize the systematic biases introduced in measuring astrophysical parameters of binary black holes by applying the currently most accurate effective-one-body templates to simulated data containing non-spinning numerical-relativity waveforms. For advanced ground-based detectors, we find that the systematic biases are well within the statistical error for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). These biases grow to be comparable to the statistical errors at high signal-to-noise ratios for ground-based instruments (SNR approximately 50) but never dominate the error budget. At the much larger signal-to-noise ratios expected for space-based detectors, these biases will become large compared to the statistical errors but are small enough (at most a few percent in the black-hole masses) that we expect they should not affect broad astrophysical conclusions that may be drawn from the data.
Gas squeezing during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary
Cerioli, Alice; Price, Daniel J
2016-01-01
We study accretion rates during the gravitational wave-driven merger of a binary supermassive black hole embedded in an accretion disc, formed by gas driven to the centre of the galaxy. We use 3D simulations performed with PHANTOM, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code. Contrary to previous investigations, we show that there is evidence of a "squeezing phenomenon", caused by the compression of the inner disc gas when the secondary black hole spirals towards the primary. This causes an increase in the accretion rates that always exceed the Eddington rate. We have studied the main features of the phenomenon for a mass ratio $q = 10^{-3}$ between the black holes, including the effects of numerical resolution, the secondary accretion radius and the disc thickness. With our disc model with a low aspect ratio, we show that the mass expelled from the orbit of the secondary is negligible ($< 5\\%$ of the initial disc mass), different to the findings of previous 2D simulations with thicker discs. The increase in th...
Massive black hole and gas dynamics in galaxy nuclei mergers - I. Numerical implementation
Lupi, Alessandro; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo
2015-01-01
Numerical effects are known to plague adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) codes when treating massive particles, e.g. representing massive black holes (MBHs). In an evolving background, they can experience strong, spurious perturbations and then follow unphysical orbits. We study by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a pair MBHs in the rapidly and violently evolving gaseous and stellar background that follows a galaxy major merger. We confirm that spurious numerical effects alter the MBH orbits in AMR simulations, and show that numerical issues are ultimately due to a drop in the spatial resolution during the simulation, drastically reducing the accuracy in the gravitational force computation. We therefore propose a new refinement criterion suited for massive particles, able to solve in a fast and precise way for their orbits in highly dynamical backgrounds. The new refinement criterion we designed enforces the region around each massive particle to remain at the maximum resolution allowed, independently upon the local gas density. Such maximally resolved regions then follow the MBHs along their orbits, and effectively avoids all spurious effects caused by resolution changes. Our suite of high-resolution, AMR hydrodynamic simulations, including different prescriptions for the sub-grid gas physics, shows that the new refinement implementation has the advantage of not altering the physical evolution of the MBHs, accounting for all the non-trivial physical processes taking place in violent dynamical scenarios, such as the final stages of a galaxy major merger.
The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914
Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calderón; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; 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2016-01-01
A transient gravitational-wave signal was identified in the twin Advanced LIGO detectors on September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC (GW150914). To assess the implications of this discovery, the detectors remained in operation with unchanged configurations over a period of 39 d around the time of the signal. A search of 16 days of simultaneous two-detector observational data found GW150914 to have a false alarm probability (FAP) of $2 \\times 10^{-7}$. Parameter estimation followup on this trigger identifies its source as a binary black hole (BBH) merger with component masses $(m_1, m_2) = 36^{+5}_{-4}, 29^{+4}_{-4} \\, M_\\odot$ at redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. Here we report on the constraints these observations place on the rate of BBH coalescences. Considering only GW150914, assuming that all BBHs in the universe have the same masses and spins as this event, imposing a false alarm threshold of 1 per 100 years, and assuming that the BBH merger rate is constant in the comoving frame, we infer a 90% credible r...
The Response of a Circumbinary Disk to a Black Hole Merger
Haiman, Zoltan
Finding electromagnetic counterparts of future gravitational wave sources would bring rich scientific benefits. A promising possibility, in the case of the coalescence of a super- massive black hole binary, is that prompt emission will be detectable from merger- induced disturbances in a circumbinary disk. Motivated by this possibility, we propose a major effort, to investigate the dynamical response of a circumbinary disk to the SMBH merger, and to compute the expected light-curve and spectrum of the emerging radiation. Our work will consist of several stages of increasing complexity: starting from semi- analytical orbital calculations for a collisionless disk of massless test particles, and culminating in three-dimensional simulations, with an approximate treatment of radiative transfer. The proposed collaboration is built on previous work of the PI and the Co-I, and will lead to an understanding of the physics of how the disturbed disks light up, as well as the nature of the disk emission. Our results will significantly enhance the science return from the LISA satellite, in which NASA is invested, and will directly support NASA's Strategic Plan, Sub-Goal 3D: ``Discover the origin, structure, evolution and destiny of the universe''.
Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations.
Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J-B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X-J
2015-09-25
Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be <1.0 × 10(-15) with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for A(c,yr) from current models with 91 to 99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would be more sensitive to gravitational waves.
Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations
Shannon, R M; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J -B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X -J
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems will modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrain the characteristic amplitude of this background, $A_{\\rm c,yr}$, to be < $1.0\\times10^{-15}$ with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for $A_{\\rm c,yr}$ from current models with 91-99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments, and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would result in an increased sensitivity to gravitational waves.
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D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-12-01
We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary-neutron star systems and neutron star-black hole systems during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). In particular, we searched for gravitational-wave signals from binary-neutron star systems with component masses \\in [1,3] {M}⊙ and component dimensionless spins detected the merger of binary-neutron star systems with component mass distributions of 1.35 ± 0.13 M ⊙ at a volume-weighted average distance of ˜70 Mpc, and for neutron star-black hole systems with neutron star masses of 1.4 M ⊙ and black hole masses of at least 5 M ⊙, a volume-weighted average distance of at least ˜110 Mpc. From this we constrain with 90% confidence the merger rate to be less than 12,600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for binary-neutron star systems and less than 3600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for neutron star-black hole systems. We discuss the astrophysical implications of these results, which we find to be in conflict with only the most optimistic predictions. However, we find that if no detection of neutron star-binary mergers is made in the next two Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observing runs we would place significant constraints on the merger rates. Finally, assuming a rate of {10}-7+20 Gpc-3 yr-1, short gamma-ray bursts beamed toward the Earth, and assuming that all short gamma-ray bursts have binary-neutron star (neutron star-black hole) progenitors, we can use our 90% confidence rate upper limits to constrain the beaming angle of the gamma-ray burst to be greater than 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.1+1.7 (4\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.9+3.1).
Analysis of gravitational waves from binary neutron star merger by Hilbert-Huang transform
Kaneyama, Masato; Oohara, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Masaru
2016-06-01
Using the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we analyze gravitational waves from late inspiral, merger, and post-merger phases of binary neutron stars coalescence, computed by a general relativistic numerical simulation. The HHT analysis has been developed as a method for time series analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data, and it enables us to perform a high resolution time frequency analysis of signals with strong frequency modulation by evaluating the instantaneous variation of amplitude and frequency of data. We find that we can clearly observe the time evolution of the instantaneous frequency of the post-merger waveforms. It is found that temporal variation of frequency of post-merger waveforms can be evaluated within 5% error if BNS coalescences occur within 10 Mpc. This accuracy allows us to constrain the equation of state of neutron stars and to evaluate the radius of a fiducial neutron star of 1.8 M⊙ with a few hundred meters accuracy.
Gravitational tension, spacetime pressure and black hole volume
Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.; Sanchioni, Marco
2016-09-01
We study the first law of black hole thermodynamics in the presence of surrounding gravitational fields and argue that variations of these fields are naturally incorporated in the first law by defining gravitational tension or gravitational binding energy. We demonstrate that this notion can also be applied in Anti-de Sitter spacetime, in which the surrounding gravitational field is sourced by a cosmological fluid, therefore showing that spacetime volume and gravitational tension encode the same physics as spacetime pressure and black hole volume. We furthermore show that it is possible to introduce a definition of spacetime pressure and black hole volume for any spacetime with characteristic length scales which does not necessarily require a cosmological constant sourcing Einstein equations. However, we show that black hole volume is non-universal in the flat spacetime limit, questioning its significance. We illustrate these ideas by studying the resulting black hole volume of Kaluza-Klein black holes and of a toy model for a black hole binary system in five spacetime dimensions (the black saturn solution) as well as of several novel perturbative black hole solutions. These include the higher-dimensional Kerr-Newman solution in Anti-de Sitter spacetime as well as other black holes in plane wave and Lifshitz spacetimes.
The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914
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C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-12-01
A transient gravitational-wave signal, GW150914, was identified in the twin Advanced LIGO detectors on 2015 September 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC. To assess the implications of this discovery, the detectors remained in operation with unchanged configurations over a period of 39 days around the time of the signal. At the detection statistic threshold corresponding to that observed for GW150914, our search of the 16 days of simultaneous two-detector observational data is estimated to have a false-alarm rate (FAR) of \\lt 4.9× {10}-6 {{yr}}-1, yielding a p-value for GW150914 of \\lt 2× {10}-7. Parameter estimation follow-up on this trigger identifies its source as a binary black hole (BBH) merger with component masses ({m}1,{m}2)=({36}-4+5,{29}-4+4) {M}⊙ at redshift z={0.09}-0.04+0.03 (median and 90% credible range). Here, we report on the constraints these observations place on the rate of BBH coalescences. Considering only GW150914, assuming that all BBHs in the universe have the same masses and spins as this event, imposing a search FAR threshold of 1 per 100 years, and assuming that the BBH merger rate is constant in the comoving frame, we infer a 90% credible range of merger rates between 2{--}53 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 (comoving frame). Incorporating all search triggers that pass a much lower threshold while accounting for the uncertainty in the astrophysical origin of each trigger, we estimate a higher rate, ranging from 13{--}600 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 depending on assumptions about the BBH mass distribution. All together, our various rate estimates fall in the conservative range 2{--}600 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1.
Detecting black-hole binary clustering via the second-generation gravitational-wave detectors
Namikawa, Toshiya; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Taruya, Atsushi
2016-01-01
The first discovery of the gravitational wave (GW) event, GW150914, suggests a higher merger rate of black-hole (BH) binaries. If this is true, a number of BH binaries will be observed via the second-generation GW detectors, and the statistical properties of the observed BH binaries can be scrutinized. A naive but important question to ask is whether the spatial distribution of BH binaries faithfully traces the matter inhomogeneities in the Universe or not. Although the BH binaries are though...
Can we measure individual black-hole spins from gravitational-wave observations?
Pürrer, Michael; Ohme, Frank
2015-01-01
Measurements of black-hole spins from gravitational-wave observations of black-hole binaries with ground-based detectors are expected to be hampered by partial degeneracies in the gravitational-wave phasing: between the two component spins, and between the spins and the binary's mass ratio, at least for signals that are dominated by the binary's inspiral. Through the merger and ringdown, however, a different set of degeneracies apply. This suggests the possibility that, if the inspiral, merger and ringdown are all within the sensitive frequency band of a detector, we may be able to break these degeneracies and more accurately measure both spins. In this work we investigate our ability to measure individual spins for non-precessing binaries, for a range of configurations and signal strengths, and conclude that in general the spin of the larger black hole will be measurable (at best) with observations from Advanced LIGO and Virgo. This implies that in many applications waveform models parameterized by only one ...
Can we measure individual black-hole spins from gravitational-wave observations?
Pürrer, Michael; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank
2016-04-01
Measurements of black-hole spins from gravitational-wave observations of black-hole binaries with ground-based detectors are known to be hampered by partial degeneracies in the gravitational-wave phasing: between the two component spins, and between the spins and the binary's mass ratio, at least for signals that are dominated by the binary's inspiral. Through the merger and ringdown, however, a different set of degeneracies apply. This suggests the possibility that, if the inspiral, merger and ringdown are all within the sensitive frequency band of a detector, we may be able to break these degeneracies and more accurately measure both spins. In this work we investigate our ability to measure individual spins for nonprecessing binaries, for a range of configurations and signal strengths, and conclude that in general the spin of the larger black hole will be measurable (at best) with observations from Advanced LIGO and Virgo. This implies that in many applications waveform models parameterized by only one effective spin will be sufficient. Our work does not consider precessing binaries or subdominant harmonics, although we provide some arguments why we expect that these will not qualitatively change our conclusions.
Ajith, P; Chen, Y; Hewitson, M; Krishnan, B; Sintes, A M; Whelan, J T; Brügmann, B; Diener, P; Dorband, N; González, J; Hannam, M; Husa, S; Pollney, D; Rezzolla, L; Santamaria, L; Sperhake, U; Thornburg, J
2007-01-01
Gravitational waveforms from the inspiral and ring-down stages of the binary black hole coalescences can be modelled accurately by approximation/perturbation techniques in general relativity. Recent progress in numerical relativity has enabled us to model also the non-perturbative merger phase of the binary black-hole coalescence problem. This enables us to \\emph{coherently} search for all three stages of the coalescence of non-spinning binary black holes using a single template bank. Taking our motivation from these results, we propose a family of template waveforms which can model the inspiral, merger, and ring-down stages of the coalescence of non-spinning binary black holes that follow quasi-circular inspiral. This two-dimensional template family is explicitly parametrized by the physical parameters of the binary. We show that the template family is not only \\emph{effectual} in detecting the signals from black hole coalescences, but also \\emph{faithful} in estimating the parameters of the binary. We compa...
Black holes and gravitational waves in models of minicharged dark matter
Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo; Ferrari, Valeria
2016-01-01
In viable models of minicharged dark matter, astrophysical black holes might be charged under a hidden $U(1)$ symmetry and are formally described by the same Kerr-Newman solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory. These objects are unique probes of minicharged dark matter and dark photons. We show that the recent gravitational-wave detection of a binary black-hole coalescence by aLIGO provides various observational bounds on the black hole's charge, regardless of its nature. The pre-merger inspiral phase can be used to constrain the dipolar emission of (ordinary and dark) photons, whereas the detection of the quasinormal modes set an upper limit on the final black hole's charge. By using a toy model of a point charge plunging into a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, we also show that in dynamical processes the (hidden) electromagnetic quasinormal modes of the final object are excited to considerable amplitude in the gravitational-wave spectrum only when the black hole is nearly extremal. The coalescence produces a burs...
Observing gravitational waves from the post-merger phase of binary neutron star coalescence
Clark, J. A.; Bauswein, A.; Stergioulas, N.; Shoemaker, D.
2016-04-01
We present an effective, low-dimensionality frequency-domain template for the gravitational wave (GW) signal from the stellar remnants from binary neutron star (BNS) coalescence. A principal component decomposition of a suite of numerical simulations of BNS mergers is used to construct orthogonal basis functions for the amplitude and phase spectra of the waveforms for a variety of neutron star (NS) equations of state and binary mass configurations. We review the phenomenology of late merger/post-merger GW emission in BNS coalescence and demonstrate how an understanding of the dynamics during and after the merger leads to the construction of a universal spectrum. We also provide a discussion of the prospects for detecting the post-merger signal in future GW detectors as a potential contribution to the science case for third generation instruments. The template derived in our analysis achieves \\gt 90% match across a wide variety of merger waveforms and strain sensitivity spectra for current and potential GW detectors. Using a simple Monte Carlo simulation, we find a preliminary estimate of the typical uncertainty in the determination of the dominant post-merger oscillation frequency {f}{peak} of δ {f}{peak}∼ 138 {{Hz}}. Using recently derived correlations between {f}{peak} and the NS radii, this suggests potential constraints on the radius of a fiducial NS of ∼429 m. Such measurements would only be possible for nearby (∼30 Mpc) sources with advanced LIGO but become more feasible for planned upgrades to advanced LIGO and other future instruments, leading to constraints on the high density NS equation of state which are independent and complementary to those inferred from the pre-merger inspiral GW signal. We study the ability of a selection of future GW instruments to provide constraints on the NS equation of state via the postmerger phase of BNS mergers.
Stochastic gravitational waves associated with the formation of primordial black holes
Nakama, Tomohiro; Silk, Joseph; Kamionkowski, Marc
2017-02-01
Primordial black hole (PBH) mergers have been proposed as an explanation for the gravitational wave events detected by the LIGO collaboration. Such PBHs may be formed in the early Universe as a result of the collapse of extremely rare high-sigma peaks of primordial fluctuations on small scales, as long as the amplitude of primordial perturbations on small scales is enhanced significantly relative to the amplitude of perturbations observed on large scales. One consequence of these small-scale perturbations is generation of stochastic gravitational waves that arise at second order in scalar perturbations, mostly before the formation of the PBHs. These induced gravitational waves have been shown, assuming Gaussian initial conditions, to be comparable to the current limits from the European Pulsar Timing Array, severely restricting this scenario. We show, however, that models with enhanced fluctuation amplitudes typically involve non-Gaussian initial conditions. With such initial conditions, the current limits from pulsar timing can be evaded. The amplitude of the induced gravitational-wave background can be larger or smaller than the stochastic gravitational-wave background from supermassive black hole binaries.
Tazzari, Marco
2015-01-01
In this paper, we revisit the issue of estimating the "fossil" disc mass in the circumprimary disc, during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary. As the binary orbital decay speeds up due to the emission of gravitational waves, the gas in the circumprimary disc might be forced to accrete rapidly and could in principle provide a significant electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational wave emission. Since the luminosity of such flare is proportional to the gaseous mass in the circumprimary disc, estimating such mass accurately is important. Previous investigations of this issue have produced contradictory results, with some authors estimating super-Eddington flares and large disc mass, while others suggesting that the "fossil" disc mass is very low, even less than a Jupiter mass. Here, we perform simple 1D calculations to show that such very low estimates of the disc mass are an artifact of the specific implementation of the tidal torque in 1D models. In particular, for moderate mass ratios of the...
GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Busha, Michael T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich (Switzerland); Klypin, Anatoly A. [Astronomy Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Primack, Joel R., E-mail: behroozi@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2013-01-20
We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.
Gravitationally Consistent Halo Catalogs and Merger Trees for Precision Cosmology
Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.
2013-01-01
We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.
Tuning gravitational-wave detector networks to measure compact binary mergers
Hughes, Scott A.
