WorldWideScience

Sample records for hole horizontal drilling

  1. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  2. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  3. The development of Canadian leadership in horizontal drilling technology

    Hawkins, J R

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal wells are of increasing interest in the oil and gas industry, as is evident from the increase in the numbers of such wells being drilled. Horizontal well technology is used to improve production rates, notably in low permeability formations; to capture reserves if a reservoir is not economic using non-horizontal wells; to manage breakthrough of sweep fluids and increase sweep efficiency; and to extend the areal reach from a single surface location, especially in offshore production. The types of horizontal wells, differentiated on the basis of how quickly the well becomes horizontal, are briefly outlined and a short history of horizontal wells is presented. Canadian accomplishments in this field are then described, including steerable drilling systems, measurement-while-drilling systems, management of hole drag and torque, and well completion techniques. About 25 horizontal wells are forecast to be drilled in Canada in 1989, indicating the favorable future of this technology. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  5. Mud pressure simulation on large horizontal directional drilling

    Placido, Rafael R.; Avesani Neto, Jose O.; Martins, Pedro R.R.; Rocha, Ronaldo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is being extensively used in Brazil for installation of oil and gas pipelines. This trenchless technology is currently used in crossings of water bodies, environmental sensitive areas, densely populated areas, areas prone to mass movement and anywhere the traditional technology is not suitable because of the risks. One of the unwanted effects of HDD is collapsing of the soil surrounding the bore-hole, leading to loss of fluid. This can result in problems such as reducing the drilling efficiency, ground heave, structures damage, fluid infiltration and other environmental problems. This paper presents four simulations of down-hole fluid pressures which represents two different geometrical characteristics of the drilling and two different soils. The results showed that greater depths are needed in longer drillings to avoid ground rupture. Thus the end section of the drilling often represents the critical stage. (author)

  6. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  7. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  8. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    Catania, Peter; Wilson, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m 3 . The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m 3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m 3 . Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m 3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at

  9. Drilling history of core hole DB-15

    Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1980-09-01

    This core hole was drilled to obtain hydrologic and chemical data on the permeable zones of the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum Formations. These data were obtained by testing the zones that were penetrated during drilling. This testing-as-drilled method reduced the potential problems of interflow and water contamination. This report summarizes the drilling and coring operations; geologic logging, hydrologic testing, and geophysical logging activities; and cementing operations of DB-15 during drilling. The successful completion of DB-15 demonstrated that hydrologic testing can be conducted during core drilling operations. More reliable head measurements and uncontaminated representative water samples from isolated permeable zones, which have not been exposed to potential open borehole cross-flow and head equilibration problems, were benefits derived from the testing-as-drilled method. Disadvantages of the technique were a longer time to complete the borehole caused by time required for testing and increased drilling costs due to rig standby time during testing. Extension of the testing-as-drilled method to the drilling of future core holes is recommended. An evaluation should be made of the required hydrologic data and expected borehole stratigraphy before and during drilling to allow uninterrupted drilling in zones of low permeability that can be tested after drilling is complete

  10. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored

  11. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  12. Drilling history core hole DC-4

    1978-12-01

    Core hole DC-4 was completed at a depth of 3998 feet in December, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Sicsson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the cable tool and core drilling activities, and geological core logging for DC-4. Core hole DC-4 is located on the Hanford Site about 3 miles east of the Yakima Barricade and approximately 103 feet southwest of rotary hole DC-5, which was completed to 3990 feet in February, 1978. Hanford Site coordinates reported for hole DC-4 are north 49,385.62 feet and west 85,207.63 feet, and Washington State coordinates are north 454,468.73 feet and east 2,209,990.87 feet. No elevation survey is available for hole DC-4, but it is approximately 745 feet above mean sea level based upon the survey of hole DC-5, which has a reported elevation of 745.16 feet on the top of the 3-inch flange. The purpose of core hole DC-4 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing, cross-hole seismic shear, and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-5. Hole DC-4 was drilled through the overburden into basalt bedrock by cable tool methods (0-623 feet) and continuously cored through the final interval (623 to 3998 feet).Core recovery was 95.8 percent of the total footage cored

  13. 30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 56.7013 Section 56.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 57.7013 Section 57.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes...

  15. Geology of the U12n.07 UG-3 drill hole, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    Terry, S.S.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1975-11-01

    The U12n.07 UG-3 horizontal drill hole, located near the eastern edge of the center of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, was drilled to a total depth of 809 m (2,653 ft). This hole was drilled to further evaluate the tunnel-level stratigraph, and structure southwest of the U12n tunnel complex. The drill hole is collared in the middle of Tertiary tunnel bed 3A and penetrates upsection through tunnel beds 3 and 4 and terminates in subunit 4K, all of Tertiary age. Stratigraphy, structure, engineering geology, and physical properties and their relation to tunnel engineering are discussed

  16. Extended Horizontal Jet Drilling for EGS applications in Petrothermal Environments

    Hahn, Simon; Duda, Mandy; Stoeckhert, Ferdinand; Wittig, Volker; Bracke, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Extended Horizontal Jet Drilling for EGS applications in Petrothermal Environments S. Hahn, M. Duda, F. Stoeckhert, V. Wittig, R. Bracke International Geothermal Centre Bochum High pressure water jet drilling technologies are widely used in the drilling industry. Especially in geothermal and hard rock applications, horizontal (radial) jet drilling is, however, confronted with several limitations like lateral length, hole size and steerability. In order to serve as a serious alternative to conventional stimulation techniques these high pressure jetting techniques are experimentally investigated to gain fundamental knowledge about the fluid-structure interaction, to enhance the rock failing process and to identify the governing drilling parameters. The experimental program is divided into three levels. In a first step jetting experiments are performed under free surface conditions while logging fluid pressures, flow speeds and extracted rock volume. All process parameters are quantified with a self-developed jet-ability index and compared to the rock properties (density, porosity, permeability, etc.). In a second step experiments will be performed under pressure-controlled conditions. A test bench is currently under construction offering the possibility to assign an in-situ stress field to the specimen while penetrating the rock sample with a high pressure water jet or a radial jet drilling device. The experimental results from levels 1 and 2 allow to identify the governing rock failure mechanisms and to correlate them with physical rock properties and limited reservoir conditions. Results of the initial tests do show a clear dependency of achievable penetration depth on the interaction of jetting and rock parameters and an individual threshold of the nozzle outlet velocity can be noticed in order to successfully penetrate different formation types. At level 3 jetting experiments will be performed at simulated reservoir conditions corresponding to 5.000 m depth (e

  17. Alteration in the IRDP drill hole compared with other drill holes in Iceland

    Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna

    1982-08-01

    The overall alteration pattern in the drill hole at Reydarfjördur is very similar to alteration patterns observed in Icelandic geothermal areas and in low-grade metamorphosed basalts in deep crustal sections elsewhere in Iceland. However more detail is obtained by the study of the IRDP drill core than by study of drill cuttings sampled in previous drill holes in Iceland. A comparatively high fossil thermal gradient is obtained at Reydarfjördur by a combination of mineral stability data and the observed occurence of secondary minerals. This high gradient is consistent with the measured dike dilation at the drill site and the location of the drill site adjacent to a central volcano.

  18. Slim hole drilling and testing strategies

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh K.; Goranson, Colin

    2017-12-01

    The financial and geologic advantages of drilling slim holes instead of large production wells in the early stages of geothermal reservoir assessment has been understood for many years. However, the practice has not been fully embraced by geothermal developers. We believe that the reason for this is that there is a poor understanding of testing and reservoir analysis that can be conducted in slim holes. In addition to reservoir engineering information, coring through the cap rock and into the reservoir provides important data for designing subsequent production well drilling and completion. Core drilling requires significantly less mud volume than conventional rotary drilling, and it is typically not necessary to cure lost circulation zones (LCZ). LCZs should be tested by either production or injection methods as they are encountered. The testing methodologies are similar to those conducted on large-diameter wells; although produced and/or injected fluid volumes are much less. Pressure, temperature and spinner (PTS) surveys in slim holes under static conditions can used to characterize temperature and pressure distribution in the geothermal reservoir. In many cases it is possible to discharge slim holes and obtain fluid samples to delineate the geochemical properties of the reservoir fluid. Also in the latter case, drawdown and buildup data obtained using a downhole pressure tool can be employed to determine formation transmissivity and well properties. Even if it proves difficult to discharge a slim hole, an injection test can be performed to obtain formation transmissivity. Given the discharge (or injection) data from a slimhole, discharge properties of a large-diameter well can be inferred using wellbore modeling. Finally, slim hole data (pressure, temperature, transmissivity, fluid properties) together with reservoir simulation can help predict the ability of the geothermal reservoir to sustain power production.

  19. 30 CFR 77.1011 - Drill holes; guarding.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill holes; guarding. 77.1011 Section 77.1011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1011 Drill holes; guarding. Drill holes large enough to constitute a hazard shall be covered...

  20. Modern Shale Gas Horizontal Drilling: Review of Best Practices for Exploration Phase Planning and Execution

    Nathaniel Harding; Stephen Smith; John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman

    2009-01-01

    The challenging characteristics of shale formations often require horizontal drilling to economically develop their potential. While every shale gas play is unique, there are several best practices for the proper planning and execution of a horizontal well. In planning a horizontal well, the optimal method and technology for building inclination and extending the lateral section must be determined. Properly specified logging-while-drilling tools are essential to keep the wellbore within the target formation. Planning must also focus on casing design. Doing so will help ensure stability and enable reliable and productive completions. Shales pose a challenge for these elements of well planning due to their thin strata and potentially low mechanical competence when foreign fluids are introduced. Once a plan is developed, executing it is even more important to prove a viable exploration program. Fast, efficient drilling with wellbore control and minimal torque and drag should be the priority. This may be achieved by focusing on fluid hydraulics and rheology and bottom hole assembly. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) will help fast drilling, well control and stability. If MPD can be combined with new generation rotary steerable systems that allow the drill string to maintain rotation, impressive efficiencies are possible. Modern drilling parameter analysis represents the newest opportunity for executing shale gas horizontal wells. A method for ROP analysis to improve operational parameters and equipment selection is also proposed.

  1. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of approximately minus8 m (minus27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of approximately1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of ∼ -21 m (-70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned

  2. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  3. Horizontal drilling in Miocene thin sand of Lake Maracaibo

    Partidas, C. [PDVSA Exploration and Production (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    Horizontal drilling in the mature Lake Maracaibo field in Venezuela as a means of stimulating production are discussed. The Miocene sand where the horizontal well technology was applied, presented a number of intervals of unconsolidated sand of varied continuity, pay intervals at ten to twenty feet thickness, and reservoir pressures mostly at hydrostatic or below hydrostatic values. This paper evaluates a horizontal drilling program in the Lagunallis Lago Production Unit of Maracaibo, involving 91 wells to date (since 1995). When assessed in economic terms, results indicate that horizontal wells are a better economic alternative than vertical wells. The same results also showed that drainage from thin sand reservoirs resulted in better production with horizontal well technology than production from vertical wells. Payout was less than two years for 50 per cent of the horizontal wells while 40 per cent had payouts of between two and four years. Profit to investment ratio was greater than two in the case of about 70 per cent of the horizontal wells drilled in 1996. 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Study of the radon released from open drill holes

    Pacer, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    The radon emanating from three open drill holes was measured at a site of known uranium mineralization in the Red Desert of south central Wyoming. The radon flux from the soil and drill holes was measured by the accumulator method with activated charcoal cartridges. The surface soil was found to release radon at an average rate of 0.41 atoms/cm 2 /sec; the radon emanating from the holes was more variable than that from the soil. The three holes studied released an average of 47 atoms/cm 2 /sec of radon. This average is equivalent to the radon released to the atmosphere by 14.5 ft 2 of soil. The data indicate that the radon emanated from an open drill hole is not as significant as other possible activities at a drill site (i.e. digging a trench or drilling a hole) or from household activities involving the usage of water

  5. Osseous drill holes to promote granulation tissue: Radiologic appearance

    Resnik, C.S.; Reiner, B.I.; Diaconis, J.N.; Goldberg, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    Skin grafting following extensive soft-tissue loss is often delayed until adequate granulation tissue can be generated. Surgical drill holes into the marrow cavity promote development of granulation tissue. This article illustrates the radiology appearance of these drill holes in four patients. (orig.)

  6. Accounting for the temperature conditions during deep prospecting hole drilling

    Shcherban, A N; Cheniak, V P; Zolotarenko, U P

    1977-01-01

    A methodology is described for calculating and controlling the temperature in inclined holes in order to establish a non-steady-state heat exchange between the medium circulating in the hole, and the construction components and rock. In order to verify the proposed methodology, the temperature of the drilling fluid is measured directly during the drilling process using a specially-designed automatic device which is lowered into the hole with the drilling string and turned on automatically at a given depth. This device makes it possible to record the drilling fluid temperature on magnetic tape, and convert the sensor signals arriving from the drilling string and the annular space. A comparison of calculation and experimental data confirmed the sufficiently high accuracy of the methods for predicting the thermal conditions in drilling deep prospecting holes.

  7. Ferroacryl mud for drilling deep bore holes

    Lisyanskiy, V I; Chepiga, V I; Devydenko, V N

    1982-01-01

    The composition, technology of production and control of the parameters of a ferroacyl (FAR) mud for drilling for prospecting holes in the Donets-Basin are developed. The mud consists of Chasov Yal clay (150-160 kg), hypane (40 1), iron sulfate (1kg) and water (approximately 1 m/sup 3/). The mud exhibits the following parameters: density 1.05 -1.1 g/cm/sup 3/, viscosity 20-21 s; water yield 3-5 cm/sup 3/; crust 0.5 mm. Compared to existing flushing fluids based on hypane the FAR contains fewer components and the cost of the materials is considerably less. It features very high flocculating properties.

  8. Demonstration of a utility industry horizontal drilling system: Horizontal well AMH-5 installation report

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of VOCs in soils and groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989. The overall goal of the program is demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program. Directional drilling has been shown to be a successful technique for enhancing access to the subsurface, thus improving remediation systems, especially remediation systems which perform in situ. Demonstration of an innovative directional drilling system at the Integrated Demonstration Site at the SRS, was initiated in June of 1992. The directional drilling system was designed to install an in situ remediation system. The drilling system is an experimental compaction/dry drilling technique developed by Charles Machine Works (Ditch Witch reg-sign) of Perry, Oklahoma. A horizontal well was installed in the M Area of the SRS below and parallel to an abandoned tile process sewer line. The installation of the horizontal well was a two-part process. Part one consisted of drilling the borehole, and part two was the horizontal well completion

  9. Logging while drilling keeps horizontal well on small target

    Leake, J.; Shray, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurement to two resistivities of different characteristics had led to a new interpretation method for the analysis of horizontal wells. By logging deep and shallow resistivity in real-time, marker beds were identified to help maintain well bore trajectory. The resistivity measurements were split into vertical and horizontal components to provide additional information of formation evaluation. In 1945, Ark Fuel Co. discovered and began developing the Olla field on the crest of the La Salle arch in La Salle Parish, La. Oil production comes from the Wilcox formation from alluvial sand packages that range in thickness from 3 ft to 120 ft. Now operated by Oxy U.S.A. Inc., Olla field was chosen in 1990 for a horizontal well pilot project. It was hoped that a horizontal well could alleviate water coming in one of the field's more productive sand packages- the 40-ft Cruse sand

  10. DOE HIGH-POWER SLIM-HOLE DRILLING SYSTEM

    Dr. William C. Maurer; John H. Cohen; J. Chris Hetmaniak; Curtis Leitko

    1999-09-01

    This project used a systems approach to improve slim-hole drilling performance. A high power mud motor, having a double-length power section, and hybrid PDC/TSP drill bit were developed to deliver maximum horsepower to the rock while providing a long life down hole. This high-power slim-hole drilling system drills much faster than conventional slim-hole motor and bit combinations and holds significant potential to reduce slim-hole drilling costs. The oil and gas industries have been faced with downward price pressures since the 1980s. These pressures are not expected to be relieved in the near future. To maintain profitability, companies have had to find ways to reduce the costs of producing oil and gas. Drilling is one of the more costly operations in the production process. One method to reduce costs of drilling is to use smaller more mobile equipment. Slim holes have been drilled in the past using this principle. These wells can save money not only from the use of smaller drilling equipment, but also from reduced tubular costs. Stepping down even one casing size results in significant savings. However, slim holes have not found wide spread use for three reasons. First, until recently, the price of oil has been high so there were no forces to move the industry in this direction. Second, small roller bits and motors were not very reliable and they drilled slowly, removing much of the economic benefit. The third and final reason was the misconception that large holes were needed everywhere to deliver the desired production. Several factors have changed that will encourage the use of slim holes. The industry now favors any method of reducing the costs of producing oil and gas. In addition, the industry now understands that large holes are not always needed. Gas, in particular, can have high production rates in smaller holes. New materials now make it possible to manufacture improved bits and motors that drill for long periods at high rates. All that remains is to

  11. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  12. Geological-geotechnical investigation for large horizontal directional drilling

    Martins, Pedro R.R.; Rocha, Ronaldo; Avesani Neto, Jose Orlando; Placido, Rafael R.; Ignatius, Scandar G.; Galli, Vicente Luiz [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Claudio S. [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Use of Horizontal Directional Drilling - HDD for large diameter (OD>20 inches) pipeline installation started in the second half of the seventies. Since then the method became the preferred alternative for situations in which it is necessary an underground pipeline but there are concerns about digging trenches. Crossings of roadways, water bodies and environmental sensitive areas are typical examples of its application. Technical and economic feasibility of HDD depends significantly on the properties of the materials that will be drilled. Lack of information about these materials can lead to several problems as: schedule delays, cost elevation, pipeline damage, unforeseen environmental impacts and even the failure of the entire operation. Ground investigation campaigns for HDD should define a consistent geological-geotechnical model, which must include determination of behaviour parameters for soil and rock masses that will be drilled. Thus it is proposed an investigation in tree stages: review of available geological-geotechnical information, site reconnaissance, and field survey. (author)

  13. Borehole Plugging Program. Plugging of ERDA No. 10 drill hole

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.

    1979-06-01

    A requirement exists to plug exploratory drill holes located in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area of Southeastern New Mexico. Sandia Laboratories, in cooperation with the US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Concrete Laboratory, developed pumpable and durable cement grouts. These grouts were successfully used to plug an existing drill hole in the area. Results of this project are presented, along with comments and conclusions

  14. Emplacement hole drill evaluation and specification study. Volume I

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design program are presented for mine floor drilling in preparation for radioactive waste disposal. Two classes of drills can be used to drill emplacement holes in salt. Both are sufficiently rugged and reliable. Raise borers have a higher capital cost and require more modifications, but are more flexible in other applications and require less labor. The life cycle cost for the raise borers and for the auger rigs are about the same, while the life cycle costs of bucket drills are much higher. As long as the hole is 36 inches in diameter or less and 40 feet deep or less in salt, then the auger rig is recommended because of the lower capital cost and lower operating cost. This recommended system represents what is thought to be the best combination of available drill components assembled into a drill rig which will provide at least adequate performance. Furthermore, this drill system can be procured from at least three manufacturers. If the facility criteria change significantly, however, then the drill rig recommendations will have to be reassessed on the merits of the changes. The drill rig manufacturers can be quite flexible in combining components provided the buyer is willing to accept components with which the manufacturer has had experience. If this condition can be met, then most drill rig manufacturers will include the associated design cost as part of the drill cost. If special components are required, however, then the number of manufacturers willing to participate in a procurement may be severely reduced

  15. Case study : environmental considerations of horizontal directional drills

    Slade, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    A pipeline construction project by Enbridge Pipelines (Toledo) Inc. which relied on horizontal directional drilling (HDD) techniques to install the pipe was analyzed with particular focus on the environmental benefits and risks of using directional drills compared to open cut installation. The construction of the 35-mile, 16-inch crude petroleum pipeline from Stockbridge to Freedom Junction in Michigan involved the use of 11 separate directional drills to cross through wetlands, streams and state recreational areas. The role that HDD played in route selection and environmental permit considerations was discussed along with some of the problems encountered with directional drilling. A successful HDD program must have adequate geotechnical information to properly design and plan the crossings. It was recommended that geotechnical borings should be conducted every 300 to 500 feet across the HDD alignment. It was also recommended that a frac-out contingency plan should be developed and to be prepared for the temporary shut down of the HDD rig if a frac-out occurs. Frac-outs must be investigated, contained and any released fluid should be removed. Some recommendations from past experiences were also presented as a guide for future planning of pipeline projects that include HDD techniques, particularly in wetland areas. Appendix A to this presentation included a contingency plan for illustrative purposes only. The plan was developed for the above project and was included as an example only. It described the planning, prevention and control measures to minimize impacts resulting from inadvertent spill of drilling mud during directional drilling in wetlands. It also included a drilling mud 'Containment, Response and Notification Plan' to be implemented as determined by the contractor under the supervision of Enbridge Pipelines (Toledo) Inc. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig., 1 appendix

  16. Prediction Model of Mechanical Extending Limits in Horizontal Drilling and Design Methods of Tubular Strings to Improve Limits

    Wenjun Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical extending limit in horizontal drilling means the maximum horizontal extending length of a horizontal well under certain ground and down-hole mechanical constraint conditions. Around this concept, the constrained optimization model of mechanical extending limits is built and simplified analytical results for pick-up and slack-off operations are deduced. The horizontal extending limits for kinds of tubular strings under different drilling parameters are calculated and drawn. To improve extending limits, an optimal design model of drill strings is built and applied to a case study. The results indicate that horizontal extending limits are underestimated a lot when the effects of friction force on critical helical buckling loads are neglected. Horizontal extending limits firstly increase and tend to stable values with vertical depths. Horizontal extending limits increase faster but finally become smaller with the increase of horizontal pushing forces for tubular strings of smaller modulus-weight ratio. Sliding slack-off is the main limit operation and high axial friction is the main constraint factor constraining horizontal extending limits. A sophisticated installation of multiple tubular strings can greatly inhibit helical buckling and increase horizontal extending limits. The optimal design model is called only once to obtain design results, which greatly increases the calculation efficiency.

  17. Big-hole drilling - the state of the art

    Lackey, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The art of big-hole drilling has been in a continual state of evolution at the Nevada Test Site since the start of underground testing in 1961. Emplacement holes for nuclear devices are still being drilled by the rotary-drilling process, but almost all the hardware and systems have undergone many changes during the intervening years. The current design of bits, cutters, and other big-hole-drilling hardware results from contributions of manufacturers and Test Site personnel. The dual-string, air-lift, reverse-circulation system was developed at the Test Site. Necessity was really the Mother of this invention, but this circulation system is worthy of consideration under almost any condition. Drill rigs for big-hole drilling are usually adaptations of large oil-well drill rigs with minor modifications required to handle the big bits and drilling assemblies. Steel remains the favorite shaft lining material, but a lot of thought is being given to concrete linings, especially precast concrete

  18. Micro-hole drilling and cutting using femtosecond fiber laser

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Micro-hole drilling and cutting in ambient air are presented by using a femtosecond fiber laser. At first, the micro-hole drilling was investigated in both transparent (glasses) and nontransparent (metals and tissues) materials. The shape and morphology of the holes were characterized and evaluated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Debris-free micro-holes with good roundness and no thermal damage were demonstrated with the aspect ratio of 8∶1. Micro-hole drilling in hard and soft tissues with no crack or collateral thermal damage is also demonstrated. Then, trench micromachining and cutting were studied for different materials and the effect of the laser parameters on the trench properties was investigated. Straight and clean trench edges were obtained with no thermal damage.

  19. Design of a machine to bore and line a long horizontal hole in tuff: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    Friant, J.E.; Dowden, P.B.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes an engineering design for equipment capable of simultaneously drilling and lining deep horizontal bore holes. The ultimate use of the equipment is to bore up to 600 ft long, 3 ft diameter emplacement holes for a nuclear waste repository. The specific system designed is referred to as a Development Prototype Boring Machine (DPBM) which will be used to demonstrate the drilling/lining capability in field development tests. The system utilizes as in-hole electric drive and a vacuum chip removal and handling system. The drilling unit is capable of active directional control and uses laser-type alignment equipment. The system combines the features of a small steerable tunnel boring machine, combined with a horizontally-oriented raise drill, thereby utilizing current technology. All elements of the system are compact and mobile as required for a shaft entry, underground mining environment. 3 refs., 35 figs., 1 tab

  20. Maximizing productivity of horizontal drilling and completion techniques

    Schein, G. [BJ Services Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    There are currently 160 active drilling rigs in the Barnett shale play, and small early developments have now become large-scale operations. This presentation outlined methods currently used to improve the productivity of directional drilling and completion techniques in gas shale plays. Horizontal completions are used to control height growth and increase contact areas. A typical horizontal well casing program was described along with details of cement liner treatment programs. Charts of optimum and non-optimum azimuth wells were included. Increased reservoir contact has been achieved by using limited-entry designs and acid stages with ball-sealers and abrasive jet-cutters. Pump rates have been increased during various stages, and larger fluid and sand volumes were used. A mineralogy comparison was provided, as well as details of the general design criteria for vertical wells in the region. It was concluded that drilling in the Barnett shale play has been successful as a result of using 3-dimensional seismic mapping as well as by initiating multiple, simultaneous fracs. The presentation also included charts of the Arkoma-Woodford play, the Arkoma-Fayetteville play, and the Delaware Basin. tabs., figs.

  1. Hole quality and burr reduction in drilling aluminium sheets

    Pilny, Lukas; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Piska, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the metal drilling process requires creation of minimum amount of burrs and uniform appearance of the drilled holes. In this paper, an experimental investigation was performed on 2 mm sheets of wrought aluminium alloy Al99.7Mg0.5Cu-H24, using 1.6 and 2 mm diameter drills. Cutting...... data, clamping conditions, and drill geometry were varied in order to optimize the process and reach the desired quality. The results revealed possible reduction of burr occurrence on both the entry and exit side of the sheet, requiring no additional deburring. The demand on the uniform appearance...... of drilled holes was fulfilled as well as high productivity achieved. Such optimized process results in a noticeable production cost reduction....

  2. Hole quality and burr reduction in drilling aluminium sheets

    Pilny, Lukas; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Piska, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the metal drilling process requires creation of minimum amount of burrs and uniform appearance of the drilled holes. In this paper, an experimental investigation was performed on 2 mm sheets of wrought aluminium alloy Al99.7Mg0.5Cu-H24, using 1.6 and 2 mm diameter drills. Cutting...... data, clamping conditions, and drill geometry were varied in order to optimize the process and reach the desired quality. The results revealed possible reduction of burr occurrence on both the entry and exit side of the sheet, requiring no additional deburring. The demand on the uniform appearance...... of drilled holes was fulfilled as well as high productivity achieved. Such optimized process results in a noticeable production cost reduction....

  3. Permeability of granular beds emplaced in vertical drill holes

    Griffiths, S.K.; Morrison, F.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the permeabilities of granular materials emplaced in vertical drill holes used for underground nuclear tests, an experiment at the USDOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted. As the hole is being filled, falling material increases pressure above and within the granular beds beneath. When the filling operation starts or stops, a transient pressure response occurs within the beds; measurements of this response in beds of various compositions were made. The permeabilities after emplacement were found by matching analytical predictions of the response to these data. This information is useful in assuring the containment of nuclear tests conducted in such drill holes

  4. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  5. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) for shore approach applications

    Smith, Neil [MGI do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) has become a commonly used construction method for pipeline shore approaches. HDD can mitigate environmental impact, provide greater burial depths and minimize construction schedules. The risks that are associated with HDD river crossings, which are generally well recognized, also apply to HDD shore approaches where they are combined with specific risks occurring from working in the marine environment. The shore approach projects of The Bronx and Hunts Point provide good practical examples of the benefits of this technology in spite of the various challenges encountered. (author)

  6. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing

    Yudan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  7. Geologic investigations of drill hole sloughing problems, Nevada Test Site

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Davies, W.J.; Gonzales, J.L.; Hawkins, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Severe sloughing zones encountered while drilling large diameter emplacement holes in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, have been identified, correlated and predicted through detailed geologic investigations. In central and southeastern Area 7 and in northern Area 3, the unstable zones are a very fine-grained, well-sorted, unconsolidated sand deposit, probably eolian in origin, which will readily flow into large diameter drill holes. Other areas exhibit hole erosion related to poor induration or extensive zeolitization of the Tertiary tuff units which are very friable and porous. By examining drill hole samples, geophysical logs, caliper logs and drilling histories, these problem zones can be characterized, correlated and then projected into nearby sites. Maps have been generated to show the depth, thickness and areal extent of these strata. In some cases, they are local and have a lenticular geometry, while in others they are quite extensive. The ability to predict such features can enhance the quality of the hole construction and completion operations to avoid costly delays and the loss of valuable testing real estate. The control of hole enlargements will also eliminate related containment concerns, such as stemming uncertainties

  8. 30 CFR 816.15 - Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Permanent.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Permanent...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.15 Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Permanent. When no longer needed... exploration hole, other drilled hole or borehole, well, and other exposed underground opening shall be capped...

  9. Project for Offshore Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD for Pipeline Crossing in Bukit Tua, Indonesia

    Yusuf Sofyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD is commonly associated with well exploration activity, onshore road crossing, nearshore pipeline installation, and offshore pipeline crossing which requires precise alignment of two barges from one to the other. Here, the purpose of this study was to show one of the projects that was successfully performed on December 2013 for the Bukit Tua Project in East Java, Indonesia costing USD 8 Million. From this project experience, there are 6 Best Practices in HDD Offshore Project for Pipeline Crossing Application (first in region which will serve as a guide to future projects in replicating similar success. Out from 6 Best practices, there are two main recipes for success of HDD offshore for offshore crossings which are the drilling fluid also known as mud, and the Gyro Steering Tool (GST. First, mud parameter varies on case by case basis depending on the soil condition at the location where HDD will be performed. Failure to maintain the above parameters may result in catastrophic failure whereby the bore hole may collapse and pipe may get stuck underneath the seabed. Secondly, the beauty of GST is extremely accurate and unaffected by other metal anomalies during drilling process, thus ensuring the curve profile and direction of drilling are as per design throughout the whole process.

  10. Drilling history core hole DC-6 Hanford, Washington

    1978-06-01

    Core hole DC-6 was completed in May 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scisson, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-6. Core hole DC-6 is located within the boundary of the Hanford Site at the old Hanford town site. The Hanford Site coordinates for DC-6 are North 54,127.17 feet and West 17,721.00 feet. The surface elevation is approximately 402 feet above sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-6 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing. The total depth of core hole DC-6 was 4336 feet. Core recovery was 98.4% of the total footage cored

  11. An economic alternative to conventional open hole logging in horizontal wells; Eine oekonomische Alternative zu konventionellen Bohrlochmessungen in Horizontalbohrungen

    Hogan, G.P.; Kater, H.; Ball, S.; Preiss, F. [Precision Drilling-Computalog, Edemissen (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Horizontal drilling has become a routine method of field development over the past several years as a means to maximise recoverable reserves. As such, horizontal drilling has impacted the way that petrophysical data is obtained in order to evaluate the reservoir during and after drilling. In horizontal wells, conventional open hole logging methods must be combined with either pipe conveyed logging techniques or coiled tubing conveyed techniques. In many cases, these procedures are time consuming and cost prohibitive based on the economics of the project. Additionally, formation evaluation data may be obtained in horizontal wells by using Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology, but this may also be cost prohibitive in many areas. In the Girkaliai and Nausodis Fields in Lithuania, two wells were drilled to reach oil producing reservoir sandstones at depths of over 1,800 m TVD with horizontal sections of approximately 270 m and 385 m. Based on an economic and petrophysical analysis, neither open hole pipe conveyed logging nor LSW were considered since neither were regarded as cost effective to obtain the petrophysical data required to evaluate the reservoir. An alternative method to obtain critical formation evaluation data was employed utilizing a cased hole pulsed neutron decay logging tool run in the open hole. In one case this was done immediately after drilling. The pulsed neutron decay logging tool was conveyed to TD by a specially modified wireline tractor system. The obtained logs provided critical information to evaluate the reservoir including determining density porosity, neutron porosity, sigma (formation capture cross section) and gamma ray. The data was used to calculate required petrophysical information including lithology, water saturation, and bulk volumes. (orig.)

  12. 30 CFR 816.13 - Casing and sealing of drilled holes: General requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casing and sealing of drilled holes: General...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.13 Casing and sealing of drilled holes: General requirements. Each exploration hole, other drill or borehole, well, or other exposed underground opening shall be cased, sealed...

  13. Fracture coatings in Topopah Spring Tuff along drill hole wash

    Carlos, B.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture-lining minerals are being studied as part of site characterization to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential high level nuclear waste repository. Fracture coatings in the Paintbrush Group provide information on potential flow paths above the water table both toward and away from the potential repository and provide information on the distribution of fracture-lining minerals needed to model thermal effects of waste emplacement. Fracture coatings within the predominantly non-zeolitic Paintbrush Group vary both with depth and laterally across Yucca Mountain, whereas fracture coatings in tuffs below the Paintbrush Group are related to the mineralogy of the tuffs and follow a consistent pattern of distribution with predominantly quartz, calcite, and manganese oxides in the devitrified intervals and mordenite and clinoptilolite in the zeolitic intervals. The zeolites stellerite and heulandite are more abundant in fractures in the Topopah Spring Tuff in drill holes USW G-1 and UE-25 a number-sign l, located along Drill Hole Wash (at the northern end of Yucca Mountain) than in core from other parts of Yucca Mountain. Buesch et al. (2) present evidence for a complex fault system along Drill Hole Wash. To investigate the possibility that the abundant fracture-lining zeolites in USW G-1 and UE-25 a number-sign 1 are related to the Drill Hole Wash fault, the Topopah Spring Tuff was examined in drill cores from USW UZ-14, USW G-1, USW NRG-7/7a, and UE-25 a number-sign l

  14. Design aspects of the Alpha Repository: VI. Selection and cost analysis of large hole drilling equipment

    Ellis, D.B.; Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of common drilling practices and technology and applicability of currently available drilling machinery in the excavation of the canister emplacement holes for the Alpha Repository is presented. Sections are included on drilling system applications, descriptions of drilling operations, and drill system performance

  15. Hole Drilling Technique – on site stress measurement

    Schueremans, Luc

    2009-01-01

    2. Hole Drilling Technique for onsite stress measurement has been used to validate the stress level at 2 pillars of the Sint-Jacobschurch (Leuven, B). The technique allows estimating the stress in a stone from measuring deformation when a small hole is made. It is a low intrusive technique. The application of it is limited to local stress measurements and is a complement to stress estimate from calculations of from the use of –for example- flat jacks. In addition to the flat-jack technique...

  16. Numerical modelling of cuttings transport in horizontal wells using conventional drilling fluids

    Li, Y.; Bjorndalen, E.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Some of the problems associated with poor wellbore cleaning include high drag or torque, slower rate of penetration, formation fractures and difficulty in wellbore steering. Some of the factors that affect cuttings transport include drilling fluid velocity, inclination angle, drilling fluid viscosity and drilling rate. The general practice is to stop drilling when necessary to clean boreholes with viscous pills, pipe rotation or drilling fluid circulation. It is important to predict when drilling should be stopped for remedial wellbore cleaning. This can be accomplished with a transient cuttings transport model which can improve drilling hydraulics, particularly in long horizontal well sections and extended reach (ERD) wells. This paper presents a newly developed 1-dimensional transient mechanistic model of cuttings transport with conventional (incompressible) drilling fluids in horizontal wells. The numerically solved model predicts the height of cutting beds as a function of different drilling operational parameters such as fluid flow rate and rheological characteristics, drilling rates, wellbore geometry and drillpipe eccentricity. Sensitivity analysis has demonstrated the effects of these parameters on the efficiency of solids transport. The proposed model can be used in the creation of computer programs designed to optimize drilling fluid rheology and flow rates for horizontal well drilling. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. Roundness and taper of holes during drilling composites of various thickness by HSS drill bit under dry condition

    Sakib, M. S.; Rahman, Motiur; Ferdous, M.; Dhar, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    Polymer Matrix Composites are extending a wide range of applications in aviation in recent eras because of their better economics, well established processing, high temperature properties, high resistance to corrosion and fatigue. Directional properties of composites are dependent on the fibre orientation. Composites being anisotropic in nature are difficult to drill and machining and tooling of the composites remained a great challenge over time. This paper addresses the issues of various machining problems such as delamination, fibre pull-out, cracks on varying drilling parameters like feed rate and drilling speed. Experimental drilling was carried out on Fibre Reinforced Plastic composites with HSS drill bit. Results reveal that as the number of holes increases the entry and exit diameter and tapper of holes vary and also varying composite thickness results in a difference in hole roundness and tapper. This experiment summarizes that for achieving acceptable tool life and hole quality demands a drill designed with composites.

  18. Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Gibson Dome (drill hole GD-1) Paradox basin, Utah

    Daniels, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements were made in a deep drill hole (GD-1), in San Juan County, Utah, which penetrated a sequence of sandstone, shale, and evaporite. These measurements were made as part of a larger investigation to study the suitability of an area centered around the Gibson Dome structure for nuclear waste disposal. The magnitude and direction of the total electric field resulting from a current source placed in a drill hole is calculated from potential difference measurements for a grid of closely-spaced stations. A contour map of these data provides a detailed map of the distribution of the electric field away from the drill hole. Computation of the apparent resistivity from the total electric field helps to interpret the data with respect to the ideal situation of a layered earth. Repeating the surface measurements for different source depths gives an indication of variations in the geoelectric section with depth. The quantitative interpretation of the field data at Gibson Dome was hindered by the pressure of a conductive borehole fluid. However, a qualitative interpretation of the field data indicates the geoelectric section around drill hole GD-1 is not perfectly layered. The geoelectric section appears to dip to the northwest, and contains anomalies in the resistivity distribution that may be representative of localized thickening or folding of the salt layers.

  19. Horizontal well drilled to intersect existing vertical well

    Price, C.; Reynolds, J.

    1991-01-01

    Morse oilfield, in eastern Gray County of the Texas Panhandle, was originally developed between 1928 and 1937. It is but a very small part of the huge Texas Pandhandle field, which covers over 200,000 productive acres, containing 12,500 active wells with a cumulative production of one billion barrels of oil. The field produces from Permian age dolomites and the Pennsylvanian Granite Wash. This paper reports on multiple production techniques that have been used over the years with varying levels of success. Acidizing techniques in the late 1930s increased development, but the advent of hydraulic fracturing resulted in extensive development. The primary drive mechanism was solution-gas drive. Approximately one-fourth of Panhandle field has been subjected to gas injection, resulting in an estimated 50 million barrels of additional oil production. In 1955, waterflooding appeared to offer the most economical possibility of increasing ultimate recovery from the Brown Dolomite reservoir. The Morse Brown Dolomite pilot flood in Gray County and another Brown Dolomite pilot flood in Hutchinson County were the first two successful pilot floods in Panhandle field. The Morse flood has a total of 40 oil and 27 water injection wells on 500 flood acres. Morse field has a cumulative production of 15.7 million barrels of oil. The operating company, Future Petroleum Corp., a Dallas-based independent, believes that a third alternative using horizontal drilling has the potential to increase production. And it appears that the Brown Dolomite formation of Morse field offers the right combination of factors to attempt this type of venture

  20. Process for opening up carboniferous seams for underground gasification by drilling production holes downwards

    Lokschin, J L; Volk, A F; Starinskii, A A

    1977-12-01

    This process will reduce drilling costs and times by 20 to 25% and will improve gasification under the influence of a thin liquid medium connecting adjacent holes. After determining the approximate depth and thickness of the seam to be opened up, e.g. by geological means, production holes of 100 to 400 mm (diameter) are made down to a depth of 400 m or more, by well-known boring bars and chisels. After passing the top of the seam (the roof of the seam), which can be recognised by discoloration of the drilling liquid, one goes 1/2 to 1 metre deeper and one determines the depth of the roof the seam exactly by the reduced natural radioactivity at the boundary layer, by introducing a gamma sensor on to the boring bar. The production holes are taken down in a second borehold to a free space 0.6 to 2 metres above the floor of the seam (bottom of the seam), according to the thickness of the seam. After replacing the boring bar by a feedpipe one continues to drill using a boring bar of smaller cutting diameter inside this tube. This hole reaches from the foot of the pipe of the feedpipe to the floor of the seam. It is preferably flushed with gas but may be flushed with liquid. A thin liquid introduced into this hole penetrates the surrounding mass of the seam horizontally (unhindered by any armouring) and represents the required connection to neighbouring bores for gasification. The process is suitable for mining coal, combustible shale oil, bituminous rock, heavy natural oil where this process is based on gasification, melting or dissolving of those deposits.

  1. Technology of double casing tubes & a binary cycle system for hole cleaning for CBM multi-branch horizontal wells

    Yong Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the aeration-assisted cutting-carrying technology is faced with complexities in the drilling of CBM multi-branch horizontal wells. For example, the aerating pressure is hardly maintained, and the borehole instability may happen. In view of these prominent problems, the technology of double casing tubes & a binary cycle system suitable for CBM multi-branch horizontal wells was developed according to the Venturi principle by means of parasitic tube insufflation which is used for well control simulation system. Then, a multiphase flow finite element model was established for the fluid-cutting particle system in this drilling condition. This technology was tested in field. Double-casing tubes cementing is adopted in this technology and a jet generator is installed at the bottom of the inner casing. In the process of drilling, the drilling fluid injected through double intermediate casing annulus is converted by the jet generator into a high-efficiency steering water jet, which, together with the water jet generated by the bit nozzle, increases the fluid returning rate in the inner annulus space. It is indicated from simulation results that the cutting-carrying effect is the best when the included angle between the nozzle of the jet generator and the vertical direction is 30°. Besides, the influential laws of cutting size, primary cycle volume, accessory cycle volume and drilling velocity on hole cleaning are figured out. It is concluded that this technology increases the flow rate of drilling fluid in annulus space, the returning rate of drilling fluid significantly and the cutting-carrying capacity. It is currently one of the effective hole cleaning technologies for CBM multi-branch horizontal wells where fresh water is taken as the drilling fluid.

  2. Fran Ridge horizontal coring summary report hole UE-25h No. 1, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    Norris, A.E.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Merson, T.J.

    1986-10-01

    Hole UE-25h No. 1 was core drilled during December 1982 and January 1983 within several degrees of due west, 400 ft horizontally into the southeast slope of Fran Ridge at an altitude of 3409 ft. The purpose of the hole was to obtain data pertinent for radionuclide transport studies in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This unit had been selected previously as the host rock for the potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, adjacent to the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site. The hole was core drilled first with air, then with air mist, and finally with air, soap, and water. Many problems were encountered, including sloughing of tuff into the uncased hole, vibration of the drill rods, high rates of bit wear, and lost circulation of drilling fluids. On the basis of experience gained in drilling this hole, ways to improve horizontal coring with air are suggested in this report. All of the recovered core, except those pieces that were wrapped and waxed, were examined for lithophysal content, for fractures, and for fracture-fill mineralization. The results of this examination are given in this report. Core recovery greater than 80% at between 209 and 388 ft permitted a fracture frequency analysis. The results are similar to the fracture frequencies observed in densely welded nonlithophysal tuff from holes USW GU-3 and USW G-4. The fractures in core from UE-25h No. 1 were found to be smooth and nonmineralized or coated with calcite, silica, or manganese oxide. Open fractures with caliche (porous, nonsparry calcite) were not observed beyond 83.5 ft, which corresponds to an overburden depth of 30 ft

  3. Application of multiphase flow methods to horizontal underbalanced drilling

    Smith, S. P.; Gregory, G. A.; Munro, N.; Muqeem, M.

    1998-12-31

    Ways in which multiphase flow pressure loss calculations can be used in the design and optimization of underbalanced drilling operations are demonstrated. Existing pressure loss calculation methods are evaluated using detailed field measurements for three oil wells and one gas well drilled underbalanced with coiled tubing. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs.

  4. 30 CFR 816.14 - Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Temporary.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Temporary. 816.14 Section 816.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.14 Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Temporary. Each exploration hole...

  5. Enhancing down-the-hole air hammer capacity in directional drilling

    Klishin, V. I.; Timonin, V. V.; Kokoulin, D. I.; Alekseev, S. E.; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-09-01

    The authors discuss the issue connected with drilling trajectory deviation and present the technique of rotary-percussion drilling with a down-the-hole air hammer. The article describes pilot testing of the air hammer drill PNB76 in Berezovskaya Mine. The ways of improving the air hammer drill are identified, and the basic diagram and R&D test data are given.

  6. Overview of Appalachian Basin high-angle and horizontal air and mud drilling

    Yost, A.B. III; Javins, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center has been investigating the potential of using high angle and horizontal drilling technology to improve gas production from low permeability reservoirs for more than 20 years. A chronology of 45 high angle and horizontal wells have been identified to show the date, type well, type build curve, location, formation and the type of application. The historical well drilling events that have taken place since the first well are discussed to evaluate the progress in developing the technology. Detailed discussion about how the drilling technology developed in the Appalachian Basin for directional drilling and completion was provided. A discussion of the types of applications for high and horizontal drilling in the Appalachian Basin were identified. A summary of four jointly funded DOE/Industry horizontal wells were discussed to illustrate how the air horizontal drilling technology developed and learning curves for drilling cost and feet per day were provided to illustrate the improvement in the technology and equipment reliability

  7. Horizontal directional drilling: a green and sustainable technology for site remediation.

    Lubrecht, Michael D

    2012-03-06

    Sustainability has become an important factor in the selection of remedies to clean up contaminated sites. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is a relatively new drilling technology that has been successfully adapted to site remediation. In addition to the benefits that HDD provides for the logistics of site cleanup, it also delivers sustainability advantages, compared to alternative construction methods.

  8. Exploring the hole cleaning parameters of horizontal wellbore using two-phase Eulerian CFD approach

    Satish K Dewangan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the flow through concentric annulus with the inner cylinder in rotation. This work has got its importance in the petroleum industries in relation to the wellbore drilling. In wellbore drilling, the issue of the hole-cleaning is very serious problem especially in case of the horizontal drilling process. The effect of the various parameters like slurry flow velocity, inner cylinder rotational speed, inlet solid concentration which affect hole cleaning was discussed. Their effect on the pressure drop, wall shear stress, mixture turbulence kinetic energy, and solid-phase velocity and slip velocity were analyzed, which are responsible for solid-phase distribution. Flow was considered to be steady, incompressible and two-phase slurry flow with water as carrier fluid and silica sand as the secondary phase. Eulerian approach was used for modeling the slurry flow. Silica sand was considered of spherical shape with particle size of 180 µm. ANSYS FLUENT software was used for modeling and solution. Plotting was done using Tecplot software and Microsoft Office.

  9. Lithology and Stratigraphy of Holes Drilled in LANL-Use Areas of the Nevada Test Site

    Lance B. Prothro; Sigmund L. Drellack, Jr.; Brian M. Allen

    1999-07-01

    Geologic data for ten holes drilled in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory at the Nevada Test Site are presented in this report. The holes include emplacement holes, instrumentation holes, and Underground Test Area wells drilled during calendar years 1991 through 1995. For each hole a stratigraphic log, a detailed lithologic log, and one or two geologic cross sections are presented, along with a supplemental data sheet containing information about the drilling operations, geology, or references. For three of the holes, graphic data summary sheets with geologic and geophysical data are provided as plates.

  10. Effects of specialized drill bits on hole defects of CFRP laminates

    Li, Chao; Xu, Jinyang; Chen, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Drilling is a conventional machining process widely applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) for the riveting and fastening purposes in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the machining mechanism of CFRP composites differ significantly from that of homogeneous metal alloys owing to their prominent anisotropy and heterogeneity. Serious hole defects such as fiber pullout, matrix debonding and delamination are generally produced during the hole-making process, resulting in the poor machined surface quality, low fatigue durability or even the part rejections. In order to minimize the defects especially the delamination damage in composites drilling, specialized drill bits are often a primary choice being widely adopted in a real production. This paper aims to study the effects of two drills differing in geometrical characteristics during the drilling of CFRP laminates. A number of drilling experiments were carried out with the aim to evaluate the drilling performance of different drill bits. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the drilled surfaces to study the surface roughness. A high frequency scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) was applied to characterize the drilled hole morphologies with a particular focus on the delamination damage occurring in the CFRP laminates. The obtained results indicate that the fiber orientation relative to the cutting direction is a key factor affecting hole morphology and hole wall defects can be reduced by utilizing specialized drill geometries. Moreover, the dagger drill was confirmed outperforming the brad spur drill from the aspect of reducing drilling-induced delamination.

  11. Cuttings-carried theory and erosion rule in gas drilling horizontal well

    Wei Na

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In gas horizontal drilling, the gas with cuttings will go through the annulus at high speed which will lead strong erosion to the drill tools. This paper proposes a cuttings-carried theory and modified the critical cuttings-carried model for the gas-solid flow. Meanwhile, the erosive energy is obtained through simulating the gas-solid mixture in different conditions. The study result has positive significance on the determination of reasonable injection volume by optimizing construction parameters of horizontal well in gas drilling.

  12. Residual stress measurement in veneering ceramic by hole-drilling.

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2011-05-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion properties between veneering ceramic and metallic or high-strength ceramic cores can induce residual stresses and initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. Knowledge of the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic is a key factor for understanding and predicting chipping failures, which are well-known problems with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objectives of this study are to develop a method for measuring the stress profile in veneering ceramics and to compare ceramic-fused-to-metal compounds to veneered Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal ceramic. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. Because of the high sensitivity needed in comparison with industrial applications, a high sensitivity electrical measurement chain was developed. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth and becoming tensile at 0.5-1.0mm from the surface, and then becoming slightly compressive again. The zirconia samples exhibited a stress depth profile of larger magnitude. The hole drilling method was shown be a practical tool for measuring residual stresses in veneering ceramics. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method for Cleaning Laser-Drilled Holes on Printed Wiring Boards by Plasma Treatment

    Hirogaki, Toshiki; Aoyama, Eiichi; Minagi, Ryu; Ogawa, Keiji; Katayama, Tsutao; Matsuoka, Takashi; Inoue, Hisahiro

    We propose a new method for cleaning blind via holes after laser drilling of PWBs using oxygen plasma treatment. This report dealt with three kinds of PWB materials: epoxy resin and two kinds of aramid fiber reinforced plastics (AFRP: Technora or Kevlar fiber reinforcement). We observed the drilled holes after plasma treatment using both an optical and a scanning electric microscope (SEM). It was confirmed that adequate etching took place in the drilled holes by plasma treatment. We also compared the hole wall and hole bottom after plasma treatment with ones after chemical etching. It was clear that there was no damage to the aramid fiber tip on the hole wall, and that a smooth roughness of the hole wall was obtained by means of plasma treatment. As a result, we demonstrated that the plasma treatment is effective in cleaning the laser drilled holes of PWBs.

  14. Coral ages and island subsidence, Hilo drill hole

    Moore, J.G.; Ingram, B.L.; Ludwig, K. R.; Clague, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    A 25.8-m-thick sedimentary section containing coral fragments occurs directly below a surface lava flow (the ???1340 year old Panaewa lava flow) at the Hilo drill hole. Ten coral samples from this section dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon and five by thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) 230Th/U methods show good agreement. The calcareous unit is 9790 years old at the bottom and 1690 years old at the top and was deposited in a shallow lagoon behind an actively growing reef. This sedimentary unit is underlain by a 34-m-thick lava flow which in turn overlies a thin volcaniclastic silt with coral fragments that yield a single 14C date of 10,340 years. The age-depth relations of the dated samples can be compared with proposed eustatic sea level curves after allowance for island subsidence is taken. Island subsidence averages 2.2 mm/yr for the last 47 years based on measurements from a tide gage near the drill hole or 2.5-2.6 mm/yr for the last 500,000 years based on the ages and depths of a series of drowned coral reefs offshore from west Hawaii. The age-depth measurements of coral fragments are more consistent with eustatic sea levels as determined by coral dating at Barbados and Albrolhos Islands than those based on oxygen isotopic data from deep sea cores. The Panaewa lava flow entered a lagoon underlain by coral debris and covered the drill site with 30.9 m of lava of which 11 m was above sea level. This surface has now subsided to 4.2 m above sea level, but it demonstrates how a modern lava flow entering Hilo Bay would not only change the coastline but could extensively modify the offshore shelf.

  15. Practical calibration of design data to technical capabilities of horizontal directional drilling rig

    Toropov, S. Yu; Toropov, V. S.

    2018-05-01

    In order to design more accurately trenchless pipeline passages, a technique has been developed for calculating the passage profile, based on specific parameters of the horizontal directional drilling rig, including the range of possible drilling angles and a list of compatible drill pipe sets. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the trenchless passage profile is shown in the paper. This algorithm is based on taking into account the features of HDD technology, namely, three different stages of production. The authors take into account that the passage profile is formed at the first stage of passage construction, that is, when drilling a pilot well. The algorithm involves calculating the profile by taking into account parameters of the drill pipes used and angles of their deviation relative to each other during the pilot drilling. This approach allows us to unambiguously calibrate the designed profile for the HDD rig capabilities and the auxiliary and navigation equipment used in the construction process.

  16. Study on super-long deep-hole drilling of titanium alloy.

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Liu, Yanshu; Han, Xiaolan; Zheng, Wencui

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the super-long deep-hole drilling of a titanium alloy was investigated. According to material properties of the titanium alloy, an experimental approach was designed to study three issues discovered during the drilling process: the hole-axis deflection, chip morphology, and tool wear. Based on the results of drilling experiments, crucial parameters for the super-long deep-hole drilling of titanium alloys were obtained, and the influences of these parameters on quality of the alloy's machining were also evaluated. Our results suggest that the developed drilling process is an effective method to overcome the challenge of super-long deep-hole drilling on difficult-to-cut materials.

  17. Hole Quality Assessment in Drilling of Glass Microballoon/Epoxy Syntactic Foams

    Ashrith, H. S.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gaitonde, Vinayak; Gupta, Nikhil

    2018-05-01

    Syntactic foams reinforced with glass microballoons are used as alternatives for conventional materials in structural application of aircrafts and automobiles due to their unique properties such as light weight, high compressive strength, and low moisture absorption. Drilling is the most commonly used process of making holes for assembling structural components. In the present investigation, grey relation analysis (GRA) is used to optimize cutting speed, feed, drill diameter, and filler content to minimize cylindricity, circularity error, and damage factor. Experiments based on full factorial design are conducted using a vertical computer numerical control machine and tungsten carbide twist drills. GRA reveals that a combination of lower cutting speed, filler content, and drill diameter produces a good quality hole at optimum intermediate feed in drilling syntactic foams composites. GRA also shows that the drill diameter has a significant effect on the hole quality. Furthermore, damage on the hole exit side is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope.

  18. The relationship of cutting force with hole quality in drilling process of AISI H13 steel

    Tekaüt İsmail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmony of the drilling machine-cutting tool-work piece is very important for producing the machine part with the ideal dimensions. For this purpose in this study, the effect of cutting forces on hole quality (surface roughness, diameter deviation and circular deviation was investigated by 14 mm diameter uncoated and (AlCrN monolayer coated carbide drills for drilling AISI H13 hot work tool steel on vertical machining center. Four different cutting speeds (60, 75, 90 and 108 m / min and three different feed rates (0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 mm / rev were used in the experiments. Cutting forces have been found to be effective in improving hole quality. Better hole quality has obtained with coated drills than uncoated drills in experiments. It has been observed that coated drills have the effect of improving the hole quality due to the operation with less cutting force and better chip evacuation.

  19. Methodology for definition of bending radius and pullback force in HDD (Horizontal Directional Drilling) operations

    Silva, Danilo Machado L. da; Rodrigues, Marcos V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Venaas, Asle [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Medeiros, Antonio Roberto de [Subsea 7 (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Bending is a primary loading experienced by pipelines during installation and operation. Significant bending in the presence of tension is experienced during installation by the S-lay method, as the pipe conforms to the curvature of the stinger and beyond in the over bend region. Bending in the presence of external pressure is experienced in the sag bend of all major installation methods (e.g., reeling, J-lay, S-lay) as well as in free-spans on the sea floor. Bending is also experienced by pipelines during installation by horizontal directional drilling. HDD procedures are increasingly being utilized around the world not only for crossings of rivers and other obstacles but also for shore approach of offshore pipelines. During installation the pipeline experience a combination of tensile, bending, and compressive stresses. The magnitude of these stresses is a function of the approach angle, bending radius, pipe diameter, length of the borehole, and the soil properties at the site. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of some aspects related to bending of the product pipe during HDD operations, which is closely related to the borehole path as the pipeline conforms to the curvature of the hole. An overview of the aspects related to tensile forces is also presented. The combined effect of bending and tensile forces during the pullback operation is discussed. (author)

  20. Measuring the optical properties of IceCube drill holes

    Rongen Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The IceCube Neutrino Observatory consists of 5160 digital optical modules (DOMs in a cubic kilometer of deep ice below the South Pole. The DOMs record the Cherenkov light from charged particles interacting in the ice. A good understanding of the optical properties of the ice is crucial to the quality of the event reconstruction. While the optical properties of the undisturbed ice are well understood, the properties of the refrozen drill holes still pose a challenge. A new data-acquisition and analysis approach using light originating from LEDs within one DOM detected by the photomultiplier of the same DOM will be described. This method allows us to explore the scattering length in the immediate vicinity of the considered DOMs.

  1. Gradient index metamaterials realized by drilling hole arrays

    Mei Zhonglei; Cui Tiejun; Bai Jing

    2010-01-01

    Gradient index metamaterials have wide applications in the microwave and optical fields. Based on the quasi-static theory, such materials at the microwave band have been realized by drilling hole arrays on ordinary dielectric materials. As applications of the gradient index metamaterials, novel devices including a 45 0 dielectric wave-bending structure, a 16 0 wave-steering lens and a microwave focusing lens are designed and fabricated. Field mapping measurements validate the proposed gradient index metamaterials and the device designs. The method can be directly and easily extended to the design of cloaks, various lenses, beam shifters and beam-steering devices. It can also be applied in the optical band as long as quasi-static conditions are satisfied. The method and the devices may find applications in integrated circuit systems.

  2. Estimation grade of uranium from drill hole gamma logs

    Juliao, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric grade of uranium deposits can be determined from drill hole gamma logs. The calculation of uranium oxide content can be obtained with good precision when the uranium ore is in radioactive equilibrium, containing only a small amount of thorium and no interference of potassium. This is the case of uranium ore from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province presented in this paper. The radioactive disequilibrium study in this province were made working over nine hundred samples analised with this special purpose in the CDTN-NUCLEBRAS laboratories. The data obtained indicated that the uranium in the ore is in perfect equilibrium with their daughter gamma emitters. Futhermore, the amount of Th and K is of no significance, so that the gamma counting represents exactly the uranium content of the ore. (author) [pt

  3. Transportal femoral drilling creates more horizontal ACL graft orientation compared to transtibial drilling: A 3D CT imaging study.

    Clockaerts, S; Van Haver, A; Verhaegen, J; Vuylsteke, K; Leenders, T; Lagae, K C; Verdonk, P

    2016-06-01

    The principle of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is to create a femoral and tibial tunnel that resembles the insertion of the native ACL. Anatomic reconstruction leads to a more horizontal graft orientation that provides more rotational stability. The aim of this study is to investigate the best method to achieve anatomical reconstruction of femoral insertion of the ACL and thus, a more horizontal orientation of the ACL. We compared tunnel position and orientation between transportal femoral drilling technique and transtibial technique. Thirty-two patients were included. Post-operative CT scans were obtained and femur, tibia and ACL tunnels were reconstructed. The position and orientation of tibial and femoral tunnels were quantified using the quadrant method, and femoral tunnel length, ellipticity and posterior wall breakage were assessed. We also investigated clinical outcome. Analyses show that transportal drilled femoral tunnels were situated significantly lower than transtibial drilled tunnels (p<0.0001), resulting in a significantly more horizontal oriented ACL in the transportal group in coronal (p<0.0001) and sagittal plane (p=0.01). No differences were observed in depth of femoral tunnel position (p=0.44). Femoral tunnel length was shorter in the transportal group (p=0.01) with a more ellipsoidal femoral aperture (p=0.01). There were no differences between both groups in tibial position. There were no differences in clinical outcome measure between the transportal and transtibial groups. This study indicates that transportal drilling of the femoral tunnel leads to a more horizontal graft orientation of the ACL, without differences in clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mineralogy of drill hole UE-25pnumber1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1988-05-01

    Drill hole UE-25p/number sign/1 is located east of the candidate repository block at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and as such provides information on the geology of the accessible environment. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1807 m (5923 ft) and is unique in that it penetrates tuffs that are older than any volcanic units previously encountered in drill holes at Yucca Mountain. In addition, it is the only hole drilled to date that penetrates the base of the tuff sequence and enters the underlying Paleozoic dolomite basement. We have examined the mineralogy of drill cuttings, core, and sidewall samples from drill hole UE-25p/number sign/1 is similar to that in the other drill holes examined at Yucca Mountain. The only significant differences in mineralogy from other drill holes include the presence of dolomite in the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the occurrence of up to 3% laumontite, a Ca-zeolite, in four samples of the Lithic Ridge Tuff. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Characterization of Under-Building Contamination at Rocky Flats Implementing Environmental-Measurement While Drilling Process with Horizontal Directional Drilling

    WILLIAMS, CECELIA V.; LOCKWOOD, GRANT J.; NORMANN, RANDY A.; LINDSAY, THOMAS

    2001-01-01

    Characterization is required on thirty-one buildings at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or the Site) with known or suspected under building contamination. The Site has teamed with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to deploy Environmental Measure-While-Drilling (EMWD) in conjunction with horizontal directional drilling (HDD) to characterize under building contamination and to evaluate the performance and applicability for future characterization efforts. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental drill bit data during drilling operations. The project investigated two locations, Building 886 and Building 123. Building 886 is currently undergoing D and D activities. Building 123 was demolished in 1998; however, the slab is present with under building process waste lines and utilities. This report presents the results of the EMWD Gamma Ray Spectrometer logging of boreholes at these two sites. No gamma emitting contamination was detected at either location.(author)

  6. Drilling holes in rock for final storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Nord, G.

    1980-09-01

    This report delas with the technical and economic aspects of the drilling of vertical holes with diameters of 1.5 metres and 1 metre in the Swedish bedrock. The holes will be 7.7 metres in depth and located on a level approximately 500 metres below the ground surface. There is no directly applicable technique for the construction of the above-mentioned holes from a small tunnel. The data presented in this report are based to a great extent on information supplied by the manufacturers of drilling equipment, and by underground construction contractors. Three different techniques for drilling the holes have been delat with in the report: shaft boring, stitch drilling (three alternative methods) and core drilling. In order to produce the required 233 holes per year, the following sets of equipment must be purchased, and personnel engaged. A hole with a diameter of 1.5 m and a depth of 7.7 m requires 3 to 7 sets of equipment for shaft boring or stitch drilling and engages 12 to 27 employees. The cost per hole varies between 24.200 and 31.200 SKr. Core drilling requires 7 sets of equipment, engages 29 persons and costs 55.300 SKr per hole. A hole with a diameter of 1.0 m requires less personnel and costs between 19.700 and 25.800 per hole except for core drilling where the cost per hole is estimated to 43.900 SKr. Interest costs account for 10 percent - 15 percent of the above-mentioned costs. Our aim has been to calculate the costs for the different methods on as similar a basis as possible, but a margin of error of +- 15 percent entails and overlapping of the cost span for most of the methods considered. (G.B.)

  7. Horizontal drilling in a natural gas storage horizon of 4 m thickness using reservoir navigation technology

    Bastert, Thomas [E.ON Gas Storage GmbH, Essen (Germany); Liewert, Mathias; Rohde, Uwe [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany); Haberland, Joachim

    2010-09-15

    With a working gas capacity of 1,44 billion m{sup 3} (Vn) the natural gas storage facility at Bierwang is one of the largest storage facilities of E.ON Gas Storage (in Germany) and also one of the largest porous rock storages in Germany. The natural gas is stored in the tertiary storage horizons of the Chattian Hauptsand and Nebensand. To increase the storage capacity a second development well was planned for the Chattian Nebensand II (approx. 1680 m below ground). Following a comprehensive technical investigation the BW 502 well was planned as a horizontal well intended to provide a 300 m exposed section length through the reservoir. In a first step a pilot well was drilled to examine the Nebensand II which had been explored only to a limited extent before; the pilot well was also to provide accurate data on depth, thickness and dip. The results obtained indicated that the Nebensand II was only 4 m thick instead of 6 m as originally assumed. An azimuthal LWD resistivity tool was therefore used for reservoir navigation to allow horizontal drilling despite the lower thickness found. The technology allowed drilling of the horizontal well over its entire length of 315 m within a max. 1.5 m corridor relative to the reservoir top. Drilling confirmed that the actual formation found corresponded to the reservoir formation plan. Drilling operations were completed successfully. The well has been commissioned in the spring of 2010. (orig.)

  8. A Comprehensive Prediction Model of Hydraulic Extended-Reach Limit Considering the Allowable Range of Drilling Fluid Flow Rate in Horizontal Drilling.

    Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue

    2017-06-08

    Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min  ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min  ≤ Q r  ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min  drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.

  9. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Moore, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing

  10. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    Goranson, C.

    1992-09-01

    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities

  11. Measurements of the state of stress in deep drill holes

    Vaeaetaeinen, A.; Saerkkae, P.

    1985-05-01

    The state of stress in rock is one of the most important parameters in the safe planning of stable underground openings in rock. At the same time, it is very difficult to be determined from a great distance. The common methods for the determination of state of stress in bedrock are usually not able to do this from a distance over 30 m. This work is a survey on rock stress determination methods usable in deep, over 500 m, drill holes. It also contains a recommendation for a method to determine the state of stress in Lavia test hole. The presented recommendation for the measurement of the state of stress contains an estimation on the working time for the measurement as well as the amount and location of the measuring points. The examination of the methods has been concentrated on three methods, hydraulic fracturing, overcoring by Vattenfall and differential strain analysis. Theoretical background of these methods has been analyzed. A special interest has been laid on the fundamental assumptions of different methods and their influence on the reliability of the results and the interpretation of the state of stress. The comparison of the methods has been made by literature and user interviews. Equipment and personnel needed, and way of measurement are described for the methods. The parameters measured and their possible sources of errors are described, too, as well as the fundamental assumptions and potential difficulties in the measurement. The organizations in Scandinavia performing measurements and their abilities to do measurements and interpretation are presented. Readiness to interpretation in Finland is described shortly

  12. Planning, drilling and completing a record horizontal well in the Gulf of Mexico

    Johnston, R.A.; Porter, D.A.; Hill, P.L.; Smolen, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Maximizing profits is the ultimate business objective in all drilling and completion operations. By far and away the biggest contributor to profits is the productivity of the well. Reliability and costs certainly impact profits; however, they pale in comparison to productivity when a rigorous calculation of net present value is performed. The simplest and most effective way to improve productivity is to increase the quantity of net reservoir exposed to the wellbore. A horizontal trajectory is the ultimate way to maximize the length of formation exposed to the wellbore. Drilling completion technology development over the last several years has made the use of horizontal wellbores in unconsolidated formations practical. Utilizing a unique mixture of new and existing technology, BP recently brought their first horizontal well in the Gulf of Mexico on line in record setting fashion. The planning, installation and results of this team effort are detailed in this operations oriented paper

  13. Editorial Commentary: The Larger Holes or Larger Number of Holes We Drill in the Coracoid, the Weaker the Coracoid Becomes.

    Brady, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The larger holes or larger number of holes we drill in the coracoid, the weaker the coracoid becomes. Thus, minimizing bone holes (both size and number) is required to lower risk of coracoid process fracture, in patients in whom transosseous shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction is indicated. A single 2.4-mm-diameter tunnel drilled through both the clavicle and the coracoid lowers the risk of fracture, but the risk cannot be entirely eliminated. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The experimental research on electrodischarge drilling of high aspect ratio holes in Inconel 718

    Lipiec, Piotr; Machno, Magdalena; Skoczypiec, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    In recent years the drilling operations become important area of electrodischarge machining (EDM) application. This especially concerns drilling of, small (D 10) holes in difficult-to-cut materials (i.e. nickel or titanium alloys). Drilling of such a holes is significantly beyond mechanical drilling capabilities. Therefore electrodischarge machining is good and cost efficient alternative for such application. EDM gives possibility to drill accurate, burr free and high aspect ratio holes and is applicable to machine wide range of conductive materials, irrespective of their hardness and toughness. However it is worth to underline its main disadvantages such as: significant tool wear, low material removal rate and poor surface integrity. The last one is especially important in reliable applications in aircraft or medical industry.