2002-11-01
Gravitational waves generated by the final merger of compact binary systems depend on the structure of the binary's members. If the binary contains neutron stars, measuring such waves can teach us about the properties of matter at extreme densities. Unfortunately, these waves are typically at high frequency where the sensitivity of broadband detectors is not good. Learning about dense matter from these waves will require networks of broadband detectors combined with narrowband detectors that have good sensitivity at high frequencies. This paper presents an algorithm by which a network can be ``tuned,'' in accordance with the best available information, in order to most effectively measure merger waves. The algorithm is presented in the context of a toy model that captures the qualitative features of narrowband detectors and of certain binary neutron star merger wave models. By using what is learned from a sequence of merger measurements, the network can be gradually tuned in order to accurately measure the waves. The number of measurements needed to reach this stage depends upon the waves' signal strength, the number of narrowband detectors available for the measurement, and the detailed characteristics of the waves that carry the merger information. Future studies will go beyond this toy model, encompassing a more realistic description of both the detectors and the gravitational waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naiman, J. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Debuhr, J. [Center for Research in Extreme Scale Technologies, Indiana University, Bloomington IN 47404 (United States); Ma, C.-P. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2015-04-20
During galaxy mergers the gas falls to the center, triggers star formation, and feeds the rapid growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). SMBHs respond to this fueling by supplying energy back to the ambient gas. Numerical studies suggest that this feedback is necessary to explain why the properties of SMBHs and the formation of bulges are closely related. This intimate link between the SMBH’s mass and the large scale dynamics and luminosity of the host has proven to be a difficult issue to tackle with simulations due to the inability to resolve all the relevant length scales simultaneously. In this paper we simulate SMBH growth at high-resolution with FLASH, accounting for the gravitational focusing effects of nuclear star clusters (NSCs), which appear to be ubiquitous in galactic nuclei. In the simulations, the NSC core is resolved by a minimum cell size of about 0.001 pc or approximately 10{sup −3} of the cluster’s radius. We discuss the conditions required for effective gas funneling to occur, which are mainly dominated by a relationship between NSC velocity dispersion and the local sound speed, and provide a sub-grid prescription for the augmentation of central SMBH accretion rates in the presence of NSCs. For the conditions expected to persist in the centers of merging galaxies, the resultant large central gas densities in NSCs should produce drastically enhanced embedded SMBH accretion rates—up to an order of magnitude increase can be achieved for gas properties resembling those in large-scale galaxy merger simulations. This will naturally result in faster black hole growth rates and higher luminosities than predicted by the commonly used Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion formalism.
Hannam, Mark
2013-01-01
The inspiral and merger of two orbiting black holes is among the most promising sources for the first (hopefully imminent) direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs), and measurements of these signals could provide a wealth of information about astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology. Detection and measurement require a theoretical description of the GW signals from all possible black-hole-binary configurations, which can include complicated precession effects due to the black-hole spins. Modelling the GW signal from generic precessing binaries is therefore one of the most urgent theoretical challenges facing GW astronomy. This article briefly reviews the phenomenology of generic-binary dynamics and waveforms, and recent advances in modelling them.
Constraints from Gravitational Recoil on the Growth of Supermassive Black Holes at High Redshift
Haiman, Z
2004-01-01
Recent studies have shown that during their coalescence, binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) experience a gravitational recoil with velocities of 100 km/s 6), and therefore put constraints on scenarios in which early SMBHs grow at the centers of DM halos. Here we quantify these constraints for the most distant known SMBHs, with inferred masses in excess of 10^9 M(sun), powering the bright quasars discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at z>6. We assume that these SMBHs grew via a combination of accretion and mergers between pre-existing seed BHs in individual progenitor halos, and that mergers between progenitors with v(esc) < v(kick) disrupt the BH growth process. Our results suggest that under these assumptions, the z=6 SMBHs had a phase during which gained mass significantly more rapidly than under an Eddington-limited exponential growth rate.
Measuring neutron-star properties via gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers.
Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T
2012-01-06
We demonstrate by a large set of merger simulations for symmetric binary neutron stars (NSs) that there is a tight correlation between the frequency peak of the postmerger gravitational-wave (GW) emission and the physical properties of the nuclear equation of state (EoS), e.g., expressed by the radius of the maximum-mass Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhoff configuration. Therefore, a single measurement of the peak frequency of the postmerger GW signal will constrain the NS EoS significantly. For optimistic merger-rate estimates a corresponding detection with Advanced LIGO is expected to happen within an operation time of roughly a year.
Formation and Hardening of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Minor Mergers of Disk Galaxies
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Mayer, Lucio; Nitadori, Keigo; Callegari, Simone
2012-01-01
We model for the first time the complete orbital evolution of a pair of Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) in a 1:10 galaxy merger of two disk dominated gas-rich galaxies, from the stage prior to the formation of the binary up to the onset of gravitational wave emission when the binary separation has shrunk to 1 milli parsec. The high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations used for the first phase of the evolution include star formation, accretion onto the SMBHs as well as feedback from supernovae explosions and radiative heating from the SMBHs themselves. Using the direct N-body code \\phi-GPU we evolve the system further without including the effect of gas, which has been mostly consumed by star formation in the meantime. We start at the time when the separation between two SMBHs is ~ 700 pc and the two black holes are still embedded in their galaxy cusps. We use 3 million particles to study the formation and evolution of the SMBH binary till it becomes hard. After a hard binary is formed...
Strong field gravitational lensing by a charged Galileon black hole
Zhao, Shan-Shan
2016-01-01
Strong field gravitational lensings are dramatically disparate from those in the weak field by representing relativistic images due to light winds one to infinity loops around a lens before escaping. We study such a lensing caused by a charged Galileon black hole, which is expected to have possibility to evade no-hair theorem. We calculate the angular separations and time delays between different relativistic images of the charged Galileon black hole. All these observables can potentially be used to discriminate a charged Galileon black hole from others. We estimate the magnitudes of the observables for the closest suppermassive black hole Sgr A*. It is found that when the scalar filed in the Galileon is weakly coupled to the gravitational field and it is "low-speed", the charged Galileon black hole can possibly be distinguished from a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.
Magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field
Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2017-07-01
We obtain a family of exact solutions describing magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field. Locally the solutions can be interpreted as representing the near-horizon region of a black hole, which interacts with a surrounding matter distribution producing a strong magnetic field. Thus, the solutions reflect the influence of both a gravitational and an electromagnetic external potential in the strong field regime. The static members in the family are generalizations of the Schwarzschild solution in the described environment, while the rotating ones generalize the magnetized Reissner-Nordström solution when the influence of an external gravitational source is also taken into account. Technically, the solutions are obtained by means of a Harrison transformation, applied on the (electro-)vacuum distorted black holes constructed by Bretón et al. We examine the thermodynamical properties of the solutions, and compare them with the corresponding isolated black holes, and with the particular cases when the interaction with only one of the external potentials is taken into account. For the static black holes the influence of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is factorized in a sense, both affecting different properties, and leaving the rest intact. For the rotating solutions the external gravitational and magnetic fields are coupled through the conditions for avoiding conical singularities. The Meissner effect is observed for extremal rotating solutions only in the zero-charge limit, similar to the magnetized Reissner-Nordström black hole.
Baker, Paul T.; Caudill, Sarah; Hodge, Kari A.; Talukder, Dipongkar; Capano, Collin; Cornish, Neil J.
2015-03-01
Searches for gravitational waves produced by coalescing black hole binaries with total masses ≳25 M⊙ use matched filtering with templates of short duration. Non-Gaussian noise bursts in gravitational wave detector data can mimic short signals and limit the sensitivity of these searches. Previous searches have relied on empirically designed statistics incorporating signal-to-noise ratio and signal-based vetoes to separate gravitational wave candidates from noise candidates. We report on sensitivity improvements achieved using a multivariate candidate ranking statistic derived from a supervised machine learning algorithm. We apply the random forest of bagged decision trees technique to two separate searches in the high mass (≳25 M⊙ ) parameter space. For a search which is sensitive to gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of binary black holes with total mass between 25 M⊙ and 100 M⊙ , we find sensitive volume improvements as high as 70±13%-109±11% when compared to the previously used ranking statistic. For a ringdown-only search which is sensitive to gravitational waves from the resultant perturbed intermediate mass black hole with mass roughly between 10 M⊙ and 600 M⊙ , we find sensitive volume improvements as high as 61±4%-241±12% when compared to the previously used ranking statistic. We also report how sensitivity improvements can differ depending on mass regime, mass ratio, and available data quality information. Finally, we describe the techniques used to tune and train the random forest classifier that can be generalized to its use in other searches for gravitational waves.
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Altin, P. A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arun, K. G.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Blair, R. M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Fletcher, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, A.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Green, A. C.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heintze, M. C.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meadors, G. D.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Mukund, K. N.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Raymond, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tse, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Zanolin, M.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2017-03-01
In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the detector's opto-mechanical response and the properties of its feedback control system. The measurements used to validate the model and characterize its uncertainty are derived primarily from a dedicated photon radiation pressure actuator, with cross-checks provided by optical and radio frequency references. We describe how the gravitational-wave readout signal is calibrated into equivalent gravitational-wave-induced strain and how the statistical uncertainties and systematic errors are assessed. Detector data collected over 38 calendar days, from September 12 to October 20, 2015, contain the event GW150914 and approximately 16 days of coincident data used to estimate the event false alarm probability. The calibration uncertainty is less than 10% in magnitude and 10° in phase across the relevant frequency band, 20 Hz to 1 kHz.
Rosswog, S
2005-01-01
I discuss simulations of the coalescence of black hole neutron star binary systems with black hole masses between 14 and 20 \\msun. The calculations use a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, a temperature-dependent, nuclear equation of state and a multi-flavor neutrino scheme. General relativistic effects are mimicked using the \\Pacz-Wiita pseudo-potential and gravitational radiation reaction forces. Opposite to previous, purely Newtonian calculations, in none of the explored cases episodic mass transfer occurs. The neutron star is always completely disrupted after most of its mass has been transferred directly into the hole. For black hole masses between 14 and 16 \\Msun an accretion disk forms, large parts of it, however, are inside the last stable orbit and therefore falling with large radial velocities into the hole. These disks are (opposite to the neutron star merger case) thin and -apart from a spiral shock- essentially cold. For higher mass black holes ($M_{\\rm BH} \\ge 18$ \\msun) alm...
Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments
Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars
2016-10-01
Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disk. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_yr^{-1} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_yr^{-1} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6-significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHB driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual AGN to constrain binary evolution.
Massive black hole binary mergers in dynamical galactic environments
Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars
2017-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GWs from massive black hole (MBH) binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar timing arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GWs from MBH binaries (MBHBs), have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBHs and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations (`Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disc. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1}} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6 - significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHBs driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual active galactic nuclei to constrain binary evolution.
Simulations of coalescing black holes
Janiuk, Agnieszka
2016-01-01
We describe the methods and results of numerical simulations of coalescing black holes. The simulation in dynamical spacetime covers the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We analyze the emission of gravitational waves and properties of a black hole being the merger product. We discuss the results in the context of astrophysical environment of black holes that exist in the Universe.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; 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2016-01-01
We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron star systems and neutron-star--black-hole systems during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. In particular we searched for gravitational wave signals from binary neutron star systems with component masses $\\in [1,3] M_{\\odot}$ and component dimensionless spins $< 0.05$. We also searched for neutron-star--black-hole systems with the same neutron star parameters, black hole mass $\\in [2,99] M_{\\odot}$ and no restriction on the black hole spin magnitude. We assess the sensitivity of the two LIGO detectors to these systems, and find that they could have detected the merger of binary neutron star systems with component mass distributions of $1.35\\pm0.13 M_{\\odot}$ at a volume-weighted average distance of $\\sim$ 70Mpc, and for neutron-star--black-hole systems with neutron star masses of $1.4M_\\odot$ and black hole masses of at least $5M_\\odot$, a volume-weighted average distance of at least $\\sim$ 110Mpc. From this we...
GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes.
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Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; 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Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; 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Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J
2016-04-01
The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30M_{⊙}, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict Ω_{GW}(f=25 Hz)=1.1_{-0.9}^{+2.7}×10^{-9} with 90% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We conclude that this background is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity.
GW150914: Implications for the stochastic gravitational wave background from binary black holes
,
2016-01-01
The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses $\\gtrsim 30\\, \\text{M}_\\odot$, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO/Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict $\\Omega_\\text{GW}(f=25 Hz) = 1.1_{-0.9}^{+2.7} \\times 10^{-9}$ with 90\\% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We co...
GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.
2016-04-01
The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30 M⊙, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict ΩGW(f =25 Hz )=1. 1-0.9+2.7×10-9 with 90% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We conclude that this background is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity.
O'Shaughnessy, R; Healy, J; Shoemaker, D
2012-01-01
The short gravitational wave signal from the merger of compact binaries encodes a surprising amount of information about the strong-field dynamics of merger into frequencies accessible to ground-based interferometers. In this paper we describe a previously-unknown "precession" of the peak emission direction with time, both before and after the merger, about the total angular momentum direction. We demonstrate the gravitational wave polarization encodes the orientation of this direction to the line of sight. We argue the effects of polarization can be estimated nonparametrically, directly from the gravitational wave signal as seen along one line of sight, as a slowly-varying feature on top of a rapidly-varying carrier. After merger, our results can be interpreted as a coherent excitation of quasinormal modes of different angular orders, a superposition which naturally "precesses" and modulates the line-of-sight amplitude. Recent analytic calculations have arrived at a similar geometric interpretation. We suspe...
Mandel, Ilya; Dominik, Michal; Belczynsk, Krzysztof
2015-01-01
We analyze the distinguishability of populations of coalescing binary neutron stars, neutron-star black-hole binaries, and binary black holes, whose gravitational-wave signatures are expected to be observed by the advanced network of ground-based interferometers LIGO and Virgo. We consider population-synthesis predictions for plausible merging binary distributions in mass space, along with measurement accuracy estimates from the main gravitational-wave parameter-estimation pipeline. We find that for our model compact-object binary mass distribution, we can always distinguish binary neutron stars and black-hole--neutron-star binaries, but not necessarily black-hole--neutron-star binaries and binary black holes; however, with a few tens of detections, we can accurately identify the three subpopulations and measure their respective rates.
Naiman, J P; Debuhr, J; Ma, C -P
2014-01-01
During galaxy mergers the gas falls to the center, triggers star formation, and feeds the rapid growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). SMBHs respond to this fueling by supplying energy back to the ambient gas. Numerical studies suggest that this feedback is necessary to explain why the properties of SMBHs and the formation of bulges are closely related. This intimate link between the SMBH's mass and the large scale dynamics and luminosity of the host has proven to be a difficult issue to tackle with simulations due to the inability to resolve all the relevant length scales simultaneously. In this paper we simulate SMBH growth at high-resolution with {\\it FLASH}, accounting for the gravitational focusing effects of nuclear star clusters (NSCs), which appear to be ubiquitous in galactic nuclei. In the simulations, the NSC core is resolved by a minimum cell size of about 0.001 pc or approximately $10^{-3}$ of the cluster's radius. We discuss the conditions required for effective gas funneling to occur, whic...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mink, S. E. de [Anton Pannenkoek Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belczynski, K., E-mail: S.E.deMink@uva.nl, E-mail: kbelczyn@astrouw.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Warsaw University, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland)
2015-11-20
The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction, and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations, and eccentricities) are indispensable inputs for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained, significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns have provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor of 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor of 10–100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a factor of 6 up and down). No significant changes in the distributions of final component masses, mass ratios, chirp masses, and delay times are found. We conclude that the predictions are, for practical purposes, robust against uncertainties in the initial conditions concerning binary parameters, with the exception of the IMF. This eliminates an important layer of the many uncertain assumptions affecting the predictions of merger detection rates with the gravitational wave detectors aLIGO/aVirgo.
Status and Future of Deep Searches for Compact Binary Mergers
Nitz, Alexander` Harvey; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2016-06-01
Deep offline searches for gravitational waves from binary black hole, binary neutron star, and neutron star- black hole mergers were conducted during the first Advanced LIGO observing run, and recently Advanced LIGO announced the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. We discuss the recent results, the methodology of the high latency searches, along with improvements for the upcoming observing runs.
Low mass binary neutron star mergers: Gravitational waves and neutrino emission
Foucart, Francois; Haas, Roland; Duez, Matthew D.; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Roberts, Luke; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Lippuner, Jonas; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.
2016-02-01
Neutron star mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves for advanced ground-based detectors. These mergers are also expected to power bright electromagnetic signals, in the form of short gamma-ray bursts, infrared/optical transients powered by r-process nucleosynthesis in neutron-rich material ejected by the merger, and radio emission from the interaction of that ejecta with the interstellar medium. Simulations of these mergers with fully general relativistic codes are critical to understand the merger and postmerger gravitational wave signals and their neutrinos and electromagnetic counterparts. In this paper, we employ the Spectral Einstein Code to simulate the merger of low mass neutron star binaries (two 1.2 M⊙ neutron stars) for a set of three nuclear-theory-based, finite temperature equations of state. We show that the frequency peaks of the postmerger gravitational wave signal are in good agreement with predictions obtained from recent simulations using a simpler treatment of gravity. We find, however, that only the fundamental mode of the remnant is excited for long periods of time: emission at the secondary peaks is damped on a millisecond time scale in the simulated binaries. For such low mass systems, the remnant is a massive neutron star which, depending on the equation of state, is either permanently stable or long lived (i.e. rapid uniform rotation is sufficient to prevent its collapse). We observe strong excitations of l =2 , m =2 modes, both in the massive neutron star and in the form of hot, shocked tidal arms in the surrounding accretion torus. We estimate the neutrino emission of the remnant using a neutrino leakage scheme and, in one case, compare these results with a gray two-moment neutrino transport scheme. We confirm the complex geometry of the neutrino emission, also observed in previous simulations with neutrino leakage, and show explicitly the presence of important differences in the neutrino luminosity, disk
Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Isobe, Naoki
2016-01-01
The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected direct signals of gravitational waves (GWs) from GW150914. The event was a merger of a binary black holes whose masses are $36^{+5}_{-4}M_{\\odot}$ and $29^{+4}_{-4}M_{\\odot}$. Such binary systems are expected to be formed in either isolated binary systems or dense stellar environments. Here we derived the binary black hole merger rate for isolated binary systems based on the nearby ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) luminosity function (LF). We obtained the binary black hole merger rate as $1.9 ({t}_{\\rm ULX}/{1 \\ \\rm Myr})^{-1} \\lambda^{-0.6} \\exp{(-0.30\\lambda)} \\ {\\rm Gpc^{-3}\\ yr^{-1}}$, where $t_{\\rm ULX}$ is the typical duration of the ULX phase and $\\lambda$ is the Eddington ratio. This is comparable to the event rate inferred from the detection of GW150914 as well as the predictions based on binary population synthesis models. Although we are currently unable to constrain $\\lambda$ due to the uncertainties of our mode...
One-armed spiral instability in neutron star mergers and its detectability in gravitational waves
Radice, David; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Ott, Christian D.
2016-09-01
We study the development and saturation of the m =1 one-armed spiral instability in remnants of binary neutron star mergers by means of high-resolution long-term numerical relativity simulations. Our results suggest that this instability is a generic outcome of neutron star mergers in astrophysically relevant configurations, including both "stiff" and "soft" nuclear equations of state. We find that, once seeded at merger, the m =1 mode saturates within ˜10 ms and persists over secular time scales. Gravitational waves emitted by the m =1 instability have a peak frequency around 1-2 kHz and, if detected, they could be used to constrain the equation of state of neutron stars. We construct hybrid waveforms spanning the entire Advanced LIGO band by combining our high-resolution numerical data with state-of-the-art effective-one-body waveforms including tidal effects. We use the complete hybrid waveforms to study the detectability of the one-armed spiral instability for both Advanced LIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We conclude that the one-armed spiral instability is not an efficient gravitational wave emitter. Even under very optimistic assumptions, Advanced LIGO will only be able to detect the one-armed instability up to ˜3 Mpc , which corresponds to an event rate of 10-7 yr-1 to 10-4 yr-1 . Third-generation detectors or better will likely be required to observe the one-armed instability.
Castello-Branco, K H C
2013-01-01
We investigate, in the case of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole, the definitions of gravitational energy and gravitational pressure that naturally arise in the framework of the Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity. In particular, we calculate the gravitational energy enclosed by the event horizon of the black hole, E, and the radial pressure over it, p. With these quantities we then analyse the thermodynamic relation dE + pdV (as p turns out to be a density, dV is actually given by dV = dr d\\theta d\\phi, in spherically-type coordinates). We compare the latter with the standard first law of black hole dynamics. Also, by identifying TdS = dE + pdV, we comment on a possible modification of the standard, Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation due to gravitational energy and gravitational pressure of the black hole. The infinitesimal variations in question refer to the Penrose process for a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.
Tuning gravitational-wave detector networks to measure compact binary mergers
Hughes, S A
2002-01-01
Gravitational waves generated by the final merger of compact binary systems depend on the structure of the binary's members. If the binary contains neutron stars, measuring such waves can teach us about the properties of matter at extreme densities. Unfortunately, these waves are typically at high frequency where the sensitivity of broad-band detectors is not good. Learning about dense matter from these waves will require networks of broad-band detectors combined with narrow-band detectors that have good sensitivity at high frequencies. This paper presents an algorithm by which a network can be ``tuned'', in accordance with the best available information, in order to most effectively measure merger waves. The algorithm is presented in the context of a toy model that captures the qualitative features of narrow-band detectors and of certain binary neutron star merger wave models. By using what is learned from a sequence of merger measurements, the network can be gradually tuned in order to accurately measure th...
Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the stars' rotation
Dietrich, Tim; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
We present new (3+1) dimensional numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) mergers that take into account the NS spins. We consider different spin configurations, aligned or antialigned to the orbital angular momentum, for equal and unequal mass BNS and for two equations of state. All the simulations employ quasiequilibrium circular initial data in the constant rotational velocity approach, i.e. they are consistent with Einstein equations and in hydrodynamical equilibrium. We study the NS rotation effect on the energetics, the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic (EM) emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. For dimensionless spin magnitudes of $\\chi\\sim0.1$ we find that spin-orbit interactions and also spin-induced-quadrupole deformations affect the late-inspiral-merger dynamics. The latter is, however, dominated by finite-size effects. Spin (tidal) effects contribute to GW phase differences up to 5 (20) radians accumulated during the last eight orbits to...
Chu, Q; Rowlinson, A; Gao, H; Zhang, B; Tingay, S J; Boer, M; Wen, L
2015-01-01
We investigate the prospects for joint low-latency gravitational wave (GW) detection and prompt electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs). Assuming BNS mergers are associated with short duration gamma ray bursts (SGRBs), we evaluate if rapid EM follow-ups can capture the prompt emission, early engine activity or reveal any potential by-products such as magnetars or fast radio bursts. To examine the expected performance of low-latency search pipelines we simulate a population of coalescing BNSs using realistic distributions of source parameters to estimate the detectability and localisation efficiency at different times before merger. To determine what EM observations can be achieved, we consider a selection of facilities with GW follow-up agreements in place, from low-frequency radio to high energy $\\gamma$-ray; we assess the performance of each using observational SGRB flux data corrected to the range of the advanced GW interferometric detectors LIGO and Virgo. We ...
Understanding the "anti-kick" in the merger of binary black holes
Rezzolla, Luciano; Jaramillo, José Luis
2010-01-01
The generation of a large recoil velocity from the inspiral and merger of binary black holes represents one of the most exciting results of numerical-relativity calculations. While many aspects of this process have been investigated and explained, the "anti-kick", namely the sudden deceleration after the merger, has not yet found a simple explanation. We show that the anti-kick can be easily understood in terms of the radiation from a deformed black hole where the intrinsically anisotropic curvature distribution on the horizon determines the direction and intensity of the recoil. Our analysis is focussed on the properties of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes and allows us to measure both the energies and momenta radiated in a gauge-invariant manner. At the same time, this simpler setup provides all the qualitative but also quantitative features of inspiralling black hole binaries, thus opening the way to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of black-hole spacetimes.
A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances
Hod, Shahar
2016-08-01
More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with Im ω/TBH gg 1 (here ω and TBH are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).
A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)
2016-08-30
More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with ℑω/T{sub BH}≫1 (here ω and T{sub BH} are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).
Lamb, Gavin P
2016-01-01
Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are believed to be produced by relativistic jets from mergers of neutron stars (NS) and/or black holes (BH). If the Lorentz factors $\\Gamma$ of jets from compact stellar mergers follow a similar power-law distribution as those observed for other high energy astrophysical phenomena (e.g. blazars, AGN), the population of jets would be dominated by low-$\\Gamma$ outflow. These jets will not produce GRB (i.e. the prompt gamma-rays), but their jet energy will be released as optical and radio transients when they collide into the ambient medium. By using simple Monte Carlo simulations, we study the properties of such transient events. Approximately $78 \\%$ of merger jets within 300 Mpc distance will result in a failed GRB if the jet Lorentz factor follows a power-law distribution of index $-1.75$. Optical transients associated with such failed GRBs will have rather broad distributions of the characteristics: the light curve peaks $t_p \\sim 0.1-10$ days after a merger with a peak flux $m...
Massive black hole binary mergers within sub-pc scale gas discs
Cuadra, J; Alexander, R D; Begelman, M C
2008-01-01
[ABRIDGED] We study supermassive black hole binary mergers driven by angular momentum loss to small-scale gas discs. Such binaries form after major galaxy mergers, but their fate is unclear since hardening through stellar scattering becomes very inefficient at sub-parsec distances. Gas discs may dominate binary dynamics on these scales, and promote mergers. Using numerical simulations, we investigate the evolution of the orbits of binaries embedded within geometrically thin gas discs. Our simulations directly resolve angular momentum transport within the disc, which at the radii of interest is likely dominated by disc self-gravity. We show that the binary decays at a rate which is in good agreement with analytical estimates, while the eccentricity grows. Saturation of eccentricity growth is not observed up to values e > 0.35. Accretion onto the black holes is variable, and is roughly modulated by the binary orbital frequency. Scaling our results, we analytically estimate the maximum rate of binary decay that ...
Comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with GASOLINE and RAMSES
Gabor, Jared M.; Capelo, Pedro R.; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas
2016-07-01
Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GASOLINE, and the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of subgrid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they fly by within 10 kpc at the first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star formation. We also note quantitative discrepancies that are model dependent: our RAMSES simulations show less star formation and black hole growth, and a smoother gas distribution with larger clumps and filaments than our GASOLINE simulations. We attribute these differences primarily to the subgrid models for black hole fueling, feedback, and gas thermodynamics. The main conclusion is that differences exist quantitatively between codes, and this should be kept in mind when making comparisons with observations. However, both codes capture the same dynamical behaviors in terms of triggering black hole accretion, star formation, and black hole dynamics, which is reassuring.
Yamazaki, Ryo; Ohira, Yutaka
2016-01-01
Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detected gamma-ray emission 0.4 sec after a binary black-hole merger event, GW150914. We show that the gamma-ray emission is caused by a relativistic outflow with Lorentz factor larger than 10. Subsequently debris outflow pushes ambient gas to form a shock, which is responsible for the afterglow synchrotron emission. We find that the fluxes of radio and optical afterglows increase from about $10^7$ sec to at least $\\sim10$ yr after the burst trigger. Further follow-up observations in the radio and optical/infrared bands are encouraged. Detection of afterglows will localize the sky position of the gravitational-wave and the gamma-ray emissions and it will support the physical association between them.
Black-hole horizons as probes of black-hole dynamics I: post-merger recoil in head-on collisions
Jaramillo, José Luis; Moesta, Philipp; Rezzolla, Luciano
2011-01-01
The understanding of strong-field dynamics near black-hole horizons is a long-standing and challenging problem in general relativity. Recent advances in numerical relativity and in the geometric characterization of black-hole horizons open new avenues into the problem. In this first paper in a series of two, we focus on the analysis of the recoil occurring in the merger of binary black holes, extending the analysis initiated in [1] with Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. More specifically, we probe spacetime dynamics through the correlation of quantities defined at the black-hole horizon and at null infinity. The geometry of these hypersurfaces responds to bulk gravitational fields acting as test screens in a scattering perspective of spacetime dynamics. Within a 3+1 approach we build an effective-curvature vector from the intrinsic geometry of dynamical-horizon sections and correlate its evolution with the flux of Bondi linear momentum at large distances. We employ this setup to study numerically the head-on coll...
Gravitational crystal inside the black hole
Nikolic, H
2015-01-01
Crystals, as quantum objects typically much larger than their lattice spacing, are a counterexample to a frequent prejudice that quantum effects should not be pronounced at macroscopic distances. We propose that the Einstein theory of gravity only describes a fluid phase and that a phase transition of crystallization can occur under extreme conditions such as those inside the black hole. Such a crystal phase with lattice spacing of the order of the Planck length offers a natural mechanism for pronounced quantum-gravity effects at distances much larger than the Planck length. A resolution of the black-hole information paradox is proposed, according to which all information is stored in a crystal-phase remnant with size and mass much above the Planck scale.
Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2013-01-01
The detection of an electromagnetic transient which may originate from a binary neutron star merger can increase the probability that a given segment of data from the LIGO-Virgo ground-based gravitational-wave detector network contains a signal from a binary coalescence. Additional information contained in the electromagnetic signal, such as the sky location or distance to the source, can help rule out false alarms, and thus lower the necessary threshold for a detection. Here, we develop a framework for determining how much sensitivity is added to a gravitational-wave search by triggering on an electromagnetic transient. We apply this framework to a variety of relevant electromagnetic transients, from short GRBs to signatures of r-process heating to optical and radio orphan afterglows. We compute the expected rates of multi-messenger observations in the Advanced detector era, and find that searches triggered on short GRBs --- with current high-energy instruments, such as Fermi --- and nucleosynthetic `kilonov...
The Formation and Gravitational-Wave Detection of Massive Stellar Black-Hole Binaries
Belczynski, Krzysztof; Cantiello, Matteo; Holz, Daniel E; Fryer, Chris L; Mandel, Ilya; Miller, M Coleman; Walczak, Marek
2014-01-01
If binaries consisting of two 100 Msun black holes exist they would serve as extraordinarily powerful gravitational-wave sources, detectable to redshifts of z=2 with the advanced LIGO/Virgo ground-based detectors. Large uncertainties about the evolution of massive stars preclude definitive rate predictions for mergers of these massive black holes. We show that rates as high as hundreds of detections per year, or as low as no detections whatsoever, are both possible. It was thought that the only way to produce these massive binaries was via dynamical interactions in dense stellar systems. This view has been challenged by the recent discovery of several stars with mass greater than 150 Msun in the R136 region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Current models predict that when stars of this mass leave the main sequence, their expansion is insufficient to allow common envelope evolution to efficiently reduce the orbital separation. The resulting black-hole--black-hole binary remains too wide to be able to coalesce wi...
Primordial Black Hole Scenario for the Gravitational-Wave Event GW150914.
Sasaki, Misao; Suyama, Teruaki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro
2016-08-05
We point out that the gravitational-wave event GW150914 observed by the LIGO detectors can be explained by the coalescence of primordial black holes (PBHs). It is found that the expected PBH merger rate would exceed the rate estimated by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration if PBHs were the dominant component of dark matter, while it can be made compatible if PBHs constitute a fraction of dark matter. Intriguingly, the abundance of PBHs required to explain the suggested lower bound on the event rate, >2 events Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}, roughly coincides with the existing upper limit set by the nondetection of the cosmic microwave background spectral distortion. This implies that the proposed PBH scenario may be tested in the not-too-distant future.
Inomata, Keisuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Tada, Yuichiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T
2016-01-01
Primordial black holes (PBHs) are one of the candidates to explain the gravitational wave (GW) signals observed by the LIGO detectors. Among several phenomena in the early Universe, cosmic inflation is a major example to generate PBHs. In this paper, we discuss the possibility to interpret the observed GW events as mergers of PBHs which are produced by cosmic inflation. We point out that the current pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments already put severe constraints on GWs generated via the second-order effects. In particular, it is found that the scalar power spectrum should have a very sharp fall-off above $f \\gtrsim 10^{-9}$ Hz to evade these constraints. Simple inflation models that generate PBHs via fluctuations of slowly rolling inflaton could be probed/excluded in the future.
"Complete" gravitational waveforms for black-hole binaries with non-precessing spins
Ajith, P; Husa, S; Chen, Y; Brügmann, B; Dorband, N; Müller, D; Ohme, F; Pollney, D; Reisswig, C; Santamaria, L; Seiler, J
2009-01-01
We present the first analytical inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveforms from black-hole (BH) binaries with non-precessing spins. By matching a post-Newtonian description of the inspiral to a set of numerical calculations performed in full general relativity, we obtain a waveform family with a conveniently small number of physical parameters. The physical content of these waveforms includes the "orbital hang-up" effect, when BHs are spinning rapidly along the direction of the orbital angular momentum. These waveforms will allow us to detect a larger parameter space of BH binary coalescence, to explore various scientific questions related to GW astronomy, and could dramatically improve the expected detection rates of GW detectors.
Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the mass-ratio
Dietrich, Tim; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Bruegmann, Bernd
2016-01-01
We present new (3+1)D numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) merger and postmerger phase. We focus on a previously inaccessible region of the binary parameter space spanning the binary's mass-ratio $q\\sim1.00-1.75$ for different total masses and equations of state, and up to $q\\sim2$ for a stiff BNS system. We study the mass-ratio effect on the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. We compute waveforms, spectra, and spectrograms of the GW strain including all the multipoles up to $l=4$. The mass-ratio has a specific imprint on the GW multipoles in the late-inspiral-merger signal, and it affects qualitatively the spectra of the merger remnant. The multipole effect is also studied by considering the dependency of the GW spectrograms on the source's sky location. Unequal mass BNSs produce more ejecta than equal mass systems with ejecta masses and kinetic energies depending almost linearly on $q$. We estimate luminosi...
Radice, David; Ott, Christian D
2016-01-01
We study the development and saturation of the $m=1$ one-armed spiral instability in remnants of binary neutron star mergers by means of high-resolution long-term numerical relativity simulations. Our results suggest that this instability is a generic outcome of neutron stars mergers in astrophysically relevant configurations; including both "stiff" and "soft" nuclear equations of state. We find that, once seeded at merger, the $m=1$ mode saturates within $\\sim 10\\ \\mathrm{ms}$ and persists over secular timescales. Gravitational waves emitted by the $m=1$ instability have a peak frequency around $1-2\\ \\mathrm{kHz}$ and, if detected, could be used to constrain the equation of state of neutron stars. We construct hybrid waveforms spanning the entire Advanced LIGO band by combining our high-resolution numerical data with state-of-the-art effective-one-body waveforms including tidal effects. We use the complete hybrid waveforms to study the detectability of the one-armed spiral instability for both Advanced LIGO ...
Host redshifts from gravitational-wave observations of binary neutron star mergers
Messenger, Chris; Gossan, Sarah; Rezzolla, Luciano; Sathyaprakash, B S
2013-01-01
Inspiralling compact binaries as standard sirens will soon become an invaluable tool for cosmology when advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors begin their observations in the coming years. However, a degeneracy in the information carried by gravitational waves between the total rest-frame mass $M$ and the redshift $z$ of the source implies that neither can be directly extracted from the signal, but only the combination $M(1+z)$, the redshifted mass. Recent work has shown that for binary neutron star systems, a tidal correction to the gravitational-wave phase in the late-inspiral signal that depends on the rest-frame source mass could be used to break the mass-redshift degeneracy. We propose here to use the signature encoded in the post-merger signal to deduce the redshift to the source. This will allow an accurate extraction of the intrinsic rest-frame mass of the source, in turn permitting the determination of source redshift and luminosity distance solely from gravitational-wave observations....
Strong deflection gravitational lensing by a modified Hayward black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)
2017-05-15
A modified Hayward black hole is a nonsingular black hole. It is proposed that it would form when the pressure generated by quantum gravity can stop matter's collapse as the matter reaches the Planck density. Strong deflection gravitational lensing occurring nearby its event horizon might provide some clues of these quantum effects in its central core. We investigate observables of the strong deflection lensing, including angular separations, brightness differences and time delays between its relativistic images, and we estimate their values for the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. We find that it is possible to distinguish the modified Hayward black hole from a Schwarzschild one, but it demands a very high resolution, beyond current stage. (orig.)
Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers
Rafikov, Roman R.
2016-08-01
Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in the accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here, we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant \\dot{M} accretion disk solution. The suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semimajor axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. Thus, unlike the inspirals driven by stellar scattering, the gas-assisted merger can occur even if the binary is embedded in a relatively low-mass disk (lower than its own mass). This is important for resolving the “last parsec” problem for SMBH binaries and understanding powerful gravitational wave sources in the universe. We argue that the enhancement of accretion by the binary found in some recent simulations cannot persist for a long time and should not affect the long-term orbital inspiral. We also review existing simulations of SMBH binary-disk coupling and propose a numerical setup which is particularly well suited to verifying our theoretical predictions.
Gravitational Radiation of Binaries Coalescence into Intermediate Mass Black Holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李瑾; 仲元红; 潘宇
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the gravitation waveforms of binaries coalescence into intermediate mass black holes （about 30 times of the solar mass）. We focus on the non-spinning intermediate mass black hole located less than 100 Mpc from earth. By comparing two simulation waveforms （effective one body numerical relativity waveform （EOBNR）, phenomenological waveform）, we discuss the relationship between the effective distance and frequency; and through analyzing large amounts of data in event, we find that the phenomenological waveform is much smoother than EOBNR waveform, and has higher accuracy at the same effective distance.
Gravitational wave tests of quantum modifications to black hole structure
Giddings, Steven B
2016-01-01
A preliminary discussion is given of the prospects that gravitational-wave observations of binary inspiral of black holes could reveal or constrain quantum modifications to black hole dynamics, such as are required to preserve postulates of quantum mechanics. Different proposals for such modifications are characterized by different scales, and the size of these scales relative to those probed by observation of inspiral signals is important in determining the feasibility of finding experimental signatures. Certain scenarios with strong quantum modifications in a region extending well outside the horizon are expected to modify classical evolution, and distort the near-peak gravitational wave signal, suggesting a search for anomalies such as decreased regularity of the signal and increased power.
Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries
Dolgov, A.; Postnov, K.
2017-09-01
The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Canton, T. Dal; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Goggin, L. M.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.
2014-05-01
We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency 50≤f0/Hz≤2000 and decay timescale 0.0001≲τ/s≲0.1 characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass 50≤M/M⊙≤450 and component mass ratios of either 1:1 or 4:1. For systems with total mass 100≤M/M⊙≤150, we report a 90% confidence upper limit on the rate of binary IMBH mergers with nonspinning and equal mass components of 6.9×10-8 Mpc-3 yr-1. We also report a rate upper limit for ringdown waveforms from perturbed IMBHs, radiating 1% of their mass as gravitational waves in the fundamental, ℓ=m =2, oscillation mode, that is nearly three orders of magnitude more stringent than previous results.
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.
2014-01-01
We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency 50 less than or equal to italic f0/Hz less than or equal to 2000 and decay timescale 0.0001 approximately less than t/s approximately less than 0.1 characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass 50 less than or equal to M/solar mass less than or equal to 450 and component mass ratios of either 1:1 or 4:1. For systems with total mass 100 less than or equal to M/solar mass 150, we report a 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of binary IMBH mergers with non-spinning and equal mass components of 6:9 x 10(exp 8) Mpc(exp -3)yr(exp -1). We also report a rate upper limit for ringdown waveforms from perturbed IMBHs, radiating 1% of their mass as gravitational waves in the fundamental, l=m=2, oscillation mode, that is nearly three orders of magnitude more stringent than previous results.
Mayer, Lucio; Escala, Andres
2008-01-01
(Abridged) We review the results of the first multi-scale, hydrodynamical simulations of mergers between galaxies with central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) to investigate the formation of SMBH binaries in galactic nuclei. We demonstrate that strong gas inflows produce nuclear disks at the centers of merger remnants whose properties depend sensitively on the details of gas thermodynamics. In numerical simulations with parsec-scale spatial resolution in the gas component and an effective equation of state appropriate for a starburst galaxy, we show that a SMBH binary forms very rapidly, less than a million years after the merger of the two galaxies. Binary formation is significantly suppressed in the presence of a strong heating source such as radiative feedback by the accreting SMBHs. We also present preliminary results of numerical simulations with ultra-high spatial resolution of 0.1 pc in the gas component. These simulations resolve the internal structure of the resulting nuclear disk down to parsec sca...
Major galaxy mergers and the growth of supermassive black holes in quasars.
Treister, Ezequiel; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Sanders, David B; Urry, C Megan; Schawinski, Kevin; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan
2010-04-30
Despite observed strong correlations between central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and star formation in galactic nuclei, uncertainties exist in our understanding of their coupling. We present observations of the ratio of heavily obscured to unobscured quasars as a function of cosmic epoch up to z congruent with 3 and show that a simple physical model describing mergers of massive, gas-rich galaxies matches these observations. In the context of this model, every obscured and unobscured quasar represents two distinct phases that result from a massive galaxy merger event. Much of the mass growth of the SMBH occurs during the heavily obscured phase. These observations provide additional evidence for a causal link between gas-rich galaxy mergers, accretion onto the nuclear SMBH, and coeval star formation.
Binary Systems with a Black Hole Component as Sources of Gravitational Waves
Koçak, D
2016-01-01
Discovery of gravitational waves by LIGO team (Abbott et al. 2016) bring a new era for observation of black hole systems. These new observations will improve our knowledge on black holes and gravitational physics. In this study, we present angular momentum loss mechanism through gravitational radiation for selected X-ray binary systems. The angular momentum loss in X-ray binary systems with a black hole companion due to gravitational radiation and mass loss time-scales are estimated for each selected system. In addition, their gravitational wave amplitudes are also estimated and their detectability with gravitational wave detectors has been discussed.
Ravi, V; Shannon, R M; Hobbs, G
2014-01-01
[Abridged] Large-area sky surveys show that massive galaxies undergo at least one major merger in a Hubble time. If all massive galaxies host central supermassive black holes (SMBHs), as is inferred from observations in the local Universe, it is likely that there is a population of binary SMBHs at the centres of galaxy merger remnants. Numerous authors have proposed pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments to measure the gravitational wave (GW) emission from binary SMBHs. In this paper, using the latest observational estimates for a range of galaxy properties and scaling relations, we predict the amplitude of the GW background generated by the binary SMBH population. We also predict counts of individual binary SMBH GW sources. We assume that all binary SMBHs are in circular orbits evolving under GW emission alone, which is likely to be correct for binaries emitting GWs at frequencies >~10^-8 Hz. Our fiducial model results in a characteristic strain amplitude of the GW background of A_yr=1.2(+0.6-0.3)*10^-15 at a...
Detecting black-hole binary clustering via the second-generation gravitational-wave detectors
Namikawa, Toshiya; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Taruya, Atsushi
2016-07-01
The first discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) event, GW150914, suggests a higher merger rate of black-hole (BH) binaries. If this is true, a number of BH binaries will be observed via the second-generation GW detectors, and the statistical properties of the observed BH binaries can be scrutinized. A naive but important question to ask is whether the spatial distribution of BH binaries faithfully traces the matter inhomogeneities in the Universe or not. Although the BH binaries are thought to be formed inside the galaxies in most of the scenarios, there is no observational evidence to confirm such a hypothesis. Here, we estimate how well the second-generation GW detectors can statistically confirm the BH binaries to be a tracer of the large-scale structure by looking at the auto- and cross-correlation of BH binaries with photometric galaxies and weak-lensing measurements, finding that, with a 3 year observation, the >3 σ detection of a nonzero signal is possible if the BH merger rate today is n˙ 0≳100 Gpc-3 yr-1 and the clustering bias of BH binaries is bBH ,0≳1.5 .
Detecting Black-Hole Binary Clustering via the Second-Generation Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Namikawa, Toshiya; Taruya, Atsushi
2016-01-01
First discovery of the gravitational wave (GW) event, GW150914, suggests a higher merger rate of black-hole (BH) binaries. If this is true, a number of BH binaries will be observed via the second-generation GW detectors, and the statistical properties of the observed BH binaries can be scrutinized. A naive but important question to ask is whether the spatial distribution of BH binaries faithfully traces the matter inhomogeneities in the Universe or not. Although the BH binaries are thought to be formed inside the galaxies in most of the scenarios, there is no observational evidence to confirm such a hypothesis. Here, we estimate how well the second-generation GW detectors can statistically confirm the BH binaries to be a tracer of the large-scale structure by looking at the auto- and cross-correlation of BH binaries with photometric galaxies and weak lensing measurements, finding that, with a three-year observation, the $>3\\sigma$ detection of non-zero signal is possible if the BH merger rate today is $\\dot{n...
Visualizing the gravitational lensing and vortex and tendex lines of colliding black holes
Khan, Haroon; Lovelace, Geoffery; SXS Collaboration
2016-03-01
Gravitational waves (GW's) are ripples of space and time that are created when the universe unleashes its violent nature in the presence of strong gravity. Merging black holes (BH) are one of the most promising sources of GW's. In order to detect and physically study the GW's emitted by merging BH with ground based detectors such as Advanced LIGO, we must accurately predict how the waveforms look and behave. This can only be done by numerically simulating BH mergers on supercomputers, because all analytical approximations fail near the time of merger. This poster focuses on using these simulations to answer the question of ``What do merging BH look like''? I will present visualizations made using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) and in particular a raytracing lensing code, developed by the SXS Lensing team, that shows how merging BH bend the light around them. I will also present visualizations of the vortex and tendex lines for a binary BH system, using SpEC. Vortex lines describe how an observer will be twisted by the BH and the tendex lines describe how much an observer would be stretched and squeezed. I am exploring how these lines change with time.
Impact of Mergers on USA Parameter Estimation for Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries
McWilliams, Sean T.; Thorpe, James Ira; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.
2011-01-01
We investigate the precision with which the parameters describing the characteristics and location of nonspinning black hole binaries can be measured with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). By using complete waveforms including the inspiral, merger and ringdown portions of the signals, we find that LISA will have far greater precision than previous estimates for nonspinning mergers that ignored the merger and ringdown. Our analysis covers nonspinning waveforms with moderate mass ratios, q > or = 1/10, and total masses 10(exp 5) < M/M_{Sun} < 10(exp 7). We compare the parameter uncertainties using the Fisher matrix formalism, and establish the significance of mass asymmetry and higher-order content to the predicted parameter uncertainties resulting from inclusion of the merger. In real-time observations, the later parts of the signal lead to significant improvements in sky-position precision in the last hours and even the final minutes of observation. For comparable mass systems with total mass M/M_{Sun} = approx. 10(exp 6), we find that the increased precision resulting from including the merger is comparable to the increase in signal-to-noise ratio. For the most precise systems under investigation, half can be localized to within O(10 arcmin), and 18% can be localized to within O(1 arcmin).
Modeling gravitational radiation from coalescing binary black holes
Baker, J; Loustó, C O; Takahashi, R
2002-01-01
With the goal of bringing theory, particularly numerical relativity, to bear on an astrophysical problem of critical interest to gravitational wave observers we introduce a model for coalescence radiation from binary black hole systems. We build our model using the "Lazarus approach", a technique that bridges far and close limit approaches with full numerical relativity to solve Einstein equations applied in the truly nonlinear dynamical regime. We specifically study the post-orbital radiation from a system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes, deriving waveforms which indicate strongly circularly polarized radiation of roughly 3% of the system's total energy and 12% of its total angular momentum in just a few cycles. Supporting this result we first establish the reliability of the late-time part of our model, including the numerical relativity and close-limit components, with a thorough study of waveforms from a sequence of black hole configurations varying from previously treated head-on collisions to rep...
Starbursts and black hole masses in X-shaped radio galaxies: Signatures of a merger event?
Mezcua, M; Lobanov, A P; León-Tavares, J
2012-01-01
We present new spectroscopic identifications of 12 X-shaped radio galaxies and use the spectral data to derive starburst histories and masses of the nuclear supermassive black holes in these galaxies. The observations were done with the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional at San Pedro M\\'artir, M\\'exico. The new spectroscopic results extend the sample of X-shaped radio galaxies studied with optical spectroscopy. We show that the combined sample of the X-shaped radio galaxies has statistically higher black holes masses and older episodes of star formation than a control sample of canonical double-lobed radio sources with similar redshifts and luminosities. The data reveal enhanced star formation activity in the X-shaped sample at timescales expected in galactic mergers. We discuss the results obtained in the framework of the merger scenario.
Chu, Q.; Howell, E. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Gao, H.; Zhang, B.; Tingay, S. J.; Boër, M.; Wen, L.
2016-06-01
We investigate the prospects for joint low-latency gravitational wave (GW) detection and prompt electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs). For BNS mergers associated with short duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), we for the first time evaluate the feasibility of rapid EM follow-ups to capture the prompt emission, early engine activity, or reveal any potential by-products such as magnetars or fast radio bursts. To achieve our goal, we first simulate a population of coalescing BNSs using realistic distributions of source parameters and estimate the detectability and localization efficiency at different times before merger. We then use a selection of facilities with GW follow-up agreements in place, from low-frequency radio to high-energy γ-ray to assess the prospects of prompt follow-up. We quantify our assessment using observational SGRB flux data extrapolated to be within the horizon distances of the advanced GW interferometric detectors LIGO and Virgo and to the prompt phase immediately following the binary merger. Our results illustrate that while challenging, breakthrough multimessenger science is possible with EM follow-up facilities with fast responses and wide fields-of-view. We demonstrate that the opportunity to catch the prompt stage (<5 s) of SGRBs can be enhanced by speeding up the detection pipelines of both GW observatories and EM follow-up facilities. We further show that the addition of an Australian instrument to the optimal detector network could possibly improve the angular resolution by a factor of 2 and thereby contribute significantly to GW-EM multimessenger astronomy.
Isotropic Detectable X-ray Counterparts to Gravitational Waves from Neutron Star Binary Mergers
Kisaka, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi
2015-01-01
Neutron star binary mergers are strong sources of gravitational waves (GWs). Promising electromagnetic counterparts are short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) but the emission is highly collimated. We propose that the scattering of the long-lasting plateau emission in short GRBs by the merger ejecta produces nearly isotropic emission for $\\sim 10^4$ s with flux $10^{-10}-10^{-13}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in X-ray. This is detectable by wide field X-ray detectors such as ISS-Lobster, eROSITA and WF-MAXI, which are desired by the infrared and optical follow-ups to localize and measure the distance to the host galaxy. The scattered X-rays obtain linear polarization, which correlates with the jet direction, X-ray luminosity and GW polarizations. The activity of plateau emission is also a natural energy source of a macronova (or kilonova) detected in short GRB 130603B without the $r$-process radioactivity.
Post-merger evolution of a neutron star-black hole binary with neutrino transport
Foucart, Francois; Roberts, Luke; Duez, Matthew D; Haas, Roland; Kidder, Lawrence E; Ott, Christian D; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela
2015-01-01
We present a first simulation of the post-merger evolution of a black hole-neutron star binary in full general relativity using an energy-integrated general relativistic truncated moment formalism for neutrino transport. We describe our implementation of the moment formalism and important tests of our code, before studying the formation phase of a disk after a black hole-neutron star merger. We use as initial data an existing general relativistic simulation of the merger of a neutron star of 1.4 solar mass with a black hole of 7 solar mass and dimensionless spin a/M=0.8. Comparing with a simpler leakage scheme for the treatment of the neutrinos, we find noticeable differences in the neutron to proton ratio in and around the disk, and in the neutrino luminosity. We find that the electron neutrino luminosity is much lower in the transport simulations, and that the remnant is less neutron-rich. The spatial distribution of the neutrinos is significantly affected by relativistic effects. Over the short timescale e...
GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNATURES IN BLACK HOLE FORMING CORE COLLAPSE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; DeBrye, Nicolas; Aloy, Miguel A.; Font, José A.; Obergaulinger, Martin, E-mail: pablo.cerda@uv.es [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, c/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100-Burjassot (Spain)
2013-12-20
We present general relativistic numerical simulations of collapsing stellar cores. Our initial model consists of a low metallicity rapidly-rotating progenitor which is evolved in axisymmetry with the latest version of our general relativistic code CoCoNuT, which allows for black hole formation and includes the effects of a microphysical equation of state (LS220) and a neutrino leakage scheme to account for radiative losses. The motivation of our study is to analyze in detail the emission of gravitational waves in the collapsar scenario of long gamma-ray bursts. Our simulations show that the phase during which the proto-neutron star (PNS) survives before ultimately collapsing to a black hole is particularly optimal for gravitational wave emission. The high-amplitude waves last for several seconds and show a remarkable quasi-periodicity associated with the violent PNS dynamics, namely during the episodes of convection and the subsequent nonlinear development of the standing-accretion shock instability (SASI). By analyzing the spectrogram of our simulations we are able to identify the frequencies associated with the presence of g-modes and with the SASI motions at the PNS surface. We note that the gravitational waves emitted reach large enough amplitudes to be detected with third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope within a Virgo Cluster volume at rates ≲ 0.1 yr{sup –1}.
Gravitational wave bursts from the Galactic massive black hole
Hopman, C; Larson, S L; Hopman, Clovis; Freitag, Marc; Larson, Shane L.
2006-01-01
The Galactic massive black hole (MBH), with a mass of Mbh=3.6\\times10^6 Solar masses, is the closest known MBH, at a distance of only 8 kpc. The proximity of this MBH makes it possible to observe gravitational waves from stars with periapse in the observational frequency window of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). This is possible even if the orbit of the star is very eccentric, so that the orbital frequency is many orders of magnitude below the LISA frequency window, as suggested by Rubbo et al. (2006). Here we give an analytical estimate of the detection rate of such gravitational wave bursts. The burst rate is critically sensitive to the inner cut-off of the stellar density profile. Our model accounts for mass-segregation and for the physics determining the inner radius of the cusp, such as stellar collisions, energy dissipation by gravitational wave emission, and consequences of the finite number of stars. We find that stellar black holes have a burst rate of the order of 1 per year, while th...
Black Hole Coalescence and Mergers: Review, Status, and ``Where are We Heading?''
Seidel, E.
I review recent progress in 3D numerical relativity, focusing onsimulations involving black holes evolved with singularity avoiding slicings. After a long series of axisymmetric and perturbative studies of distorted black holes and black hole collisions, similar studies were carried out with full 3D codes. The results show that such black hole simulations can be carried out extremely accurately, although instabilities plague the simulation at uncomfortably early times. However, new formulations of Einstein's equations allow much more stable 3D evolutions than ever before, enabling the first studies of 3D gravitational collapse to a black hole. With these new formulations, for example, it has become possible to perform the first detailed simulations of 3D grazing collisions of black holes with unequal mass and spin, and with orbital angular momentum. I discuss the 3D black hole physics that can now be studied, and prospects for the future. Such studies may be able to provide information about the final plunge of two black holes, which is relevant to gravitational wave astronomy, and will be very useful as a foundation for future studies when advanced techniques like black hole excision mature to the point that they permit full orbital coalescence simulations.
Irreversible gravitational collapse: black stars or black holes?
Corda, Christian
2011-01-01
It is well known that the concept of black hole has been considered very fascinating by scientists even before the introduction of Einstein's general relativity. They should be the final result of an irreversible gravitational collapse of very massive bodies. However, an unsolved problem concerning such objects is the presence of a space-time singularity in their core. Such a problem was present starting by the first historical papers concerning black holes. It is a common opinion that this problem could be solved when a correct quantum gravity theory will be, finally, constructed. In this work we review a way to remove black hole singularities at a classical level i.e. without arguments of quantum gravity. By using a particular non-linear electrodynamics Lagrangian, an exact solution of Einstein field equations is shown. The solution prevents the collapsing object to reach the gravitational radius, thus the final result becomes a black star, i.e. an astrophysical object where both of singularities and event ...
Gravitational Quasinormal Modes of Regular Phantom Black Hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the gravitational quasinormal modes (QNMs for a type of regular black hole (BH known as phantom BH, which is a static self-gravitating solution of a minimally coupled phantom scalar field with a potential. The studies are carried out for three different spacetimes: asymptotically flat, de Sitter (dS, and anti-de Sitter (AdS. In order to consider the standard odd parity and even parity of gravitational perturbations, the corresponding master equations are derived. The QNMs are discussed by evaluating the temporal evolution of the perturbation field which, in turn, provides direct information on the stability of BH spacetime. It is found that in asymptotically flat, dS, and AdS spacetimes the gravitational perturbations have similar characteristics for both odd and even parities. The decay rate of perturbation is strongly dependent on the scale parameter b, which measures the coupling strength between phantom scalar field and the gravity. Furthermore, through the analysis of Hawking radiation, it is shown that the thermodynamics of such regular phantom BH is also influenced by b. The obtained results might shed some light on the quantum interpretation of QNM perturbation.