  15. Geology of hole drill thermal infra basaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) in Salto Uruguay

    Goso, C.; Muzio, R.; Marmisolle, J.; De Souza, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the lithological description of a thermal infrabasaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) hole drill cutting in Dayman (Kanarek Hotel), Salto department (Uruguay). This hole drill shows 152 meters of Buena Vista Formation (Upper Permian- Lower Triassic), 188 meters of Tacuarembo Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and 940meters of Arapey Formation (Lower Cretaceous). Petrographical studies of six basaltic levels were done [es

  16. In situ measurement of plasma and shock wave properties inside laser-drilled metal holes

    Brajdic, Mihael; Hermans, Martin; Horn, Alexander; Kelbassa, Ingomar

    2008-10-01

    High-speed imaging of shock wave and plasma dynamics is a commonly used diagnostic method for monitoring processes during laser material treatment. It is used for processes such as laser ablation, cutting, keyhole welding and drilling. Diagnosis of laser drilling is typically adopted above the material surface because lateral process monitoring with optical diagnostic methods inside the laser-drilled hole is not possible due to the hole walls. A novel method is presented to investigate plasma and shock wave properties during the laser drilling inside a confined environment such as a laser-drilled hole. With a novel sample preparation and the use of high-speed imaging combined with spectroscopy, a time and spatial resolved monitoring of plasma and shock wave dynamics is realized. Optical emission of plasma and shock waves during drilling of stainless steel with ns-pulsed laser radiation is monitored and analysed. Spatial distributions and velocities of shock waves and of plasma are determined inside the holes. Spectroscopy is accomplished during the expansion of the plasma inside the drilled hole allowing for the determination of electron densities.

  17. On KNBK for the preparation of shafts of drill-holes for the sinking casing strings

    Sukhanov, V B; Shchukin, R K

    1981-01-01

    An experimental preparation of drill-holes for reinforcement performed by the Kubanomor neftagazprom firm is given based on the use of traditional KNBK of increasing rigidity after the interval has been completely drilled and KNBK inserted into the superchisel part of the flywheel, UBTS or rotary stabilizer, the outer diameters of which are determined computationally and help in preparation of the shaft for reinforcement in the process of rotary drilling.

  18. Geophysical Well-Log Measurements in Three Drill Holes at Salt Valley, Utah

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Hite, Robert J.; Scott, James H.; U.S. Geological Survey

    1980-01-01

    Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material.

  19. Selected stratigraphic data for drill holes located in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site. Rev. 1

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Stratigraphic data are presented in tabular form for 72 holes drilled in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, between 1950 and 1993. Three pairs of data presentations are included for each hole: depth to formation tops, formation thicknesses, and formation elevations are presented in both field (English) and metric units. Also included for each hole, where available, are various construction data (hole depth, hole diameter, surface location coordinates) and certain information of hydrogeologic significance (depth to water level, top of zeolitization). The event name is given for holes associated with a particular nuclear test. An extensive set of footnotes is included, which indicates data sources and provides other information. The body of the report describes the stratigraphic setting of Frenchman Flat, gives drill-hole naming conventions and database terminology, and provides other background and reference material

  20. Results from exploratory drill hole UE2ce, Northwest Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, near the NASH Event

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Exploratory drill hole UE2ce was drilled in January 1977 to determine geologic and geophysical characteristics of this site. This report presents geophysical logs, lithology, geologic structure, water table measurements, and physical properties for this drill hole. The data are then extrapolated to the NASH site, an event in U2ce, 55.6 m due north of UE2ce

  1. Small subchondral drill holes improve marrow stimulation of articular cartilage defects.

    Eldracher, Mona; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2014-11-01

    Subchondral drilling is an established marrow stimulation technique. Osteochondral repair is improved when the subchondral bone is perforated with small drill holes, reflecting the physiological subchondral trabecular distance. Controlled laboratory study. A rectangular full-thickness chondral defect was created in the trochlea of adult sheep (n = 13) and treated with 6 subchondral drillings of either 1.0 mm (reflective of the trabecular distance) or 1.8 mm in diameter. Osteochondral repair was assessed after 6 months in vivo by macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses and by micro-computed tomography. The application of 1.0-mm subchondral drill holes led to significantly improved histological matrix staining, cellular morphological characteristics, subchondral bone reconstitution, and average total histological score as well as significantly higher immunoreactivity to type II collagen and reduced immunoreactivity to type I collagen in the repair tissue compared with 1.8-mm drill holes. Analysis of osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defects revealed no significant differences between treatment groups. Restoration of the microstructure of the subchondral bone plate below the chondral defects was significantly improved after 1.0-mm compared to 1.8-mm drilling, as shown by higher bone volume and reduced thickening of the subchondral bone plate. Likewise, the microarchitecture of the drilled subarticular spongiosa was better restored after 1.0-mm drilling, indicated by significantly higher bone volume and more and thinner trabeculae. Moreover, the bone mineral density of the subchondral bone in 1.0-mm drill holes was similar to the adjacent subchondral bone, whereas it was significantly reduced in 1.8-mm drill holes. No significant correlations existed between cartilage and subchondral bone repair. Small subchondral drill holes that reflect the physiological trabecular distance improve osteochondral repair in a translational

  2. Numerical investigation of a novel connection in tempered glass using holes drilled after tempering

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    , the hole and the adhesive. In the paper a short discussion of the change in residual stresses due to the drilling and a FE-model for the loading of the pin in the hole is developed. From this model, the stress state occurring in such joints is investigated assuming both elastic and ideal plastic behaviour...

  3. Residual stress measurement of PMMA by combining drilling-hole with digital speckle correlation method

    Yao, X. F.; Xiong, T. C.; Xu, H. M.; Wan, J. P.; Long, G. R.

    2008-11-01

    The residual stresses of the PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) specimens after being drilled, reamed and polished respectively are investigated using the digital speckle correlation experimental method,. According to the displacement fields around the correlated calculated region, the polynomial curve fitting method is used to obtain the continuous displacement fields, and the strain fields can be obtained from the derivative of the displacement fields. Considering the constitutive equation of the material, the expression of the residual stress can be presented. During the data processing, according to the fitting effect of the data, the calculation region of the correlated speckles and the degree of the polynomial fitting curve is decided. These results show that the maximum stress is at the hole-wall of the drilling hole specimen and with the increasing of the diameter of the drilled hole, the residual stress resulting from the hole drilling increases, whereas the process of reaming and polishing hole can reduce the residual stress. The relative large discrete degree of the residual stress is due to the chip removal ability of the drill bit, the cutting feed of the drill and other various reasons.

  4. Real-time depth measurement for micro-holes drilled by lasers

    Lin, Cheng-Hsiang; Powell, Rock A.; Jiang, Lan; Xiao, Hai; Chen, Shean-Jen; Tsai, Hai-Lung

    2010-02-01

    An optical system based on the confocal principle has been developed for real-time precision measurements of the depth of micro-holes during the laser drilling process. The capability of the measuring system is theoretically predicted by the Gaussian lens formula and experimentally validated to achieve a sensitivity of 0.5 µm. A nanosecond laser system was used to drill holes, and the hole depths were measured by the proposed measuring system and by the cut-and-polish method. The differences between these two measurements are found to be 5.0% for hole depths on the order of tens of microns and 11.2% for hundreds of microns. The discrepancies are caused mainly by the roughness of the bottom surface of the hole and by the existence of debris in the hole. This system can be easily implemented in a laser workstation for the fabrication of 3D microstructures.

  5. Study of a pipe-scanning robot for use in post-construction evaluation during horizontal directional drilling.

    2015-06-01

    Trenchless Technology has become an increasingly popular underground utility construction method, beginning in : the early 1900s with pipe jacking beneath railroad lines. One method, horizontal directional drilling (HDD), became : more common in the ...

  6. Real-time positioning technology in horizontal directional drilling based on magnetic gradient tensor measurement

    Deng, Guoqing; Yao, Aiguo

    2017-04-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) technology has been widely used in Civil Engineering. The dynamic position of the drill bit during construction is one of significant facts determining the accuracy of the trajectory of HDD. A new method now has been proposed to detecting the position of drill bit by measuring the magnetic gradient tensor of the ground solenoid magnetic beacon. Compared with traditional HDD positioning technologies, this new model is much easier to apply with lower request for construction sites and higher positioning efficiency. A direct current (DC) solenoid as a magnetic dipole is placed on ground near the drill bit, and related sensors array which contains four Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS ) tri-axial magnetometers, one MEMS tri-axial accelerometer and one MEMS tri-axial gyroscope is set up for measuring the magnetic gradient tensor of the magnetic dipole. The related HDD positioning model has been established and simulation experiments have been carried out to verify the feasibility and reliability of the proposed method. The experiments show that this method has good positioning accuracy in horizontal and vertical direction, and totally avoid the impact of the environmental magnetic field. It can be found that the posture of the magnetic beacon will impact the remote positioning precision within valid positioning range, and the positioning accuracy is higher with longer baseline for limited space in drilling tools. The results prove that the relative error can be limited in 2% by adjusting position of the magnetic beacon, the layers of the enameled coil, the sensitive of magnetometers and the baseline distance. Conclusion can be made that this new method can be applied in HDD positioning with better effect and wider application range than traditional method.

  7. Effect of cooling methods on hole quality in drilling of aluminium 6061-6T

    Islam, M N; Boswell, B

    2016-01-01

    The influence of cooling method and drilling parameters on hole production has been investigated experimentally and analytically by measuring the hole quality. A three-level, three-parameter experiment was conducted using design-of-experiment methodology. The three levels of independent input parameters were: for cooling method—flood drilling, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) drilling and cryogenic drilling; for feed rate—0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mm/rev; and for cutting speed—60, 75 and 100 m/min. The selected work and tool materials were aluminium 6061-6T and high speed steel (HSS), respectively. The measured output parameters were the three most widely used quality characteristics of drilled holes - diameter error, circularity and surface roughness. The results were analysed applying three methods: Pareto ANOVA, Taguchi method and traditional analysis. The findings revealed that the cooling method has a significant effect on diameter error (contribution ratio 88.27%), moderate effect on surface roughness (contribution ratio 41.74%) and relatively small effect on circularity (contribution ratio 23.64%). The best results for the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were achieved by MQL drilling. Cryogenic drilling produced the best circularity results; however, in terms of dimensional accuracy and surface roughness it was the worst. (paper)

  8. Axially symmetrical stresses measurement in the cylindrical tube using DIC with hole-drilling

    Ma, Yinji; Yao, Xuefeng; Zhang, Danwen

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new method combining the digital image correlation (DIC) with the hole-drilling technology to characterize the axially symmetrical stresses of the cylindrical tube is developed. First, the theoretical expressions of the axially symmetrical stresses in the cylindrical tube are derived based on the displacement or strain fields before and after hole-drilling. Second, the release of the axially symmetrical stresses for the cylindrical tube caused by hole-drilling is simulated by the finite element method (FEM), which indicates that the axially symmetrical stresses of the cylindrical tube calculated by the cylindrical solution is more accuracy than that for traditionally planar solution. Finally, both the speckle image information and the displacement field of the cylindrical tube before and after hole-drilling are extracted by combining the DIC with the hole-drilling technology, then the axially symmetrical loading induced stresses of the cylindrical tube are obtained, which agree well with the results from the strain gauge method.

  9. Filter construction technology in mining drilling hole for in-situ leaching of multilayer deposit

    Jiang Yan; Hu Baishi; Tan Yahui; Yang Lizhi; Li Xiaojian; Wang Xiaodong; Chang Jingtao; Qin Hao

    2014-01-01

    Taking a typical multilayer sandstone uranium deposit as example, study was carried out on filter construction technology in mining drilling hole for in-situ leaching of multilayer deposit. According to the character of multilayer sandstone, four injecting holes and one drawning hole were designed between the P13-P15 exploration lines, five different methods were used to construct filter. Construction technology by different methods was introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of the construction filter with five methods were analysed. As far as five experimental drilling holes, layered gravel-filling hole construction technology is a suitable method for construction multilayer filter with continuous construction, simple operation and good effect of well completion. (authors)

  10. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH11

    Karttunen, P.; Mancini, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Pere, T.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH11 was drilled from chainage 3922 to chainage 4053 in October 2009. The length of the hole is 131.21 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. During flow measurements also electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements were performed after drilling was completed by the drilling company. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, RQD, fractured zones, weathering and possible intersections. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The rock strength and deformation were determined with Rock Tester -equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. The groundwater samples were collected from the open hole without any packers. The collected groundwater samples were

  11. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories: Unsaturated zone-neutron holes: 76 boreholes drilled between May 1984 and February 1986

    1987-05-01

    This is a compilation of data from seventy-four shallow alluvial exploratory core holes and two shallow calibration core holes. The boreholes were drilled to obtain undisturbed alluvial cores, to determine vertical distribution of moisture content and water potential, and to run neutron moisture logs. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities and review of hole conditions

  12. Selective fracturing completion in horizontal open hole provides a new horizon in the Chicontepec Basin

    Terrazas, Martin; Huidobro, Efrain [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico, DF (Mexico); Bernechea, Jose Maria; Kalinin, Daniel [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Over the past few years, production has declined in Mexico's main producing field (Cantarell). Because of this decline and increasing oil prices, the operating company has sought to increase oil production from other fields, such as the Chicontepec field, which is located in Veracruz. It is 3,815 k m2 in area and has over 139 billion b bl of original oil in place, from which an estimated 12 billion b bl are recoverable with existing technology. Chicontepec is not naturally as prolific as Cantarell, which forces the operating company and service companies to find new and more creative solutions to unlock the economic potential of this low-permeability basin. Over the past two years, the operating company and the service companies have collaborated to find unconventional solutions to maximize hydrocarbon recovery in Chicontepec. Most recently, the operating company started drilling a multilateral well with two horizontal lateral sections to boost production. After disappointing initial oil rates from the naturally completed open hole section in the first arm, engineers were called upon to design a novel completion and fracturing program that would facilitate multiple propped hydraulic fractures to effectively stimulate the well. Two arms of the multilateral well were stimulated and auspicious results were obtained. Our simulations indicate that commingled production from multiple efficient treatments is the key to unlock Chicontepec potential and change project economics. (author)

  13. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  14. Geology of the UE12t No. 3 vertical drill hole, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    Terry, S.S.

    1975-11-01

    The UE12t No. 3 vertical drill hole, located near the north end of Rainier Mesa, was drilled to a total depth of 663 m (2,176 ft). The UE12t No. 3 vertical hole was drilled to further evaluate the subsurface stratigraphy northwest of the t-tunnel complex area in preparation for mining of the U12t.03 (Husky Pup) drift. The drill hole is collared in the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff and penetrates down the stratigraphic section through the Paintbrush Tuff, the welded Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, tunnel beds 5-3, the Tub Spring Member of the Belted Range Tuff, tunnel bed 2, Crater Flat Tuff, tunnel bed 1, Redrock Valley Tuff, and bottoms in older Tertiary tuffaceous and Paleozoic quartzite rubble having a partially argillized, tuffaceous, soillike matrix. The tuff of Dead Horse Flat and the bedded and ash-flow tuffs of Area 20 were not differentiated in the logging of this drill hole. Stratigraphy, structure, engineering geology, and physical properties and their relation to tunneling are discussed

  15. Preliminary petrographic and geophysical interpretations of the exploratory geothermal drill hole and core, Redstone, New Hampshire

    Hoag, R.B. Jr.; Stewart, G.W.

    1977-06-30

    A 3000 foot diamond drill hole was drilled in the Conway Granite in Redstone, New Hampshire. A comprehensive detailed petrographic and physical study of this core was made. The purpose of this study is to supply a sound data base for future geothermal and uranium-thorium studies of the drill core. An estimate of the heat flow potential of the Redstone drill hole gives a heat flow of 1.9 HFU. If only the red phase of the Conway Granite had been intersected the heat flow may have been as much as 2.7 HFU, reaching a temperature of 260/sup 0/C at 6 km. The drill hole intersected four lithologies; the green and red phase of the Conway Granite, the Albany quartz syenite and a medium-grained, hastingsite-biotite granite. The red phase has the highest and most irregular radioactivity. The irregularity is mainly due to minor variations in lithology. The drill core intersected several alteration zones up to a thickness of 150 feet. These alteration zones represent passage of low to medium temperature fluids which might have been mineralized. The Conway Granite has the physical and chemical characteristics necessary for the formation of vein type uranium deposits. The presence of unexplained radiometric anomalies lends support to the existence of such deposits.

  16. Drilling and geohydrologic data for test hole USW UZ-1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Whitfield, M.S.; Thordarson, W.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Warner, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents data collected to determine the hydrologic characteristics of tuffaceous rocks penetrated in test hole USW UZ-1. The borehole is the first of two deep, large-diameter, unsaturated-zone test holes dry drilled using the vacuum/reverse-air-circulation method. This test hole was drilled in and near the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in a program conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy. These investigations are part of the Yucca Mountain Project (formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations) to identify a potentially suitable site for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Data are presented for bit and casing configurations, coring methods, sample collection, drilling rate, borehole deviation, and out-of-gage borehole. Geologic data for this borehole include geophysical logs, a lithologic log of drill-bit cuttings, and strike and distribution of fractures. Hydrologic data include water-content and water-potential measurements of drill-bit cuttings, water-level measurements, and physical and chemical analyses of water. Laboratory measurements of moisture content and matric properties from the larger drill-bit cutting fragments were considered to be representative of in-situ conditions. 3 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Investigation on the Effect of a Pre-Center Drill Hole and Tool Material on Thrust Force, Surface Roughness, and Cylindricity in the Drilling of Al7075

    Amir Hossein Ghasemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling is one of the most useful metal cutting processes and is used in various applications, such as aerospace, electronics, and automotive. In traditional drilling methods, the thrust force, torque, tolerance, and tribology (surface roughness are related to the cutting condition and tool geometry. In this paper, the effects of a pre-center drill hole, tool material, and drilling strategy (including continuous and non-continuous feed on thrust force, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy (cylindricity have been investigated. The results show that using pre-center drill holes leads to a reduction of the engagement force and an improvement in the surface quality and cylindricity. Non-continuous drilling reduces the average thrust force and cylindricity value, and High Speed Steels HSS-Mo (high steel speed + 5–8% Mo reduces the maximum quantity of cutting forces. Moreover, cylindricity is directly related to cutting temperature and is improved by using a non-continuous drilling strategy.

  18. Investigation on the Effect of a Pre-Center Drill Hole and Tool Material on Thrust Force, Surface Roughness, and Cylindricity in the Drilling of Al7075.

    Ghasemi, Amir Hossein; Khorasani, Amir Mahyar; Gibson, Ian

    2018-01-16

    Drilling is one of the most useful metal cutting processes and is used in various applications, such as aerospace, electronics, and automotive. In traditional drilling methods, the thrust force, torque, tolerance, and tribology (surface roughness) are related to the cutting condition and tool geometry. In this paper, the effects of a pre-center drill hole, tool material, and drilling strategy (including continuous and non-continuous feed) on thrust force, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy (cylindricity) have been investigated. The results show that using pre-center drill holes leads to a reduction of the engagement force and an improvement in the surface quality and cylindricity. Non-continuous drilling reduces the average thrust force and cylindricity value, and High Speed Steels HSS-Mo (high steel speed + 5-8% Mo) reduces the maximum quantity of cutting forces. Moreover, cylindricity is directly related to cutting temperature and is improved by using a non-continuous drilling strategy.

  19. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  20. Demonstration of Eastman Christensen horizontal drilling system -- Integrated Demonstration Site, Savannah River Site

    1992-12-01

    An innovative horizontal drilling system was used to install two horizontal wells as part of an integrated demonstration project at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. The SRS is located in south-central South Carolina in the upper Coastal Plain physiographic province. The demonstration site is located near the A/M Area, and is currently known as the Integated Demonstration Site. The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies for cleanup of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in soils and groundwater at the SRS in 1989. The overall goal of the program is to demonstrate, at a single location, multiple technologies in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program

  1. Geophysical well-log measurements in three drill holes at Salt Valley, Utah

    Daniels, J.J.; Hite, R.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material. The following geophysical well-log measurements were made in each of the three drill holes: (1) density, (2) neutron, (3) acoustic velocity, (4) normal resistivity, and (5) gamma ray. Widely spaced resistivity and conductivity well-log measurements were made in the deep drill hole. Each of these well-log measurements shows the division of the evaporite sequence into halite and interbed sections. At the present time the most useful well-logging measurements for determining the individual lithologies in an evaporite sequence are gamma ray, neutron, density, and acoustic velocity. The high resistivity contrast between the drilling fluid (0.5 ohm-m) and salt (10,000 ohm-m) makes it difficult to obtain quantitative measurements of electrical properties in an evaporite sequence. Tests of widely spaced electrode configurations show that the effects of the brine on the resistivity measurements can be reduced, and the depth of investigation increased, by increasing the source-receiver electrode spacing. Tests of a single-coil induction probe show good resolution of the contrasting electrical properties of the various interbed lithologies

  2. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  3. Remarks on Residual Stress Measurement by Hole-Drilling and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Claudia Barile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  4. Remarks on residual stress measurement by hole-drilling and electronic speckle pattern interferometry.

    Barile, Claudia; Casavola, Caterina; Pappalettera, Giovanni; Pappalettere, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  5. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  6. Lower crustal section of the Oman Ophiolite drilled in Hole GT1A, ICDP Oman Drilling Project

    Umino, S.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. M.; Coggon, J. A.; Takazawa, E.; Michibayashi, K.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT1A (22° 53.535'N, 58° 30.904'E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into GT1A of the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT1A was diamond cored in 22 Jan to 08 Feb 2017 to a total depth of 403.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. Hole GT1A drilled the lower crustal section in the southern Oman Ophiolite and recovered 401.52 m of total cores (99.6% recovery). The main lithology is dominated by olivine gabbro (65.9%), followed in abundance by olivine-bearing gabbro (21.5%) and olivine melagabbro (3.9%). Minor rock types are orthopyroxene-bearing olivine gabbro (2.4%), oxide-bearing olivine gabbro (1.5%), gabbro (1.1%), anorthositic gabbro (1%), troctolitic gabbro (0.8%); orthopyroxene-bearing gabbro (0.5%), gabbronorite (0.3%); and dunite (0.3%). These rocks are divided into Lithologic Unit I to VII at 26.62 m, 88.16 m, 104.72 m, 154.04 m, 215.22 m, 306.94 m in Chikyu Curated Depth in descending order; Unit I and II consist of medium-grained olivine gabbro with lower olivine abundance in Unit II. Unit III is medium-grained olivine melagabbros, marked by an increase in olivine. Unit IV is relatively homogenous medium-grained olivine gabbros with granular textures. Unit V is identified by the appearance of fine-grained gabbros, but the major rocktypes are medium grained olivine gabbros. Unit VI is medium-grained olivine gabbro, marked by appearance of orthopyroxene. Unit VII

  7. Structure in continuously cored, deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with notes on calcite occurrence

    Carr, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    A study of more than 22,000 feet of core from five deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provided data on the attitude and vertical distribution of faults and fractures, the sense of fault displacement, and the occurrence of calcite. The study was done mainly to look for evidence of fault flattening at depth, but no consistent downward decrease in dip of faults was found, and no increase in strata rotation was evident with increasing depth. In the two drill holes located near prominent faults that dip toward the holes (USW G-3 and G-2), an apparent increase in the frequency of faults occurs below the tuffs and lavas of Calico Hills. Some of this increase occurs in brittle lavas and flow breccias in the lower part of the volcanic section. In the two holes presumed to be relatively removed from the influence of important faults at depth, the vertical distribution of faults is relatively uniform. Calcite occurs mainly in two general zones, voids in welded portions of the Paintbrush Tuff, and in a deeper zone, mostly below 3,500 feet. Calcite is least abundant in USW G-4, which may reflect the fewer faults and fractures encountered in that drill hole

  8. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  9. Overview of Hole GT2A: Drilling middle gabbro in Wadi Tayin massif, Oman ophiolite

    Takazawa, E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT2A (UTM: 40Q 655960.7E / 2529193.5N) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into Wadi Gideah of Wadi Tayin massif in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT2A was diamond cored in 25 Dec 2016 to 18 Jan 2017 to a total depth of 406.77 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. 33 shipboard scientists were divided into six teams (Igneous, Alteration, Structural, Geochem, Physical Properties, Paleomag) to describe and analyze the cores. Hole GT2A drilled through the transition between foliated and layered gabbro. The transition zone occurs between 50 and 150 m curation corrected depth (CCD). The top 50 m of Hole GT2A is foliated gabbro whereas the bottom 250 m consists of layered gabbro. Brittle fracture is observed throughout the core. Intensity of alteration vein decreases from the top to the bottom of the hole. On the basis of changes in grain size and/or modal abundance and/or appearance/disappearance of igneous primary mineral(s) five lithological units are defined in Hole GT2A (Unit I to V). The uppermost part of Hole GT2A (Unit I) is dominated by fine-grained granular olivine gabbro intercalated with less dominant medium-grained granular olivine gabbro and rare coarse-grained varitextured gabbro. The lower part of the Hole (Units II, III and V) is dominated by medium-grained olivine gabbro, olivine melagabbro and olivine-bearing gabbro. Modally-graded rhythmic layering with

  10. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G's Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC's), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC's), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 ampersand 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G's disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred

  11. The tunnel project. Drill hole logging and structural geologic studies in the Grualia, the Lunner county

    Elvebakk, Harald; Braathen, Alvar; Roenning, Jan S.; Nordgulen, Oeystein

    2001-01-01

    In connection with the project ''Environmental and community useful tunnels'' the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) has made geologic and geophysical investigations along parts of the tunnel at the Grualia in the Lunner county. The purpose of the geologic studies was to map and investigate weakness zones in the rock foundations. The geophysical studies aimed at testing techniques that was in little use in preliminary studies for tunnel operations. The methods used have been optical inspection of drill holes, measurements of temperature and conductivity in the water and the measuring of the natural gamma radiation in the drill holes. The resistivity in the drill holes is also determined and test pumping with flow measurements is carried out in order to calculate the well water influx capacity. These methods may contribute to information about the rock condition (cracking, water influx). Previously the NGU has made 2D resistivity measurements at the ground in the tunnel in order to map the weakness zones. The results from the measurements in 6 wells show large variations in the rock qualities. The wells are drilled towards indicated weakness zones. Open water conducting cracks and sections with largely cracked rocks are detected in or in the proximity of the tunnel route. The weakness zone between the hornfels and the syenite west of the Langvatnet is largely cracked, has a large water conducting capacity and there are some unstable masses. Further east several open, water- conducting cracks are detected in the syenite. Furthest to the east in the route cracked and unstable rocks are found. Several of the holes are blocked by ravines which confirm the poor rock quality. In the particular areas problems are to be expected during the operation with respect to water influx and stability. Methodically the drill hole studies have shown great value for the follow up of the 2D resistivity measurements on the ground. The indicated weakness zones through the 2D have been

  12. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH9

    Karttunen, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Lamminmaeki, T.; Kosunen, P.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH9 was drilled from chainage 3263 to chainage 3413.27 in November 2008. The length of the hole is 150.3 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also electric conductivity, grounding resistance and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements were performed after drilling was completed by the drilling company. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The rock strength and deformation were determined with Rock Tester equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study

  13. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH5

    Oehberg, A.; Hirvonen, H.; Jurvanen, T.; Kemppainen, K.; Mustonen, A.; Niemonen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.; Rautio, T.

    2006-09-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH5 was drilled from chainage 991.4 to chainage 1194 in January 2006. The length of the hole is 202.64 m and the vertical depth of the hole from zero level is about 88.2-107.5 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. One steering operation by wedging was made at the hole depth of 128.58 metres. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Due to high inflow (c. 200 L/min) mainly from the depth section 56-58 metres no geophysical surveys were carried out in the hole. Flow logging was carried out only from 58 metres to the bottom of the hole. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Flow

  14. New weld coating process for directional horizontal drilling operations; Neues Schweissnaht-Beschichtungsverfahren fuer Horizontalbohrungen

    Quast, M. [Denso GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Corrosion protective coatings of steel pipes laid by horizontal directional drilling are particularly stressed. Thermosetting compounds based on polyurethane or expoxides have proven their performance for the protection of welded joints of such pipes. The application of thermosetting joint coatings can currently be carried out in a lamination process, resulting in glass reinforced plastics coatings, or by spatula in case of polyurethane based materials. Both application procedures require a certain period of time and come along with drawbacks, which are typical for the application of reactive resins. This report describes a new procedure for the coating of welded joint areas of steel pipes with polyurethane reactive resins. By use of a special casing system the complications of applying the coating material by spatula are avoided. Consequently one can take complete advantage of using polyurethane coatings for HDD laid pipes without suffering from typical handling drawbacks. (orig.)

  15. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH10

    Mancini, P.; Karttunen, P.; Lokkila, M.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Kosunen, P.; Pere, T.

    2010-08-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH10 was drilled from chainage 3459 to chainage 3639 in March 2009. The length of the hole is 180.00 metres. The drilling was done as orientated core drilling. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester -equipment. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test, sections of 0.5 m with increments of 0.1 m were used. Water loss measurements were conducted in the hole section 3.70-180.00 m dhd. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of the composition of

  16. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH12

    Toropainen, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Poellaenen, J.; Pekkanen, J.; Pere, T.; Kaepyaho, E.; Lahti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH12 was drilled from ONKALO chainage 4092 to chainage 4215 in January 2010. The length of the hole is 123.96 metres. The drilling method was orientated core drilling. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester -equipment. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test, sections of 0.5 m with increments of 0.1 m were used. Water loss measurements were conducted in the drillhole section 5.0-123.85 m dhd. Geophysical logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. Groundwater sampling was not applicable because no

  17. SMART MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR REGULATING ANNULUS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE WHILE DRILLING OIL WELLS

    M. P. Vega

    Full Text Available Abstract Real time measurements and development of sensor technology are research issues associated with robustness and safety during oil well drilling operations, making feasible the diagnosis of problems and the development of a regulatory strategy. The major objective of this paper is to use an experimental plant and also field data, collected from a basin operation, offshore Brazil, for implementing smart monitoring and decision making, in order to assure drilling inside operational window, despite the commonly observed disturbances that produce fluctuations in the well annulus bottom hole pressure. Using real time measurements, the performance of a continuous automated drilling unit is analyzed under a scenario of varying levels of rate of penetration; aiming pressure set point tracking (inside the operational drilling window and also rejecting kick, a phenomenon that occurs when the annulus bottom hole pressure is inferior to the porous pressure, producing the migration of reservoir fluids into the annulus region. Finally, an empirical model was built, using real experimental data from offshore Brazil basins, enabling diagnosing and regulating a real drilling site by employing classic and advanced control strategies.

  18. Analysis and 3D inspection system of drill holes in aeronautical surfaces

    Rubio, R.; Granero, L.; Sanz, M.; García, J.; Micó, V.

    2017-06-01

    In aerospace industry, the structure of the aircraft is assembled using small parts or a combination of them that are made with different materials, such as for instance aluminium, titanium, composites or even 3D printed parts. The union between these small parts is a critical point for the integrity of the aircraft. The quality of this union will decide the fatigue of adjacent components and therefore the useful life of them. For the union process the most extended method is the rivets, mainly because their low cost and easy manufacturing. For this purpose it is necessary to made drill holes in the aeronautical surface to insert the rivets. In this contribution, we present the preliminary results of a 3D inspection system [1] for drill holes analysis in aeronautical surfaces. The system, based in optical triangulation, was developed by the Group of Optoelectronic Image Processing from the University of Valencia in the framework of the Airbus Defence and Space (AD&S), MINERVA project (Manufacturing industrial - means emerging from validated automation). The capabilities of the system permits to generate a point cloud with 3D information and GD&T (geometrical dimensions and tolerances) characteristics of the drill hole. For the inner surface defects detection, the system can generate an inner image of the drill hole with a scaled axis to obtain the defect position. In addition, we present the analysis performed for the drills in the wing station of the A-400 M. In this analysis the system was tested for diameters in the range of [10 - 15.96] mm, and for Carbon Fibre.

  19. Installation of a bio-venting remediation system using directionally drilled horizontal wells

    Hardy, L.; Stolz, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The installation of a remediation system for off-site contamination was discussed. The site was contaminated with gasoline and diesel from an abandoned bulk fuel storage and distribution terminal located near a highway. The dissolved phase hydrocarbon plume extended beneath several houses down gradient of the site. Bioventing was considered to be the only remediation option to recover the liquid phase hydrocarbons beneath the highway in a way that would satisfy all the clean-up objectives and the design constraints. Bioventing is closely related to soil vapour extraction (SVE). The main difference is that in bioventing, the mechanism for removal of contaminants is bio-degradation by indigenous bacteria, whereas in SVE, contaminants are simply removed by volatilization. Bioventing systems enhance the activity of the indigenous bacteria by inducing air flow in the subsurface through the use of vapour injection or extraction wells. Two horizontal vapour extraction wells were installed with a directional drill. A soil pile was utilized as a bio-filter for the extracted hydrocarbon vapours and a backfilled trench was used to inject vapours recovered from the soil pile to the subsurface. The total mass of hydrocarbons degraded by this system in 230 days was estimated to be 1,000 kg. It was concluded that under appropriate conditions the in-situ treatment of contaminated soil using directionally drilled wells can be justified on both economic and technical grounds. 3 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  20. Literature review of the benefits and obstacle of horizontal directional drilling

    Norizam, M. S. Mohd; Nuzul Azam, H.; Helmi Zulhaidi, S.; Aziz, A. Abdul; Nadzrol Fadzilah, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this new era the construction industry not only need to be completed within budget, timely, at acceptable quality and safety but the stakeholders especially the local authorities and the public realises for the important need of sustainable construction method to be used for our younger generation to heritage if not better a safer world for them to live and raise up their children’s. Horizontal Directional Drilling method is the most commonly recognised trenchless utilities method as a preferred construction method in this age. Among the reasons HDD method offers less disturbance on traffic, the public, business activities and neighbourhood, lower restoration cost, less noise, dust and minimum import/export of the construction materials. In addition HDD method can drill through congested utilities areas with minimum cutting and shorter time. This paper aims to appraise the benefits and obstacle of HDD method in construction industry. It is an endeavour to fulfil the local authorities cry for alternative method that less damages to the roads, road furniture’s and public complaints compared to the conventional open cut method. In addition HDD method is seem to be in line with sustainable development requirements e.g. reduce, reuse, recycle and etc. Hence, it is important to determine the benefits and obstacle factors of HDD implementation. The factors are based on the literature review conducted by the author on the subject matters gathered from previous studies, journals, text books, guidelines, magazine articles, newspaper cutting and etc.