Black Hole Coalescence: The Gravitational Wave Driven Phase
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
When two supermassive black holes (SMBHS) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.
A gravitational memory effect in "boosted" black hole perturbation theory
Gleiser, R J; Dominguez, Alfredo E.; Gleiser, Reinaldo J.
2003-01-01
Black hole perturbation theory, or more generally, perturbation theory on a Schwarzschild bockground, has been applied in several contexts, but usually under the simplifying assumption that the ADM momentum vanishes, namely, that the evolution is carried out and observed in the ``center of momentum frame''. In this paper we consider some consequences of the inclusion of a non vanishing ADM momentum in the initial data. We first provide a justification for the validity of the transformation of the initial data to the ``center of momentum frame'', and then analyze the effect of this transformation on the gravitational wave amplitude. The most significant result is the possibility of a type of gravitational memory effect that appears to have no simple relation with the well known Christodoulou effect.
Gravitational-wave modes from precessing black-hole binaries
Boyle, Michael; Ossokine, Serguei; Pfeiffer, Harald P
2014-01-01
Gravitational waves from precessing black-hole binaries exhibit features that are absent in nonprecessing systems. The most prominent of these is a parity-violating asymmetry that beams energy and linear momentum preferentially along or opposite to the orbital angular momentum, leading to recoil of the binary. The asymmetry will appear as amplitude and phase modulations at the orbital frequency. For strongly precessing systems, it accounts for at least 3% amplitude modulation for binaries in the sensitivity band of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, and can exceed 50% for massive systems. Such asymmetric features are also clearly visible when the waves are decomposed into modes of spin-weighted spherical harmonics, and are inherent in the waves themselves---rather than resulting from residual eccentricity in numerical simulations, or from mode-mixing due to precession. In particular, there is generically no instantaneous frame for which the mode decomposition will have any symmetry. We introduce a met...
Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao
2013-01-01
As the technology of gravitational-wave and neutrino detectors becomes increasingly mature, a multi-messenger era of astronomy is ushered in. Advanced gravitational wave detectors are close to making a ground-breaking discovery of gravitational wave bursts (GWBs) associated with mergers of double neutron stars (NS-NS). It is essential to study the possible electromagnetic (EM) and neutrino emission counterparts of these GWBs. Recent observations and numerical simulations suggest that at least a fraction of NS-NS mergers may leave behind a massive millisecond magnetar as the merger product. Here we show that protons accelerated in the forward shock powered by a magnetar wind pushing the ejecta launched during the merger process would interact with photons generated in the dissipating magnetar wind and emit high energy neutrinos and photons. We estimate the typical energy and fluence of the neutrinos from such a scenario. We find that $\\sim$PeV neutrinos could be emitted from the shock front as long as the ejec...
Zanotti, O; Font, J A
2003-01-01
We present general relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of constant specific angular momentum tori orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. These tori are expected to form as a result of stellar gravitational collapse, binary neutron star merger or disruption, can reach very high rest-mass densities and behave effectively as neutron stars but with a toroidal topology (i.e. ``toroidal neutron stars''). Our attention is here focussed on the dynamical response of these objects to axisymmetric perturbations. We show that, upon the introduction of perturbations, these systems either become unstable to the runaway instability or exhibit a regular oscillatory behaviour resulting in a quasi-periodic variation of the accretion rate as well as of the mass quadrupole. The latter, in particular, is responsible for the emission of intense gravitational radiation whose signal-to-noise ratio at the detector is comparable or larger than the typical one expected in stellar-core collapse, making these new sources of gravitationa...
Shinkai, Hisa-aki; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu
2017-02-01
Based on a dynamical formation model of a supermassive black hole (SMBH), we estimate the expected observational profile of gravitational waves at ground-based detectors, such as KAGRA or advanced LIGO/VIRGO. Noting that the second generation of detectors have enough sensitivity from 10 Hz and up (especially with KAGRA owing to its location at less seismic noise), we are able to detect the ring-down gravitational wave of a BH with mass Madvanced LIGO/VIRGO), we find that the BH merger of its total mass M∼ 60{M}ȯ is at the peak of the expected mass distribution. With its signal-to-noise ratio ρ =10 (30), we estimate the event rate R∼ 200 (20) per year in the most optimistic case, and we also find that BH mergers in the range M 1 per year for ρ =10. Thus, if we observe a BH with more than 100{M}ȯ in future gravitational-wave observations, our model naturally explains its source.
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Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J
2014-01-01
We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency $50\\le f_{0}/\\mathrm{Hz} \\le 2000$ and decay timescale $0.0001\\lesssim \\tau/\\mathrm{s} \\lesssim 0.1$ characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass $50 \\le M/\\mathrm{M}_\\odot \\le 450$ and component mass ratios of either 1:1 or 4:1. For systems with total mass $100 \\le M/\\mathrm{M}_\\odot \\le 150$, we report a 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of binary IMBH mergers with non-spinning and equal mass components of $6.9\\times10^{-8}\\,$Mpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$. We also report a rate upper limit for ringdown waveforms from perturbed IMBHs,...
Enoki, M; Nagashima, M; Sugiyama, N; Enoki, Motohiro; Inoue, Kaiki T.; Nagashima, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2004-01-01
We investigate the expected gravitational wave emission from coalescing supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries resulting from mergers of their host galaxies. When galaxies merge, the SMBHs in the host galaxies sink to the center of the new merged galaxy and form a binary system. We employ a semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation based on the hierarchical clustering scenario to estimate the amplitude of the expected stochastic gravitational wave background owing to inspiraling SMBH binaries and bursts owing to the SMBH binary coalescence events. We find that the characteristic strain amplitude of the background radiation is $h_c(f) \\sim 10^{-16} (f/1 \\mu {\\rm Hz})^{-2/3}$ for $f \\lesssim 1 \\mu {\\rm Hz}$ just below the detection limit from measurements of the pulsar timing provided that SMBHs coalesce simultaneously when host galaxies merge. The main contribution to the total strain amplitude of the background radiation comes from SMBH coalescence events at $0
Rasskazov, Alexander
2016-01-01
We compute the isotropic gravitational wave (GW) background produced by binary supermassive black holes (SBHs) in galactic nuclei. In our model, massive binaries evolve at early times via gravitational-slingshot interaction with nearby stars, and at later times by the emission of GWs. Our expressions for the rate of binary hardening in the "stellar" regime are taken from the recent work of Vasiliev et al., who show that in the non-axisymmetric galaxies expected to form via mergers, stars are supplied to the center at high enough rates to ensure binary coalescence on Gyr timescales. We also include, for the first time, the extra degrees of freedom associated with evolution of the binary's orbital plane; in rotating nuclei, interaction with stars causes the orientation and the eccentricity of a massive binary to change in tandem, leading in some cases to very high eccentricities (e>0.9) before the binary enters the GW-dominated regime. We argue that previous studies have over-estimated the mean ratio of SBH mas...
Haiman, Zoltán
2017-07-01
The gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole (BBH) with masses 104≲M ≲107 M⊙ can be detected with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) once their orbital frequency exceeds 10-4- 10-5 Hz . The binary separation at this stage is a =O (100 )Rg (gravitational radius), and the orbital speed is v /c =O (0.1 ). We argue that at this stage, the binary will be producing bright electromagnetic (EM) radiation via gas bound to the individual BHs. Both BHs will have their own photospheres in x-ray and possibly also in optical bands. Relativistic Doppler modulations and lensing effects will inevitably imprint periodic variability in the EM light curve, tracking the phase of the orbital motion, and serving as a template for the GW inspiral waveform. Advanced localization of the source by LISA weeks to months prior to merger will enable a measurement of this EM chirp by wide-field x-ray or optical instruments. A comparison of the phases of the GW and EM chirp signals will help break degeneracies between system parameters, and probe a fractional difference Δ v in the propagation speed of photons and gravitons as low as Δ v /c ≈10-17.
Bustos, Cesar; Sandeen, Ben; Chennakesavalu, Shriram; Littenberg, Tyson; Farr, Ben; Kalogera, Vassiliki
2016-01-01
Gravitational Waves (GWs) were predicted by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity as ripples in space-time that propagate outward from a source. Strong GW sources consist of compact binary systems such as Binary Neutron Stars (BNS) or Binary Black Holes (BBHs) that experience orbital shrinkage (inspiral) and eventual merger. Indirect evidence for the existence of GWs has been obtained through radio pulsar studies in BNS systems. A study of BBHs and other compact objects has limitations in the electromagnetic spectrum, therefore direct detections of GWs will open a new window into their nature. The effort targeting direct GWs detection is anchored on the development of a detector known as Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observation). Although detecting GW sources represents an anticipated breakthrough in physics, making GW astrophysics a reality critically relies on our ability to determine and measure the physical parameters associated with GW sources. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations on high-performance computing clusters for parameter estimation on high dimensional spaces (GW sources - 15 parameters). The quality of GW parameter estimation greatly depends on having the best possible knowledge of the expected waveform. Unfortunately, BBH GW production is very complex and our best waveforms are not valid across the full parameter space. With large-scale simulations we examine quantitatively the limitations of these waveforms in terms of extracting the astrophysical properties of BBH GW sources. We find that current waveforms are inadequate for BBH of unequal masses and demonstrate that improved waveforms are critically needed.
Entropic corrected Newton's law of gravitation and the loop quantum black hole gravitational atom
Aragão, R. G. L.; Silva, C. A. S.
2016-07-01
One proposal by Verlinde is that gravity is not a fundamental, but an entropic force (Verlinde in JHEP 1104:029, 2011. arXiv:hep-th/1001.0785). Based on this new interpretation of the gravity, Verlinde has provide us with a way to derive the Newton's law of gravitation from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula. On the other hand, since it has been demonstrated that this formula is susceptible to quantum gravity corrections, one may hope that such corrections could be inherited by Newton's law. In this sense, the entropic interpretation of Newton's law could be a prolific way in order to get verifiable or falsifiable quantum corrections to ordinary gravity in an observationally accessible regimes. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity is a theory that provide a scheme to approach the quantum properties of spacetime. From this theory, emerges a quantum corrected semiclassical black hole solution called loop quantum black hole or self-dual black hole. Among the interesting features of loop quantum black holes, is the fact that they give rise to a modified entropy-area relation where quantum gravity corrections are present. In this work, we obtain a quantum corrected Newton's law from the entropy-area relation given by loop quantum black holes by using the nonrelativistic Verlinde's approach. Moreover, in order to relate our results with the recent experimental activity, we consider the quantum mechanical properties of a huge gravitational atom consisting in a light neutral elementary particle in the presence of a loop quantum black hole.
Gravitational Black Hole Hair from Event Horizon Supertranslations
Averin, Artem; Gomez, Cesar; Lust, Dieter
2016-01-01
We discuss BMS supertranslations both at null-infinity and on the horizon for the case of the Schwarzschild black hole. We show that both kinds of supertranslations lead to infinetly many gapless physical excitations. On this basis we construct a quotient algebra using suited superpositions of both kinds of transformations which cannot be compensated by an ordinary BMS-supertranslation and therefore are intrinsically due to the presence of an event horizon. We show that these quotient transformations are physical and generate gapless excitations on the horizon that can account for the gravitational hair as well as for the black hole entropy. We identify the physics of these modes as associated with Bogolioubov-Goldstone modes due to quantum criticality. Classically the number of these gapless modes is infinite. However, we show that due to quantum criticality the actual amount of information-carriers becomes finite and consistent with Bekenstein entropy. Although we only consider the case of Schwarzschild geo...
Impact of mergers on LISA parameter estimation for nonspinning black hole binaries
McWilliams, Sean T; Baker, John G; Kelly, Bernard J
2009-01-01
We investigate the precision with which the parameters describing the characteristics and location of nonspinning black hole binaries can be measured with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). By using complete waveforms including the inspiral, merger and ringdown portions of the signals, we find that LISA will have far greater precision than previous estimates for nonspinning mergers that ignored the merger and ringdown. Our analysis covers nonspinning waveforms with moderate mass ratios, q >= 1/10, and total masses 10^5 < M/M_{Sun} < 10^7. We compare the parameter uncertainties using the Fisher matrix formalism, and establish the significance of mass asymmetry and higher-order content to the predicted parameter uncertainties resulting from inclusion of the merger. In real-time observations, the later parts of the signal lead to significant improvements in sky-position precision in the last hours and even the final minutes of observation. For comparable mass systems with total mass M/M_{Sun} =...
The typical mass ratio and typical final spin in supermassive black hole mergers
Gergely, László Á
2012-01-01
We prove that merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs) typically have neither equal masses, nor is their mass ratio too extreme. The majority of such mergers fall into the mass ratio range of 1:30 to 1:3, implying a spin flip during the inspiral. We also present a simple expression for the final spin $\\chi_{f}$ of the emerging SMBH, as function of the mass ratio, initial spin magnitudes, and orientation of the spins with respect to the orbital plane and each other. This formula approximates well more cumbersome expressions obtained from the fit with numerical simulations. By integrating over all equally likely orientations for precessing mergers we determine a lower approximant to the final spin distribution as function of the mass ratio alone. By folding this with the derived mass ratio dependent merger rate we derive a lower bound to the typical final spin value after mergers. We repeat the procedure deriving an upper bound for the typical spin in the case when the spins are aligned to the orbital angular m...
Vitale, Salvatore
2016-01-01
The two binary black-hole (BBH) coalescences detected by LIGO, GW150914 and GW151226, were relatively nearby sources, with a redshift of ~0.1. As the sensitivity of Advanced LIGO and Virgo increases in the next few years, they will eventually detect heavy BBHs up to redshifts of ~1. However, these are still relatively small distances compared with the size of the Universe, or with those encountered in most areas of astrophysics. In order to study BBH during the epoch of reionization, or black holes born from population III stars, more sensitive instruments are needed. Third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer are already in an advanced R&D stage. These detectors will be roughly a factor of 10 more sensitive than the current generation, and be able to detect BBH mergers beyond a redshift of 20. In this paper we quantify the precision with which these new facilities will be able to estimate the parameters of stellar-mass, heavy, and intermediate-mas...
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
Strong gravitational lensing by a charged Kiselev black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan)
2017-06-15
We study the gravitational lensing scenario where the lens is a spherically symmetric charged black hole (BH) surrounded by quintessence matter. The null geodesic equations in the curved background of the black hole are derived. The resulting trajectory equation is solved analytically via perturbation and series methods for a special choice of parameters, and the distance of the closest approach to black hole is calculated. We also derive the lens equation giving the bending angle of light in the curved background. In the strong field approximation, the solution of the lens equation is also obtained for all values of the quintessence parameter w{sub q}. For all w{sub q}, we show that there are no stable closed null orbits and that corrections to the deflection angle for the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole when the observer and the source are at large, but finite, distances from the lens do not depend on the charge up to the inverse of the distances squared. A part of the present work, analyzed, however, with a different approach, is the extension of Younas et al. (Phys Rev D 92:084042, 2015) where the uncharged case has been treated. (orig.)
Double-double radio galaxies: remnants of merger of supermassive binary black holes
Liu, F K; Cao, S L; Wu, Xue-Bing
2003-01-01
The activity of active galaxy may be triggered by the merge of galaxies and present-day galaxies are probably the product of successive minor mergers. The frequent galactic merges at high redshift imply that active galaxy harbors supermassive unequal-mass binary black holes in its center at least once during its life time. In this paper, we showed that the recently discovered double-lobed FR II radio galaxies are the remnants of such supermassive binary black holes. The inspiraling secondary black hole opens a gap in the accretion disk and removes the inner accretion disk when it merges into the primary black hole, leaving a big hole of about several hundreds of Schwarzschild radius in the vicinity of the post-merged supermassive black hole and leading to an interruption of jet formation. When the outer accretion disk slowly refills the big hole on a viscous time scale, the jet formation restarts and the interaction of the recurrent jets and the inter-galactic medium forms a secondary pair of lobes. We applie...
Mayer, Lucio
2013-12-01
We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of black holes (BHs) in galaxy mergers and circumnuclear discs in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we highlight for the first time the existence of a clear transition, for unequal mass BHs, between the regime in which the orbital decay is dominated by the conventional dynamical friction wake and one in which global disc torques associated with density waves launched by the secondary BH as well as co-orbital torques arising from gas gravitationally captured by the BH dominate and lead to faster decay. The new regime intervenes at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization driven dynamical friction. It bears some resemblance with planet migration in protoplanetary discs. While the orbital timescale is reasonably matched by the migration rate for the Type-I regime, the dominant negative torque arises near the co-rotation resonance, which is qualitatively similar to what is found in the so-called Type-III migration, the fastest migration regime identified so far for planets. This fast decay rate brings the BHs to separations of order 10-1 pc, the resolution limit of our simulations, in less than ˜107 yr in a smooth disc, while the decay timescale can increase to >108 yr in clumpy discs due to gravitational scattering with molecular clouds. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations will slow down the orbital decay subsequently. How fast the binary BH can reach the separation at which gravitational waves take over will be determined by the nature of the interaction with the circumbinary disc and the complex torques exerted the gas flowing through the edge of such disc, the subject of many recent studies. We also present a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for rapid orbital decay of massive BH binaries and those required for prominent
Gravitational wave signatures in black-hole forming core collapse
Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Aloy, Miguel A; Font, José A; Obergaulinger, Martin
2013-01-01
We present numerical simulations in general relativity of collapsing stellar cores. Our initial model consists of a low metallicity rapidly-rotating progenitor which is evolved in axisymmetry with the latest version of our general relativistic code CoCoNuT, which allows for black hole formation and includes the effects of a microphysical equation of state (LS220) and a neutrino leakage scheme to account for radiative losses. The motivation of our study is to analyze in detail the emission of gravitational waves in the collapsar scenario of long gamma-ray bursts. Our simulations show that the phase during which the proto-neutron star (PNS) survives before ultimately collapsing to a black hole is particularly optimal for gravitational wave emission. The high-amplitude waves last for several seconds and show a remarkable quasi-periodicity associated with the violent PNS dynamics, namely during the episodes of convection and the subsequent nonlinear development of the standing-accretion shock instability (SASI). ...