  1. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Engstrom, D.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation

  2. Evaluation of Hole Quality in Hardened Steel with High-Speed Drilling Using Different Cooling Systems

    Lincoln Cardoso Brandão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the hole quality on AISI H13 hardened steel using high-speed drilling. Specimens were machined with new and worn out drills with 8.6 mm diameter and (TiAlN coating. Two levels of cutting speed and three levels of cooling/lubrication systems (flooded, minimum lubrication quantity, and dry were used. The hole quality is evaluated on surface roughness (Ra parameter, diameter error, circularity, and cylindricity error. A statistical analysis of the results shows that the cooling/lubrication system significantly affects the hole quality for all measured variables. This analysis indicates that dry machining produces the worst results. Higher cutting speeds not only prove beneficial to diameter error and circularity errors, but also show no significant difference on surface roughness and cylindricity errors. The effects of the interaction between the cooling/lubrication systems, tool wear, and cutting speed indicate that only cylindricity error is influenced. Thus, the conclusion is that the best hole quality is produced with a higher cutting speed using flooded or minimum lubrication quantity independent of drill wear.

  3. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation.

  4. Thermal stress measurement in continuous welded rails using the hole-drilling method

    Zhu, Xuan; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Fateh, Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    The absence of expansion joints in Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) has created the need for the railroad industry to determine the in-situ level of thermal stresses so as to prevent train accidents caused by rail buckling in hot weather and by rail breakage in cold weather. The development of non-destructive or semi-destructive methods for determining the level of thermal stresses in rails is today a high research priority. This study explores the known hole-drilling method as a possible solution to this problem. A new set of calibration coefficients to compute the relieved stress field with the finer hole depth increments was determined by a 3D Finite Element Analysis that modeled the entire hole geometry, including the mechanics of the hole bottom and walls. To compensate the residual stress components, a linear relationship was experimentally established between the longitudinal and the vertical residual stresses of two common sizes of rails, the 136RE and the 141RE, with statistical significance. This result was then utilized to isolate the longitudinal thermal stress component in hole-drilling tests conducted on the 136RE and 141RE thermally-loaded rails at the Large-scale CWR Test-bed of UCSD's Powell Research Laboratories. The results from the Test-bed showed that the hole-drilling procedure, with the appropriate residual stress compensation, can indeed estimate the in-situ thermal stresses to achieve a +/-5°F accuracy of Neutral Temperature determination with a 90% statistical confidence, which is the desired industry gold standard.

  5. An accurate estimation and optimization of bottom hole back pressure in managed pressure drilling

    Boniface Aleruchi ORIJI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD utilizes a method of applying back pressure to compensate for wellbore pressure losses during drilling. Using a single rheological (Annular Frictional Pressure Losses, AFPL model to estimate the backpressure in MPD operations for all sections of the well may not yield the best result. Each section of the hole was therefore treated independently in this study as data from a case study well were used. As the backpressure is a function of hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure and AFPL, three AFPL models (Bingham plastic, Power law and Herschel Bulkley models were utilized in estimating the backpressure. The estimated backpressure values were compared to the actual field backpressure values in order to obtain the optimum backpressure at the various well depths. The backpressure values estimated by utilizing the power law AFPL model gave the best result for the 12 1/4" hole section (average error % of 1.855% while the back pressures estimated by utilizing the Herschel Bulkley AFPL model gave the best result for the 8 1/2" hole section (average error % of 12.3%. The study showed that for hole sections of turbulent annular flow, the power law AFPL model fits best for estimating the required backpressure while for hole sections of laminar annular flow, the Herschel Bulkley AFPL model fits best for estimating the required backpressure.

  6. An experimental result of surface roughness machining performance in deep hole drilling

    Mohamad Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental result of a deep hole drilling process for Steel material at different machining parameters which are feed rate (f, spindle speed (s, the depth of the hole (d and MQL, number of drops (m on surface roughness, Ra. The experiment was designed using two level full factorial design of experiment (DoE with centre points to collect surface roughness, Ra values. The signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was used to discover the optimum level for each machining parameters in the experiment.

  7. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH6

    Oehberg, A.; Hirvonen, H.; Kemppainen, K.; Niemonen, J.; Nordbaeck, N.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.; Rautio, T.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-08-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH6 was drilled from chainage 1404 to chainage 1559 in September 2006. The length of the hole is 155.04 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. One steering operation by wedging was made at the hole depth of 94.05 metres (top of the wedge). Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. Besides flow logging Single Point Resistance (SPR), Electric Conductivity (EC) and temperature of the drillhole water were also measured. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss tests were conducted in the hole excluding the section 89.04 - 101.04 metres due to the wedge. Geophysical logging

  8. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH7

    Oehberg, A.; Kemppainen, K.; Lampinen, H.; Niemonen, J.; Poelloenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.; Rautio, T.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-12-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH7 was drilled from chainage 1880 to chainage 1980.31 in February 2007. The length of the hole is 100.31 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. Besides flow logging Single Point Resistance (SPR), Electric Conductivity (EC) and temperature of the drillhole water were also measured. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss measurements were conducted between the hole depth of 1.18 m and the hole bottom. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as

  9. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH4

    Oehberg, A.; Heikkinen, E.; Hirvonen, H.; Kemppainen, K.; Majapuro, J.; Niemonen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.; Rautio, T.

    2006-09-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are mostly aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH4 was drilled in October 2005. The length of the hole is 96.01 metres. During the drilling work core samples were oriented as much as possible. The deviation of the hole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Geological logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the hole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) were used to give background information for the grouting design. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole PH4 included the field work of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of composition of ONKALO

  10. Jet impinging onto a laser drilled tapered hole: Influence of tapper location on heat transfer and skin friction at hole surface

    Shuja, S. Z.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2013-02-01

    Jet emerging from a conical nozzle and impinging onto a tapered hole in relation to laser drilling is investigated and the influence taper location on the heat transfer and skin friction at the hole wall surface is examined. The study is extended to include four different gases as working fluid. The Reynolds stress model is incorporated to account for the turbulence effect in the flow field. The hole wall surface temperature is kept at 1500 K to resemble the laser drilled hole. It is found that the location of tapering in the hole influences the heat transfer rates and skin friction at the hole wall surface. The maximum skin friction coefficient increases for taper location of 0.25 H, where H is the thickness of the workpiece, while Nusselt number is higher in the hole for taper location of 0.75 H.

  11. Depth measurements of drilled holes in bone by laser triangulation for the field of oral implantology

    Quest, D.; Gayer, C.; Hering, P.

    2012-01-01

    Laser osteotomy is one possible method of preparing beds for dental implants in the human jaw. A major problem in using this contactless treatment modality is the lack of haptic feedback to control the depth while drilling the implant bed. A contactless measurement system called laser triangulation is presented as a new procedure to overcome this problem. Together with a tomographic picture the actual position of the laser ablation in the bone can be calculated. Furthermore, the laser response is sufficiently fast as to pose little risk to surrounding sensitive areas such as nerves and blood vessels. In the jaw two different bone structures exist, namely the cancellous bone and the compact bone. Samples of both bone structures were examined with test drillings performed either by laser osteotomy or by a conventional rotating drilling tool. The depth of these holes was measured using laser triangulation. The results and the setup are reported in this study.

  12. A drill-hole geodatabase as a tool to investigate geological hazard in Napoli Urban Area

    Albericoa, I.; Lirer, L.; Petrosino, P.

    2003-04-01

    Geological investigations in urban areas are complicated by the absence of good outcrops and field exposures, as a result of the density of civil buildings and railway and road network. On the other side, in urban areas geological investigation represents a basic tool to decisional support for the management of present private buildings and public works and for the planning of new ones. This is much more true in urban areas very exposed to geological hazard (volcanic, hydrogeological, seismic) where the high exposed value greatly rises the risk. The methodology to deal with the geological hazard in urban areas here presented is the reconstruction of buried geological formations deduced by drill-holes stratigraphy.The test area is represented by the whole municipality of Napoli city, that proves very apt to the investigation of the hazard in urban areas since it stands over an active volcanic area, comprised between the Campi Flegrei volcanic field and the Somma-Vesuvio district, that both gave explosive and effusive activity through the last centuries. Besides, the extension of the main part of the city constrained between the coastline and the belt of volcanic hills together with the presence of loose material due to pyroclastic activity makes the alluvional events an other hazardous phenomenon for the city. The performed up datable drill-holes geodata-base for the city of Napoli at present contains the record of about 800 holes stratigraphy, collected through the main public and private bodies, reflecting the drill-holes surveys made along the last 50 years before constructing the main railways, roads and aqueduct network. Drill-holes data have been interpreted and can now be read under various viewpoints (geological, lithological, volcanological); the present work presents the first results of the geological hazard investigation. The investigation of buried stratigraphy in the eastern area allows to identify the presence of pyroclastic flow deposits from Somma

  13. The effect of optical system design for laser micro-hole drilling process

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lan, Yin-Te; Chien, Yu-Lun; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-08-01

    Lasers are a promising high accuracy tool to make small holes in composite or hard material. They offer advantages over the conventional machining process, which is time consuming and has scaling limitations. However, the major downfall in laser material processing is the relatively large heat affect zone or number of molten burrs it generates, even when using nanosecond lasers over high-cost ultrafast lasers. In this paper, we constructed a nanosecond laser processing system with a 532 nm wavelength laser source. In order to enhance precision and minimize the effect of heat generation with the laser drilling process, we investigated the geometric shape of optical elements and analyzed the images using the modulation transfer function (MTF) and encircled energy (EE) by using optical software Zemax. We discuss commercial spherical lenses, including plano-convex lenses, bi-convex lenses, plano-concave lenses, bi-concave lenses, best-form lenses, and meniscus lenses. Furthermore, we determined the best lens configuration by image evaluation, and then verified the results experimentally by carrying out the laser drilling process on multilayer flexible copper clad laminate (FCCL). The paper presents the drilling results obtained with different lens configurations and found the best configuration had a small heat affect zone and a clean edge along laser-drilled holes.

  14. Laser drilling of superdeep micron holes in various materials with a programmable control of laser radiation parameters

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Gavrilov, A V; Smetanin, S N; Fedin, A V

    2007-01-01

    The possibilities of enhancing the efficiency of laser drilling of micron holes, increasing their depth, and eliminating their conic shape are studied by using a single-mode loop Nd:YAG laser with self-phase conjugation on the gain gratings and passive Q-switching by a scanned gradiently coloured F 2 - :LiF crystal. Holes of diameters 15-150 μm and depth up to 20 mm with the aspect ratio (ratio of the hole depth to its diameter) of 50-155 are drilled in various metals and alloys. It is shown that passive Q-switch scanning during drilling provides the increase in the depth and speed of the laser drilling of superdeep holes by a factor of 1.5-2. (laser technologies)

  15. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH8

    Karttunen, P.; Poellaenen, J.; Rautio, T.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Lamminmaeki, T.; Kemppainen, K.; Kosunen, P.; Lampinen, H.

    2009-02-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH8 was drilled from chainage 3116 to chainage 3266.29 in June- July 2008. The length of the hole is 150.29 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance, electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements failed. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester-equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of the composition of ONKALO

  16. Drilling and associated Drillhole measurements of the Pilot Hole ONK-PH14

    Aalto, P.; Toropainen, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Lamminmaeki, T.

    2011-09-01

    The construction of ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. During the construction, investigations serving both research and construction purposes need to be done. Investigations can be done for example in so called pilot holes. Pilot holes are cored drillholes to be drilled to the tunnel profile. The length of the holes varies from some tens of metres to some hundreds of metres. The purpose of the holes is to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, especially to identify water conductive fractures/fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH14 was drilled in June 2010. Drilling was started in chainage 4313.6. The length of the hole was 150.80 metres. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling. Additionally, oriented core samples were collected from the drill core and the electric conductivity of returning water was measured. Logging of the core samples included following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The strength and deformation properties of the rock were defined by using Rock-Tester equipment. Hydraulic measurements were made by using the PFL DIFF (Posiva Flow log, Difference Flow Method). PFL DIFF measurements were performed with a 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m length increments. With PFL DIFF tool the locations of transmissive fractures were detected. Simultaneously, the electric conductivity (EC) of the drillhole water and fracture specific water, temperature of the drillhole water, single point resistance (SPR) of the drillhole wall and the prevailing water pressure were measured. Water loss measurements were done after the drilling by the tool developed by Posiva. The tool was in test use during the measurements. The groundwater sample was

  17. Drilling and associated Drillhole measurements of the Pilot Hole ONK-PH14

    Aalto, P. (ed.); Lahti, M.; Kosunen, P.; Pere, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Toropainen, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland); Lamminmaeki, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    The construction of ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. During the construction, investigations serving both research and construction purposes need to be done. Investigations can be done for example in so called pilot holes. Pilot holes are cored drillholes to be drilled to the tunnel profile. The length of the holes varies from some tens of metres to some hundreds of metres. The purpose of the holes is to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, especially to identify water conductive fractures/fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH14 was drilled in June 2010. Drilling was started in chainage 4313.6. The length of the hole was 150.80 metres. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling. Additionally, oriented core samples were collected from the drill core and the electric conductivity of returning water was measured. Logging of the core samples included following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The strength and deformation properties of the rock were defined by using Rock-Tester equipment. Hydraulic measurements were made by using the PFL DIFF (Posiva Flow log, Difference Flow Method). PFL DIFF measurements were performed with a 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m length increments. With PFL DIFF tool the locations of transmissive fractures were detected. Simultaneously, the electric conductivity (EC) of the drillhole water and fracture specific water, temperature of the drillhole water, single point resistance (SPR) of the drillhole wall and the prevailing water pressure were measured. Water loss measurements were done after the drilling by the tool developed by Posiva. The tool was in test use during the measurements. The groundwater sample was

  18. Geology of drill hole UE25p No. 1: A test hole into pre-Tertiary rocks near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Carr, M.D.; Waddell, S.J.; Vick, G.S.; Stock, J.M.; Monsen, S.A.; Harris, A.G.; Cork, B.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been proposed as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level nuclear waste. An exploratory drill hole designated UE25p No. 1 was drilled 3 km east of the proposed repository site to investigate the geology and hydrology of the rocks that underlie the Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rock sequence forming Yucca Mountain. Silurian dolomite assigned to the Roberts Mountain and Lone Mountain Formations was intersected below the Tertiary section between a depth of approximately 1244 m (4080 ft) and the bottom of the drill hole at 1807 m (5923 ft). These formations are part of an important regional carbonate aquifer in the deep ground-water system. Tertiary units deeper than 1139 m (3733 ft) in drill hole UE25p No. 1 are stratigraphically older than any units previously penetrated by drill holes at Yucca Mountain. These units are, in ascending order, the tuff of Yucca Flat, an unnamed calcified ash-flow tuff, and a sequence of clastic deposits. The upper part of the Tertiary sequence in drill hole UE25p No. 1 is similar to that found in other drill holes at Yucca Mountain. The Tertiary sequence is in fault contact with the Silurian rocks. This fault between Tertiary and Paleozoic rocks may correlate with the Fran Ridge fault, a steeply westward-dipping fault exposed approximately 0.5 km east of the drill hole. Another fault intersects UE25p No. 1 at 873 m (2863 ft), but its surface trace is concealed beneath the valley west of the Fran Ridge fault. The Paintbrush Canyon fault, the trace of which passes less than 100 m (330 ft) east of the drilling site, intersects drill hole UE25p No. 1 at a depth of approximately 78 m (255 ft). The drill hole apparently intersected the west flank of a structural high of pre-Tertiary rocks, near the eastern edge of the Crater Flat structural depression

  19. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH13

    Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Kosunen, P.; Lahti, M.; Pere, T.; Aalto, P.

    2011-04-01

    The construction of ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. During the construction, investigations serving both research and construction purposes need to be done. Investigations can be done for example in so called pilot holes. Pilot holes are cored drillholes to be drilled to the tunnel profile. The length of the holes varies from some tens of meters to some hundreds of meters. The purpose of the holes is to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, especially to identify water conductive fractures/fracture zones and provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-KR13 was drilled in March 2010. Drilling was started from chainage 4201. The final length of the hole was 140.05 meters. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling. Additionally, oriented core samples were collected and electric conductivity of returning water from the drill hole was measured. Logging of the core samples included following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The strength and deformation properties of the rock were defined by using Rock-Tester equipment. Hydraulic measurements were made by using the PFL DIFF (Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow method). PFL DIFF measurements were performed with a 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m length increments. With PFL DIFF tool the locations of flowing fractures and their transmissivities were detected. Simultaneously, the electric conductivity (EC) of the drillhole water and fracture-specific water, temperature of the drillhole water, single point resistance (SPR) of the drillhole wall and the prevailing water pressure profile were measured. Water loss measurements were done after the drilling by the tool developed by Posiva. The equipment was in test use during the measurements

  20. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) operated the D/V GLOMAR CHALLENGER from 1968-1983, drilling 1,112 holes at 624 sites worldwide. The DSDP was funded by the US...

  1. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring

  2. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring.

  3. Regulation of Water Pollution from Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontally-Drilled Wells in the Marcellus Shale Region, USA

    Heather Hatzenbuhler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water mixed with specially selected chemicals at high pressures that allow petroleum reserves to flow to the surface. While the increased economic activities and the outputs of domestic energy are welcomed, there is growing concern over negative environmental impacts from horizontal drilling in shale formations. The potential for water contamination, land destruction, air pollution, and geologic disruption has raised concerns about the merits of production activities used during extraction. This paper looks at the impacts of horizontal drilling using hydraulic fracturing on water supplies and takes a comprehensive look at legislative and regulatory approaches to mitigate environmental risks in the Marcellus shale region. The overview identifies shortcomings associated with regulatory controls by local and state governments and offers two policy suggestions to better protect waters of the region.

  4. Measurement of the magnetic field inside the holes of a drilled bulk high-Tc superconductor

    Lousberg, Gregory P.; Fagnard, Jean-François; Noudem, Jacques G.; Ausloos, Marcel; Vanderheyden, Benoit; Vanderbemden, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    We use macroscopic holes drilled in a bulk YBCO superconductor to probe its magnetic properties in the volume of the sample. The sample is subjected to an AC magnetic flux with a density ranging from 30 to 130 mT and the flux in the superconductor is probed by miniature coils inserted in the holes. In a given hole, three different penetration regimes can be observed: (i) the shielded regime, where no magnetic flux threads the hole; (ii) the gradual penetration regime, where the waveform of the magnetic field has a clipped sine shape whose fundamental component scales with the applied field; and (iii) the flux concentration regime, where the waveform of the magnetic field is nearly a sine wave, with an amplitude exceeding that of the applied field by up to a factor of two. The distribution of the penetration regimes in the holes is compared with that of the magnetic flux density at the top and bottom surfaces of the sample, and is interpreted with the help of optical polarized light micrographs of these surfaces. We show that the measurement of the magnetic field inside the holes can be used as a local characterization of the bulk magnetic properties of the sample.

  5. A comprehensive literature review reflecting fifteen years of debate regarding the representativity of reverse circulation vs blast hole drill sampling

    Engström, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Blast hole sampling is widely used for grade control by the mining industry all over the world, both in precious and base metal open pit mining. Blast hole (BH) samples are often regarded as inferior in comparison to “proper drill sampling” like reverse circulation (RC) and diamond (core) drilling...... (DD), and are accused of lacking representativity by the sampling community. The present paper aims at collecting all peer reviewed publications from 2000 onwards that concern open pit mine sampling performance of BH, RC and/or DD drill sampling. This will form a comprehensive literature review...

  6. Drilling and the associated borehole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    Oehberg, A.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.; Mattila, J.; Heikkinen, E.; Lahti, M.; Pussinen, V.; Niemonen, J.; Paaso, N.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2005-11-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are boreholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular at identifying water conductive fractured zones and at providing information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH2 was drilled in December 2004. The length of the borehole is about 122 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orientate core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the borehole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures and fractured zones in the borehole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increments. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole PH2 included the field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of composition of ONKALO's groundwater before the construction will

  7. Drilling and the associated borehole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH3

    Oehberg, A.; Heikkinen, E.; Hirvonen, H.; Kemppainen, K.; Majapuro, J.; Niemonen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2006-03-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are boreholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular at identifying water conductive fractured zones and at providing information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH3 was drilled in September 2005. The length of the borehole is 145.04 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orientate core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the borehole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the borehole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increments. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) and a pressure build-up test were used to give background information for the grouting design. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole PH3 included the field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. One of the objectives of the

  8. Borehole gravity meter survey in drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    Healey, D.L.; Clutsom, F.G.; Glover, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-4 was logged with the US Geological Survey borehole gravity meter (BHGM) BH-6 as part of a detailed study of the lithostratigraphic units penetrated by this hole. Because the BHGM measures a larger volume of rock than the conventional gamma-gamma density tool, it provides an independent and more accurate measurement of the in situ average bulk density of thick lithologic units. USW G-4 is an especially important hole because of its proximity to the proposed exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain. The BHGM data were reduced to interval densities using a free-air gradient (F) of 0.3083 mGal./m (0.09397 mGal/ft) measured at the drill site. The interval densities were further improved by employing an instrument correction factor of 1.00226. This factor was determined from measurements obtained by taking gravity meter BH-6 over the Charleston Peak calibration loop. The interval density data reported herein, should be helpful for planning the construction of the proposed shaft

  9. Oceanic crustal velocities from laboratory and logging measurements of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1256D

    Gilbert, Lisa A.; Salisbury, Matthew H.

    2011-09-01

    Drilling and logging of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole 1256D have provided a unique opportunity for systematically studying a fundamental problem in marine geophysics: What influences the seismic structure of oceanic crust, porosity or composition? Compressional wave velocities (Vp) logged in open hole or from regional refraction measurements integrate both the host rock and cracks in the crust. To determine the influence of cracks on Vp at several scales, we first need an accurate ground truth in the form of laboratory Vp on crack-free, or nearly crack-free samples. We measured Vp on 46 water-saturated samples at in situ pressures to determine the baseline velocities of the host rock. These new results match or exceed Vp logs throughout most of the hole, especially in the lower dikes and gabbros, where porosities are low. In contrast, samples measured at sea under ambient laboratory conditions, had consistently lower Vp than the Vp logs, even after correction to in situ pressures. Crack-free Vp calculated from simple models of logging and laboratory porosity data for different lithologies and facies suggest that crustal velocities in the lavas and upper dikes are controlled by porosity. In particular, the models demonstrate significant large-scale porosity in the lavas, especially in the sections identified as fractured flows and breccias. However, crustal velocities in the lower dikes and gabbros are increasingly controlled by petrology as the layer 2-3 boundary is approached.

  10. Measurement of residual stress fields in FHPP welding: a comparison between DSPI combined with hole-drilling and neutron diffraction

    Viotti, Matias R.; Albertazzi, Armando; Staron, Peter; Pisa, Marcelo

    2013-04-01

    This paper shows a portable device to measure mainly residual stress fields outside the optical bench. This system combines the traditional hole drilling technique with Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry. The novel feature of this device is the high degree of compaction since only one base supports simultaneously the measurement module and the hole-drilling device. The portable device allows the measurement of non-uniform residual stresses in accordance with the ASTM standard. In oil and gas offshore industries, alternative welding procedures among them, the friction hydro pillar processing (FHPP) is highlighted and nowadays is an important maintenance tool since it has the capability to produce structure repairs without risk of explosions. In this process a hole is drilled and filled with a consumable rod of the same material. The rod, which could be cylindrical or conical, is rotated and pressed against the hole, leading to frictional heating. In order to assess features about the residual stress distribution generated by the weld into the rod as well as into the base material around the rod, welded samples were evaluated by neutron diffraction and by the hole drilling technique having a comparison between them. For the hole drilling technique some layers were removed by using electrical discharge machining (EDM) after diffraction measurements in order to assess the bulk stress distribution. Results have shown a good agreement between techniques.

  11. Toward a better understanding of glass gravity-feed micro-hole drilling with electrochemical discharges

    Jalali, M; Maillard, P; Wüthrich, R

    2009-01-01

    Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a flexible, simple and inexpensive method for machining electrically non-conductive materials. SACE is particularly interesting because of the high drilling speed that can be achieved compared to other micromachining technologies. In this paper, the issue of drilling speed decreasing from 100 µm s −1 to 10 µm s −1 for micro-hole depths more than 200–300 µm is analyzed. To understand better the material removal mechanism, with the target to eliminate this limit, a model for the material removal mechanism as a hybrid mechanism combining local heating and chemical etching is presented and compared with experimental data. The comparison between the model and experiment allowed the estimation of the machining temperature to be around 600 °C

  12. Arthroscopically assisted stabilization of acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint separations in a coracoclavicular Double-TightRope technique: V-shaped versus parallel drill hole orientation.

    Kraus, Natascha; Haas, Norbert P; Scheibel, Markus; Gerhardt, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The arthroscopically assisted Double-TightRope technique has recently been reported to yield good to excellent clinical results in the treatment of acute, high-grade acromioclavicular dislocation. However, the orientation of the transclavicular-transcoracoidal drill holes remains a matter of debate. A V-shaped drill hole orientation leads to better clinical and radiologic results and provides a higher vertical and horizontal stability compared to parallel drill hole placement. This was a cohort study; level of evidence, 2b. Two groups of patients with acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint instability (Rockwood type V) were included in this prospective, non-randomized cohort study. 15 patients (1 female/14 male) with a mean age of 37.7 (18-66) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique using a V-shaped orientation of the drill holes (group 1). 13 patients (1 female/12 male) with a mean age of 40.9 (21-59) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique with a parallel drill hole placement (group 2). After 2 years, the final evaluation consisted of a complete physical examination of both shoulders, evaluation of the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Constant Score (CS), Taft Score (TF) and Acromioclavicular Joint Instability Score (ACJI) as well as a radiologic examination including bilateral anteroposterior stress views and bilateral Alexander views. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, all patients were free of shoulder pain at rest and during daily activities. Range of motion did not differ significantly between both groups (p > 0.05). Patients in group 1 reached on average 92.4 points in the CS, 96.2 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 75.9 points in the ACJI. Patients in group 2 scored 90.5 points in the CS, 93.9 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 84.5 points in the ACJI (p > 0.05). Radiographically, the coracoclavicular distance was found to be 13.9 mm (group 1) and 13.4 mm (group 2) on the affected side and 9.3 mm (group 1

  13. Listvenite logging on D/V CHIKYU: Hole BT1B, Oman Drilling Project

    Kelemen, P. B.; Beinlich, A.; Morishita, T.; Greenberger, R. N.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Lafay, R.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.; Phase I Science Party, T. O. D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Listvenite, quartz-carbonate altered ultramafic rock containing minor fuchsite (Cr-muscovite) forms by complete carbonation of peridotite and is thus an attractive objective for carbon mitigation studies. However, reaction controls and evolution of listvenite are still enigmatic. Here we present the first results of Phase 1 of the ICDP (International Continental Drilling Program) Oman Drilling Project and subsequent core logging using the analytical facilities on board the research vessel D/V CHIKYU. Hole BT1B contains 300 m of continuous drill core intersecting alluvium, listvenite-altered serpentinite, serpentinite, ophicarbonate and the underlying metamorphic sole of the Semail ophiolite, Oman. The drill core has been systematically investigated by visual core description, thin section petrography, X-ray fluorescence core logging, X-ray diffractometry, visible-shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy and X-ray Computer Tomography. Our observations show that listvenite is highly variable in texture and color on the mm to m scale. Listvenite was visually categorized into 5 principal color groups: the dominant dark red (47 %), light red (19 %), orange (14 %), pale (2 %) and green (16 %). The presence of hematite/goethite results in dark reddish, red and orange hues. Light grey or pale colored listvenite lacks hematite and/or goethite veins and may represent the `true' listvenite. Green listvenite is characterized by the presence of cm-sized quartz-fuchsite intergrowths. Five zones of serpentinite, which vary in thickness between several tens of cm and 4 m, are intercalated within the massive listvenite of Hole BT1B. Gradational listvenite-serpentinite transition zones contain the ophicarbonate assemblage (magnesite + serpentine) and sometimes additional talc, representing intermediate carbonation reaction progress. Preservation of the former mesh texture and bastite after orthopyroxene in the listvenite suggest that the listvenite precursor had already been

  14. Archaeological studies at Drill Hole U20az Pahute Mesa, Nye county, Nevada. [Contains bibliography

    Simmons, A.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Henton, G.H.; Lockett, C.L.; Nials, F.L.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.

    1991-07-01

    During the summer of 1987, the Quaternary Sciences Center (formerly Social Science Center) of the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada System, conducted data recovery investigations at five archaeological sites located near Drill Hole U20az on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. These sites were among 12 recorded earlier during an archaeological survey of the drill hole conducted as part of the environmental compliance activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). The five sites discussed in this report were considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and were in danger of being adversely impacted by construction activities or by effects of the proposed underground nuclear test. Avoidance of these sites was not a feasible alternative; thus DRI undertook a data recovery program to mitigate expected adverse impacts. DRI's research plan included controlled surface collections and excavation of the five sites in question, and had the concurrence of the Nevada Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology and the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation. Of the five sites investigated, the largest and most complex, 26Ny5207, consists of at least three discrete artifact concentrations. Sites 26Ny5211 and 26Ny5215, both yielded considerable assemblages. Site 26Ny5206 is very small and probably is linked to 26Ny5207. Site 26Ny5205 contained a limited artifact assemblage. All of the sites were open-air occurrences, and, with one exception contained no or limited subsurface cultural deposits. Only two radiocarbon dates were obtained, both from 26Ny5207 and both relatively recent. While the investigations reported in the volume mitigate most of the adverse impacts from DOE activities at Drill Hole U20az, significant archaeological sites may still exist in the general vicinity. Should the DOE conduct further activities in the region, additional cultural resource investigations may be required. 132 refs., 71 figs., 44 tabs.

  15. Geology of drill hole USW VH-2, and structure of Crater Flat, southwestern Nevada

    Carr, W.J.; Parrish, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A 1219 meter (4000 ft) drill hole in Crater Flat shows the absence of buried Pliocene or Quaternary volcanic rocks, and penetrates a section of Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, and the upper part of the Crater Flat Tuffs, similar to that exposed adjacent to Crater Flat. A prominent negative aeromagnetic anomaly between the drill hole and Bare Mountain is attributed to a westward thickening section of a reversely magnetized Miocene basalt. The relatively shallow depth of this basalt in the west-central part of Crater Flat indicates that no large amount of tectonic movement has occurred in approximately the last 10 m.y. Massive brecciated wedges of Paleozoic rocks are penetrated in two stratigraphic intervals in the drill hole; the older one, between the Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, correlates with the time of maximum faulting east of Crater Flat in the Yucca Mountain area. The younger slide masses are correlated with a large slide block of probable late Miocene age exposed along the southwestern rim of Crater Flat. The structural pattern and style buried beneath central and western Crater Flat is deduced to be similar to that exposed at Yucca Mountain, but less developed. The major fault system controlling the steep east face of Bare Mountain, though probably still active, is believed to have developed mainly as a result of caldera collapse between 13 and 14 m.y. ago. Relations between faulting and four episodes of basalt eruption in the Crater Flat area strongly suggest contemporaneity of the two processes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. A comparison of residual stresses in built-up steel beams using hole-drilling method

    Nawafleh, M. A.; Hunaiti, Y. M.; Younes, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses have a significant effect on the stability resistance of metal building systems. An experimental program was conducted to measure these stresses in built-up steel beams using incremental hole-drilling method. The experimental results reveal that the predicted residual stress type of pattern for built-up I-sections with fillet welds on one side of the web is not the same as the pattern of residual stresses in built-up I-sections with fillet welds on both sides of the web

  17. Evaluation of machining effect for the residual stress of SA508 by hole drilling method

    Lee, Jeong Kun; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Song, Ki O; Kim, Young Shin

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses on a surface of the material are welcome or undesirable since it's direction, compression or tensile. But especially for the fatigue, it is not negligible effect on the material strength. These residual stresses developed during the manufacturing processes involving material deformation, heat treatment, machining. The object of this paper is verifying the effect of machining what is mostly used for SA508. For verifying the effect of machining, three different kind of machining have been achieved, milling, grinding, wire cutting. Also to measure the residual stress, hole drill method and indentation method are used.

  18. Preliminary analysis of geophysical logs from drill hole UE-25p No. 1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Muller, D.C.; Kibler, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Geophysical logs from drill hole UE-25p No. 1 correlate well with logs through the same geologic units from other drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The in-situ physical properties of the rocks as determined from well logs are consistent with laboratory-measured physical properties of core from other drill holes. The density, neutron and caliper logs are very spiky through most of the Topopah Spring Member. This spikiness occurs on the same logs in cored holes where the Topopah Spring Member is highly fractured and lithophysal. The uranium channel of the spectral gamma-ray log through the Topopah Spring Member correlates with uranium logs from cored holes where most of the fractures have not been healed or filled with materials that concentrate uranium. Therefore, fracture porosity and permeability of the Topopah Spring Member are expected to be high and consistent with fracture analysis from other drill holes on Yucca Mountain, and hydrologic tests from well J-13. The Paleozoic dolomites which underlie the Tertiary tuffs are intensely brecciated, and the uranium count rate is much higher than normal for dolomites because uranium has been concentrated in the recementing material. 19 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  19. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.

    1994-09-01

    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  20. Geology of the UE17e drill hole, Area 17, Nevada Test Site

    Hodson, J.N.; Hoover, D.L.

    1979-03-01

    The UE17e drill hole, located at the northwest corner of Syncline Ridge, was cored from 3.05 m (10 ft) to a total depth of 914.4 m (3,000 ft) in unit J (Mississippian) of the Eleana (Devonian and Mississippian) to obtain samples for mineral, chemical, and physical-property analyses. UE17e penetrated 73.5 m (241 ft) of the quartzite subunit and 840.9 m (2,759 ft) of the argillite subunit of unit J. Less than 0.4 percent quartzite is present in the argillite subunit. Dips range from 12 0 to 18 0 . Twenty-three faults were observed in the core or on geophysical logs. Most of these faults affect only a few meters of the core and probably have displacements of a few meters. The majority of fractures are parallel to bedding planes. Fracture frequency ranges from 3.4 to 9.4 fractures per meter in the upper part of the cored interval and 1.4 to 5.9 fractures per meter in the lower part of the cored interval. The core index indicates that the lower part of the hole is more competent than the upper part. Lower competency in the upper part of the hole may be caused by weathering and/or near-surface stress relief. Physical, mechanical, and thermal property measurements indicate that bedding and fracturing are the major factors in variation of properties between samples. 17 figures, 10 tables

  1. Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Hole Diameter of Drilling Making Parts of Alluminium Alloy

    Andrius Stasiūnas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the drilling process of an aluminium alloy. The paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of cutting speed, feed and hole depth considering hole diameter and hole surface roughness of aluminum alloy 6082 in the dry drilling process and at making empirical formulas for cutting parameters. The article also describes experimental techniques and equipment, tools and measuring devices. Experimental studies have been carried out using different cutting parameters. The obtained results have been analyzed using computer software. According to the existing techniques for measuring, surface roughness and hole diameters have been measured, empirical models have been created and the results of the conducted experiments have been inspected. The findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the work.Artcile in Lithuanian

  2. Drillings and associated drillhole measurements of the investigation holes in the EDZ tunnel at Chainage 3620

    Sacklen, N.; Hurmerinta, E.; Pekkanen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Kosunen, P.

    2010-05-01

    The R and D programme called EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone) programme was started in autumn 2007 according to TKS 2006 programme. To continue with EDZ programme development work the EDZ09 project was established in 2009. This report describes the R and D activities performed in the Work Package 2 'TOSI' (Verification) of EDZ09 project. The aim of the EDZ09 project was to develop the method for the verification of EDZ in different parts of the tunnel profile; to characterize the EDZ in the tunnel as well as in the shaft in order to demonstrate the applicability of the method; to complete the tasks in such a timetable that the results are available before ONKALO reaches the depth of - 420 m; to avoid unwanted changes in the bedrock around the access tunnel, which cannot be eliminated by sealing or other methods when applying the verification method or excavation techniques; to demonstrate the function of the method to be developed for verification of EDZ under construction conditions - the applicability of the method has to be demonstrated despite of changes in rock conditions and direction of underground spaces; to obtain information of EDZ in order to assess where the zone would be continuous/discontinuous; to determine the hydrological changes within the damaged zone. The experimental studies were carried out in Posiva's underground research facility, ONKALO, at the depth level c. -340 m at chainage 3620. Two parallel c. 50 m long pilot holes, ONK-PP199 and ONK-PP200, were drilled prior to the excavation of the investigation tunnel ONK-TKU-3620, the EDZ tunnel. ONK-PP199 was drilled inside and ONK-PP200 outside the EDZ tunnel profile. The purpose of the pilot holes was to acquire and adjust geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and rock mechanical knowledge prior to the excavation of the EDZ tunnel, and to define the baseline conditions close to the tunnel profile before excavation. Also, the pilot hole ONK-PP200, drilled outside the EDZ tunnel profile, was used

  3. Chemical analyses of potash-bearing horizons from 21 exploratory holes drilled at a tentative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Griswold, G.B.

    1977-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories drilled 21 potash drill holes over an 18,960-acre site in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, to evaluate potash resources as part of their Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. This report furnishes assay information on samples obtained from the drilling program

  4. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Kilic, A. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: kilic_a@ibu.edu.tr; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2007-10-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.

  5. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2007-01-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH

  6. Measurement of heat treatment induced residual stresses by using ESPI combined with hole-drilling method

    Jie Cheng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residual stresses in heat treated specimen were measured by using ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry combined with the hole-drilling method. The specimen, made of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel, was quenched and water cooled to room temperature. Numerical simulation using a hybrid FDM/FEM package was also carried out to simulate the heat treatment process. As a result, the thermal stress fields were obtained from both the experiment and the numerical simulation. By comparision of stress fields, results from the experimental method and numerical simulation well agreed to each other, therefore, it is proved that the presented experimental method is applicable and reliable for heat treatment induced residual stress measurement.

  7. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Yetiş, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutaş, M.; Kiliç, A.; Kiliç, K.

    2007-10-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.

  8. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  9. Basaltic litho-stratigraphy of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 504B

    Harvey, P.K.; Lovell, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Hole 504B is located in 5.9 Ma old crust to the south of the Costa Rica Rift. It has been drilled and cored successively on three occasions to a total depth of 1562.1 m below the sea floor and penetrates both basaltic pillows and dykes. Appraisal of the drilled section is difficult because of the low proportion of recovered material (average 20%). In September 1986 a suite of downhole nuclear logs were run. Part of this sequence, the interval 4200-4600 m below sea level, which covers the pillow-dyke transition zone, has been used in this study. The log derived geochemical estimates may be explained in terms of the basaltic mineralogy with the superimposed effects of alteration. Poor correlation between laboratory-measured and log-derived geochemical estimates are due to this alteration, problems of sampling and the absence of a boron sleeve when the tools were run. Alteration and sampling account for the much greater observed variations in the log data and the bias in SiO 2 and CaO abundances. Statistical analysis allows the logs to be presented in the form of a ''geochemical stratigraphy'' which correlates well with the known sequence within the interval studied. (author)

  10. A study for high accuracy measurement of residual stress by deep hole drilling technique

    Kitano, Houichi; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-08-01

    The deep hole drilling technique (DHD) received much attention in recent years as a method for measuring through-thickness residual stresses. However, some accuracy problems occur when residual stress evaluation is performed by the DHD technique. One of the reasons is that the traditional DHD evaluation formula applies to the plane stress condition. The second is that the effects of the plastic deformation produced in the drilling process and the deformation produced in the trepanning process are ignored. In this study, a modified evaluation formula, which is applied to the plane strain condition, is proposed. In addition, a new procedure is proposed which can consider the effects of the deformation produced in the DHD process by investigating the effects in detail by finite element (FE) analysis. Then, the evaluation results obtained by the new procedure are compared with that obtained by traditional DHD procedure by FE analysis. As a result, the new procedure evaluates the residual stress fields better than the traditional DHD procedure when the measuring object is thick enough that the stress condition can be assumed as the plane strain condition as in the model used in this study.

  11. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.

  12. Influence of friction on buckling of a drill string in the circular channel of a bore hole

    Valery Gulyayev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enhancement of technology and techniques for drilling deep directed oil and gas bore hole is one of the most important problems of the current petroleum industry. Not infrequently, the drilling of these bore holes is attended by occurrence of extraordinary situations associated with technical accidents. Among these is the Eulerian loss of stability of a drill string in the channel of a curvilinear bore hole. Methods of computer simulation should play a dominant role in prediction of these states. In this paper, a new statement of the problem of critical buckling of the drill strings in 3D curvilinear bore holes is proposed. It is based on combined use of the theory of curvilinear elastic rods, Eulerian theory of stability, theory of channel surfaces, and methods of classical mechanics of systems with nonlinear constraints. It is noted that the stated problem is singularly perturbed and its solutions have the shapes of localized harmonic wavelets. The calculation results showed that the friction effects lead to essential redistribution of internal axial forces, as well as changing the eigenmode shapes and sites of their localization. These features make the buckling phenomena less predictable and raise the role of computer simulation of these effects.

  13. Mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1986-09-01

    The mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 was previously determined using qualitative and semiquantitative techniques, and most of the available data were neither complete nor accurate. New quantitative x-ray diffraction data were obtained for rocks from all three of these drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These quantitative analyses employed both external and internal standard x-ray powder diffraction methods and permitted the precise determination of all phases commonly found in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, including glass and opal-CT. These new data supplant previous analyses and include numerous additional phases. New findings of particular importance include better constraints on the distribution of the more soluble silica polymorphs, cristobalite and opal-CT. Opal-CT was associated solely with clinoptilolite-bearing horizons, and cristobalite disappearance coincided with the appearance of analcime in USW G-1. Unlike previous analyses, we identified significant amounts of smectite in drill hole J-13. We found no evidence to support previous reports of the occurrence of erionite or phillipsite in these drill holes

  14. Field implementation of geological steering techniques optimizes drilling in highly-deviated and horizontal wells

    Jackson, C. E.; Illfelder, H. M. J.; Pineda, G.

    1998-12-31

    Field implementation of an integrated wellsite geological steering service is described. The service provides timely, useful feedback from real-time logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements for making immediate course corrections. Interactive multi-dimensional displays of both the geological and petrophysical properties of the formation being penetrated by the wellbore are a prominent feature of the service; the optimization of the drilling is the result of the visualization afforded by the displays. The paper reviews forward modelling techniques, provides a detailed explanation of the principles underlying this new application, and illustrates the application by examples from the field. 5 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  15. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A.H.; Zheng, R.R.; Tang, H.Q.; Qi, X.Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  16. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A. H.; Zheng, R. R.; Tang, H. Q.; Qi, X. Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  17. The interpretation of geochemical logs from the oceanic basement: mineral modelling in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 735B

    Harvey, P.K.; Lovell, M.A.; Bristow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Leg 118 of the Ocean Drilling Program was carried out in the vicinity of the Southwest Indian Ridge. Of the boreholes drilled, by far the most important and scientifically spectacular is Hole 735B which was located on a shallow platform adjacent to the Atlantis II Transform. This hole penetrates some 500 m of gabbroic rocks representing Layer 3 of the oceanic crust. The recovered gabbros show considerable variation both in mineralogy and in the degree of deformation. Core recovery averages 87% and there is excellent control and correlation between the core and the wide range of logs obtained. Mineralogy logs are derived and presented using both core sample data and downhole geochemical logs for Hole 735B. The problems of transforming these data for the particular mineralogy encountered are discussed. (Author)

  18. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  19. L'intérêt du forage horizontal pour l'exploitation de gisements d'hydrocarbures Advantages of Horizontal Drilling for Production from Hydrocarbon Fields

    Giger F.

    2006-11-01

    puits horizontaux manifestent une supériorité d'autant plus nette que le rapport de mobilité est défavorable, huile lourde balayée par de l'eau par exemple. Le phénomène nocif est en effet la percée des fronts, qui est d'autant plus précoce que l'écoulement est instable. La régularité du drainage entre puits horizontaux apporte une progression plus homogène des fronts, particulièrement avantageuse en début de production. Cependant, les gisements comportant toujours des hétérogénéités, on ne pourra bénéficier complètement de ces effets favorables que si l'on parvient à maîtriser les complétions sélectives en puits horizontal. Pour des raisons en partie semblables, les puits horizontaux possèdent des atouts pour la récupération thermique. Le positionnement précis d'une rampe d'injection à une profondeur définie dans le gisement devrait permettre d'y faire pénétrer facilement de la vapeur de façon à ce que la zone qu'elle envahit se développe régulièrement, tout en diminuant les pertes thermiques dans les épontes. Enfin, il faut ajouter que les puits horizontaux se sont révélés, grâce aux surprenantes performances des diagraphies et du carottage, de très riches outils de connaissance de l'évolution latérale des faciès et de la répartition des fluides dans le gisement. For fields with little vertical thickness, the productive length of a horizontal well is considerably greater than that of a vertical well. The productivity of a horizontal well increases with its length, although more slowly than this length because a logarithmic pressure-distance law comes into play. Analytical derivations as well as simulations on numerical models show that the increase in productivity may regularly attain a factor of 3 to 5. In fields having parallel vertical fractures, a horizontal well drilled perpendicularly to these fractures should cut across a great many of them and thus provide a much greater increase in productivity. In the case of

  20. Spectral and spatial resolving of photoelectric property of femtosecond laser drilled holes of GaSb(1-x)Bi(x).

    Pan, C B; Zha, F X; Song, Y X; Shao, J; Dai, Y; Chen, X R; Ye, J Y; Wang, S M

    2015-07-15

    Femtosecond laser drilled holes of GaSbBi were characterized by the joint measurements of photoconductivity (PC) spectroscopy and laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping. The excitation light in PC was focused down to 60 μm presenting the spectral information of local electronic property of individual holes. A redshift of energy band edge of about 6-8 meV was observed by the PC measurement when the excitation light irradiated on the laser drilled holes. The spatial resolving of photoelectric property was achieved by the LBIC mapping which shows "pseudo-holes" with much larger dimensions than the geometric sizes of the holes. The reduced LBIC current with the pseudo-holes is associated with the redshift effect indicating that the electronic property of the rim areas of the holes is modified by the femtosecond laser drilling.

  1. Equipment for deployment of canisters with spent nuclear fuel and bentonite buffer in horizontal holes

    Henttonen, V.; Suikki, M.

    1992-08-01

    The study presents the predesign of equipment for the deployment of canisters in long horizontal holes. The canisters are placed in the centre of the hole and are surrounded by a bentonite buffer. In thE study the canisters are assumed to have a diameter of 1.6 m and a length of 5.9 m, including the hemispherical ends. Their total weight is 60 tonnes. The bentonite buffer after homogenization is 400 mm thick, making a total package diameter of 2.4 m. The deployment system consists of four wagons for handling The canisters and the bentonite blocks. To ensure safe emplacement, every part is installed separately in its final position. This also makes it possible to use small clearances between the canisters and the bentonite blocks and between the blocks and the rock wall. With small clearances, backfilling can be avoided. Another basic design idea is that the wagons are equipped with wheels, which are in direct contact with the rock walls. Thus, rails, which have to be removed as the deployment progresses, are unnecessary. To minimize the time taken for deploying one canister, the wagons are designed so that only three trips from the service area to the deposit area are needed. Due to the radiation in the vicinity of the canisters, the wagons have to be teleoperated

  2. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques; SEMIANNUAL

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr. Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells

  3. Evaluation of four biodegradable, injectable bone cements in an experimental drill hole model in sheep.

    von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Génot, Oliver R; Nuss, Katja; Galuppo, Larry; Fulmer, Mark; Jacobson, Evan; Kronen, Peter; Zlinszky, Kati; Auer, Jörg A

    2013-09-01

    Four cement applications were tested in this investigation. Two dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD-brushite) hydraulic cements, an apatite hydraulic fiber loaded cement, and a calcium sulfate cement (Plaster of Paris) were implanted in epiphyseal and metaphyseal cylindrical bone defects in sheep. The in vivo study was performed to assess the biocompatibility and bone remodeling of four cement formulations. After time periods of 2, 4, and 6 months, the cement samples were clinically and histologically evaluated. Histomorphometrically, the amount of new bone formation, fibrous tissue, and bone marrow and the area of remaining cement were measured. In all specimens, no signs of inflammation were detectable either macroscopically or microscopically. Cements differed mainly in their resorption time. Calcium sulfate was already completely resorbed at 2 months and showed a variable amount of new bone formation and/or fibrous tissue in the original drill hole over all time periods. The two DCPD cements in contrast were degraded to a large amount at 6 months, whereas the apatite was almost unchanged over all time periods. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The archaeology of drill hole U20bc, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    McLane, A.R.; Hemphill, M.L.; Livingston, S.J.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Impacts to four sites near drill hole U20bc on Pahute Mesa in the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site were mitigated through data recovery. The work was done during 1988 by the Desert Research Institute for the Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV)- The four sites that warranted data recovery were 26NY3171, 26NY3173, 26NY5561 and 26NY5566. These sites had previously been determined eligible to the National Register of Historic Places. They were temporary camps that contained lithic debitage, projectile points, milling stones and pottery, and therefore contributed significant information concerning the prehistory of the area. The study of the archaeological remains shows that the prehistoric people subsisted on plant foods and game animals as determined by the artifacts including manos, metates, pottery, lithic scrapers, and projectile points. The time sensitive arfifacts (pottery and diagnostic points) suggest that the region was used from about 12,000 B.P. to just before the historic period, possibly 150 years ago. DOE/NV has met its obligation to mitigate adverse impacts to the cultural resources at U20bc. Therefore, it is recommended that this project proceed as planned

  5. Temperature measurements in small holes drilled in superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization

    Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T.; Furuta, D.; Kakehata, K.

    2010-11-01

    The time dependence of the temperatures T(z, t) has been measured along the thickness direction z in several drilled holes in a superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization (PFM) and the heat generation and heat transfer in the bulk have been discussed. In the previous paper [H. Fujishiro, S. Kawaguchi, K. Kakehata, A. Fujiwara, T. Tateiwa, T. Oka, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S540], we calculated the T(z, t) profiles in the bulk by solving a three-dimensional heat-diffusion equation to reproduce the measured T(t) on the bulk surface; the heat generation took place adiabatically and the calculated T(z, t) was isothermal along the z direction. In this study, the measured T(z, t) at the top surface was higher than that at the bottom surface just after the pulse field application at t < 0.5 s, and then became isothermal with increasing time. These results suggest that the magnetic flux intrudes inhomogeneously into the bulk from the edge of the top surface and the periphery at the early stage. The inhomogeneous magnetic flux intrusion and the flux trap during PFM change depending on the strength of the pulsed field and the pulse number in the successive pulse field application.

  6. Preliminary geologic and geophysical data of the UE25a-3 exploratory drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Maldonado, F.; Muller, D.C.; Morrison, J.N.

    1979-09-01

    The UE25a-3 drill hole, located in the Calico Hills area, was drilled as part of an effort to evaluate the Calico Hills area as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The purpose of the drill hole was to verify the existence of an intrusive crystalline body in the subsurface and to determine the stratigraphy, structure, and nature of fractures of the cored rocks. Cored samples were obtained for mineral, chemical, and material property analyses. Numerous high-angle faults and brecciated zones were intersected by the drill hole. The units cored were intensely fractured with fracture analysis of the core consisting of frequency of fractures, dips of fractures, open and closed (sealed) fractures and types of fracture sealing or coating material. Twenty-four hundred and thirty fractures, representing approximately 30 percent of the fractures present, indicate an average fracture frequency of 13.2 fractures per meter, predominantly high-angle dips with 66 percent of the fractures closed. Fractures in the argillite interval are sealed or coated predominantly with kaolinite, nacrite, and dickite. Calcite, chlorite, and magnetite are present in fractures in the altered argillite interval. Fractures in the marble interval are sealed or coated with calcite, dolomite, and ferruginous clay. The core index indicates that the lower half of the drilled interval is more competent than the upper half. Borehole geophysical logs were run by the Birdwell Division of Seismograph Service Corporation for geologic correlations and lithologic characterizations. The logs include: caliper, density, resistivity, spontaneous potential, Vibroseis, 3-D velocity, neutron, and gamma-ray logs

  7. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 1984-2003 for over 100 cruises worldwide. The ODP was funded by the U.S....

  8. Real time, real fast : drilling horizontal wells in a heavy oil environment

    Balke, S.C.; Rosauer, M.S. [Petrolera Ameriven/Phillips Petroleum, Caracas, (Venezuela)

    2002-07-01

    Eastern Venezuela's Orinoco Tar Belt or the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco is one of the largest heavy oil fields in the world, containing more than 1.2 trillion barrels of heavy and extra heavy oil with API gravity of 10 to 6. The field is 320 miles long by 40 miles wide and is divided into the Machete, Zuata, Hamaca and Cerro Negro. It has been under production since the 1970s by Venezuela's national oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA. The region is only marginally cost effective because of the high costs associated with development. It is expected that the Hamaca Project, which is centrally located in the Orinoco Tar Belt can be effectively and economically developed by applying the latest technology and innovative techniques. Petrolera Ameriven has committed to develop the 250 square mile Hamaca area. The objective is to produce 165,000 acres at rate of 190,000 BOPD for the life of the project. The challenge is that when the oil is cooled and degasified it looks more like a tar or asphalt for paving roads. In addition, the major reservoirs within the field were deposited in low stand and transgressive system tracks consisting of meandering fluvial to fluvial-tidal deltaic deposits. Methods such as logging while drilling (LWD), satellite links and continuous updating and real-time visualization were applied to assess and mitigate risks. These methods made it possible to accurately place the shoe of the build sections for control of well directions. The methods also made it possible to identify sand/shale interfaces, determine the redirection of the drill bit, locate non-pay zones and help plan well paths to optimize production. The technologies developed were also effective in minimizing development costs, thereby improving the financial viability of the project. 1 ref., 16 figs.

  9. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for tertiary silicic volcanic rocks in drill hole USW G-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Caporuscio, F.A.; Warren, R.G.; Broxton, D.E.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains detailed petrographic descriptions of 74 thin sections from drill hole USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These descriptions are keyed to the distinctions between devitrified, vitrophyre, vitric, and zeolitized intervals below the Topopah Spring Member repository horizon. The petrographic features of the zeolitized intervals down through the Crater Flat tuff, as well as the sorption properties determined from these intervals, suggest that these zeolite occurrences may each have comparable sorptive capability.

  10. Preliminary report on the geology and geophysics of drill hole UE25a-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    Spengler, R.W.; Muller, D.C.; Livermore, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    A subsurface geologic study in connection with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations has furnished detailed stratigraphic and structural information about tuffs underlying northeastern Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Drill hole UE25a-1 penetrated thick sequences of nonwelded to densely welded ash-flow and bedded tuffs of Tertiary age. Stratigraphic units that were identified from the drill-hole data include the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff, tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, and the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Members of the Crater Flat Tuff. Structural analysis of the core indicated densely welded zones to be highly fractured. Many fractures show near-vertical inclinations and are commonly coated with secondary silica, manganese and iron oxides, and calcite. Five falt zones were recognized, most of which occurred in the Topopah Spring Member. Shear fractures commonly show oblique-slip movement and some suggest a sizable component of lateral compression. Graphic logs are included that show the correlation of lithology, structural properties, and geophysical logs. Many rock units have characteristic log responses but highly fractured zones, occurring principally in the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Members restricted log coverage to the lower half of the drill hole

  11. 3-D Numerical Investigation on Oxygen Transfer in a Horizontal Venturi Flow with Two Holes

    Zegao Yin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the dissolved oxygen increase caused by air suction in a horizontal Venturi flow with two holes, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model was used to explore the water and bubble mixture flow, coupled with a dissolved oxygen transfer model. A series of experiments were conducted to validate the mathematical model. A relative saturation coefficient correlation was examined factoring in dissolved oxygen concentration at the inlet, water velocity at the inlet, the hole’s diameter, contraction ratio at throat section, and the downstream length of Venturi pipe. It was found that the relative saturation coefficient increases with increasing dissolved oxygen concentration at the inlet and downstream length of Venturi pipe respectively. However, it increases with decreasing water velocity at the inlet and contraction ratio at the throat section to some extent. The hole’s diameter plays a complex role in the relative saturation coefficient. The dimensional analysis method and the least square method were used to deduce a simple formula for the relative saturation coefficient, and this was consistent with related data.

  12. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for drill holes USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Broxton, D.; Vaniman, D.; Caporuscio, F.; Arney, B.; Heiken, G.

    1982-10-01

    Drill holes USW-G2 and UE25b-1H at Yucca Mountain, Nevada penetrate a thick sequence of volcanic rocks consisting of voluminous ash-flow tuffs, intercalated with thin bedded tuffs and minor lavas. This report provides detailed petrologic descriptions that were summarized in an earlier report. Microprobe analyses of feldspars and mafic phenocrysts as well as secondary feldspars are tabulated for these drill holes for the first time in this report

  13. Drilling the leading edge of the mantle wedge and the underlying metamorphic sole of the Samail Ophiolite: Hole BT1B, Oman Drilling Project

    Morishita, T.; Kelemen, P. B.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hole BT1B (23°21.861' N, 58°10.957' E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) on the north side of Wadi Mansah in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole BT1B was cored from 6 to 23 March 2017, to a depth of 300.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described onsite before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu. Hole BT1B sampled carbonated peridotite (listvenite), 2 carbonate-veined serpentinite bands at 80-100 and 180-185 m depth, a few cm of ultracataclasite and 70 cm of fault gouge at 197 m depth, followed by 103 m metamorphic sole. Onboard Chikyu, BT1B underwent X-ray computed tomography (CT) and multi-sensor logging, imaging and spectroscopy, macroscopic and thin section observations, physical properties measurements, and XRF, XRD and ICP-MS analyses. 1st authors of abstracts reporting initial results are Beinlich (matrix characteristics), de Obeso (modeling mass transfer), Godard (XRF and ICP-MS whole rock data), Greenberger (infrared spectroscopy), Johnson (XRF core scanner), Kelemen (overall petrology), Manning (veins), and Michibayashi (X-ray CT). Listvenite is composed of carbonate + quartz + Fe-oxyhydroxides, + minor relict spinel ± chromian mica (fuchsite). The mineralogy suggests formation at < 150°C. The bulk rock density is similar to that of gabbro but the P-wave velocity is generally higher. Rock textures suggest viscous deformation, while additional brittle deformation is recorded by older veins and younger breccias and faults. The metamorphic sole consists of fine-grained to microcrystalline

  14. Operational performace of horizontal drillings in the deep aquiferous gas storage Kalle; Betriebsverhalten von Horizontalbohrungen im tiefen Aquifergasspeicher Kalle

    Klafki, M.; Kammel, D. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Below, P.J. [VEW Energie AG, Dortmund (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aquiferous structure Kalle, located in the Emsland, has contained compressed natural gas in the middle sandstone formation of the Volpriehausen-sandstone for 20 years. The storage stratum is between 2100 and 2200 m deep, 10-13 m thick and sufficiently porous and permeable. Gas storage operation and operational performance of the horizontal holes are described in this article. Filling and injection performance are also described. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Die im Emsland gelegene Aquiferstruktur Kalle fuehrt im Volpriehausen-Sandstein der geologischen Formation `Mittlerer Buntsandstein` nunmehr seit fast 20 Jahren eingepresstes Erdgas. Die Speicherschicht ist dort 2100 bis 2200 m tief, 10 bis 13 m maechtig und ausreichend poroes und permeabel. Im Folgenden werden der Gasspeicherbetrieb und das Betriebsverhalten der Horizontalbohrungen beschrieben. Das Ausspeisungsverhalten und das Injektionsverhalten werden ebenfalls erlaeutert. (orig./MSK)

  15. Influence of veneer thickness on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2012-02-01

    The veneering process of frameworks induces residual stresses and can initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. The stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth is a key factor influencing failure by chipping. This is a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of veneer thickness on the stress profile in zirconia- and metal-based structures. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples of 20 mm diameter, with a 1 mm thick zirconia or metal framework. Different veneering ceramic thicknesses were performed: 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.5-1.0 mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework, except for the 1.5 mm-veneered zirconia samples which exhibited interior tensile stresses. Stresses in the surface of metal samples were not influenced by veneer thickness. Variation of interior stresses at 1.2 mm from the surface in function of veneer thickness was inverted for metal and zirconia samples. Veneer thickness influences in an opposite way the residual stress profile in metal- and in zirconia-based structures. A three-step approach and the hypothesis of the crystalline transformation are discussed to explain the less favorable residual stress development in zirconia samples. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of cooling rate on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2011-09-01

    The manufacture of dental crowns and bridges generates residual stresses within the veneering ceramic and framework during the cooling process. Residual stress is an important factor that control the mechanical behavior of restorations. Knowing the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth can help the understanding of failures, particularly chipping, a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the cooling rate dependence of the stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on metal and zirconia frameworks. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples 20 mm in diameter, with a 0.7 mm thick metal or Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal framework and a 1.5mm thick veneering ceramic. Three different cooling procedures were investigated. The magnitude of the stresses in the surface of the veneering ceramic was found to increase with cooling rate, while the interior stresses decreased. At the surface, compressive stresses were observed in all samples. In the interior, compressive stresses were observed in metal samples and tensile in zirconia samples. Cooling rate influences the magnitude of residual stresses. These can significantly influence the mechanical behavior of metal-and zirconia-based bilayered systems. The framework material influenced the nature of the interior stresses, with zirconia samples showing a less favorable stress profile than metal. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on hole manufacture in 42CrMo4 steel using 3-flute carbide drills and 6-flute cermet reamers

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    An investigation on cutting forces and hole quality using carbide 3-flute self-centering drills and 6-flute cermet reamers was performed on 42CrMo4 alloy steel. Different depths of cuts were analyzed with respect to cutting thrust and cutting torque, hole diameter, form and surface integrity. Goo...

  18. Formation evaluation of a horizontal well

    Najia, W.K.; Habib, K.H.; Asada, J.

    1991-01-01

    In Upper Zakum Field, the interest in horizontal drilling has continued. A second horizontal well was drilled during the second half of 1989. This necessitated running logging tools for well control and to evaluate the reservoir characteristics. The logging tool selected for this well is that of Sperry-Sun. Tools configuration and tolerance were found to fulfil SADCO's requirements and specifications. This paper reports on the services produced which included Measurement While Drilling (MWD) directional services and RLL (Recorded Lithology Logging). The RLL services cover Dual Gamma Ray (DGR), Electromagnetic Wave Resistivity (EWR) and Compensated Neutron Porosity (CN porosity). All the RLL tools were an integrated part of the Bottom Hole Drilling Assembly. Data acquired while surveying was recorded in a recording sub down-hole and retrieved when the tools were up at the surface. A PC assisted quick look interpretation was carried out using Archie's equation in shale free limestone to calculate: Effective porosity, Water Saturation and, Bulk water volume

  19. Analysis of the custom design/fabrication/testing requirements for a large-hole drilling machine for use in an underground radioactive waste repository

    Grams, W.H.; Gnirk, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the fabrication and field test requirements for a drilling machine that would be applicable to the drilling of large diameter holes for the emplacement of radioactive waste canisters in an underground repository. On the basis of a previous study in 1975 by RE/SPEC Inc. for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, it was concluded that none of the commercially available machines were ideally suited for the desired drilling application, and that it was doubtful whether a machine with the required capabilities would become available as a standard equipment item. The results of the current study, as presented herein, provide a definitive basis for selecting the desired specifications, estimating the design, fabrication, and testing costs, and analyzing the cost-benefit characteristics of a custom-designed drilling machine for the emplacement hole drilling task

  20. Lithologic and geophysical logs of drill holes Felderhoff Federal 5-1 and 25-1, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    Carr, W.J.; Grow, J.A.; Keller, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Two wildcat oil and gas exploration holes drilled in 1991 on the northern edge of the Amargosa Desert penetrated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks, alluvium, and basalt, possible Tertiary volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks, and Tertiary (?) and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The easternmost of the two holes, Felderhoff-Federal 5-1, encountered about 200 feet of alluvium, underlain by 305 feet of basalt breccia and basalt, about 345 feet of probable Tertiary tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and 616 feet of dense limestone and dolomite of uncertain age. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated 240 feet of alluvium and marl (?), and 250 feet of basalt breccia (?) and basalt, 270 feet of tuff (?) and/or tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 360 feet of slide blocks (?) and large boulders of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and 2,800 feet of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite. The two drill holes are located within a northerly trending fault zone defined largely by geophysical data; this fault zone lies along the east side of a major rift containing many small basalt eruptive centers and, farther north, several caldera complexes. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated an inverted paleozoic rock sequence; drill hole 5-1 encountered two large cavities 24-inches wide or more in dense carbonate rock of uncertain, but probable Paleozoic age. These openings may be tectonic and controlled by a regional system of northeast-striking faults

  1. Behavior of water jet horizontally discharged from a small circular hole set on a circular pipe-surface into air

    Tsuyuki, Koji; Igarashi, Saburo; Sudo, Seiichi; Yamabe, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Oba, Risaburo

    2001-01-01

    In order to clarify the behavior of the water jet horizontally discharged from a small circular hole set on a circular pipe surface into air, in this paper, for the first step, we systematically observed the jet aspects, the efflux angle, the discharge coefficient and so on, when the hole diameter d is much smaller than the pipe diameter D. Since the upstream kinetic energy from the hole is somewhat higher than the downstream counterpart, the upstream partial jet with higher efflux angle crashes into the downstream partial jet and drives out the latter into up- and down-side, resulting in a marked pair of vortices, so that resulting in a three-dimensional spiral flow accompanying with marked surface waves. (author)

  2. Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Wagoner, J.L.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented

  3. Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Wagoner, J.L.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1981-03-02

    Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented.

  4. Residual stress measurement of electron beam welded copper plates using prism hole drilling method

    Laakkonen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Eleven electron beam (EB) welded copper plates were measured in this investigation with Prism hole drilling equipment made by Stresstech Oy. All samples contained a linear weld in their center. Two different sets of plates were measured in this investigation. The first set included five samples (X436, X437, X438, X439 and X440) which were welded using four different welding speeds. Samples X439 and X440 were welded with the same speed but X440 is the only sample of the set that received a cosmetic pass. The second set received heat treatments at four different temperatures. Samples X456 and X458 were annealed at the same temperature but sample X456 received a cosmetic pass while X458 did not. Samples X455 and X457 were both annealed at a different temperature, with (X455) or without (X457) the cosmetic pass. Two areas were machined from the samples. About five millimeters was machined from the surfaces on the both of areas. Machined surfaces located on the top surfaces. The measurement points on the top surface are located on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld on machined areas. Lower surface measurements are located -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld. All measurements were about 122 mm from the edges perpendicular to the weld. The top surfaces of all samples were machined in two areas across the weld. About 5 mm were removed. Stress measurements on the top surfaces were performed in these two areas, on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm away from the weld. Stresses were also measured on the back sides, at -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm distance from the weld. All measurement locations were about 122mm from the sample edges. Most of the measurements give tensile strengths from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Stresses parallel to the weld were slightly higher than weld stresses in transverse direction. The machined surfaces have residual stress values above 30 MPa near the surface. (orig.)