Quantum Lukewarm Black Holes and Weak Gravitational Lensing
Ghaffarnejad, H
2015-01-01
Aim of the paper is study gravitational lensing of quantum Lukewarm black hole (QLBL) and compare with results of gravitational lensing from classical Lukewarm black hole lens (CLBL). Applying numerical method, we evaluate deflection angle, image positions and magnifications in weak deflection limits. In CLBL case, bending light ray moves from both side of the lens but in QLBL case it moves from one side of the lens. Increasing amount of dimensionless cosmological parameter (quantum matter interaction parameter), rake of bending light ray is decreased in case of QLBL with respect to CLBL. Number and size of radius of Einstein rings rises in case of QLBL with respect to CLBL. Maximum number of rings is 3 in case of QLBL namely one more with respect to case of CLBL which is physically related to effects of quantum matter. There is two images (elementary and secondary) with maximum magnification which their locations are changed in case of QLBL with respect to case of CLBL. Also their locations changed by increa...
Supermassive recoil velocities for binary black-hole mergers with antialigned spins.
González, José A; Hannam, Mark; Sperhake, Ulrich; Brügmann, Bernd; Husa, Sascha
2007-06-08
Recent calculations of the recoil velocity in binary black-hole mergers have found the kick velocity to be of the order of a few hundred km/s in the case of nonspinning binaries and about 500 km/s in the case of spinning configurations, and have lead to predictions of a maximum kick of up to 1300 km/s. We test these predictions and demonstrate that kick velocities of at least 2500 km/s are possible for equal-mass binaries with antialigned spins in the orbital plane. Kicks of that magnitude are likely to have significant repercussions for models of black-hole formation, the population of intergalactic black holes, and the structure of host galaxies.
The role of major mergers in (obscured) black hole growth and galaxy evolution
Treister, E.; Privon, G.; Ricci, C.; Bauer, F.; Schawinski, K.; MODA Collaboration
2017-10-01
A clear picture is emerging in which rapid supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth episodes (luminous AGN) are directly linked to major galaxy mergers. Here, we present the first results from our MODA program aimed to obtain optical and near-IR Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy and mm/sub-mm ALMA maps for a sample of confirmed nearby dual AGN (separation 10 kpc), including the archetypical galaxy NGC6240. Specifically, we will focus here on Mrk 463, a very rich system of two galaxies separated by 3.8 kpc hosting two SMBH growing simultaneously. Clear evidence for complex morphologies and kinematics, outflows and feedback effects can be seen in this system, evidencing the deep connection between major galaxy mergers, SMBH growth and galaxy evolution.
Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India)
2015-12-15
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S on the power is S ∝ P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases. (orig.)
Gravitational anomalies and one dimensional behaviour of black holes
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2015-01-01
It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the Black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to that through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyse the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change ($\\dot{S}$) and the power ($P$) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress-tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of $\\dot{S}$ on power is $\\dot{S}\\propto P^{1/2}$ which is identical to that for the information flow in one dimensional system. This is established by using the ($1+1$) dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the ($1+3$) dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to one dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in later situation its value decreases.
Kyutoku, Koutarou; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke
2011-09-01
We study the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries with a variety of black hole spins aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum, and with the mass ratio in the range MBH/MNS=2-5, where MBH and MNS are the mass of the black hole and neutron star, respectively. We model neutron-star matter by systematically parametrized piecewise polytropic equations of state. The initial condition is computed in the puncture framework adopting an isolated horizon framework to estimate the black hole spin and assuming an irrotational velocity field for the fluid inside the neutron star. Dynamical simulations are performed in full general relativity by an adaptive-mesh refinement code, SACRA. The treatment of hydrodynamic equations and estimation of the disk mass are improved. We find that the neutron star is tidally disrupted irrespective of the mass ratio when the black hole has a moderately large prograde spin, whereas only binaries with low mass ratios, MBH/MNS≲3, or small compactnesses of the neutron stars bring the tidal disruption when the black hole spin is zero or retrograde. The mass of the remnant disk is accordingly large as ≳0.1M⊙, which is required by central engines of short gamma-ray bursts, if the black hole spin is prograde. Information of the tidal disruption is reflected in a clear relation between the compactness of the neutron star and an appropriately defined “cutoff frequency” in the gravitational-wave spectrum, above which the spectrum damps exponentially. We find that the tidal disruption of the neutron star and excitation of the quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole occur in a compatible manner in high mass-ratio binaries with the prograde black hole spin. The correlation between the compactness and the cutoff frequency still holds for such cases. It is also suggested by extrapolation that the merger of an extremely spinning black hole and an irrotational neutron star binary does not lead to the formation of an overspinning
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim
2016-09-01
The theoretical modeling of gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star mergers requires precise numerical relativity simulations. Assessing convergence of the numerical data and building the error budget is currently challenging due to the low accuracy of general-relativistic hydrodynamics schemes and to the grid resolutions that can be employed in (3 +1 )-dimensional simulations. In this work, we explore the use of high-order weighted-essentially-nonoscillatory (WENO) schemes in neutron star merger simulations and investigate the accuracy of the waveforms obtained with such methods. We find that high-order WENO schemes can be robustly employed for simulating the inspiral-merger phase and they significantly improve the assessment of the waveform's error budget with respect to finite-volume methods. High-order WENO schemes can be thus efficiently used for high-quality waveform production, and in future large-scale investigations of the binary parameter space.
Theoretical Physics Implications of the Binary Black-Hole Merger GW150914
Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans
2016-01-01
The gravitational-wave observation GW150914 by Advanced LIGO provides the first opportunity to learn about physics in the extreme gravity of coalescing binary black holes. The LIGO/Virgo collaboration has verified that this observation is consistent with General Relativity, constraining the presence of parametric anomalies in the signal. This paper expands this analysis to a larger class of anomalies, highlighting the inferences that can be drawn on non-standard theoretical physics mechanisms that would affect the signal. We find that GW150914 constrains a plethora of mechanisms associated with the generation and propagation of gravitational waves, including the activation of scalar fields, gravitational leakage into large extra dimensions, the variability of Newton's constant, the speed of gravity, a modified dispersion relation, gravitational Lorentz violation and the strong equivalence principle. Unlike other observations that limit these mechanisms, GW150914 is a direct probe of dynamical strong-field gra...
Khan, Sebastian; Husa, Sascha; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank; Pürrer, Michael; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro
2016-02-01
We present a new frequency-domain phenomenological model of the gravitational-wave signal from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of nonprecessing (aligned-spin) black-hole binaries. The model is calibrated to 19 hybrid effective-one-body-numerical-relativity waveforms up to mass ratios of 1 ∶18 and black-hole spins of |a /m |˜0.85 (0.98 for equal-mass systems). The inspiral part of the model consists of an extension of frequency-domain post-Newtonian expressions, using higher-order terms fit to the hybrids. The merger ringdown is based on a phenomenological ansatz that has been significantly improved over previous models. The model exhibits mismatches of typically less than 1% against all 19 calibration hybrids and an additional 29 verification hybrids, which provide strong evidence that, over the calibration region, the model is sufficiently accurate for all relevant gravitational-wave astronomy applications with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. Beyond the calibration region the model produces physically reasonable results, although we recommend caution in assuming that any merger-ringdown waveform model is accurate outside its calibration region. As an example, we note that an alternative nonprecessing model, SEOBNRv2 (calibrated up to spins of only 0.5 for unequal-mass systems), exhibits mismatch errors of up to 10% for high spins outside its calibration region. We conclude that waveform models would benefit most from a larger number of numerical-relativity simulations of high-aligned-spin unequal-mass binaries.
Direct Formation of Supermassive Black Holes via Multi-Scale Gas Inflows in Galaxy Mergers
Mayer, Lucio; Escala, Andres; Callegari, Simone
2009-01-01
Observations of distant bright quasars suggest that billion solar mass supermassive black holes (SMBHs) were already in place less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which light black hole seeds form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain their rapid appearance due to inefficient gas accretion. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas at the center of protogalaxies. However, this requires metal-free gas that does not cool efficiently and thus is not turned into stars, in contrast with the rapid metal enrichment of protogalaxies. Here we use a numerical simulation to show that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the required central gas accumulation with no need to suppress star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows produce an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk. Within the disk a second gas inflow accumulates more than 100 million solar masses of gas in a sub-parsec scale cloud in one hundred thousand years. The cloud undergoe...
Understanding the fate of merging supermassive black holes
Campanelli, M
2004-01-01
Understanding the fate of merging supermassive black holes in galactic mergers, and the gravitational wave emission from this process, are important LISA science goals. To this end, we present results from numerical relativity simulations of binary black hole mergers using the so-called Lazarus approach to model gravitational radiation from these events. In particular, we focus here on some recent calculations of the final spin and recoil velocity of the remnant hole formed at the end of a binary black hole merger process, which may constraint the growth history of massive black holes at the core of galaxies and globular clusters.
Entropic corrected Newton's law of gravitation and the Loop Quantum Black Hole gravitational atom
Aragão, R G L
2016-01-01
One proposal by Verlinde \\cite{Verlinde:2010hp} is that gravity is not a fundamental, but an entropic force. In this way, Verlinde has provide us with a way to derive the Newton's law of gravitation from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula. On the other hand, since it has been demonstrated that this formula is susceptible to quantum gravity corrections, one may hope that these corrections could be inherited by the Newton's law. In this way, the entropic interpretation of Newton's law could be a prolific way in order to get verifiable or falsifiable quantum corrections to ordinary gravity in an observationally accessible regimes. Loop quantum gravity is a theory that provide a way to approach the quantum properties of spacetime. From this theory, emerges a quantum corrected semiclassical black hole solution called loop quantum black holes or self-dual black holes. Among the interesting features of loop quantum black holes is the fact that they give rise to a modified entropy-area relation where quantum...
The influence of mergers and ram-pressure stripping on black hole-bulge correlations
Ginat, Yonadav Barry; Meiron, Yohai; Soker, Noam
2016-10-01
We analyse the scatter in the correlation between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and bulge stellar mass of the host galaxy, and infer that it cannot be accounted for by mergers alone. The merger-only scenario, where small galaxies merge to establish a proportionality relation between the SMBH and bulge masses, leads to a scatter around the linear proportionality line that increases with the square root of the SMBH (or bulge) mass. By examining a sample of 103 galaxies, we find that the intrinsic scatter increases more rapidly than expected from the merger-only scenario. The correlation between SMBH masses and their host galaxy properties is therefore more likely to be determined by a negative feedback mechanism that is driven by an active galactic nucleus. We find, a hint, that some galaxies with missing stellar mass reside close to the centre of clusters and speculate that ram-pressure stripping of gas off the young galaxy as it moves near the cluster centre, might explain the missing stellar mass at later times.
Fu, Hai; Myers, A D; Djorgovski, S G; Yan, Lin
2015-01-01
Representing simultaneous black hole accretion during a merger, binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) could provide valuable observational constraints to models of galaxy mergers and AGN triggering. High-resolution radio interferometer imaging offers a promising method to identify a large and uniform sample of binary AGNs, because it probes a generic feature of nuclear activity and is free from dust obscuration. Our previous search yielded 52 strong candidates of kpc-scale binaries over the 92 deg^2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 area with 2"-resolution Very Large Array (VLA) images. Here we present 0.3"-resolution VLA 6 GHz observations for six candidates that have complete optical spectroscopy. The new data confirm the binary nature of four candidates and identify the other two as line-of-sight projections of radio structures from single AGNs. The four binary AGNs at z ~ 0.1 reside in major mergers with projected separations of 4.2-12 kpc. Optical spectral modeling shows that their hosts ha...
Are Compton-Thick AGN the Missing Link Between Mergers and Black Hole Growth?
Kocevski, Dale D; Nandra, Kirpal; Koekemoer, Anton M; Salvato, Mara; Aird, James; Bell, Eric F; Hsu, Li-Ting; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Koo, David C; Lotz, Jennifer M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mozena, Mark; Rosario, David; Trump, Jonathan R
2015-01-01
We examine the host morphologies of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) at $z\\sim1$ to test whether obscured supermassive black hole growth at this epoch is preferentially linked to galaxy mergers. Our sample consists of 154 obscured AGN with $N_{\\rm H}>10^{23.5}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $z<1.5$. Using visual classifications, we compare the morphologies of these AGN to control samples of moderately obscured ($10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ $
Mayer, Lucio
2013-01-01
We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of BHs in galaxy mergers and circunmunclear disks in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we discuss the importance of a fast orbital decay regime dominated by global disk torques rather than by the local dynamical friction wake. This regime can dominate at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization dominated by local dynamical friction. It is similar to Type-I migration in planetary evolution. It can bring the black holes to separations small enough for gravitational waves to take over on a timescale ranging from less than $\\sim 10^7$ yr to up to $10^8$ yr, depending on whether the interstellar medium is smooth or clumpy. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations slows down but does not interrupt the orbital decay.Subsequently, we discuss a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for...
Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can we see what LISA will hear?
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are formed when galaxies merge. The final stages of this coalescence produce strong gravitational wave signals that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. When the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can we see what LISA will hear?
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are formed when galaxies merge. The final stages of this coalescence produce strong gravitational wave signals that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. When the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
Privitera, Stephen; Ajith, Parameswaran; Cannon, Kipp; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Frei, Melissa A; Hanna, Chad; Weinstein, Alan J; Whelan, John T
2014-01-01
We demonstrate the implementation of a sensitive search pipeline for gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes whose components have spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We study the pipeline recovery of simulated gravitational wave signals from aligned-spin binary black holes added to real detector noise, comparing the pipeline performance with aligned-spin filter templates to the same pipeline with non-spinning filter templates. Our results exploit a three-parameter phenomenological waveform family that models the full inspiral-merger-ringdown coalescence and treats the effect of aligned spins with a single effective spin parameter \\chi. We construct template banks from these waveforms by a stochastic placement method and use these banks as filters in the recently-developed gstlal search pipeline. We measure the observable volume of the analysis pipeline for binary black hole signals with total mass in [15,25] solar masses and \\chi in [0, 0.85]. We find an increase in observable vol...
Cho, Hee-Suk
2015-01-01
The phenomenological gravitational waveform models, i.e. the PhenomA, the PhenomB and the PhenomC, generate full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms of coalescing binary back holes (BBHs). These models are defined in the Fourier domain and thus can be used for fast matched filtering in the gravitational wave search. The PhenomA has been developed for nonspinning BBH waveforms, while the PhenomB and the PhenomC can model the nonprecessing BBH waveforms. In this work, we study the validity of the phenomenological models for nonspinning BBH searches at low masses, $m_{1,2}\\geq 4 M_{sun}$ and $m_1+m_2\\equiv M \\leq 30 M_{sun}$, with Advanced LIGO sensitivity. As our complete signal waveform model, we adopt the EOBNRv2 that is a time domain inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model. To investigate the search efficiency of the phenomenological templates, we calculate fitting factors by exploring overlap surfaces. We find that only the PhenomC is valid to obtain the fitting factors better than 0.97 in the mass range of ...
Weak gravitational lensing by fourth order gravity black holes
Horváth, Zsolt; Hobill, David; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2012-01-01
We discuss weak lensing characteristics for black holes in a fourth order f(R) gravity theory, characterized by a gravitational strength parameter $\\sigma $ and a distance scale $r_{c}$. Above $r_{c}$ gravity is strengthened and as a consequence weak lensing features are modified compared to the Schwarzschild case. We find a critical impact parameter (depending upon $r_{c}$) for which the behavior of the deflection angle changes. Using the Virbhadra-Ellis lens equation we improve the computation of the image positions, Einstein ring radii, magnification factors and the magnification ratio. We demonstrate that the magnification ratio as function of image separation has a different power-law dependence for each parameter $\\sigma $. As these are the lensing quantities most conveniently determined by direct measurements, future lensing surveys will be able to constrain the parameter $\\sigma $ based on this prediction.
Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad R; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A
2015-01-01
Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. In this paper, we construct an accurate and fast-to-evaluate surrogate model for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from non-spinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios from $1$ to $10$ and durations corresponding to about $15$ orbits before merger. Our surrogate, which is built using reduced order modeling techniques, is distinct from traditional modeling efforts. We find that the full multi-mode surrogate model agrees with waveforms generated by NR to within the numerical error of the NR code. In particular, we show that our modeling strategy produces surrogates which can correctly predict NR waveforms that were {\\em not} used for the surrogate's training. For all practical purposes, then, the surrogate waveform model is equivalent to the high-accuracy, large-scale simulation waveform but can be evaluated in a millisecond to a second dependin...
Gravitational Collapse and Black Hole Formation in a Braneworld
Wang, Daoyan
2015-01-01
In this thesis we present the first numerical study of gravitational collapse in braneworlds within the framework of the single brane model proposed by Randall and Sundrum (RSII). We directly show that the evolutions of sufficiently strong initial data configurations result in black holes (BHs) with finite extension into the bulk. The extension changes from sphere to pancake (or cigar, seen from a different perspective) as the size of BH increases. We find preliminary evidences that BHs of the same size generated from distinct initial data profiles are geometrically indistinguishable. As such, a no-hair theorem of BH (uniqueness of BH) is suggested to hold in the RSII spacetimes studied in this thesis---these spacetimes are axisymmetric without angular momentum and non-gravitational charges. In particular, the BHs we obtained as the results of the dynamical system, are consistent with the ones previously obtained from a static vacuum system by Figueras and Wiseman. We also obtained some results in closed form...
Gravitational Waves from Direct Collapse Black Holes Formation
Pacucci, Fabio; Marassi, Stefania
2015-01-01
The possible formation of Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBHs) in the first metal-free atomic cooling halos at high redshifts ($z > 10$) is nowadays object of intense study and several methods to prove their existence are currently under development. The abrupt collapse of a massive ($\\sim 10^4 - 10^5 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$) and rotating object is a powerful source of gravitational waves emission. In this work, we employ modern waveforms and the improved knowledge on the DCBHs formation rate to estimate the gravitational signal emitted by these sources at cosmological distances. Their formation rate is very high ($\\sim 10^4 \\, \\mathrm{yr^{-1}}$ up to $z\\sim20$), but due to a short duration of the collapse event ($\\sim 2-30\\, \\mathrm{s}$, depending on the DCBH mass) the integrated signal from these sources is characterized by a very low duty-cycle (${\\cal D}\\sim 10^{-3}$), i.e. a shot-noise signal. Our results show that the estimated signal lies above the foreseen sensitivity of the Ultimate-DECIGO observatory ...
Eccentric binary black-hole mergers: The transition from inspiral to plunge in general relativity
Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; González, José A.; Brügmann, Bernd; Ansorg, Marcus
2008-09-01
We study the transition from inspiral to plunge in general relativity by computing gravitational waveforms of nonspinning, equal-mass black-hole binaries. We consider three sequences of simulations, starting with a quasicircular inspiral completing 1.5, 2.3 and 9.6 orbits, respectively, prior to coalescence of the holes. For each sequence, the binding energy of the system is kept constant and the orbital angular momentum is progressively reduced, producing orbits of increasing eccentricity and eventually a head-on collision. We analyze in detail the radiation of energy and angular momentum in gravitational waves, the contribution of different multipolar components and the final spin of the remnant, comparing numerical predictions with the post-Newtonian approximation and with extrapolations of point-particle results. We find that the motion transitions from inspiral to plunge when the orbital angular momentum L=Lcrit≃0.8M2. For Lcensorship conjecture.