  5. Residual stress measurement of electron beam welded copper plates using prism hole drilling method

    Laakkonen, M. [Stresstech Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    Eleven electron beam (EB) welded copper plates were measured in this investigation with Prism hole drilling equipment made by Stresstech Oy. All samples contained a linear weld in their center. Two different sets of plates were measured in this investigation. The first set included five samples (X436, X437, X438, X439 and X440) which were welded using four different welding speeds. Samples X439 and X440 were welded with the same speed but X440 is the only sample of the set that received a cosmetic pass. The second set received heat treatments at four different temperatures. Samples X456 and X458 were annealed at the same temperature but sample X456 received a cosmetic pass while X458 did not. Samples X455 and X457 were both annealed at a different temperature, with (X455) or without (X457) the cosmetic pass. Two areas were machined from the samples. About five millimeters was machined from the surfaces on the both of areas. Machined surfaces located on the top surfaces. The measurement points on the top surface are located on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld on machined areas. Lower surface measurements are located -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld. All measurements were about 122 mm from the edges perpendicular to the weld. The top surfaces of all samples were machined in two areas across the weld. About 5 mm were removed. Stress measurements on the top surfaces were performed in these two areas, on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm away from the weld. Stresses were also measured on the back sides, at -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm distance from the weld. All measurement locations were about 122mm from the sample edges. Most of the measurements give tensile strengths from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Stresses parallel to the weld were slightly higher than weld stresses in transverse direction. The machined surfaces have residual stress values above 30 MPa near the surface. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic properties of cores from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Hole-2 (WFSD-2), China

    Zhang, L., Jr.; Sun, Z.; Li, H.; Cao, Y.; Ye, X.; Wang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Han, S.

    2015-12-01

    During an earthquake, seismic slip and frictional heating may cause the physical and chemical alterations of magnetic minerals within the fault zone. Rock magnetism provides a method for understanding earthquake dynamics. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) started right after 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, to investigate the earthquake faulting mechanism. Hole 2 (WFSD-2) is located in the Pengguan Complex in the Bajiaomiao village (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), and reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). We measured the surface magnetic susceptibility of the cores in WFSD-2 from 500 m to 1530 m with an interval of 1 cm. Rocks at 500-599.31 m-depth and 1211.49-1530 m-depth are from the Neoproterozoic Pengguang Complex while the section from 599.31 m to 1211.49 m is composed of Late Triassic sediments. The magnetic susceptibility values of the first part of the Pengguan Complex range from 1 to 25 × 10-6 SI, while the second part ranges from 10 to 200 × 10-6 SI, which indicate that the two parts are not from the same rock units. The Late Triassic sedimentary rocks have a low magnetic susceptibility values, ranging from -5 to 20 × 10-6 SI. Most fault zones coincide with the high value of magnetic susceptibility in the WFSD-2 cores. Fault rocks, mainly fault breccia, cataclasite, gouge and pseudotachylite within the WFSD-2 cores, and mostly display a significantly higher magnetic susceptibility than host rocks (5:1 to 20:1). In particular, in the YBF zone of the WFSD-2 cores (from 600 to 960 m), dozens of stages with high values of magnetic susceptibility have been observed. The multi-layered fault rocks with high magnetic susceptibility values might indicate that the YBF is a long-term active fault. The magnetic susceptibility values change with different types of fault rocks. The gouge and pseudotachylite have higher values of magnetic susceptibility than other fault rocks. Other primary rock magnetism analyses were then performed to

  7. Numerical study of influence of drilling depth and physico-mechanical characteristics of bedding of rock ores on stability of horizontal well

    Dzhukataev, Z.D.

    1997-01-01

    Stability of elastic and plastic equilibrium of deep horizontal well has been studied conformably to West Kazakhstan deposits conditions. Different forms of flat stability loss for rock ores massif are studied. This massif was weaken by deep horizontal well, on counter of this well uniformly distributed load is enclosed - pressure of drilling mortar. Linearized boundary conditions for stability are defined on the well counter and on boundary between field of elastic and inelastic deformations. The characteristic determinant is received. It is revealed, that greatest from critical pressures takes place under wave-formation by well counter equals to 1

  8. Better well control through safe drilling margin identification, influx analysis and direct bottom hole pressure control method for deep water

    Veeningen, Daan [National Oilwell Varco IntelliServ (NOV), Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Currently, well control events are almost exclusively detected by using surface measurements. Measuring a volume increase in the 'closed loop' mud circulation system; a standpipe pressure decrease; or changes in a variety of drilling parameters provide indicators of a kick. Especially in deep water, where the riser comprises a substantial section of the well bore, early kick detection is paramount for limiting the severity of a well bore influx and improve the ability to regain well control. While downhole data is presently available from downhole tools nearby the bit, available data rates are sparse as mud pulse telemetry bandwidth is limited and well bore measurements compete with transmission of other subsurface data. Further, data transfer is one-directional, latency is significant and conditions along the string are unknown. High-bandwidth downhole data transmission system, via a wired or networked drill string system, has the unique capability to acquire real-time pressure and temperature measurement at a number of locations along the drill string. This system provides high-resolution downhole data available at very high speed, eliminating latency and restrictions that typically limit the availability of downhole data. The paper describes well control opportunities for deep water operations through the use of downhole data independent from surface measurements. First, the networked drill string provides efficient ways to identify pore pressure, fracture gradient, and true mud weight that comprise the safe drilling margin. Second, the independent measurement capability provides early kick detection and improved ability to analyze an influx even with a heterogeneous mud column through distributed along-string annular pressure measurements. Third, a methodology is proposed for a direct measurement method using downhole real-time pressure for maintaining constant bottom hole pressure during well kills in deep water. (author)

  9. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques; SEMIANNUAL

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-01-01

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities

  10. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  11. Listvenite formation from peridotite: Insights from Oman Drilling Project hole BT1B and preliminary reaction path model approach.

    de Obeso, J. C.; Kelemen, P. B.; Manning, C. E.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project hole BT1B drilled 300 meters through the basal thrust of the Samail ophiolite. The first 200 meters of this hole are dominated by listvenites (completely carbonated peridotites) and serpentinites. Below 200 meters the hole is mainly composed of metasediments and metavolcanics. This core provides a unique record of interaction between (a) mantle peridotite in the leading edge of the mantle wedge and (b) hydrous, CO2 rich fluids derived from subducting lithologies similar to those in the metamorphic sole. We used EQ3/6 to simulate a reaction path in which hydrous fluid in equilibrium with qtz + calcite + feldspar + chlorite or smectite reacts with initially fresh peridotite at 100°C (the estimated temperature of alteration, Falk & Kelemen GCA 2015) and 5 kb. Water was first equilibrated with minerals observed during core description in the metamorphic sole at 100°C and 5kb. This fluid is then reacted with olivine enstatite and diopside (Mg#90) approximating the average composition of residual mantle peridotite (harzburgite) in Oman. Secondary minerals resulting from complete reaction are then reacted again with the initial fluid in an iterative process, up to water/rock > 1000. Water/rock close to 1 results in complete serpentinization of the peridotite, with chrysotile, brucite and magnetite as the only minerals. Water/rock >10 produces carbonates, chlorite and talc. Further increasing water/rock to > 100 produces assemblages dominated by carbonates and quartz with minor muscovite, similar to listvenites of hole BT1B that contain qtz + carbonates + Fe-oxyhydroxides + relict spinel ± chromian muscovite and fuchsite. The results of this preliminary model are consistent with the complex veining history of core from BT1B, with carbonate/iron oxide veins in both listvenites and serpentinites interpreted to be the earliest record of peridotite carbonation after initial serpentinization.

  12. Analysis of Single-Hole and Cross-Hole Tracer Tests Conducted at the Nye County Earl Warning Drilling Program Well Complex, Nye County, Nevada

    A. Umari; J.D. Earle; M.F. Fahy

    2006-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the flow and transport characteristics downgradient from the proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, single- and cross-hole tracer tests were conducted from December 2004 through October 2005 in boreholes at the Nye County 22 well complex. The results were analyzed for transport properties using both numerical and analytical solutions of the governing advection dispersion equation. Preliminary results indicate effective flow porosity values ranging from 1.0 x 10 -2 for an individual flow path to 2.0 x 10 -1 for composite flow paths, longitudinal dispersivity ranging from 0.3 to 3 m, and a transverse horizontal dispersivity of 0.03 m. Individual flow paths identified from the cross-hole testing indicate some solute diffusion into the stagnant portion of the alluvial aquifer

  13. Stress analysis of thermal sprayed coatings using a semi-destructive hole-drilling strain gauge method

    Dolhof, V.; Musil, J.; Cepera, M.; Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    Residual stress is an important parameter in coating technology since it often relates to the maximum coating thickness which can be deposited without spallation, and this applies to coatings produced by different thermal spray and thin film technologies. Indeed, the mechanisms by which residual stress is built up or locked into a coating depends markedly on the deposition process and coating structure (growth structure, phase composition) in the same way too. Methods for determining residual stresses in materials include both destructive and non-destructive methods. This contribution describes semi-destructive hole-drilling strain gauge method modified for measurement of residual stresses in thermal sprayed coatings. This method of stress analysis was used for determination of stress levels in thermal sprayed WC-17% Co coatings onto 13% Cr steel substrates. Results show that deposition conditions and final coating structure influence directly the residual stress level in the coatings. It is proved that semi-destructive hole-tube drilling measurement is effective reproducible method of coating stress analysis and good solution for optimization of deposition process

  14. Interpretation of geophysical well-log measurements in drill hole UE25a-1, Nevada Test Site, Radioactive Waste Program

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    An exploratory hole (UE25a-1) was drilled at Nevada Test Site (NTS) to determine the suitability of pyroclastic deposits as storage sites for radioactive waste. Studies have been conducted to investigate the stratigraphy, structure, mineralogy, petrology, and physical properties of the tuff units encountered in the drill hole. This report deals with the interpretation of physical properties for the tuff units from geophysical well-log measurements. The ash-flow and bedded tuff sequences at NTS comprise complex lithologies of variously welded tuffs with superimposed crystallization and altered zones. To characterize these units, resistivity, density, neutron, gamma-ray, induced polarization, and magnetic susceptibility geophysical well-log measurements were made. Although inherently subjective, a consistent interpretation of the well-log measurements was facilitated by a computer program designed to interpret well logs either individually or simultaneously. The broad features of the welded tuff units are readily distinguished by the geophysical well-log measurements. However, many details revealed by the logs indicate that more work is necessary to clarify the casual elements of well-log response in welded tuffs

  15. Minimization of the hole overcut and cylindricity errors during rotary ultrasonic drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    Nasr, M.; Anwar, S.; El-Tamimi, A.; Pervaiz, S.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys e.g. Ti6Al4V have widespread applications in aerospace, automotive and medical industry. At the same time titanium and its alloys are regarded as difficult to machine materials due to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. Significant efforts have been dispensed to improve the accuracy of the machining processes for Ti6Al4V. The current study present the use of the rotary ultrasonic drilling (RUD) process for machining high quality holes in Ti6Al4V. The study takes into account the effects of the main RUD input parameters including spindle speed, ultrasonic power, feed rate and tool diameter on the key output responses related to the accuracy of the drilled holes including cylindricity and overcut errors. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to study the influence of the input parameters on cylindricity and overcut error. Later, regression models were developed to find the optimal set of input parameters to minimize the cylindricity and overcut errors.

  16. Study of the location of testing area in residual stress measurement by Moiré interferometry combined with hole-drilling method

    Qin, Le; Xie, HuiMin; Zhu, RongHua; Wu, Dan; Che, ZhiGang; Zou, ShiKun

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the location of testing area in residual stress measurement by Moiré interferometry combined with hole-drilling method. The selection of the location of the testing area is analyzed from theory and experiment. In the theoretical study, the factors which affect the surface released radial strain ɛ r were analyzed on the basis of the formulae of the hole-drilling method, and the relations between those factors and ɛ r were established. By combining Moiré interferometry with the hole-drilling method, the residual stress of interference-fit specimen was measured to verify the theoretical analysis. According to the analysis results, the testing area for minimizing the error of strain measurement is determined. Moreover, if the orientation of the maximum principal stress is known, the value of strain will be measured with higher precision by the Moiré interferometry method.

  17. Abrasive water jet drilling of cooling holes in aeroengines: preliminary experimental study

    Hlaváček, Petr; Zlámal, T.; Sitek, Libor

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2018), s. 2218-2222 ISSN 1803-1269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MPO(CZ) FV10446 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet * drilling * thermal barrier coating Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering http://www.mmscience.eu/2018.html

  18. Drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes to reduce the stiffness of a locking compression plate construct.

    Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zhou, Zhihong; Ang, Benjamin Fu Hong; Yew, Andy Khye Soon; Chou, Siaw Meng; Chia, Shi-Lu; Koh, Joyce Suang Bee; Howe, Tet Sen

    2015-12-01

    To compare the stiffness of locking compression plate (LCP) constructs with or without drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes. 24 synthetic bones were sawn to create a 10-mm gap and were fixed with a 9-hole 4.5-mm narrow LCP. In 12 bones, the near cortex of the adjacent holes to the LCP holes was drilled to create elongated figure-of-8 holes before screw insertion. The stiffness of LCP constructs under axial loading or 4-point bending was assessed by (1) dynamic quasi-physiological testing for fatigue strength, (2) quasi-static testing for stiffness, and (3) testing for absolute strength to failure. None of the 24 constructs had subcatastrophic or catastrophic failure after 10 000 cycles of fatigue loading (p=1.000). The axial stiffness reduced by 16% from 613±62 to 517±44 N/mm (p=0.012) in the case group, whereas the bending stiffness was 16±1 Nm2 in both groups (p=1.000). The maximum axial load to catastrophic failure was 1596±84 N for the control group and 1627±48 N for the case group (p=0.486), whereas the maximum bending moment to catastrophic failure was 79±12 and 80±10 Nm, respectively (p=0.919). Drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes reduces the axial stiffness of the LCP construct, without compromising its bending stiffness or strength.

  19. Réduction du nombre de puits par l'utilisation de forages horizontaux Reducing the Number of Wells by Using Horizontal Drilling

    Giger F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'un des intérêts du forage horizontal est le gain de productivité sur chaque puits. L'objet de cet article est de proposer des éléments d'analyse, comme la productivité surfacique, destinés à aider l'instance responsable du développement d'un champ confrontée au choix économique entre un schéma classique par puits verticaux et un autre schéma intégrant des puits d'un autre type, et notamment des drains horizontaux. Des méthodes de résolution approchées d'emploi simple sont proposées pour évaluer le nombre de puits verticaux que peut remplacer un drain ho-rizontal. One of the advantages of horizontal drilling is the increase in productivity of each well. The aim of this article is to propose bases for making an analysis, such as areal productivity, so as to help the decision-maker responsible for the development of a field when confronted with an economic choice between a conventional system using vertical wells and an alternative system including other types of wells, and in particular horizontal wells. Simple and approximate solutions are proposed for evaluating the number of vertical wells that can be replaced by a horizontal wells.

  20. Stratigraphy and structure of volcanic rocks in drill hole USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Spengler, R.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed subsurface studies in connection with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations program are being conducted to investigate the stratigraphic and structural features of volcanic rocks underlying Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. As part of this continuing effort, drill hole USW-G1 was cored from 292 ft to a depth of 6000 ft from March to August 1980. The stratigraphic section is composed of thick sequences of ash-flow tuff and volcanic breccia interbedded with subordinate amounts of fine- to coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks. All rocks are of Tertiary age and vary in composition from rhyolite to dacite. The 3005-ft level in the drill hole represents a significant demarcation between unaltered and altered volcanic rocks. For the most part, tuff units above 3005 ft appear devitrified and show little secondary alteration except within tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, where the rock contains 60 to 80% zeolites. Below 3005 ft, most rocks show intermittent to pervasive alteration to clay minerals and zeolites. Examination of core for structural features revealed the presence of 61 shear fractures, 528 joints, and 4 conspicuous fault zones. Shear fractures mainly occurred in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, flow breccia, and near fault zones. Nearly 88% of shear and joint surfaces show evidence of coatings. Approximately 40% of the fractures were categorized as completely healed. Rock quality characteristics as defined by the core index indicate that greater amounts of broken and lost core are commonly associated with (1) the densely welded zone of the Topopah Spring, (2) highly silicified zones, and (3) fault zones

  1. Feasibility of Optimizing Recovery and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore Calif. Reservoir through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well

    Coombs, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to devise an effective redevelopment strategy to combat producibility problems related to the Repetto turbidite sequences of the Carpinteria Field. The lack of adequate reservoir characterization, high-water cut production, and scaling problems have in the past contributed to the field's low productivity. To improve productivity and enhance recoverable reserves, the following specific goals are proposed: (1) Develop an integrated database of all existing data from work done by the former ownership group. (2) Expand reservoir drainage and reduce sand problems through horizontal well drilling and completion. (3) Operate and validate reservoirs' conceptual model by incorporating new data from the proposed trilateral well. (4) Transfer methodologies employed in geologic modeling and drilling multilateral wells to other operators with similar reservoirs

  2. Comparison of revegetation of a gas pipeline right-of-way in two forested wetland crossings involving conventional methods of pipeline installation and horizontal drilling, Nassau County, Florida

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    One year after pipeline installation, vegetation in the right-of-way (ROW) was inventoried at two stream floodplain crossings in Nassau County, Florida. Both sites were forested wetlands composed of Acer rubrum, Fraxinus caroliniana, Liquidamber styraciflua, Nyssa ogecho, Quercus laurifolia, and Taxodium distichum, together with other wetland trees. Pipeline installation across the Brandy Branch floodplain was by conventional ditching and backfill methods. Installation across the Deep Creek floodplain was by horizontal drilling after clearcutting the ROW. The latter method left tree stumps, understory vegetation, and soil layers intact, except for disruptions caused by logging. According to the inventory, vegetation at the drilled site was more diverse (nearly twice as many species occurring in the ROW as at the trenched site) and more robust (no unvegetated exposed soil compared to 15% at the trenched site). Differences between the ROW vegetation at the two sites can be attributed to both site differences and installation technologies used.

  3. Elemental Geochemistry of Samples From Fault Segments of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) Drill Hole

    Tourscher, S. N.; Schleicher, A. M.; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Warr, L. N.

    2006-12-01

    Elemental geochemistry of mudrock samples from phase 2 drilling of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is presented from bore hole depths of 3066 m to 3169 m and from 3292 m to 3368 m, which contain a creeping section and main trace of the fault, respectively. In addition to preparation and analysis of whole rock sample, fault grains with neomineralized, polished surfaces were hand picked from well-washed whole rock samples, minimizing the potential contamination from drilling mud and steel shavings. The separated fractions were washed in deionized water, powdered using a mortar and pestle, and analyzed using an Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometer for major and minor elements. Based on oxide data results, systematic differences in element concentrations are observed between the whole rock and fault rock. Two groupings of data points are distinguishable in the regions containing the main trace of the fault, a shallow part (3292- 3316 m) and a deeper section (3320-3368 m). Applying the isocon method, assuming Zr and Ti to be immobile elements in these samples, indicates a volume loss of more than 30 percent in the shallow part and about 23 percent in the deep part of the main trace. These changes are minimum estimates of fault-related volume loss, because the whole rock from drilling samples contains variable amount of fault rock as well. Minimum estimates for volume loss in the creeping section of the fault are more than 50 percent when using the isocon method, comparing whole rock to plucked fault rock. The majority of the volume loss in the fault rocks is due to the dissolution and loss of silica, potassium, aluminum, sodium and calcium, whereas (based on oxide data) the mineralized surfaces of fractures appear to be enriched in Fe and Mg. The large amount of element mobility within these fault traces suggests extensive circulation of hydrous fluids along fractures that was responsible for progressive dissolution and leaching

  4. Implementation and Development of the Incremental Hole Drilling Method for the Measurement of Residual Stress in Thermal Spray Coatings

    Valente, T.; Bartuli, C.; Sebastiani, M.; Loreto, A.

    2005-12-01

    The experimental measurement of residual stresses originating within thick coatings deposited by thermal spray on solid substrates plays a role of fundamental relevance in the preliminary stages of coating design and process parameters optimization. The hole-drilling method is a versatile and widely used technique for the experimental determination of residual stress in the most superficial layers of a solid body. The consolidated procedure, however, can only be implemented for metallic bulk materials or for homogeneous, linear elastic, and isotropic materials. The main objective of the present investigation was to adapt the experimental method to the measurement of stress fields built up in ceramic coatings/metallic bonding layers structures manufactured by plasma spray deposition. A finite element calculation procedure was implemented to identify the calibration coefficients necessary to take into account the elastic modulus discontinuities that characterize the layered structure through its thickness. Experimental adjustments were then proposed to overcome problems related to the low thermal conductivity of the coatings. The number of calculation steps and experimental drilling steps were finally optimized.

  5. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements of core samples recovered from hole B, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Yeh, En-Chao; Lin, Weiren; Sone, Hiroki; Mishima, Toshiaki; Soh, Wonn; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Aoike, Kan; Ito, Hisao; Kinoshita, Masataka; Murayama, Masafumi; Song, Sheng-Rong; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Hung, Jih-Hao; Wang, Chien-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Ben; Kondo, Tomomi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Moriya, Soichi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Fujiki, Toru; Maeda, Lena; Muraki, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Toshikatsu; Sugiyama, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Toshikatsu

    2007-07-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project was undertaken in 2002 to investigate the faulting mechanism of the 1999 Mw 7.6 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Hole B penetrated the Chelungpu fault, and core samples were recovered from between 948.42- and 1352.60-m depth. Three major zones, designated FZB1136 (fault zone at 1136-m depth in hole B), FZB1194, and FZB1243, were recognized in the core samples as active fault zones within the Chelungpu fault. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements, conducted on all core samples, revealed that the three major fault zones were characterized by low gamma ray attenuation (GRA) densities and high magnetic susceptibilities. Extensive fracturing and cracks within the fault zones and/or loss of atoms with high atomic number, but not a measurement artifact, might have caused the low GRA densities, whereas the high magnetic susceptibility values might have resulted from the formation of magnetic minerals from paramagnetic minerals by frictional heating. Minor fault zones were characterized by low GRA densities and no change in magnetic susceptibility, and the latter may indicate that these minor zones experienced relatively low frictional heating. Magnetic susceptibility in a fault zone may be key to the determination that frictional heating occurred during an earthquake on the fault.

  6. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLE SIZE SELECTION FOR DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2002-01-01

    The technological development in horizontal, re-entry and multilateral wells require drilling and completion the reservoir sections of a well including as little damage as possible. The trends towards open hole completion places additional emphasis on formation damage avoidance. One of critical factors in avoiding formation damage during drilling is obtaining surface bridging on the formation face with minimum indepth solids penetration. In case of overbalanced drilling, this can be donme by ...

  7. Equipment for the emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes

    Young, K.D.; Scully, L.W.; Fisk, A.; deBakker, P.; Friant, J.; Anderson, A.

    1983-01-01

    Emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow vertical hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a result of drift construction; the heat from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow vertical hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 1000 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot vertical hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste will be discussed. Various options in concept will be presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept will be described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered

  8. Equipment for the emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes

    Young, K.D.; Fisk, A.; Friant, J.; Scully, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow vertical hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a resul of drift construction; the heat from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow vertical hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 100 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot vertical hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste is discussed. Various options in concept are presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept is described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered

  9. Effect of diameter of the drill hole on torque of screw insertion and pushout strength for headless tapered compression screws in simulated fractures of the lateral condyle of the equine third metacarpal bone.

    Carpenter, Ryan S; Galuppo, Larry D; Stover, Susan M

    2006-05-01

    To compare variables for screw insertion, pushout strength, and failure modes for a headless tapered compression screw inserted in standard and oversize holes in a simulated lateral condylar fracture model. 6 pairs of third metacarpal bones from horse cadavers. Simulated lateral condylar fractures were created, reduced, and stabilized with a headless tapered compression screw by use of a standard or oversize hole. Torque, work, and time for drilling, tapping, and screw insertion were measured during site preparation and screw implantation. Axial load and displacement were measured during screw pushout. Effects of drill hole size on variables for screw insertion and screw pushout were assessed by use of Wilcoxon tests. Drill time was 59% greater for oversize holes than for standard holes. Variables for tapping (mean maximum torque, total work, positive work, and time) were 42%, 70%, 73%, and 58% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Variables for screw pushout testing (mean yield load, failure load, failure displacement, and failure energy) were 40%, 40%, 47%, and 71% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Screws could not be completely inserted in 1 standard and 2 oversize holes. Enlarging the diameter of the drill hole facilitated tapping but decreased overall holding strength of screws. Therefore, holes with a standard diameter are recommended for implantation of variable pitch screws whenever possible. During implantation, care should be taken to ensure that screw threads follow tapped bone threads.

  10. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes

  11. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes.

  12. Origin and depositional environment of clastic deposits in the Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Beeson, M.H.; Clague, D.A.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Volcaniclastic units cored at depths of about 87, 164, 178, 226, and 246 m below sea level and carbonate units located between depths of 27 and 53 m below sea level in the Hilo drill core were found to be deposited at or near sea level. Four of these units are hydroclastic deposits, formed when subaerially erupted Mauna Loa lava flows entered the ocean and fragmented to produce quenched, glassy fragments during hydrovolcanic explosions. Ash units 24 and 26, at 178 m depth, accumulated at sea level in a freshwater bog. They contain pyroxenes crystallized from tholeiitic magma that we infer erupted explosively at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Two carbon-rich layers from these ashes have a weighted average radiocarbon age of 38.6 ?? 0.9 ka; the ashes probably correlate with the oldest and thickest part of the Pahala ash. Ash unit 44, at the transition from Mauna Kea to Mauna Loa lava flows, was probably nearly 3.2 m thick and is inferred to be equivalent to the lower thick part of the composite Homelani ash mapped in Hilo and on the flanks of Mauna Kea. The age of this part of Homelani ash is between 128 ?? 33 and 200 ?? 10 ka; it may have erupted subglacially during the Pohakuloa glacial maxima on Mauna Kea. Beach sand units 12 and 22 were derived from nearby Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea lava flows. The middle of beach sand unit 38 was derived mainly from lava erupted near the distal end of the subaerial east rift zone of Kilauea volcano; these sands were transported about 33 km northwest to Hilo Bay by prevailing longshore currents. Combined age, depth, and sea level markers in the core allow us to determine that lava flow recurrence intervals averaged one flow every 4 kyr during the past 86 kyr and one flow every 16 kyr between 86 and 200 ka at the drill site and that major explosive eruptions that deposit thick ash in Hilo have occurred only twice in the last 400 kyr. These recurrence intervals support the moderate lava flow hazard zonation (zone 3) for coastal Hilo

  13. Rock thermal property measurements with the Posiva TERO56 drill hole device in the forsmark study site

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.; Korpisalo, A.

    2007-10-01

    Thermal properties were measured in situ in Forsmark at the SKB study site constructed for large-scale thermal conductivity investigations in an outcrop of anisotropic granite. The Posiva TERO56 drill hole tool was used for in situ measurements in four 20 m deep boreholes KFM90C, D, E and F located within very short distances of each other (less than 2.3 m). Measurements were done at depths of 10-18 m in water-filled holes. The bedrock is granite with thin amphibolite and pegmatite layers and thin felsic veins. The measurement principle of the TERO56 logging device is based on conduction of heat from a cylindrical source placed in a borehole and the thermal parameter values are calculated with a least squares inversion algorithm. Measurements in Forsmark consisted typically of 6 hours heating time followed by 10 hours cooling time, but in one measurement the heating time was reduced to of 2 h 45 min and the cooling time to 5 hours. Average thermal conductivity values range from 3.37 to 3.91 W m -1 K -1 with standard deviations between 0.01 and 0.04 W m -1 K -1 . The result is plausible considering the quite homogeneous target geology and short distances between different experiment stations. Diffusivity values, however, vary much more, and averages range from 0.68 to 2.08 A 10 -6 m 2 s -1 with standard deviations ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 A 10 -6 m 2 s -1 . Variations may be attributed to small flow effects or time-dependent temperature trends related to thermal equilibration of the probe. (orig.)

  14. Gabbroic lithologies of the dike-gabbro transition, Hole GT3A, Oman Drilling Project

    Jesus, A. P. M.; Koepke, J.; Morishita, T.; Beinlich, A.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Greenberger, R. N.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; de Obeso, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT3A intersects 400 m of oceanic crust providing unique insight into the dike-gabbro transition and the variability of the high level gabbros in the Samail ophiolite. Olivine gabbro and olivine bearing gabbro occur exclusively within the Upper Gabbro Sequence (16 % thickness; 111.02 m - 127.89 m) whereas oxide gabbro and disseminated oxide gabbro represent ca 5 % of the Lower Gabbro Sequence (233.84 m - 398.21 m). Gabbro with less than 1 vol. % olivine and oxide is the most common lithology in both Gabbro Sequences (10-13 %). Most gabbroic rocks were classified as "varitextured" due to textural and grain size macroscopic variations forming irregular domains/patches. Varitextured gabbros are medium-grained (1-5 mm), with seriate grain size distribution and subophitic/poikilitic to granular textural domains. Poikilitic domains comprise clinopyroxene with plagioclase chadacrysts, whereas in granular domains plagioclase interstices are filled by green-brown magmatic hornblende; plagioclase is zoned in both domains. Olivine (bearing) gabbros have 4-8 mm skeletal olivine pseudomorphs with roundish inclusions of chromite and plagioclase. Oxide (disseminated) gabbros comprise variable amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, Oman paleo ridge.

  15. A flexible method for residual stress measurement of spray coated layers by laser made hole drilling and SLM based beam steering

    Osten, W.; Pedrini, G.; Weidmann, P.; Gadow, R.

    2015-08-01

    A minimum invasive but high resolution method for residual stress analysis of ceramic coatings made by thermal spraycoating using a pulsed laser for flexible hole drilling is described. The residual stresses are retrieved by applying the measured surface data for a model-based reconstruction procedure. While the 3D deformations and the profile of the machined area are measured with digital holography, the residual stresses are calculated by FE analysis. To improve the sensitivity of the method, a SLM is applied to control the distribution and the shape of the holes. The paper presents the complete measurement and reconstruction procedure and discusses the advantages and challenges of the new technology.

  16. [NIR and XRD analysis of drill-hole samples from Zhamuaobao iron-graphite deposit, Inner Mongolia].

    Li, Ying-kui; Cao, Jian-jin; Wu, Zheng-quan; Dai, Dong-le; Lin, Zu-xu

    2015-01-01

    The author analyzed the 4202 drill-hole samples from Zhamuaobao iron-graphite deposit by using near infrared spectroscopy(NIR) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) measuring and testing techniques, and then compared and summarized the results of two kinds of testing technology. The results indicate that some difference of the mineral composition exists among different layers, the lithology from upper to deeper is the clay gravel layer of tertiary and quaternary, mudstone, mica quartz schist, quartz actinolite scarn, skarnization marble, iron ore deposits, graphite deposits and mica quartz schist. The petrogenesis in different depth also shows difference, which may indicate the geological characteristic to some extent. The samples had mainly undergone such processes as oxidization, carbonation, chloritization and skarn alteration. The research results can not only improve the geological feature of the mining area, but also have great importance in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing and so on. What's more, as XRD can provide preliminary information about the mineral composition, NIR can make further judgement on the existence of the minerals. The research integrated the advantages of both NIR and XRD measuring and testing techniques, put forward a method with two kinds of modern testing technology combined with each other, which may improve the accuracy of the mineral composition identification. In the meantime, the NIR will be more wildly used in geography on the basis of mineral spectroscopy.

  17. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Science Operator for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 2004-2013 for worldwide expeditions...

  18. Stratigraphy, structure, and some petrographic features of Tertiary volcanic rocks at the USW G-2 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Maldonado, F.; Koether, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A continuously cored drill hole penetrated 1830.6 m of Tertiary volcanic strata comprised of the following in descending order: Paintbrush Tuff, tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, Crater Flat Tuff, lava and flow breccia (rhyodacitic), tuff of Lithic Ridge, bedded and ash-flow tuff, lava and flow breccia bedded tuff, conglomerate and ash-flow tuff, and older tuffs of USW G-2. Comparison of unit thicknesses at USW G-2 to unit thicknesses at previously drilled holes at Yucca Mountain indicate: (1) thickening of the Paintbrush Tuff members and tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills toward the northern part of Yucca Mountain; (2) thickening of the Prow Pass Member but thinning of the Bullfrog Member and Tram unit; (3) thinning of the tuff of Lithic Ridge; (4) presence of about 280 m of lava and flow breccia not previously penetrated by any drill hole; and (5) presence of an ash-flow tuff unit at the bottom of the drill hole not previously intersected, apparently the oldest unit penetrated at Yucca Mountain to date. Petrographic features of some of the units include: (1) decrease in quartz and K-feldspar and increases in biotite and plagioclase with depth in the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills; (2) an increase in quartz phenocrysts from the top to the bottom members of the Crater Flat Tuff; (3) a low quartz content in the tuff of Lithic Ridge, suggesting tapping of the magma chamber at quartz-poor levels; (4) a change in zeolitic alteration from heulandite to clinoptilolite to mordenite with increasing depth; (5) lavas characterized by a rhyolitic top and dacitic base, suggesting reverse compositional zoning; and (6) presence of hydrothermal mineralization in the lavas that could be related to an itrusive under Yucca Mountain or to volcanism associated with the Timber Mountain-Claim Canyon caldera complex. A fracture analysis of the core resulted in tabulation of 7848 fractures, predominately open and high angle

  19. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the

  20. Effect of Osteonecrosis Intervention Rod Versus Core Decompression Using Multiple Small Drill Holes on Early Stages of Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Prospective Study on a Series of 60 Patients with a Minimum 1-Year-Follow-Up.

    Miao, Haixiong; Ye, Dongping; Liang, Weiguo; Yao, Yicun

    2015-01-01

    The conventional CD used 10 mm drill holes associated with a lack of structural support. Thus, alternative methods such as a tantalum implant, small drill holes, and biological treatment were developed to prevent deterioration of the joint. The treatment of CD by multiple 3.2 mm drill holes could reduce the femoral neck fracture and partial weight bearing was allowed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of osteonecrosis intervention rod versus core decompression using multiple small drill holes on early stages of necrosis of the femoral head. From January 2011 to January 2012, 60 patients undergoing surgery for osteonecrosis with core decompression were randomly assigned into 2 groups based on the type of core decompression used: (1) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 16 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with a porous tantalum rod insertion. The diameter of the drill hole for the intervention rod was 10mm.(2) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 14 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with core decompression using five drill holes on the lateral femur, the diameter of the hole was 3.2 mm. The average age of the patient was 32.6 years (20-45 years) and the average time of follow-up was 25.6 months (12- 28 months) in the rod implanted group. The average age of the patient was 35.2 years (22- 43 years) and the average time of follow-up was 26.3 months (12-28 months) in the small drill holes group. The average of surgical time was 40 min, and the mean volume of blood loss was 30 ml in both surgical groups. The average of Harris score was improved from 56.2 ± 7.1 preoperative to 80.2 ± 11.4 at the last follow-up in the rod implanted group (p holes group (pholes group. No significant difference was observed in radiographic stage between the two groups. There was no favourable result on the outcome of a tantalum intervention implant compared to multiple small drill holes. CD via

  1. Steel, hard metal and diamonds. The history of drilling blast holes in mining and tunneling; Stahl, Hartmetall und Diamanten. Zur Geschichte des Sprenglochbohrens im Berg- und Tunnelbau

    Feistkorn, E. [Inst. fuer Vortrieb und Gewinnung, DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning of the blasting technique in mining and tunneling during the 17th century required drilling holes to take the explosive. Following the use of hammer and wedge, drilling was done over a long period of time by hand with mallet and drillsteel. Continuously, during the 19th century the handwork was replaced by drilling machines. Technically, the evolution of drilling equipment is marked by electrohydraulic control and automatization with the assistance of microelectronics. Regarding the material, the introduction of hard metal and - in addition for rotary drilling - the development of synthetic diamond material are the main features. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Einfuehrung der Sprengtechnik im Bergbau und Tunnelbau im 17. Jahrhundert mussten verfahrensbedingt Bohrloecher zur Aufnahme des Sprengstoffes hergestellt werden. In Anlehnung an die Arbeit mit Schlaegel und Eisen erfolgte dies lange Zeit manuell mit dem Bohrfaeustel und Stahlbohrern. Die Handarbeit wurde waehrend der 2. Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts kontinuierlich durch Bohrmaschinen verdraengt. Maschinentechnisch ist die weitere Entwicklung durch elektrohydraulische Steuerungen und die Automatisierung der Bohrgeraete mit Hilfe der Mikroelektronik gekennzeichnet. Materialtechnisch stellen die Einfuehrung des Hartmetalls und beim drehenden Bohren zusaetzlich die Entwicklung synthetischer Diamantwerkstoffe die herausragenden Marksteine dar. (orig.)

  2. Structural and physical property characterization in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project — hole 1 (WFSD-1)

    Li, Haibing; Xu, Zhiqin; Niu, Yixiong; Kong, Guangsheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Huan; Si, Jialiang; Sun, Zhiming; Pei, Junling; Gong, Zheng; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Liu, Dongliang

    2014-04-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) started right after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake to investigate its faulting mechanism. Hole 1 (WFSD-1) reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF), and core samples were recovered from 32 to 1201.15 m-depth. Core investigation and a suite of geophysical downhole logs (including P-wave velocity, natural gamma ray, self-potential, resistivity, density, porosity, temperature, magnetic susceptibility and ultrasound borehole images) were acquired in WFSD-1. Integrated studies of cores and logs facilitate qualitative and quantitative comparison of the structures and physical properties of rocks. Logging data revealed that the geothermal gradient of the volcanic Pengguan complex (above 585.75 m) is 1.85 °C/100 m, while that of the sedimentary Xujiahe Formation (below 585.75 m) is 2.15 °C/100 m. In general, natural gamma ray, resistivity, density, porosity, P-wave velocity and magnetic susceptibility primarily depend on the rock lithology. All major fault zones are characterized by high magnetic susceptibility, low density and high porosity, with mostly low resistivity, high natural gamma ray and sound wave velocity. The high magnetic susceptibility values most likely result from the transformation of magnetic minerals by frictional heating due to the earthquake. The YBF exposed in WFSD-1 can be subdivided into five different parts based on different logging responses, each of them corresponding to certain fault-rocks. The high gamma radiation, porosity and P-wave velocity, as well as low resistivity and temperature anomalies indicate that the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone is located at 585.75-594.5 m-depth, with an average inclination and dip angle of N305° and 71°, respectively. The fact that the fracture directions in the hanging wall and footwall are different suggests that their stress field direction is completely different, implying that the upper Pengguan complex may not be local.

  3. Influence of zirconia framework thickness on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2012-04-01

    Framework design is reported to influence chipping in zirconia-based restorations, which is an important cause of failure of such restorations. Residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic after the manufacturing process is an important predictive factor of the mechanical behavior of the material. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of framework thickness on the stress profile measured in zirconia-based structures. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 1.5 mm thick veneering ceramic layer. Six different framework thicknesses from 0.5 mm to 3 mm were studied. Two different cooling procedures were also investigated. Compressive stresses were observed in the surface, and tensile stresses in the depth of most of the samples. The slow cooling procedure was found to promote the development of interior tensile stresses, except for the sample with a 3mm thick framework. With the tempering procedure, samples with a 1.5 mm thick framework exhibited the most favorable stress profile, while thicker and thinner frameworks exhibited respectively in surface or interior tensile stresses. The measurements performed highlight the importance of framework thickness, which determine the nature of stresses and can explain clinical failures encountered, especially with thin frameworks. The adequate ratio between veneering ceramic and zirconia is hard to define, restricting the range of indications of zirconia-based restorations until a better understanding of such a delicate veneering process is achieved. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2015-09-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Δα=αcore-αveneer, ppm/°C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Δα concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Δα dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Δα varying from -1.3ppm/°C to +3.2ppm/°C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Δα≥+2.3 or ≤-0.3ppm/°C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Δα variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Δα. Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/°C Δα) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Δα-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Δα value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic on Y-TZP, alumina and ZTA frameworks: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Fukushima, K A; Sadoun, M J; Cesar, P F; Mainjot, A K

    2014-02-01

    The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19 mm diameter with a 0.7 mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modification of the trapped field in bulk high-temperature superconductors as a result of the drilling of a pattern of artificial columnar holes

    Lousberg, Gregory P; Vanderbemden, Ph; Vanderheyden, B; Fagnard, J-F; Ausloos, M

    2010-01-01

    The trapped magnetic field is examined in bulk high-temperature superconductors that are artificially drilled along their c-axis. The influence of the hole pattern on the magnetization is studied and compared by means of numerical models and Hall probe mapping techniques. To this aim, we consider two bulk YBCO samples with a rectangular cross-section that are drilled each by six holes arranged either on a rectangular lattice (sample I) or on a centered rectangular lattice (sample II). For the numerical analysis, three different models are considered for calculating the trapped flux: (i), a two-dimensional (2D) Bean model neglecting demagnetizing effects and flux creep, (ii), a 2D finite-element model neglecting demagnetizing effects but incorporating magnetic relaxation in the form of an E - J power law, and, (iii), a 3D finite element analysis that takes into account both the finite height of the sample and flux creep effects. For the experimental analysis, the trapped magnetic flux density is measured above the sample surface by Hall probe mapping performed before and after the drilling process. The maximum trapped flux density in the drilled samples is found to be smaller than that in the plain samples. The smallest magnetization drop is found for sample II, with the centered rectangular lattice. This result is confirmed by the numerical models. In each sample, the relative drops that are calculated independently with the three different models are in good agreement. As observed experimentally, the magnetization drop calculated in the sample II is the smallest one and its relative value is comparable to the measured one. By contrast, the measured magnetization drop in sample (1) is much larger than that predicted by the simulations, most likely because of a change of the microstructure during the drilling process.

  7. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  8. Development of the Breitbrunn/Eggstaett natural gas deposit: Drilling of the 8 1/2 inch horizontal boreholes with drill-in fluid; Ausbau des Erdgasspeichers Breitbrunn/Eggstaett, hier: Bohren der 8 1/2{sup ''}-Horizontalstrecken mit Drill-in-Fluid

    Neufeld, A.; Jakschies, R. [RWE-DEA Aktiengesellschaft fuer Mineraloel und Chemie, Hamburg (Germany); Gankin, V. [Baroid Drilling Fluids GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    During the second stage of development of the project, six horizontal boreholes of 584-960 m were drilled at a depth of about 2000 m using the drill-in fluid technique. Details are presented. It was found that extremely high differential pressures will pose no problem provided that the drilling technology and flushing system are well matched. [German] Waehrend der 2. Baustufe des Projektes Erdgasspeicher Breitbrunn/Eggstaett sind in Teufe von ca. 2000 m sechs Bohrungen mit Horizontalstrecken von 584-960 m in den bis ca. 3 MPa (30 bar) druckabgesenkten Speichergesteinen C und D abgeteuft worden. Die Gesamtabweichung vom Ansatzpunkt auf der Sammellokation betraegt bis zu 2 518 m. Die Horizontalstrecken sind mit Hilfe eines auf die Formation abgestimmten fluessigen Spuelungssystems, dem sogenannten Drill-in-Fluid, gebohrt. Hauptaugenmerk galt bei dieser Spuelung dem Aufbau eines extrem duennen, impermeablem Filterkuchens mit niedrigem Reibungsfaktor. Die im Bereich der 9 5/8{sup ''}-Rohrtour in den Bohrstrang integrierten Torque-Reducer und dem Spuelungssystem zugefuehrtes Schmlermittel trugen zu einer erheblichen Reduzierung der Reibkraefte bei. Durch Einbau von Non-Hanging Anti-Sticking-Stabilisatoren in den Bohrstrang ist die Gefahr des Festwerdens zusaetzlich minimiert. Der Einsatz von LWD Geosteering Equipment und begleitende mikropalaeontologische Untersuchungen ermoeglichten eine optimale Orientierung der abzuteufenden Strecken. Die Erfahrungen von insgesamt 6 Breitbrunn-Bohrungen belegen, dass extrem hohe Differenzdruecke kein Problem fuer das erfolgreiche Abteufen einer Bohrung sein muessen, wenn Bohrtechnik und Spuelungssystem sorgfaeltig aufeinander abgestimmt werden. (orig.)

  9. Waterjet drilling in porcine bone: the effect of the nozzle diameter and bone architecture on the hole dimensions

    den Dunnen, Steven; Mulder, Lars; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Dankelman, Jenny; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Using waterjets instead of rigid drill bits for bone drilling can be beneficial due to the absence of thermal damage and a consequent sharp cut. Additionally, waterjet technology allows the development of flexible instruments that facilitate maneuvering through complex joint spaces. Controlling the

  10. Determination of three-dimensional stress orientations in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) hole-1: A preliminary result by anelastic strain recovery measurements of core samples

    Cui, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, L.; Tang, Z.; Sun, D.; Gao, L.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A great and destructive earthquake (Ms 8.0; Mw 7.9), Wunchuan earthquake struck on the Longmen Shan foreland trust zone in Sichuan province, China on 12 May 2008 (Xu et al., 2008; Episodes, Vol.31, pp.291-301). As a rapid response scientific drilling project, Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) started on 6 November 2008 shorter than a half of year from the date of earthquake main shock. The first pilot borehole (hole-1) has been drilled to the target depth (measured depth 1201 m MD, vertical depth 1179 m) at Hongkou, Dujianyan, Sichuan and passed through the main fault of the earthquake around 589 m MD. We are trying to determine three dimensional in-situ stress states in the WFSD boreholes by a core-based method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method (Lin et al., 2006; Tectonophysics, Vol4.26, pp.221-238). This method has been applied in several scientific drilling projects (TCDP: Lin et al., 2007; TAO, Vol.18, pp.379-393; NanTtoSEIZE: Byrne et al., 2009; GRL, Vol.36, L23310). These applications confirm the validity of using the ASR technique in determining in situ stresses by using drilled cores. We collected total 15 core samples in a depth range from 340 m MD to 1180 m MD, approximately for ASR measurements. Anelastic normal strains, measured every ten minutes in nine directions, including six independent directions, were used to calculate the anelastic strain tensors. The data of the ASR tests conducted at hole-1 is still undergoing analysis. As a tentative perspective, more than 10 core samples showed coherent strain recovery over one - two weeks. However, 2 or 3 core samples cannot be re-orientated to the global system. It means that we cannot rink the stress orientation determined by the core samples to geological structure. Unfortunately, a few core samples showed irregular strain recovery and were not analyzed further. The preliminary results of ASR tests at hole-1 show the stress orientations and stress regime changes a lot with the

  11. Data integration modeling applied to drill hole planning through semi-supervised learning: A case study from the Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit in the central Iran

    Fatehi, Moslem; Asadi, Hooshang H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the application of a transductive support vector machine (TSVM), an innovative semi-supervised learning algorithm, has been proposed for mapping the potential drill targets at a detailed exploration stage. The semi-supervised learning method is a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning approach that simultaneously uses both training and non-training data to design a classifier. By using the TSVM algorithm, exploration layers at the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central Iran were integrated to locate the boundary of the Cu-Au mineralization for further drilling. By applying this algorithm on the non-training (unlabeled) and limited training (labeled) Dalli exploration data, the study area was classified in two domains of Cu-Au ore and waste. Then, the results were validated by the earlier block models created, using the available borehole and trench data. In addition to TSVM, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was also implemented on the study area for comparison. Thirty percent of the labeled exploration data was used to evaluate the performance of these two algorithms. The results revealed 87 percent correct recognition accuracy for the TSVM algorithm and 82 percent for the SVM algorithm. The deepest inclined borehole, recently drilled in the western part of the Dalli deposit, indicated that the boundary of Cu-Au mineralization, as identified by the TSVM algorithm, was only 15 m off from the actual boundary intersected by this borehole. According to the results of the TSVM algorithm, six new boreholes were suggested for further drilling at the Dalli deposit. This study showed that the TSVM algorithm could be a useful tool for enhancing the mineralization zones and consequently, ensuring a more accurate drill hole planning.

  12. Mineralogy and Origin of Sediments From Drill Holes on the Continental Margin Off Florida, 1965-1969 (NODC Accession 7100714)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drill cores obtained during the Joint Oceanographic Institutions' Deep Earth Sampling Program from the continental shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake...

  13. Tethyan Anhydrite Preserved in the Lower Ocean Crust of the Samail Ophiolite? Evidence from Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and 2A

    Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.; Crispini, L.; Deans, J. R.; Cooper, M. J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Alt, J.; Banerjee, N.; Shanks, W. C., III

    2017-12-01

    Anhydrite is important in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems because of the high concentrations of calcium and sulfate in modern seawater and anhydrite's retrograde solubility. Because anhydrite hosts many powerful tracers of fluid-rock interactions (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O, δ34S, trace elements, fluid inclusions) it is useful for tracing the chemical evolution of hydrothermal recharge fluids and estimating time-integrated fluid fluxes. Anhydrite can form from heated seawater (>100°C), through water-rock reaction, or by mixing of seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Although abundant in active hydrothermal mounds, and predicted to form from downwelling, warming fluids during convection, anhydrite is rare in drill core from seafloor lavas, sheeted dikes and upper gabbros, with only minor amounts in ODP Holes 504B and 1256D. Because anhydrite can dissolve during weathering, its occurrence in ophiolites is unexpected. Instead, gypsum is present in Macquarie Island lavas and Miocene gypsum fills cavities within the Cretaceous Troodos ore deposits. Thus, the occurrence of numerous anhydrite veins in cores from the gabbroic lower crust of the Samail ophiolite in Oman was unanticipated. To our knowledge, anhydrite in Oman gabbros has not been previously reported. Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A were drilled into the Wadi Gideah section of the Wadi Tayin massif. Both recovered 400 m of continuous core from sections of layered gabbros (GT1) and the foliated-layered gabbro transition (GT2). Anhydrite is present throughout both holes, some in vein networks but more commonly as isolated 1-110 mm veins (>60 mm ave). Anhydrite is mostly the sole vein filling but can occur with greenschist minerals such as epidote, quartz, chlorite and prehnite. Anhydrite commonly exhibits prismatic and bladed textures but can also be capriciously microcrystalline. Though definitive cross cutting relationships are elusive, anhydrite veins cut across some greenschist veins. Anhydrite is

  14. Analysis of materials modifications caused by UV laser micro drilling of via holes in AlGaN/GaN transistors on SiC

    Wernicke, Tim [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: tim.wernicke@fbh-berlin.de; Krueger, Olaf [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Herms, Martin [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wuerfl, Joachim [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kirmse, Holm [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Neumann, Wolfgang [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Behm, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Irmer, Gert [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Traenkle, Guenther [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-31

    Pulsed UV laser drilling can be applied to fabricate vertical electrical interconnects (vias) for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices on single-crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. Through-wafer micro holes with a diameter of 50-100 {mu}m were formed in 400 {mu}m thick bulk 4H-SiC by a frequency-tripled solid-state laser (355 nm) with a pulse width of {<=}30 ns and a focal spot size of {approx}15 {mu}m. The impact of laser machining on the material system in the vicinity of micro holes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After removing the loosely deposited debris by etching in buffered hydrofluoric acid, a layer of <4 {mu}m resolidified material remains at the side walls of the holes. The thickness of the resolidified layer depends on the vertical distance to the hole entry as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micro-Raman spectra indicate a change of internal strain due to laser drilling and evidence the formation of nanocrystalline silicon (Si). Microstructure analysis of the vias' side walls using cross sectional TEM reveals altered degree of crystallinity in SiC. Layers of heavily disturbed SiC, and nanocrystalline Si are formed by laser irradiation. The layers are separated by 50-100 nm thick interface regions. No evidence of extended defects, micro cracking or crystal damage was found beneath the resolidified layer. The precision of UV laser micro ablation of SiC using nanosecond pulses is not limited by laser-induced extended crystal defects.

  15. Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling

    Smith, J.; Edwards, B.

    1992-01-01

    Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses three recent drilling operations that successfully used slant drilling technology on land-based projects: drilling for heavy oil in Alberta, drilling for gas in Alberta, and drilling a river crossing for a gas pipeline in British Columbia. These examples demonstrate the flexibility of slant drilling technology

  16. Observation of unusual irreversible/reversible effects in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    Yetis, H.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out for different current sweep rates (dI/dt) of transport current at zero magnetic field (H = 0) and H ≠ 0 in a polycrystalline sample of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrical hole (CH) drilled. Similar measurements were also performed in the same BSCCO sample without CH for a comparison before drilling CH. For the same values of H, T, and dI/dt taken for both samples, it was observed that hysteresis effects appear in I-V curves upon cycling of transport current in upward and downward directions which contain the increasing and decreasing current values, respectively. However these effects which are seen in I-V curves of BSCCO sample with CH is more prominent than that of the BSCCO sample without CH. Further, the irreversibility effects in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample without CH disappears for H ≠ 0 exhibiting nearly a linear behaviour, whereas the hysteretic behaviour in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample with CH is still observed. This interesting behaviour could be evaluated that macroscopic cylindrical hole improves pinning properties of sample acting as a macroscopic flux pinning center for flux lines

  17. Observation of unusual irreversible/reversible effects in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    Yetis, H. [Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: yetis_h@ibu.edu.tr; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M. [Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out for different current sweep rates (dI/dt) of transport current at zero magnetic field (H = 0) and H {ne} 0 in a polycrystalline sample of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrical hole (CH) drilled. Similar measurements were also performed in the same BSCCO sample without CH for a comparison before drilling CH. For the same values of H, T, and dI/dt taken for both samples, it was observed that hysteresis effects appear in I-V curves upon cycling of transport current in upward and downward directions which contain the increasing and decreasing current values, respectively. However these effects which are seen in I-V curves of BSCCO sample with CH is more prominent than that of the BSCCO sample without CH. Further, the irreversibility effects in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample without CH disappears for H {ne} 0 exhibiting nearly a linear behaviour, whereas the hysteretic behaviour in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample with CH is still observed. This interesting behaviour could be evaluated that macroscopic cylindrical hole improves pinning properties of sample acting as a macroscopic flux pinning center for flux lines.

  18. Analysis of residual transverse stresses in a thick UD glass/polyester pultruded profile using hole drilling with strain gage and digital image correlation

    Yuksel, Onur; Baran, Ismet; Ersoy, Nuri; Akkerman, Remko

    2018-05-01

    Process induced stresses inherently exist in fiber reinforced polymer composites particularly in thick parts due to the presence of non-uniform cure, shrinkage and thermal expansion/contraction during manufacturing. In order to increase the reliability and the performance of the composite materials, process models are developed to predict the residual stress formation. The accuracy of the process models is dependent on the geometrical (micro to macro), material and process parameters as well as the numerical implementation. Therefore, in order to have reliable process modelling framework, there is a need for validation and if necessary calibration of the developed models. This study focuses on measurement of the transverse residual stresses in a relatively thick pultruded profile (20×20 mm) made of glass/polyester. Process-induced residual stresses in the middle of the profile are examined with different techniques which have never been applied for transverse residual stresses in thick unidirectional composites. Hole drilling method with strain gage and digital image correlation are employed. Strain values measured from measurements are used in a finite element model (FEM) to simulate the hole drilling process and predict the residual stress level. The measured released strain is found to be approximately 180 μm/m from the strain gage. The tensile residual stress at the core of the profile is estimated approximately as 7-10 MPa. Proposed methods and measured values in this study will enable validation and calibration of the process models based on the residual stresses.

  19. Geochemistry of core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG number-sign 3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff of Miocene age is composed of crystal-poor, high-silica rhyolite overlain by a crystal-rich zone that is gradational in composition from high-silica rhyolite to quartz latite. Each of these zones is divided into subzones that have distinctive physical, mineralogical, and geochemical features.Accurate identification of these subzones and their contacts is essential for detailed mapping and correlation both at the surface and in the subsurface in drill holes and in the exploratory studies facility (ESF). This report presents analyses of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) in core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG number-sign 3. The concentrations of most of these elements are remarkably constant throughout the high-silica rhyolite, but at its upper contact with the crystal-rich zone, Ti, Zr, Ba, Ca, Sr, La, Ce, and K begin to increase progressively through the crystal-rich zone. In contrast, Rb and Nb decrease, and Y remains essentially constant. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are relatively uniform in the high-silica rhyolite with a mean value of 0.7117, whereas initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios decrease upward in the quartz latite to values as low as 0.7090

  20. Fugitive methane leak detection using mid-infrared hollow-core photonic crystal fiber containing ultrafast laser drilled side-holes

    Karp, Jason; Challener, William; Kasten, Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni; Pickrell, Gary; Homa, Daniel; Floyd, Adam; Cheng, Yujie; Yu, Fei; Knight, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The increase in domestic natural gas production has brought attention to the environmental impacts of persistent gas leakages. The desire to identify fugitive gas emission, specifically for methane, presents new sensing challenges within the production and distribution supply chain. A spectroscopic gas sensing solution would ideally combine a long optical path length for high sensitivity and distributed detection over large areas. Specialty micro-structured fiber with a hollow core can exhibit a relatively low attenuation at mid-infrared wavelengths where methane has strong absorption lines. Methane diffusion into the hollow core is enabled by machining side-holes along the fiber length through ultrafast laser drilling methods. The complete system provides hundreds of meters of optical path for routing along well pads and pipelines while being interrogated by a single laser and detector. This work will present transmission and methane detection capabilities of mid-infrared photonic crystal fibers. Side-hole drilling techniques for methane diffusion will be highlighted as a means to convert hollow-core fibers into applicable gas sensors.

  1. Geochemical and Mineralogical Profiles Across the Listvenite- Metamorphic Transition in the Basal Megathrust of the Oman Ophiolite: First Results from Drilling at Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B

    Godard, M.; Bennett, E.; Carter, E.; Kourim, F.; Lafay, R.; Noël, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.

    2017-12-01

    The transition from the base of the Oman ophiolite to the underlying metamorphic sole was drilled at Hole BT1B (Sumail Massif) during Phase 1 of Oman Drilling Project (Winter 2016-2017). 74 samples were collected from the 300m of recovered cores for whole rock geochemical and XRD analyses. 55 listvenites, ophicarbonates and serpentinites, and 19 schists and greenstones were analyzed for major and minor elements (XRF) and for CO2 and S concentrations (CHNS) aboard DV Chikyu (ChikyuOman, Summer 2017). Analyses for trace elements (ICP-MS) at the University of Montpellier are in progress. The composition of listvenites, ophicalcites and serpentinites recovered at Hole BT1B record extensive interactions between CO2-rich fluids and the serpentinized peridotites. These reactions involved addition of SiO2 and formation of carbonates at the expense of the serpentinized peridotite protolith. All samples recovered from the mantle section are enriched in fluid mobile and incompatible trace elements compared to the mean composition of the Oman mantle. These enrichments are up to 103 times the Oman mantle for Rb and Ba. They mimic the pattern of the samples from the metamorphic sole. This suggests that the composition of the listvenites in these elements is controlled by that of contaminating fluids that may have originated in the same lithologies as those drilled at the base of Hole BT1B. Listvenites, ophicalcites and serpentinites also show notable downhole chemical variations, with listvenites showing marked variations in Al2O3 and TiO2. Occurrence of lherzolites and cpx-harzburgites has been reported at the base of the Oman dominantly harzburgitic mantle section. The observed variations in the listvenites (Al2O3 and TiO2) could be related to the composition of their protolith, the deepest having more fertile compositions. Alternatively, the observed downhole changes in the composition of listvenites may relate to the progressive equilibration of the reacting ultramafic

  2. Geological-geotechnical studies for siting the Superconducting Super Collider in Illinois: results of drilling large-diameter holes in 1986. Environmental geology notes

    Vaiden, R.C.; Hasek, M.J.; Gendron, C.R.; Curry, B.B.; Graese, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) has completed an extensive four-year exploration of the area near Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) at Batavia, 30 miles west of Chicago. The comprehensive investigation was conducted to locate the most suitable site for construction and operation of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) - a 20-trillion electron volt (TeV) subatomic particle accelerator. Underlying the proposed site in northeastern Illinois, between 250 and 600 feet deep, are the Galena and Platteville dolomites - strong, stable, nearly impermeable bedrock. To confirm that these bedrock units are suitable for construction of the SSC, ISGS geologists designed a four-year study including test drilling, rock sampling and analysis, geophysical logging, hydrogeologic studies, and seismic exploration. Initially, the study covered parts of six counties. Subsequent research focused on successively smaller areas until the final stage of test drilling in spring 1986 concentrated on a proposed corridor for the SSC tunnel. From 1984 to 1986, thirty 3-inch-diameter test holes were drilled and more than 2 miles of bedrock core was recovered for stratigraphic description and geotechnical analysis

  3. Feasibility of Optimizing Recovery and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore Calif. Reservoir through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well, Class III

    Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc.

    2001-04-04

    The intent of this project was to increase production and extend the economic life of this mature field through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and drilling technology, demonstrating the efficacy of these technologies to other small operators of aging fields. Two study periods were proposed; the first to include data assimilation and reservoir characterization and the second to drill the demonstration well. The initial study period showed that a single tri-lateral well would not be economically efficient in redevelopment of Carpinteria's multiple deep water turbidite sand reservoirs, and the study was amended to include the drilling of a series of horizontal redrills from existing surplus well bores on Pacific Operators' Platform Hogan.

  4. Well completion report on installation of horizontal wells for in-situ remediation tests

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Corey, J.C.; Wright, L.M.

    1989-08-01

    A project to drill and install two horizontal vapor extraction/air-injection wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina, was performed in September and October of 1988. This study was performed to test the feasibility of horizontal drilling technologies in unconsolidated sediments and to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping of volatile organics from the ground water and unsaturated soils. A tremendous amount of knowledge was obtained during the drilling and installation of the two test wells. Factors of importance to be considered during design of another horizontal well drilling program follow. (1) Trips in and out of the borehole should be minimized to maintain hole stability. No reaming to enlarge the hole should be attempted. (2) Drilling fluid performance should be maximized by utilizing a low solids, low weight, moderate viscosity, high lubricity fluid. Interruption of drilling fluid circulation should be minimized. (3) Well materials should possess adequate flexibility to negotiate the curve. A flexible guide should be attached to the front of the well screen to guide the screen downhole. (4) Sands containing a minor amount of clay are recommended for completion targets, as better drilling control in the laterals was obtained in these sections

  5. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    FINGER, JOHN T.; GLOWKA, DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY, BILLY JOE; MANSURE, ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE, MICHAEL R.

    1999-01-01

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  6. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes, without...

  7. X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanning of Oman Drilling Project Holes BT1B and GT3A Cores on D/V CHIKYU

    Johnson, K. T. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Michibayashi, K.; Greenberger, R. N.; Koepke, J.; Beinlich, A.; Morishita, T.; Jesus, A. P. M.; Lefay, R.

    2017-12-01

    The JEOL JSX-3600CA1 energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence core logger (XRF-CL) on the D/V Chikyu provides quantitative element concentrations of scanned cores. Scans of selected intervals are made on an x-y grid with point spacing of 5 mm. Element concentrations for Si, Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Na, K, Cr, Ni, S and Zn are collected for each point on the grid. Accuracy of element concentrations provided by the instrument software is improved by applying empirical correction algorithms. Element concentrations were collected for 9,289 points from twenty-seven core intervals in Hole BT1B (basal thrust) and for 6,389 points from forty core intervals in Hole GT3A (sheeted dike-gabbro transition) of the Oman Drilling Project on the D/V Chikyu XRF-CL during Leg 2 of the Oman Drilling Project in August-September, 2017. The geochemical data are used for evaluating downhole compositional details associated with lithological changes, unit contacts and mineralogical variations and are particularly informative when plotted as concentration contour maps or downhole concentration diagrams. On Leg 2 additional core scans were made with X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT) and infrared images from the visible-shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy (IR) systems on board. XRF-CL, X-ray CT and IR imaging plots used together provide detailed information on rock compositions, textures and mineralogy that assist naked eye visual observations. Examples of some uses of XRF-CL geochemical maps and downhole data are shown. XRF-CL and IR scans of listvenite clearly show zones of magnesite, dolomite and the Cr-rich mica, fuchsite that are subdued in visual observation, and these scans can be used to calculate variations in proportions of these minerals in Hole BT1B cores. In Hole GT3A XRF-CL data can be used to distinguish compositional changes in different generations of sheeted dikes and gabbros and when combined with visual observations of intrusive relationships the detailed geochemical

  8. Geohydrologic and drill-hole data for test well USW H-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Whitfield, M.S.; Thordarson, William; Eshom, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented on drilling operations, lithology, geophysical well logs, sidewall-core samples, water-level monitoring, pumping tests, injection tests, radioactive-tracer borehole flow survey, and water chemistry for test well USW H-4. The well is one of a series of test wells drilled in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. These test wells are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify sites for storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Test well USW H-4 was drilled in ash-flow tuff to a total depth of 1,219 meters. Depth to water below land surface was 519 meters or at an altitude of 730 meters above sea level. After test pumping at a rate of 17.4 liters per second for approximately 9 days, the drawdown was 4.85 meters. A radioactive borehole-flow survey indicated that the Bullfrog Member was the most productive geologic unit, producing 36.5 percent of the water in the well. The second most productive geologic unit was the Tram Member, which produced 32 percent of the water. The water in test well USW H-4 is predominantly a soft, sodium bicarbonate type of water typical of water produced in tuffaceous rocks in southern Nevada. (USGS)

  9. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  10. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    James, M.N., E-mail: mjames@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Newby, M.; Doubell, P. [Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd, Lower Germiston Road, Rosherville, Johannesburg (South Africa); Hattingh, D.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Serasli, K.; Smith, D.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen' s Building, University Walk, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Identification of residual stress trends across bimetallic interface in stainless clad RPV. • Comparison between deep hole drilling (DHD – stress components in two directions) and neutron diffraction (ND – stress components in three directions). • Results indicate that both techniques can assess the trends in residual stress across the interface. • Neutron diffraction gives more detailed information on transient residual stress peaks. - Abstract: The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV steel. This work measures residual stresses using the deep hole drilling (DHD) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques and compares residual stress data obtained by the two methods in a stainless clad coupon of A533B Class 2 steel. The results give confidence that both techniques are capable of assessing the trends in residual stresses, and their magnitudes. Significant differences are that the ND data shows greater values of the tensile stress peaks (∼100 MPa) than the DHD data but has a higher systematic error associated with it. The stress peaks are sharper with the ND technique and also differ in spatial position by around 1 mm compared with the DHD technique.

  11. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    James, M.N.; Newby, M.; Doubell, P.; Hattingh, D.G.; Serasli, K.; Smith, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of residual stress trends across bimetallic interface in stainless clad RPV. • Comparison between deep hole drilling (DHD – stress components in two directions) and neutron diffraction (ND – stress components in three directions). • Results indicate that both techniques can assess the trends in residual stress across the interface. • Neutron diffraction gives more detailed information on transient residual stress peaks. - Abstract: The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV steel. This work measures residual stresses using the deep hole drilling (DHD) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques and compares residual stress data obtained by the two methods in a stainless clad coupon of A533B Class 2 steel. The results give confidence that both techniques are capable of assessing the trends in residual stresses, and their magnitudes. Significant differences are that the ND data shows greater values of the tensile stress peaks (∼100 MPa) than the DHD data but has a higher systematic error associated with it. The stress peaks are sharper with the ND technique and also differ in spatial position by around 1 mm compared with the DHD technique

  12. Improving Coolant Effectiveness through Drill Design Optimization in Gundrilling

    Woon, K. S.; Tnay, G. L.; Rahman, M.

    2018-05-01

    Effective coolant application is essential to prevent thermo-mechanical failures of gun drills. This paper presents a novel study that enhances coolant effectiveness in evacuating chips from the cutting zone using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. Drag coefficients and transport behaviour over a wide range of Reynold numbers were first established through a series of vertical drop tests. With these, a CFD model was then developed and calibrated with a set of horizontal drilling tests. Using this CFD model, critical drill geometries that lead to poor chip evacuation including the nose grind contour, coolant hole configuration and shoulder dub-off angle in commercial gun drills are identified. From this study, a new design that consists a 20° inner edge, 15° outer edge, 0° shoulder dub-off and kidney-shaped coolant channel is proposed and experimentally proven to be more superior than all other commercial designs.