Inspiral, merger and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries: a multipolar analysis
Berti, E; Cardoso, V; González, J A; Hannam, M; Husa, S; Sperhake, U; Berti, Emanuele; Bruegmann, Bernd; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Sperhake, Ulrich
2007-01-01
We study the inspiral, merger and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries by analyzing a catalogue of numerical simulations for seven different values of the mass ratio (from q=M2/M1=1 to q=4). We compare numerical and Post-Newtonian results by projecting the waveforms onto spin-weighted spherical harmonics, characterized by angular indices (l,m). We find that the Post-Newtonian equations predict remarkably well the relation between the wave amplitude and the orbital frequency for each (l,m), and that the convergence of the Post-Newtonian series to the numerical results is non-monotonic. To leading order the total energy emitted in the merger phase scales like eta^2 and the spin of the final black hole scales like eta, where eta=q/(1+q)^2 is the symmetric mass ratio. We study the multipolar distribution of the radiation, finding that odd-l multipoles are suppressed in the equal mass limit. Higher multipoles carry a larger fraction of the total energy as q increases. We introduce and compare three differe...
McWilliams, Sean T.; Lang, Ryan N.; Baker, John G.; Thorpe, James Ira
2011-01-01
We investigate the capability of LISA to measure the sky position of equal-mass, nonspinning black hole binaries, including for the first time the entire inspiral-merger-ringdown signal, the effect of the LISA orbits, and the complete three-channel LISA response. For an ensemble of systems near the peak of LISA's sensitivity band, with total rest mass of 2 x l0(exp 6) Stellar Mass at a redshift of z = 1 with random orientations and sky positions, we find median sky localization errors of approximately approx. 3 arcminutes. This is comparable to the field of view of powerful electromagnetic telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, that could be used to search for electromagnetic signals associated with merging black holes. We investigate the way in which parameter errors decrease with measurement time, focusing specifically on the additional information provided during the merger-ringdown segment of the signal. We find that this information improves all parameter estimates directly, rather than through diminishing correlations with any subset of well-determined parameters.
Comparing numerical and analytic approximate gravitational waveforms
Afshari, Nousha; Lovelace, Geoffrey; SXS Collaboration
2016-03-01
A direct observation of gravitational waves will test Einstein's theory of general relativity under the most extreme conditions. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO, began searching for gravitational waves in September 2015 with three times the sensitivity of initial LIGO. To help Advanced LIGO detect as many gravitational waves as possible, a major research effort is underway to accurately predict the expected waves. In this poster, I will explore how the gravitational waveform produced by a long binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown is affected by how fast the larger black hole spins. In particular, I will present results from simulations of merging black holes, completed using the Spectral Einstein Code (black-holes.org/SpEC.html), including some new, long simulations designed to mimic black hole-neutron star mergers. I will present comparisons of the numerical waveforms with analytic approximations.
Gravitational Waves from Hyper-Accretion onto Nascent Black Holes
Araya-Gochez, R A
2003-01-01
We examine the possibility that hyper-accretion onto newly born, black holes occurs in highly intermittent, non-asymmetric fashion favorable to gravitational wave emission in a neutrino cooled disk. This picture of near-hole accretion is motivated by magneto-rotationally induced, ultra-relativistic disk dynamics in the region of the flow bounded from below by the marginally bound geodesic radius. For high spin values, a largely coherent magnetic field in this region has the dynamical implication of compact mass segregation at the displacement nodes of the non-axisymmetric, MRI modes. When neutrino stress competes favorably for the disk dynamical structure, the matter clumps may be rather dense and sufficiently long-lived to excite the Quasi-Normal Ringing (a.k.a. QNR) modes of the Kerr geometry upon their in-fall. We find that such accretion flow may drive bar-like, quadrupole (l,m=2,2) modes in nearly resonant fashion for spin parameters $a \\geq .9$. The ensuing build up in strain amplitude of the undamped o...
Gravitational black hole hair from event horizon supertranslations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Averin, Artem [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics,Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,80805 München (Germany); Dvali, Gia [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics,Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,80805 München (Germany); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Gomez, Cesar [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lüst, Dieter [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics,Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,80805 München (Germany)
2016-06-16
We discuss BMS supertranslations both at null-infinity BMS{sup −} and on the horizon BMS{sup H} for the case of the Schwarzschild black hole. We show that both kinds of supertranslations lead to infinetly many gapless physical excitations. On this basis we construct a quotient algebra A≡BMS{sup H}/BMS{sup −} using suited superpositions of both kinds of transformations which cannot be compensated by an ordinary BMS-supertranslation and therefore are intrinsically due to the presence of an event horizon. We show that transformations in A are physical and generate gapless excitations on the horizon that can account for the gravitational hair as well as for the black hole entropy. We identify the physics of these modes as associated with Bogolioubov-Goldstone modes due to quantum criticality. Classically the number of these gapless modes is infinite. However, we show that due to quantum criticality the actual amount of information-carriers becomes finite and consistent with Bekenstein entropy. Although we only consider the case of Schwarzschild geometry, the arguments are extendable to arbitrary space-times containing event horizons.
Gravitational black hole hair from event horizon supertranslations
Averin, Artem; Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Lüst, Dieter
2016-06-01
We discuss BMS supertranslations both at null-infinity BMS- and on the horizon {BMS}^{mathscr{H}} for the case of the Schwarzschild black hole. We show that both kinds of supertranslations lead to infinetly many gapless physical excitations. On this basis we construct a quotient algebra mathcal{A}equiv {BMS}^{mathscr{H}}/{BMS}- using suited superpositions of both kinds of transformations which cannot be compensated by an ordinary BMS-supertranslation and therefore are intrinsically due to the presence of an event horizon. We show that transformations in mathcal{A} are physical and generate gapless excitations on the horizon that can account for the gravitational hair as well as for the black hole entropy. We identify the physics of these modes as associated with Bogolioubov-Goldstone modes due to quantum criticality. Classically the number of these gapless modes is infinite. However, we show that due to quantum criticality the actual amount of information-carriers becomes finite and consistent with Bekenstein entropy. Although we only consider the case of Schwarzschild geometry, the arguments are extendable to arbitrary space-times containing event horizons.
Rosado, Pablo A
2013-01-01
This paper presents a technique to search for supermassive black hole binaries (MBHBs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The search is based on the peculiar properties of merging galaxies that are found in a mock galaxy catalog from the Millennium Simulation. MBHBs are expected to be the main gravitational wave (GW) sources for pulsar timing arrays (PTAs); however, it is still unclear if the observed GW signal will be produced by a few single MBHBs, or if it will have the properties of a stochastic background. The goal of this work is to produce a map of the sky in which each galaxy is assigned a probability of having suffered a recent merger, and of hosting a MBHB that could be detected by PTAs. This constitutes a step forward in the understanding of the expected PTA signal: the skymap can be used to investigate the clustering properties of PTA sources and the spatial distribution of the observable GW signal power; moreover, galaxies with the highest probabilities could be used as inputs in targeted se...
Measuring intermediate mass black hole binaries with advanced gravitational wave detectors
Veitch, John; Mandel, Ilya
2015-01-01
We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms (SEOBNR) to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50 and 500 $M_\\odot$ and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ~200 $M_\\odot$, where the signal-to-noise-ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; (iv) sp...
Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Mukaida, Kyohei; Tada, Yuichiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2017-06-01
Primordial black holes (PBHs) are one of the candidates to explain the gravitational wave (GW) signals observed by the LIGO detectors. Among several phenomena in the early universe, cosmic inflation is a major example to generate PBHs from large primordial density perturbations. In this paper, we discuss the possibility to interpret the observed GW events as mergers of PBHs that are produced by cosmic inflation. The primordial curvature perturbation should be large enough to produce a sizable amount of PBHs, and thus we have several other probes to test this scenario. We point out that the current pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments already put severe constraints on GWs generated via the second-order effects, and that the observation of the cosmic microwave background puts severe restriction on its μ distortion. In particular, it is found that the scalar power spectrum should have a very sharp peak at k ˜1 06 Mpc-1 to fulfill the required abundance of PBHs while evading constraints from the PTA experiments together with the μ distortion. We propose a mechanism that can realize such a sharp peak. In the future, simple inflation models that generate PBHs via almost Gaussian fluctuations could be probed/excluded.
Simple model of complete precessing black-hole-binary gravitational waveforms.
Hannam, Mark; Schmidt, Patricia; Bohé, Alejandro; Haegel, Leïla; Husa, Sascha; Ohme, Frank; Pratten, Geraint; Pürrer, Michael
2014-10-10
The construction of a model of the gravitational-wave (GW) signal from generic configurations of spinning-black-hole binaries, through inspiral, merger, and ringdown, is one of the most pressing theoretical problems in the buildup to the era of GW astronomy. We present the first such model in the frequency domain, PhenomP, which captures the basic phenomenology of the seven-dimensional parameter space of binary configurations with only three key physical parameters. Two of these (the binary's mass ratio and an effective total spin parallel to the orbital angular momentum, which determines the inspiral rate) define an underlying nonprecessing-binary model. The nonprecessing-binary waveforms are then twisted up with approximate expressions for the precessional motion, which require only one additional physical parameter, an effective precession spin, χ(p). All other parameters (total mass, sky location, orientation and polarization, and initial phase) can be specified trivially. The model is constructed in the frequency domain, which will be essential for efficient GW searches and source measurements. We have tested the model's fidelity for GW applications by comparison against hybrid post-Newtonian-numerical-relativity waveforms at a variety of configurations--although we did not use these numerical simulations in the construction of the model. Our model can be used to develop GW searches, to study the implications for astrophysical measurements, and as a simple conceptual framework to form the basis of generic-binary waveform modeling in the advanced-detector era.
Cho, Hee-Suk
2016-01-01
We study the efficiency of nonspinning waveform templates in gravitational wave searches for aligned-spin binary black holes (BBHs). We use PhenomD, which is the most recent phenomenological waveform model designed to generate the full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms emitted from BBHs with the spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. Here, we treat the effect of aligned-spins with a single spin parameter $\\chi$. We consider the BBH signals with moderately small spins in the range of $-0.4\\leq \\chi \\leq 0.4$. Using nonspinning templates, we calculate fitting factors of the aligned-spin signals in a wide mass range up to $\\sim 100 M_{\\odot}$. We find that the signals with negative spins can have higher fitting factors than those with positive spins. If $\\chi = 0.3$, only the highly asymmetric-mass signals can have the fitting factors exceeding the threshold of 0.965, while the fitting factors for all of the signals can be larger than the threshold if $\\chi = -0.3$. We demonstrate that the discrepancy...
Gravitational-wave observations of binary black holes: Effect of non-quadrupole modes
Varma, Vijay; Husa, Sascha; Bustillo, Juan Calderon; Hannam, Mark; Puerrer, Michael
2014-01-01
We study the effect of non-quadrupolar modes in the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves (GWs) from non-spinning black-hole binaries. We evaluate the loss of signal-to-noise ratio and the systematic errors in the estimated parameters when one uses a quadrupole-mode template family to detect GW signals with all the relevant modes, for target signals with total masses $20 M_\\odot \\leq M \\leq 250 M_\\odot$ and mass ratios $1 \\leq q \\leq 18$. Target signals are constructed by matching numerical-relativity simulations describing the late inspiral, merger and ringdown of the binary with post-Newtonian/effective-one-body waveforms describing the early inspiral. We find that waveform templates modeling only the quadrupolar modes of the GW signal are sufficient (loss of detection rate $< 10\\%$) for the detection of GWs with mass ratios $q\\leq4$ using advanced GW observatories. Neglecting the effect of non-quadrupole modes will introduce systematic errors in the estimated parameters. The systemat...
Trifirò, Daniele; Gerosa, Davide; Berti, Emanuele; Kesden, Michael; Littenberg, Tyson; Sperhake, Ulrich
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes encode the evolution of their spins prior to merger. In the post-Newtonian regime and on the precession timescale, this evolution has one of three morphologies, with the spins either librating around one of two fixed points ("resonances") or circulating freely. In this work we perform full parameter estimation on resonant binaries with fixed masses and spin magnitudes, changing three parameters: a conserved "projected effective spin" $\\xi$ and resonant family $\\Delta\\Phi=0,\\pi$ (which uniquely label the source); the inclination $\\theta_{JN}$ of the binary's total angular momentum with respect to the line of sight (which determines the strength of precessional effects in the waveform); and the signal amplitude. We demonstrate that resonances can be distinguished for a wide range of binaries, except for highly symmetric configurations where precessional effects are suppressed. Motivated by new insight into double-spin evolution, we introduce new variables t...
Berti, E; González, J A; Sperhake, U; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich
2007-01-01
The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, non-linear effects may produce mode coupling. Mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, or by expanding the radiation field in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, non-linear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noi...
Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.
Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya
2015-10-02
We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater.
Hanna, Chad; Vousden, Will
2013-01-01
The first detections of gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers with advanced LIGO and Virgo observatories are anticipated in the next five years. These detections could pave the way for multi-messenger gravitational-wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) astronomy if GW triggers are successfully followed up with targeted EM observations. However, GW sky localization is relatively poor, with expected localization areas of ~10--100 square degrees; this presents a challenge for following up GW signals from compact binary mergers. Prioritizing wide-field follow-ups based on the probability of successful imaging is important when it is impossible to tile the entire gravitational-wave localization region. Galaxy catalogs were effective at narrowing down regions of the sky to search in initial attempts at joint GW/EM observations. The next generation of GW detectors will have a ten-fold increase in range thereby increasing the expected number of galaxies per unit solid angle a thousand-fold. As an addition...
Planckian energy scattering, colliding plane gravitational waves and black hole creation
Viswanathan, K S; Viswanathan, K S; Volovich, I V
1994-01-01
In a series of papers Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano and 't Hooft conjectured that black holes occur in the collision of two light particles at planckian energies. In this paper we discuss a possible scenario for such a process by using the Chandrasekhar-Ferrari-Xanthopoulos duality between the Kerr black hole solution and colliding plane gravitational waves. We clarify issues arising in the definition of transition amplitude from a quantum state containing only usual matter without black holes to a state containing black holes. Collision of two plane gravitational waves producing a space-time region which is locally isometric to an interior of black hole solution is considered. The phase of the transition amplitude from plane waves to white and black hole is calculated by using the Fabbrichesi, Pettorino, Veneziano and Vilkovisky approach. An alternative extension beyond the horizon in which the space-time again splits into two separating gravitational waves is also discussed. Such a process is interpreted a...
Gravitational axial perturbations and quasinormal modes of loop quantum black holes
Cruz, M B; Brito, F A
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves can be used as a way to investigate the structure of spacetime. Loop Quantum Gravity is a theory that propose a way to model the behavior of spacetime in situations where its atomic characteristic arises. Among these situations, the spacetime behavior near the Big Bang or black hole's singularity. A recent prediction of loop quantum gravity is the existence of sub-Planckian black holes called loop quantum black holes (LQBH) or self-dual black holes which correspond to a quantized version of Schwarzschild black hole. In this work, we study the gravitational waves spectrum emitted by a LQBH through the analysis of its the quasinormal modes. From the results obtained, loop quantum black holes have been shown stable under axial gravitational perturbations.
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.; Yagi, K.
2017-09-01
The merger of colliding black holes (BHs) should lead to the production of ringdown or quasinormal modes (QNMs), which may very well be sensitive to the state of the interior. We put this idea to the test with a recent proposal that the interior of a BH consists of a bound state of highly excited, long, closed, interacting strings; figuratively, a collapsed polymer. We show, using scalar perturbations for simplicity, that such BHs do indeed have a distinct signature in their QNM spectrum: A new class of modes whose frequencies are parametrically lower than the lowest-frequency mode of a classical BH and whose damping times are parametrically longer. The reason for the appearance of the new modes is that our model contains another scale, the string length, which is parametrically larger than the Planck length. This distinction between the collapsed-polymer model and general-relativistic BHs could be made with gravitational-wave observations and offers a means for potentially measuring the strength of the coupling in string theory. For example, GW150914 already allows us to probe the strength of the string coupling near the regime which is predicted by the unification of the gravitational and gauge-theory couplings. We also derive bounds on the amplitude of the collapsed-polymer QNMs that can be placed by current and future gravitational-wave observations.
Time Delay in Gravitational Lensing by a Charged Black Hole of String Theory
Rubio, E A L
2003-01-01
We calculate the time delay between different relativistic images formed by the gravitational lensing produced by the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Stromiger (GMGHS) charged black hole of heterotic string theory. Modeling the supermassive central objects of some galaxies as GMGHS black holes, numerical values of the time delays are estimated and compared with the correspondient Reissner-Nordstrom black holes . The time difference amounts to hours, thus being measurable and permiting to distinguish between General Relativity and String Theory charged black holes.
Driving the Growth of the Earliest Supermassive Black Holes with Major Mergers of Host Galaxies
Tanaka, Takamitsu L
2014-01-01
The formation mechanism of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in general, and of $\\sim 10^9\\,{\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ SMBHs observed as luminous quasars at redshifts $z> 6$ in particular, remains an open fundamental question. The presence of such massive BHs at such early times, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, implies that they grew via either super-Eddington accretion, or nearly uninterrupted gas accretion near the Eddington limit; the latter, at first glance, is at odds with empirical trends at lower redshifts, where quasar episodes associated with rapid BH growth are rare and brief. In this work, I examine whether and to what extent the growth of the $z> 6$ quasar SMBHs can be explained within the standard quasar paradigm, in which major mergers of host galaxies trigger episodes of rapid gas accretion below or near the Eddington limit. Using a suite of Monte Carlo merger tree simulations of the assembly histories of the likely hosts of the $z> 6$ quasars, I investigate (i) their growth and major...
Consequences of Radiative and Mechanical Feedback from Black Holes in Galaxy Mergers
Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P; Johansson, Peter H; Moster, Benjamin P
2013-01-01
We employ hydrodynamical simulations to study the effect of AGN mechanical and radiation feedback on the formation of bulge dominated galaxies via mergers of disk galaxies. The merging galaxies have mass-ratios of 1:1 to 6:1 and include pre-existing hot gaseous halos to properly account for the global impact of AGN feedback. We compare three models: (1) no black hole and no AGN feedback; (2) thermal AGN feedback; and (3) mechanical and radiative AGN feedback. The last model is motivated by observations of broad absorption line quasars which show winds with initial velocities of v_w ~ 10,000 km/s and also heating associated with the central AGN X-ray radiation. The primary changes in gas properties due to mechanical AGN feedback are lower thermal X-ray luminosity from the final galaxy - in better agreement with observations - and galactic outflows with higher velocity ~ 1000 km/s similar to recent direct observations of nearby merger remnants. The kinetic energy of the outflowing gas is a factor of ~ 20 higher...
Gravitational-wave energy and radiation reaction on quasi-spherical black holes
Hayward, S A
2000-01-01
Gravitational waves are given a local definition in a quasi-spherical approximation, describing roughly spherical but otherwise dynamical astrophysical objects, such as a black hole forming by binary black-hole coalescence. A local effective energy tensor is defined for the gravitational waves, satisfying standard energy conditions. Radiation reaction, such as the back-reaction of the gravitational waves on the black hole, may then be described by including the gravitational-wave energy tensor as a source in the truncated Einstein equations. This can be formulated as a second quasi-spherical approximation, which retains non-linear terms in the fields encoding the gravitational waves. The energy-momentum in a canonical frame is covariantly conserved. The strain to be measured by a distant detector is simply defined.
Quasinormal modes of gravitational field perturbation of regular phantom black holes
Li, Jin; Wen, Hao
2016-01-01
We study the gravitational quasi-normal modes (QNMs) for a kind of regular black hole named as phantom black hole (BH), which is a solution of a self-gravitating minimally coupled scalar field with an arbitrary potential.The parameter conditions of such BH are investigated in asymptotically flat, de sitter (dS), and anti de sitter (AdS) spacetimes separately. Considering the standard odd parity and even parity of gravitational perturbation, the corresponding master equations are derived and quasi-normal perturbation are discussed in asymptotically flat and dS spacetimes. The dynamic evolution of the perturbation field indicates the stability of gravitational perturbation directly. On the whole in asymptotically flat and dS spacetimes, the gravitational perturbations have the similar characteristics for odd and even parities. The decay speed of perturbation is strongly dependent on the scale $b$. Furthermore through the analysis of Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of such regular phantom black hole is als...
Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei
Merritt, David
2017-01-01
Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) will eventually detect the gravitational wave (GW) background produced by a cosmological population of binary supermassive black hole (SBHs). In this talk, I review the ways in which the formation and evolution of the binary population determine the amplitude and form of the GW spectrum. A major source of systematic uncertainty is the mass function of SBHs; in the past, SBH masses have often been overestimated, and the number of SBHs with trustworthy mass estimates is still very small. The presence of gas and stars around the binaries accelerates the evolution at large separations, reducing the amplitude of the GW spectrum at low frequencies. I will highlight two recent developments in our theoretical understanding of binary evolution. (1) Slight departures from axi-symmetry in a galaxy imply a sustained supply of stars to the very center, thus overcoming the “final-parsec problem”. (2) In the generic case of a rotating nucleus, the plane of the binary’s orbit evolves predictably toward alignment with the symmetry plane of the nucleus; the binary’s eccentricity also evolves in tandem with the orientation, sometimes reaching values close to one. These processes should leave distinct imprints on the stochastic GW spectrum, and have important implications for the likelihood of GW detection in the near future.
Gravitational collapse and entropy of Black Holes with magnetic sources
Rey, A Ulacia
2011-01-01
This thesis is divided in two parts, each one addressing problems that can be relevant in the study of compact objects. The first part deals with the study of a magnetized and self-gravitating gas of degenerated fermions (electrons and neutrons) as sources of a Bianchi-I space-time. We solve numerically the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for a large set of initial conditions of the dynamical variables. The collapsing singularity is isotropic for the neutron gas and can be anisotropic for the electron gas. This result is consistent with the fact that electrons exhibit a stronger coupling with the magnetic field, which is the source of anisotropy in the dynamical variables. In the second part we calculate the entropy of extremal black holes in 4 and 5 dimensions, using the entropy function formalism of Sen and taking into account higher order derivative terms that come from the complete set of Riemann invariants. The resulting entropies show the deviations from the well know Bekenstein-Hawking area law.
Gravitational torque-driven black hole growth and feedback in cosmological simulations
Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Özel, Feryal; Hopkins, Philip F.
2017-01-01
We investigate black hole-host galaxy scaling relations in cosmological simulations with a self-consistent black hole growth and feedback model. Our sub-grid accretion model captures the key scalings governing angular momentum transport by gravitational torques from galactic scales down to parsec scales, while our kinetic feedback implementation enables the injection of outflows with properties chosen to match observed nuclear outflows (star formation-driven winds are not included to isolate the effects of black hole feedback). We show that `quasar mode' feedback can have a large impact on the thermal properties of the intergalactic medium and the growth of galaxies and massive black holes for kinetic feedback efficiencies as low as 0.1 per cent relative to the bolometric luminosity. None the less, our simulations indicate that the black hole-host scaling relations are only weakly dependent on the effects of black hole feedback on galactic scales, since black hole feedback suppresses the growth of galaxies and massive black holes by a similar amount. In contrast, the rate at which gravitational torques feed the central black hole relative to the host galaxy star formation rate governs the slope and normalization of the black hole-host correlations. Our results suggest that a common gas supply regulated by gravitational torques is the primary driver of the observed co-evolution of black holes and galaxies.
Cardoso, V; Yoshida, S; Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose' P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun
2003-01-01
We calculate the quasinormal modes (QNMs) for gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole in the five dimensional (5D) spacetime with a continued fraction method. As shown by Kodama and Ishibashi, the gravitational perturbations of higher-dimensional (higher-D) Schwarzschild black holes can be divided into three decoupled classes, namely scalar-gravitational, vector-gravitational, and tensor-gravitational perturbations. In order to examine the QNMs, we make use of Schr\\"odinger-type wave equations for determining the dynamics of the gravitational perturbations. We apply the continued fraction method and expand the eigenfunctions around the black hole horizon in terms of Fr\\"obenius series. It is found that the resulting recurrence relations become an eight-term relation for the scalar-gravitational perturbations and four-term relations for the vector-gravitational and tensor-gravitational perturbations. For all the types of perturbations, the QNMs associated with $l=2$, $l=3$, and $l=4$ are ca...
Detection of radial velocity shifts due to black hole binaries near merger
McKernan, B
2015-01-01
The barycenter of a massive black hole binary will lie outside the event horizon of the primary black hole for modest values of mass ratio and binary separation. Analagous to radial velocity shifts in stellar emission lines caused by the tug of planets, the radial velocity of the primary black hole around the barycenter can leave a tell-tale oscillation in the broad component of Fe K$\\alpha$ emission from accreting gas. Near-future X-ray telescopes such as Astro-H and Athena will have the energy resolution ($\\delta E/E \\lesssim 10^{-3}$) to search nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) for the presence of binaries with mass ratios $q \\gtrsim 0.01$, separated by several hundred gravitational radii. The general-relativistic and Lense-Thirring precession of the periapse of the secondary orbit imprints a detectable modulation on the oscillations. The lowest mass binaries in AGN will oscillate many times within typical X-ray exposures, leading to a broadening of the line wings and an over-estimate of black hole spin ...
Fossil Gas and the Electromagnetic Precursor of Supermassive Binary Black Hole Mergers
Chang, P; Menou, K; Quataert, E
2009-01-01
Using a one-dimensional height integrated model, we calculate the evolution of an unequal mass binary black hole with a coplanar gas disk that contains a gap due to the presence of the secondary black hole. Viscous evolution of the outer circumbinary disk initially hardens the binary, while the inner disk drains onto the primary (central) black hole. As long as the inner disk remains cool and thin at low $\\dot{M}_{\\rm ext}$ (rather than becoming hot and geometrically thick), the mass of the inner disk reaches an asymptotic mass typically $\\sim 10^{-3}-10^{-4}\\Msun$. Once the semimajor axis shrinks below a critical value, angular momentum losses from gravitational waves dominate over viscous transport in hardening the binary. The inner disk then no longer responds viscously to the inspiraling black holes. Instead, tidal interactions with the secondary rapidly drive the inner disk into the primary. Tidal and viscous dissipation in the inner disk lead to a late time brightening in luminosity $L\\propto t_{\\rm min...
Prospects for true calorimetry on Kerr black holes in core-collapse supernovae and mergers
van Putten, Maurice H P M; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Masa-Katsu, Fujimoto; Della Valle, Massimo
2011-01-01
Observational evidence for black hole spin down has been found in the normalized light curves of long GRBs in the BATSE catalogue. Over the duration $T_{90}$ of the burst, matter swept up by the central black hole is susceptible to non-axisymmetries producing gravitational radiation with a negative chirp. A time sliced matched filtering method is introduced to capture phase-coherence on intermediate timescales, $\\tau$, here tested by injection of templates into experimental strain noise, $h_n(t)$. For TAMA 300, $h_n(f)\\simeq 10^{-21}$ Hz$^{-\\frac{1}{2}}$ at $f=1$ kHz gives a sensitivity distance for a reasonably accurate extraction of the trajectory in the time frequency domain of about $D\\simeq 0.07-0.10$ Mpc for spin fown of black holes of mass $M=10-12M_\\odot$ with $\\tau=1$ s. Extrapolation to advanced detectors implies $D\\simeq 35-50$ Mpc for $h_n(f)\\simeq 2\\times 10^{-24}$ Hz$^{-\\frac{1}{2}}$ around 1 kHz, which will open a new window to rigorous calorimetry on Kerr black holes.
Three-dimensional black holes, gravitational solitons, kinks and wormholes for BHT massive gravity
Oliva, Julio; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo
2009-07-01
The theory of massive gravity in three dimensions recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm and Townsend (BHT) is considered. At the special case when the theory admits a unique maximally symmetric solution, a conformally flat solution that contains black holes and gravitational solitons for any value of the cosmological constant is found. For negative cosmological constant, the black hole is characterized in terms of the mass and the ``gravitational hair'' parameter, providing a lower bound for the mass. For negative mass parameter, the black hole acquires an inner horizon, and the entropy vanishes at the extremal case. Gravitational solitons and kinks, being regular everywhere, can be obtained from a double Wick rotation of the black hole. A wormhole solution in vacuum that interpolates between two static universes of negative spatial curvature is obtained as a limiting case of the gravitational soliton with a suitable identification. The black hole and the gravitational soliton fit within a set of relaxed asymptotically AdS conditions as compared with the one of Brown and Henneaux. In the case of positive cosmological constant the black hole possesses an event and a cosmological horizon, whose mass is bounded from above. Remarkably, the temperatures of the event and the cosmological horizons coincide, and at the extremal case one obtains the analogue of the Nariai solution, dS2 × S1. A gravitational soliton is also obtained through a double Wick rotation of the black hole. The Euclidean continuation of these solutions describes instantons with vanishing Euclidean action. For vanishing cosmological constant the black hole and the gravitational soliton are asymptotically locally flat spacetimes. The rotating solutions can be obtained by boosting the previous ones in the t-phi plane.
Eccentric binary black-hole mergers: The transition from inspiral to plunge in general relativity
Sperhake, U; Cardoso, V; González, J A; Brügmann, B; Ansorg, M
2007-01-01
We study the transition from inspiral to plunge in general relativity by computing gravitational waveforms of non-spinning, equal-mass black-hole binaries. We consider two sequences of simulations. The longer (shorter) sequence starts with a quasi-circular inspiral completing about 2.3 (1.5) orbits prior to coalescence of the holes. For each sequence, the binding energy of the system is kept constant and the orbital angular momentum is progressively reduced to zero, producing orbits of increasing eccentricity and eventually a head-on collision. We analyze in detail the radiation of energy and angular momentum in gravitational waves, the contribution of different multipolar components and the final spin of the remnant. We find that the motion transitions from inspiral to plunge when the orbital angular momentum L=L_crit is about 0.8M. For L
Sesana, A
2012-01-01
Space based gravitational wave astronomy will open a completely new window on the Universe and massive black holes binaries are expected to be among the primary actors on this upcoming stage. The New Gravitational-wave Observatory (NGO) is a space interferometer proposal derived from the former Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept. We describe here its capabilities of observing massive black hole binaries throughout the Universe, measuring their relevant parameters (masses, spins, distance to the observer) to high precision. The statistical properties of the population of detected systems can be used to constrain the massive black hole cosmic history, providing deep insights into the faint, high redshift Universe.
Quantum entropies of electromagnetic and gravitational fields on Taub-NUT black hole background
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Xiao-ying; XIAO Shi-fa; LI Fang-yu
2005-01-01
The main characteristics and Petrov type of Taub-NUT spacetime are studied, and the quantum entropy of Taub-NUT black hole due to electromagnetic and gravitational fields is calculated via brick-wall model. It is shown that the quantum entropy has both the linearly and the logarithmically divergent terms. For electromagnetic field, these terms depend on the characteristic of the black hole; while for gravitational field, they depend not only on the characteristic of the black hole but also on the spin of the fields.
Saleh, Mahamat; Bouetou, Bouetou Thomas; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin
2016-04-01
In this work, quasinormal modes (QNMs) of the Schwarzschild black hole are investigated by taking into account the quantum fluctuations. Gravitational and Dirac perturbations were considered for this case. The Regge-Wheeler gauge and the Dirac equation were used to derive the perturbation equations of the gravitational and Dirac fields respectively and the third order Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation method is used for the computing of the quasinormal frequencies. The results show that due to the quantum fluctuations in the background of the Schwarzschild black hole, the QNMs of the black hole damp more slowly when increasing the quantum correction factor (a), and oscillate more slowly.
Saleh, Mahamat; Crépin, Kofané Timoléon
2016-01-01
In this work, quasinormal modes (QNMs) of the Schwarzschild black hole are investigated by taking into account the quantum fluctuations. Gravitational and Dirac perturbations were considered for this case. The Regge-Wheeler gauge and the Dirac equation were used to derive the perturbation equations of the gravitational and Dirac fields respectively and the third order Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation method is used for the computing of the quasinormal frequencies. The results show that due to the quantum fluctuations in the background of the Schwarzschild black hole, the QNMs of the black hole damp more slowly when increasing the quantum correction factor (a), and oscillate more slowly.
Strong Gravitational Lensing by the Large R-Charged Non-Extremal Black Hole
Naji, J
2016-01-01
In this paper, gravitational lensing scenario due to the R-charged black hole of five dimensional supergravity investigated. We study the effective potential of traveling photons near the R-charged black hole and find some stable orbits for the photons. We also find that the effect of the black hole charges is increasing of the effective potential. We have shown that photons do not cross the horizon of the very large R-charged black hole. By using the numerical study we find that the black hole charges and non-extremality parameter decrease value of the deflection angle.
Aspects of Black Holes in Gravitational Theories with Broken Lorentz and Diffeomorphism Symmetries
Satheeshkumar, V H
2015-01-01
Since Stephen Hawking discovered that black holes emit thermal radiation, black holes have become the theoretical laboratories for testing our ideas on quantum gravity. This dissertation is devoted to the study of singularities, the formation of black holes by gravitational collapse and the global structure of spacetime. All our investigations are in the context of a recently proposed approach to quantum gravity, which breaks Lorentz and diffeomorphism symmetries at very high energies.
Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular
Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Chen, Xian
2016-05-01
Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modelling. In this work, we show that `hyperstellar' black holes (HSBs) with masses 30 ≲ MBH/M⊙ ≲ 100, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal 10 M⊙, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e. a < 0.5. We prove that this is true regardless of the formation channel, and that when two HSBs build a binary, each of the spin magnitudes is also low, and the binary members have similar masses. We also address the distribution of the eccentricities of HSB binaries in dense stellar systems using a large suite of three-body scattering experiments that include binary-single interactions and long-lived hierarchical systems with a highly accurate integrator, including relativistic corrections up to O(1/c^5). We find that most sources in the detector band will have nearly zero eccentricities. This correlation between large, similar masses, low spin and low eccentricity will help to accelerate the searches for gravitational-wave signals.
Connecting Numerical Relativity and Data Analysis of Gravitational Wave Detectors
Shoemaker, Deirdre; London, Lionel; Pekowsky, Larne
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves deliver information in exquisite detail about astrophysical phenomena, among them the collision of two black holes, a system completely invisible to the eyes of electromagnetic telescopes. Models that predict gravitational wave signals from likely sources are crucial for the success of this endeavor. Modeling binary black hole sources of gravitational radiation requires solving the Eintein equations of General Relativity using powerful computer hardware and sophisticated numerical algorithms. This proceeding presents where we are in understanding ground-based gravitational waves resulting from the merger of black holes and the implications of these sources for the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy.
Khan, Sebastian; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank; Pürrer, Michael; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro
2015-01-01
We present a new frequency-domain phenomenological model of the gravitational-wave signal from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of non-precessing (aligned-spin) black-hole binaries. The model is calibrated to 19 hybrid effective-one-body--numerical-relativity waveforms up to mass ratios of 1:18 and black-hole spins of $|a/m| \\sim 0.85$ ($0.98$ for equal-mass systems). The inspiral part of the model consists of an extension of frequency-domain post-Newtonian expressions, using higher-order terms fit to the hybrids. The merger-ringdown is based on a phenomenological ansatz that has been significantly improved over previous models. The model exhibits mismatches of typically less than 1\\% against all 19 calibration hybrids, and an additional 29 verification hybrids, which provide strong evidence that, over the calibration region, the model is sufficiently accurate for all relevant gravitational-wave astronomy applications with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. Beyond the calibration region the model produce...
Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular
Amaro-Seoane, Pau
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, and hence speed up the search, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modeling. This allows one to avoid the need to blindly cover the whole parameter space. In this work we show that "hyperstellar" black holes (HSBs) with masses $30 \\lesssim M_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\odot} \\lesssim 100$, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal $10\\,M_{\\odot}$, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e...
Roberts, Luke F; Duez, Matthew D; Faber, Joshua A; Foucart, Francois; Lombardi, James C; Ning, Sandra; Ott, Christian D; Ponce, Marcelo
2016-01-01
During the merger of a black hole and a neutron star, baryonic mass can become unbound from the system. Because the ejected material is extremely neutron-rich, the r-process rapidly synthesizes heavy nuclides as the material expands and cools. In this work, we map general relativistic models of black hole-neutron star (BHNS) mergers into a Newtonian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code and follow the evolution of the thermodynamics and morphology of the ejecta until the outflows become homologous. We investigate how the subsequent evolution depends on our mapping procedure and find that the results are robust. Using thermodynamic histories from the SPH particles, we then calculate the expected nucleosynthesis in these outflows while varying the level of neutrino irradiation coming from the postmerger accretion disk. We find that the ejected material robustly produces r-process nucleosynthesis even for unrealistically high neutrino luminosities, due to the rapid velocities of the outflow. Nonetheless, we...
Wu, Meng-Ru; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D
2016-01-01
We consider $r$-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion disks formed in double neutron star and neutron star - black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important -- and in some cases dominant -- contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disk outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second $r$-process peak (mass number $A \\sim 130$), independent of model parameters, with significant production of $A < 130$ nuclei. This implies that dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of $r$-process elements in metal poor stars. Disk outflows reach the third peak ($ A \\sim 195$) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the ...
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S