  13. A finite element model for analyzing horizontal well BHA behavior

    Akgun, F. [Petroleum Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2004-04-01

    Horizontal wells are proven to be better producers because they can be extended for a long distance in the pay zone. Engineers have the technical means to forecast the well productivity for a given horizontal length. However, experiences have shown that the actual production rate is often significantly less than that of forecasted. There are a number of reasons for the discrepancy of predicted to actual production rates in horizontal wells. However, it is a difficult task, if not impossible, to identify the real reason why a horizontal well is not producing what was forecasted. Often, the source of problem lies in the drilling of horizontal section such as permeability reduction in the pay zone due to mud invasion or snaky well patterns created during drilling. Although drillers aim to drill a constant inclination hole once in the pay zone, the more frequent outcome is a sinusoidal wellbore trajectory. Logging while drilling (LWD) and real time measurement of resistivity at bit help drill in the pay zone by constant monitoring of borehole trajectory and formation boundaries. Rotary steerable tools (RTS) allow spontaneous intervention to drilling direction and inclination if run with LWD tools. Nevertheless, there are still many cases where LWD cannot be deployed due to technical difficulties. One such case was noticed in the Middle East where LWD sensors were worn out completely during 1 h run time due to extreme formation abrasiveness. In the absence of LWD and RTS, it becomes a challenging task to drill a constant inclination borehole which will be addressed in this paper. The two factors, which play an important role in wellbore tortuosity, are the inclination and side force at bit. A constant inclination horizontal well can only be drilled if the bit face is maintained perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of bottom hole assembly (BHA) while keeping the side force nil at the bit. This approach assumes that there exists no formation force at bit. Hence, an

  14. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  15. Structural Characterization of the Foliated-Layered Gabbro Transition in Wadi Tayin of the Samail Ophiolite, Oman; Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A

    Deans, J. R.; Crispini, L.; Cheadle, M. J.; Harris, M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Matter, J. M.; Takazawa, E.; Coggon, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A were drilled into the Wadi Tayin massif, Samail ophiolite and both recovered ca. 400 m of continuous core through a section of the layered gabbros and the foliated-layered gabbro transition. Hole GT1A is cut by a discrete fault system including localized thin ultracataclastic fault zones. Hole GT2A is cut by a wider zone of brittle deformation and incipient brecciation. Here we report the structural history of the gabbros reflecting formation at the ridge to later obduction. Magmatic and high temperature history- 1) Both cores exhibit a pervasive, commonly well-defined magmatic foliation delineated by plagioclase, olivine and in places clinopyroxene. Minor magmatic deformation is present. 2) The dip of the magmatic foliation varies cyclically, gradually changing dip by 30o from gentle to moderate over a 50 m wavelength. 3) Layering is present throughout both cores, is defined by changes in mode and grain size ranging in thickness from 2 cm to 3 m and is commonly sub-parallel to the foliation. 4) There are no high temperature crystal-plastic shear zones in the core. Key observations include: no simple, systematic shallowing of dip with depth across the foliated-layered gabbro transition and layering is continuous across this transition. Cyclic variation of magmatic foliation dip most likely reflects the process of plate separation at the ridge axis. Near-axis faulting- i) On or near-axis structures consist of epidote-amphibole bearing hydraulic breccias and some zones of intense cataclasis with intensely deformed epidote and seams of clay and chlorite accompanied by syntectonic alteration of the wall rock. Early veins are filled with amphibole, chlorite, epidote, and anhydrite. ii) The deformation ranges from brittle-ductile, causing local deflection of the magmatic foliation, to brittle offset of the foliation and core and mantle structures in anhydrite veins. iii) The prevalent sense of shear is normal and slickenfibers

  16. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  17. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2000 - October 5, 2002

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite plugging

  18. Changing the fundamentals[Drill technology

    Flatern, R. von

    2003-02-01

    Evolution of the science of drilling oil and gas wells has evolved in fits and starts. From drilling with cables to rotary tables to top drives, from straight holes to horizontal, it has been a process interrupted occasionally by flashes of revolutionary brilliance. In this article the author looks at the state of just a few of the technologies that define or threaten to change how drillers go about their business. In the early days of deepwater exploration drillers responded more to technical challenges than financial ones, primarily with immense semisubmersibles and drillships, together with all he necessary ancillary items. The goal of getting deeper faster is not a new one, better performance bits, muds, LWD and MWD, together with numerous other developments all emerged as a result of the desire to shorten the time between spud and TD. But whereas saving a day or two drilling onshore or nearshore is desirable, it has never before been possible to realize the kind of substantial financial benefits from relatively small time savings. Research and development into these type of savings with the design and improvement of different types drill bits and casing drilling is described.

  19. Metamorphism Near the Dike-Gabbro Transition in the Ocean Crust Based on Preliminary Results from Oman Drilling Project Hole GT3A

    Manning, C. E.; Nozaka, T.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; de Obeso, J. C.; D'Andres, J.; Lefay, R.; Leong, J. A. M.; Zeko, D.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Hole GT3A intersected 400 m of altered basaltic dikes, gabbros, and diorites. The 100% recovery affords an unprecedented opportunity to study metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration near the dike-gabbro transition in the ocean crust. Hydrothermal alteration is ubiquitous; all rocks are at least moderately altered, and mean alteration intensity is 54%. The earliest alteration in all rock types is background replacement of igneous minerals, some of which occurred at clinopyroxene amphibolite facies, as indicated by brown-green hornblende, calcic plagioclase, and secondary cpx. In addition, background alteration includes greenschist, subgreenschist, and zeolite facies minerals. More extensive alteration is locally observed in halos around veins, patches, and zones related to deformation. Dense networks of hydrothermal veins record a complex history of fluid-rock alteration. During core description, 10,727 individual veins and 371 vein networks were logged in the 400 m of Hole GT3A. The veins displayed a range of textures and connectivities. The total density of veins in Hole GT3A is 26.8 veins m-1. Vein density shows no correlation with depth, but may be higher near dike margins and faults. Vein minerals include amphibole, epidote, quartz, chlorite, prehnite, zeolite (chiefly laumontite) and calcite in a range of combinations. Analysis of crosscutting relations leads to classification of 4 main vein types. In order of generally oldest to youngest these are: amphibole, quartz-epidote-chlorite (QEC), zeolite-prehnite (ZP), and calcite. QEC and ZP vein types may contain any combination of minerals except quartz alone; veins filled only by quartz may occur at any relative time. Macroscopic amphibole veins are rare and show no variation with depth. QEC vein densities appear to be higher (>9.3 veins m-1) in the upper 300 m of GT3A, where dikes predominate. In contrast, there are 5.5 veins m-1 at 300-400 m, where gabbros and diorites are abundant. ZP

  20. Development of controlled drilling technology and measurement method in the borehole. Phase 2. Upgrading of drilling and measurement system and its application to the fault

    Kiho, Kenzo; Shin, Koichi; Ohtsu, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the soft sedimentary rock of the Neogene tertiary is being focused as a host rock for High Level Waste (HLW) disposal. Especially, the soft sedimentary rock at the coastal area is thought to be one of the best candidates, since there is little driving force of the underground water. The measurement and logging of the bore hole in order to investigate the hydro-geological and geo-mechanical conditions of the host rock is a very important way to examine the potential of the disposal candidates. Since 2000, CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has been conducting the project on controlled drilling and the logging/measurement technologies in its boreholes. Based on the results of phase 1(2000-2004), CRIEPI has been developing the drilling and logging/measurement technologies for fault zone during phase 2 (2005-2007). The drilling technology such as drilling for fault zone, horizontal drilling, long hole drilling, coring and locality detection was developed and these applicability was confirmed while drilling. The permeability/water-sampling/imaging tool was revised to apply wider borehole and longer measuring section. The WL-LWD was improved to be tougher in the hole. The borehole pressure meter and stress measurement tools were unified. Each tools necessary for the monitoring system is manufactured. The applicability of these tools and systems were verified in the borehole. After conducting surveys for the Omagari fault distributing at the Kami-horonobe area, the drilling site and borehole trace was decided in 2005. Considering the planned trace, the bore hole was drilled to the 683.5m long and its core recovery was 99.8%. Using borehole logging/measurement/survey, the geological, hydrological, geo-mechanical, geophysical and geochemical data were collected and the Omagari fault was characterized. (author)

  1. Preliminary study on the effect of parenteral naloxone, alone and in association with calcium gluconate, on bone healing in an ovine "drill hole" model system

    Langhoff Jens D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several diseases affect bone healing and physiology. Many drugs that are commonly used in orthopaedics as "analgesics" or anti-inflammatory agents impair bone healing. Stressful conditions are associated with decreased serum osteocalcin concentration. High endorphin levels alter calcium metabolism, blocking the membrane channels by which calcium normally enters cells. The consequent decrease of intracellular calcium impairs the activities of calcium-related enzymes. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. Morphine-induced osteocalcin inhibition was abolished when osteoblasts were incubated with naloxone. Naloxone restored the altered cellular and tissue physiology by removing β-endorphins from specific receptors. However, this is only possible if the circulating Ca concentration is adequate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral naloxone administration in inducing fast mineralization and callus remodelling in a group of sheep with a standardised bone lesion. Methods Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. Group A acted as control, group B received a solution of calcium gluconate, group C a solution of naloxone, and group D a solution of calcium gluconate and naloxone. A transverse hole was drilled in the left metacarpus, including both cortices, then parenteral treatment was administered intramuscularly, daily for four weeks. Healing was evaluated by weekly radiographic examination for eight weeks. For quantitative evaluation, the ratio of the radiographic bone density between the drill area and the adjacent cortical bone was calculated. After eight weeks the sheep were slaughtered and a sample of bone was collected for histopathology Results Group D showed a higher radiographic ratio than the other groups. Sheep not treated with naloxone showed a persistently lower ratio in the lateral than the medial cortex (P Conclusion A low-dose parenteral regimen of naloxone enhances

  2. Elastic wave velocities, chemistry and modal mineralogy of crustal rocks sampled by the Outokumpu scientific drill hole: Evidence from lab measurements and modeling

    Kern, H.; Mengel, K.; Strauss, K. W.; Ivankina, T. I.; Nikitin, A. N.; Kukkonen, I. T.

    2009-07-01

    The Outokumpu scientific deep drill hole intersects a 2500 m deep Precambrian crustal section comprising a 1300 m thick biotite-gneiss series (mica schists) at top, followed by a 200 m thick meta-ophiolite sequence, underlain again by biotite gneisses (mica schists) (500 m thick) with intercalations of amphibolite and meta-pegmatoids (pegmatitic granite). From 2000 m downward the dominating rock types are meta-pegmatoids (pegmatitic granite). Average isotropic intrinsic P- and S-wave velocities and densities of rocks were calculated on the basis of the volume fraction of the constituent minerals and their single crystal properties for 29 core samples covering the depth range 198-2491 m. The modal composition of the rocks is obtained from bulk rock (XRF) and mineral chemistry (microprobe), using least squares fitting. Laboratory seismic measurements on 13 selected samples representing the main lithologies revealed strong anisotropy of P- and S-wave velocities and shear wave splitting. Seismic anisotropy is strongly related to foliation and is, in particular, an important property of the biotite gneisses, which dominate the upper and lower gneiss series. At in situ conditions, velocity anisotropy is largely caused by oriented microcracks, which are not completely closed at the pressures corresponding to the relatively shallow depth drilled by the borehole, in addition to crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of the phyllosilicates. The contribution of CPO to bulk anisotropy is confirmed by 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction texture measurements. For vertical incidence of the wave train, the in situ velocities derived from the lab measurements are significantly lower than the measured and calculated intrinsic velocities. The experimental results give evidence that the strong reflective nature of the ophiolite-derived rock assemblages is largely affected by oriented microcracks and preferred crystallographic orientation of major minerals, in

  3. 30 CFR 57.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 57.7055 Section 57.7055... Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives, blasting agents...

  4. 30 CFR 56.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 56.7055 Section 56.7055... Piercing Drilling § 56.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives blasting agents, or detonators. [56 FR 46508, Sept...

  5. Residual stress evaluation by X-Ray diffraction and hole-drilling in an API 5L X70 steel pipe bent by hot induction

    Ceglias, Rodrigo Braga; Alves, Juciane Maria; Botelho, Ramon Alves; Baeta Junior, Eustaquio de Souza; Santos, Igor Cuzzuol dos; Moraes, Nicki Robbers Darciano Cajueiro de; Oliveira, Rebeca Vieira de; Diniz, Saulo Brinco; Brandao, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The API 5L X70 steel is used in high-pressure gas transmission pipelines. Because of this, knowledge of presence of residual stress and their magnitude is important to assess the material integrity in service. For the pipeline manufacturing, tubes need to be curved which is often made using the hot induction bending process. This process can introduce different residual stress depending of tube position. For this research, in order to evaluate the residual stress, was used an API 5L X70 tube that was previously curved by hot induction process. Samples were taken from the extrados, intrados, neutral line and straight section of the curved tube. Residual stresses were studied by two conventional methods: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Hole-Drilling, which are destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively, in order to assess their qualitative responses. Each of these methods presents particular methodologies in sample preparation and material analysis, but also they differ in factors such time consumption and cost of the analysis. The qualitative responses obtained by the two different methods were comparable and satisfactory and pointed out the existence of a compressive residual stress state in steel pipe. (author)

  6. Residual stress measurements in a ferritic steel/In625 superalloy dissimilar metal weldment using neutron diffraction and deep-hole drilling

    Skouras, A.; Paradowska, A.; Peel, M.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Pavier, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the use of non-invasive and semi-invasive techniques to measure the residual stresses in a large dissimilar weldment. This took the form of a butt weld between two sections of a P92 steel pipe, joined using an In625 welding consumable. Residual stress measurements have been carried out on the 30 mm thick welded pipe using the deep-hole drilling technique to characterise the through wall section residual stress distribution for the weld metal, HAZ and parent material. In addition, neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out within the weld zone. Diffraction patterns presented a high intensity and sharp peaks for the base P92 steel material. However measurements in the weld superalloy material were proven problematic as very weak diffraction patterns were observed. A thorough examination of the weld material suggested that the likely cause of this phenomenon was texture in the weld material created during the solidification phase of the welding procedure. This paper discusses the challenges in the execution and interpretation of the neutron diffraction results and demonstrates that realistic measurements of residual stresses can be achieved, in complex dissimilar metal weldments. Highlights: ► One of the few papers to measure residual stresses on dissimilar metal welds. ► Paper managed to provide realistic measurements of residual stresses using the DHD and ND technique. ► Results of this study have demonstrated the effect of texture during the ND measurements.

  7. Residual stress evaluation by X-Ray diffraction and hole-drilling in an API 5L X70 steel pipe bent by hot induction

    Ceglias, Rodrigo Braga; Alves, Juciane Maria; Botelho, Ramon Alves; Baeta Junior, Eustaquio de Souza; Santos, Igor Cuzzuol dos; Moraes, Nicki Robbers Darciano Cajueiro de; Oliveira, Rebeca Vieira de; Diniz, Saulo Brinco; Brandao, Luiz Paulo, E-mail: brandao@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais

    2016-09-15

    The API 5L X70 steel is used in high-pressure gas transmission pipelines. Because of this, knowledge of presence of residual stress and their magnitude is important to assess the material integrity in service. For the pipeline manufacturing, tubes need to be curved which is often made using the hot induction bending process. This process can introduce different residual stress depending of tube position. For this research, in order to evaluate the residual stress, was used an API 5L X70 tube that was previously curved by hot induction process. Samples were taken from the extrados, intrados, neutral line and straight section of the curved tube. Residual stresses were studied by two conventional methods: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Hole-Drilling, which are destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively, in order to assess their qualitative responses. Each of these methods presents particular methodologies in sample preparation and material analysis, but also they differ in factors such time consumption and cost of the analysis. The qualitative responses obtained by the two different methods were comparable and satisfactory and pointed out the existence of a compressive residual stress state in steel pipe. (author)

  8. Twist-Drill or Burr Hole Craniostomy for Draining Chronic Subdural Hematomas: How to Choose It for Chronic Subdural Hematoma Drainage.

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Im, Soo Bin

    2016-10-01

    Although twist-drill craniostomy (TDC) has a number of procedural advantages and an equivalent outcome compared to burr hole craniostomy (BHC) for the treatment of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs), the latter technique remains the preferred method. We analyzed symptomatic CSDHs in whom TDC at the pre-coronal suture entry point (PCSEP) was the primary method for hematoma drainage and BHC on the parietal was the secondary option. CSDHs in 86 consecutive patients were included. TDC at the PCSEP, which is 1 cm anterior to coronal suture at the level of the superior temporal line, was the primary operational technique when the hematoma thickness was suitable, and BHC was performed via the parietal when TDC was unreasonable or failed. The clinical feasibility and outcomes of these approaches were analyzed. Of the 86 patients, 68 (79.1%) were treated by TDC, and 18 (20.9%) by BHC. All patients showed improvements in their symptoms after hematoma drainage. Neither morbidity nor mortality was associated with either technique, and there were no differences in drainage days between the groups. Ten patients had bilateral hematomas and were treated using TDC. Two patients were not sufficiently treated by TDC and, as a result, BHC was applied. Only six hematomas (7% of 86 hematomas) exhibited insufficient thickness on the computed tomography to perform TDC. When the hematoma was thick enough, a majority of the CSDHs were drained using TDC at the PCSEP as the first procedure, which was especially useful for bilateral hematomas and in elderly patients.

  9. Drilling and blasting parameters in sublevel caving in Sheregesh mine

    Eremenko, AA; Filippov, VN; Konurin, AI; Khmelinin, AP; Baryshnikov, DV; Khristolyubov, EA

    2018-03-01

    The factors that influence geomechanical state of rock mass in Sheregesh Mine are determined. The authors discuss a variant of geotechnology with fan drilling. The drill-hole patterns and drilling-and-blasting parameters are presented. The revealed causes of low-quality fragmentation of rocks include the presence of closed and open fractures at different distances from drill-hole mouths, both in case of rings and fans, as well as the blocking of drill-holes with rocks.

  10. Buffer mass test - Rock drilling and civil engineering

    Pusch, R.

    1982-09-01

    The buffer mass test (BMT) is being run in the former 'ventilation drift' in which a number of rock investigations were previously conducted. A number of vertical pilot holes were drilled from the tunnel floor to get information of the water inflow in possible heater hole position. The final decision of the location of the heater holes was then made, the main principle being that much water should be available in each hole with the possible exception of one of the holes. Thereafter, the diameter 0.76 m heater holes were drilled to a depth of 3-3.3 m. Additional holes were then drilled for rock anchoring of the lids of the four outer heater holes, for the rock mechanical investigation, as well as for a number of water pressure gauges. The inner, about 12 m long part of the tunnel, was separated from the outer by bulwark. The purpose of this construction was to confine a backfill, the requirements of the bulwark being to withstand the swelling pressure as well as the water pressure. Outside the bulwark an approximately 1.5-1.7 m thick concrete slab was cast on the tunnel floor, extending about 24.7 m from the bulwark. Boxing-outs with the same height as the slab and with the horizontal dimensions 1.8 x 1.8 m, were made and rock-anchored concrete lids were cast on top of them after backfilling. The slab which thus represents 'rock', also forms a basal support of the bulwark. The lids permits access to the backfill as well as to the underlying, highly compacted bentonite for rapid direct determination of the water distributin at the intended successive test stops. The construction of the slab and lids will be described in this report. (Author)

  11. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    Dahl, H.D.; Schroeder, R.L.; Williams, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  12. Statistical test of reproducibility and operator variance in thin-section modal analysis of textures and phenocrysts in the Topopah Spring member, drill hole USW VH-2, Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Moore, L.M.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Broxton, D.E.

    1989-06-01

    A thin-section operator-variance test was given to the 2 junior authors, petrographers, by the senior author, a statistician, using 16 thin sections cut from core plugs drilled by the US Geological Survey from drill hole USW VH-2 standard (HCQ) drill core. The thin sections are samples of Topopah Spring devitrified rhyolite tuff from four textural zones, in ascending order: (1) lower nonlithophysal, (2) lower lithopysal, (3) middle nonlithophysal, and (4) upper lithophysal. Drill hole USW-VH-2 is near the center of the Crater Flat, about 6 miles WSW of the Yucca Mountain in Exploration Block. The original thin-section labels were opaqued out with removable enamel and renumbered with alpha-numeric labels. The sliders were then given to the petrographer operators for quantitative thin-section modal (point-count) analysis of cryptocrystalline, spherulitic, granophyric, and void textures, as well as phenocryst minerals. Between operator variance was tested by giving the two petrographers the same slide, and within-operator variance was tested by the same operator the same slide to count in a second test set, administered at least three months after the first set. Both operators were unaware that they were receiving the same slide to recount. 14 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Well drilling by rotary percussive drill above ground

    Sabatier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Originally, the Well Drilling Section of Cogema used only the diamond core drilling technique. The appearance of independent rotation for compressed air rock drills has led to the use and to the development of this drilling system, as a drill core is not indispensable, when the material of the search is radioactive. During the last few years, hydraulic drills have replaced the compressed air drills and have resulted in a very marked improvement: - of the penetration rates; - of the depth achieved. The Well Drilling Section of Cogema has to drill about 400 km per year with rock drills above ground and holds also the record for depth achieved with this technique, i.e. 400 m in granite. In France, the costs of these types of drilling are for the same depth of the order of one-quarter of the core drilling and half of the drilling with a down-the-hole drill. Cogema has greatly developed the types of well logging which now permits the extension of this type of drilling to the search for other materials than uranium [fr

  14. Determination of type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses generated in the welding of AISI H-13 steel with the hole drilling method

    Mejia; I; Maldonado, C; Bedolla, A; Velez, M; Medina, A; Bejar, L

    2006-01-01

    AISI H-13 steel is considered to be a highly ultra resistant steel because its resistance to stress surpasses 1380 MPa. This steel is widely used in tools that heavily used, especially under high temperatures, such as: awls, molds for pressing, extrusion dies, extrusion tools from heat impact, tools for producing screws, bolts, rivets and taps, molds for centrifugal smelting, tools for presses with shaped pieces, knives for hot cutting, among others. The weldability of AISI H-13 steel is generally poor, but it is possible if the proper precautions are taken. Cracking is perhaps the factor that most limits the weldability of AISI H-13 steel. The tendency to crack during welding for this type of steel occurs in the base metal and the zone close to the supporting material (cold cracking). The interlayer covering technique is used in the repair, welding and recovery of pieces of high alloy steels in order to avoid cracking and to lower the residual stresses generated by obstructed contraction and martensitic transformation. This work defined the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses at different distances starting from the center of the welded union on the 25.4 mm thick AISI H-13 steel sheet. The welding was carried out in a test piece with Y-Groove geometry following JIS Z 3158 standard, using the SMAW process and an AISI 312 stainless steel interlayer between the base metal and the supporting metal. The hole-drilling method was used to measure the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses using extensometric gauge rosette CEA-06-062UM-120 and CEA-06-062RE-120 following the guidelines established by ASTM E 837 standard. Based on the relaxed deformations that were measured, the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses were determined with the H-DRILL residual stress program for biaxial condition. The results indicate that under these welding conditions the residual strains at different distances from the welded union are from stress and

  15. STATE OF THE ART OF DRILLING LARGE DIAMETER BOREHOLES FOR DEPOSITION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological disposal is internationally recognized as the safest and most sustainable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Mainly, clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock are being considered as possible host rocks. Different geological environment in different countries led to the various repository concepts. Main feature of the most matured repository concept is that canisters with spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in vertical or horizontal large diameter deposition holes. Drilling technology of the deposition holes depends on repository concept and geological and geomechanical characteristics of the rock. The deposition holes are mechanically excavated since drill & blast is not a possible method due to requirements on final geometry like surface roughness etc. Different methods of drilling large diameter boreholes for deposition of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel are described. Comparison of methods is made considering performance and particularities in technology.

  16. Transformation of Serpentinite to Listvenite as Recorded in the Vein History of Rocks From Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B

    Manning, C. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.; Urai, J. L.; de Obeso, J. C.; Jesus, A. P. M.; Zeko, D.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B intersected 191 m of listvenite (magnesite + quartz rock) and serpentinite in the hanging wall of the basal thrust of the Oman ophiolite. Recovery was 100%. Listvenite is the dominant lithology in the upper plate rocks (166 m). Its shows wide color and textural variation, including pseudomorphic replacement of serpentinized peridotite. Serpentinite was encountered in two main contiguous intervals totaling 25 m. In light of the strongly metasomatic nature for the origin of listvenite, a substantial portion of the core description effort was dedicated to characterization of the complex veining history recorded in the hole. Dense veining is recorded in both lithologies. The density of 200/m. The density of veins >1 mm was 50-100/m, with somewhat higher densities recorded in serpentinite than in listvenite. In order of oldest to youngest, the main vein types in serpentinite are microscopic mesh-textured serpentine veins, macroscopic serpentine veins, carbonate-oxide veins, and carbonate veins. The vein paragenesis in listvenite is: early carbonate-oxide veins, followed by carbonate and carbonate-quartz veins, then late carbonate veins. The carbonate-oxide and carbonate veins are shared by the lithologies and hold clues to the transformation of ultramafic rocks to listvenite. Carbonate-oxide veins form a distinctive set that is interpreted to be the earliest record of carbonate formation in serpentinite. They contain Fe-oxide, usually hematite, on a medial line, with antitaxial magnesite crystals growing outward and showing terminations against wall rock minerals. Antitaxial textures may be evidence of positive reaction volumes. In serpentinite, secondary serpentine after earlier serpentine is common at vein margins. Carbonate-oxide veins are the earliest observed in listvenite, where they may form isolated veins to dense, aligned networks that impart a foliated texture. In some cases, they appear to predate replacement of serpentine by

  17. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Yusheng Wan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Central Hebei Basin (CHB is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeast–southwest direction with an area of >350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedimentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1 and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1 have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41–2.51 and ∼2.5 Ga, respectively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher ΣREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Ybn values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5 mainly contain ∼2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins have εHf (2.5 Ga values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, ∼2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  18. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  19. Insights into the radial water jet drilling technology – Application in a quarry

    Thomas Reinsch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this context, we applied the radial water jet drilling (RJD technology to drill five horizontal holes into a quarry wall of the Gildehaus quarry close to Bad Bentheim, Germany. For testing the state-of-the-art jetting technology, a jetting experiment was performed to investigate the influence of geological heterogeneity on the jetting performance and the hole geometry, the influence of nozzle geometry and jetting pressure on the rate of penetration, and the possibility of localising the jetting nozzle utilizing acoustic activity. It is observed that the jetted holes can intersect fractures under varying angles, and the jetted holes do not follow a straight path when jetting at ambient surface condition. Cuttings from the jetting process retrieved from the holes can be used to estimate the reservoir rock permeability. Within the quarry, we did not observe a change in the rate of penetration due to jetting pressure variations. Acoustic monitoring was partially successful in estimating the nozzle location. Although the experiments were performed at ambient surface conditions, the results can give recommendations for a downhole application in deep wells. Keywords: Acoustic monitoring, Drilling performance, Trajectory, Permeability, Rock properties, Radial water jet drilling (RJD

  20. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2003 - October 5, 2006

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the thickest part of the mound facies of

  1. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-annual Technical Report October 6, 2002 - April 5, 2003

    Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; McClure, Kevin; Morgan, Craig D.

    2003-01-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m 3 ) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone. Examination of upper Ismay cores

  2. 瓦斯抽放煤层增透深孔聚能爆破钻孔参数%Drilling parameters of deep-hole cumulative blasting to improve coal seam permeability in gas drainage

    郭德勇; 吕鹏飞; 单智勇; 谢安

    2013-01-01

    以焦作煤业集团九里山矿煤层深孔聚能爆破试验为基础,利用数值模拟分析了爆破煤体应力变化规律,发现聚能爆破效应导致应力峰值增大,扩大了煤体裂隙区范围.同时对聚能爆破钻孔参数进行优化,确定了合理的炮孔直径、爆破孔间距、爆破孔与邻近抽放孔及煤层顶底板间距.现场试验结果表明:优化的钻孔参数不仅使聚能爆破增透效果显著而且保证了爆破过程的安全.%Based on coal seam deep-hole cumulative blasting experiments in Jiulishan Coal Mine of Jiaozuo Coal Group, the law of stress change in a blasting coal body was analyzed by numerical simulation. It is found that cumulative blasting effect leads to the increase of peak stress and enlarges the crack zone range of the coal body. Drilling parameters for cumulative blasting, such as blast hole diameter, blast hole spacing, distance between the blast hole and the adjacent gas drainage hole, and distance from the blast hole to the coal seam roof and floor, were determined by optimization. Field experimental results show that after using these optimized drilling parameters the cumulative blasting not only gets remarkable permeability increasing effect but also ensures blasting safety.

  3. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  4. A vision for drilling

    Millheim, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The future of drilling lies in its relationship with the oil and gas industry. This paper examines how the future of drilling is seen from the view point of the exploration manager, the drilling contractor, the drilling engineer and the company president or managing director. The various pressures on the oil and gas industry are examined, such as environmental issues, alternative energy sources, and the price of oil which determines how companies are run. Exploration activity is driven by the price of oil and gas. The development of wells with multiple horizontal wells or multiple horizontal wells with tributaries will reduce the cost of exploration. Companies will rely less and less on reservoir simulation and more on cheap well-bores, multi-lateral well-bores and will exploit oil that could not be exploited before. The cost of exploratory drilling will need to be kept down so that in the future the industry will get better at economically finding fields at the 10 million to 20 million barrel range that would not have been possible before. The future is expected to see drilling contractors tunnelling, making sewerage lines and drilling 10,000 foot wells with purpose built rigs. Franchising will become a feature of the industry as will the use of databases to answer key technical questions. Offshore platforms will be built to be moveable and disposable. The industry is capable of solving problems, meeting challenges and making ideas work, providing much hope for the future. 10 figs., 1 photo.

  5. Modeling the time and cost to drill an offshore well

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective in drilling a hydrocarbon well is to make hole as quickly as possible subject to the technological, operational, quality, and safety constraints associated with the process. These objectives are frequently conflicting and depend on factors that are subject to significant private and market uncertainty. There is no way to identify all of the relevant characteristics of drilling operations, but through use of statistical analysis and empirical modeling, it is possible to develop relations that characterize and benchmark drilling performance under a suitable set of assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to develop the conceptual framework to model the time and cost to drill an offshore well and to illustrate the methodology on a test set of wells in the Gulf of Mexico. The physical characteristics of the wellbore and operational aspects of drilling, including variables such as the drilled interval, horizontal displacement, aspect ratio, number of casing strings, and mud weight, serve as the primary descriptive factors in the functional relations constructed.

  6. Growth in the measurement-while-drilling sector continues

    Hall, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports that the measurement while drilling (MWD) market is showing some of the most impressive growth in the oil field. Tremendous improvements in the reliability and capability of MWD tools have spurred the expansion of this market. During 1990, the worldwide MWD market expanded by 48%, rising from $250 million in 1989 to $370 million in 1990. The MWD market should expand 15-20% to exceed $430 million in 1991. Although an expansion of 15-20% is considered good, further growth will be impeded by the slowdown of drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Total market growth should return to greater than 20% per year in 1992 and 1993. MWD technology is in the midst of a rapid adaptation phase, led by expansion of formation evaluation and other logs and by international expansion in long-reach directional and horizontal drilling. The formation evaluation-while- drilling market will have minimal impact on the size and growth of the wire line market. Customers will increasingly employ teams which include drilling and petrophysics personnel to make MWD purchase decisions. Integration of performance drilling systems including all bottom hole components will accelerate because of increases in automation and the need for cost reduction

  7. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics...... successfully been tested on experimental data from a medium-scale horizontal flow loop in Sta- vanger, Norway. The flow loop represents a 700 m borehole with emulation of the following downhole contingencies: drillstring washout, drill bit nozzle plugging, gas influx and fluid loss. In the tests...

  8. Inspection of drilled well at the Borgen school in Asker community, Akershus

    Elvebakk, Harald

    2001-01-01

    A drill hole inspection is carried out with an optical telemetric reviewer at logged temperatures, electric conductivity and natural gamma radiation in a 165 m deep drilled well at the Borgen school. The aim of the logging was to obtain data for evaluating the geothermal potential of the well. The optical logging shows that the rock (shale, siltstone and noduled lime) generally is only slightly cracked.. The temperature log shows only slight temperature increment, 0.56 o C/100 m, down to about a depth of 100 m. From 100 m the temperature gradient increases to 0.98 o C/100 m and the temperature is about 6.8 o C at a depth of 160 m. A marked increase from 160 m may indicate a water flux at this depth. An observed crack in the optical log at the same depth confirm that this may be the case. The conductivity is constant and low, about 225 microsec/cm, along the entire drill hole except for the top 6 m of the hole where it is lower. The natural gamma radiation is at a low level, about 75 cps, along the entire hole. A marked decrease between 60 and 70 m indicates another rock type, chalk enriched sandstone, which probably has somewhat lower potassium content than the rest of the hole. The deviation measurement shows that the hole turns towards north west with a horizontal deviation of 21 m at the bottom

  9. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with hand-held drills. (b) Men shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or...

  10. Hole history, rotary hole DC-3

    1977-10-01

    Purpose of hole DC-3 was to drill into the Umtanum basalt flow using both conventional rotary and core drilling methods. The borehole is to be utilized for geophysical logging, future hydrological testing, and the future installation of a borehole laboratory for long-term pressure, seismic, and moisture migration or accumulation recording in the Umtanum basalt flow in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Hole DC-3 is located east of the 200 West barricaded area on the Hanford reservation

  11. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  12. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  13. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Design and Exploitation Problems of Drill String in Directional Drilling

    Bednarz Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Drill string design for directional drilling requires accounting for a number of factors. First, types and expected values of loads should be determined. Then, elements of the drill string should be so selected as to enable realization of the plan at specified loads. Some of additional factors, e. g. purchase, exploitation cost, geological conditions in the bore-hole, washing of the bore-hole, stability, trajectory, rig parameters, accuracy of gauges, pumps parameters remain in conflict. Drill pipes are made of rolled pipes, upset and welded with tool joints to 9,5 m long; the shorter ones can be made of hot forged rods. Exploitation requirements, being a result of practical experience supported by theoretical and laboratory analyses should be a part of syllabuses of technical staff educational programs. Apart from designing the string, it is also vital to lower the risk of a drilling failure. The significance of these aspects seems to be unquestionable.

  15. A synopsis of environmental horizontal wells at the Savannah River Site

    Denham, M.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    Seven horizontal wells for environmental remediation were installed at the Savannah River Site as part of an Integrated Demonstration Project sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. The wells were used to demonstrate innovative remediation systems for the clean up of chlorinated organic solvent contamination in groundwater and the vadose zone. The wells were installed in four demonstrations of different horizontal drilling technologies. A short-radius petroleum industry technology, a modified petroleum industry technology (using a down-hole motor), a utility industry technology, and a river crossing technology were demonstrated. The goals of the demonstrations were to show the utility of horizontal wells in environmental remediation and further development of the technology required to install these wells. From the first demonstration in 1988 to the latest in 1991, there was significant evolution in horizontal drilling technology. The main technical challenges in the first demonstration were directional control during drilling and borehole instability. Through advancement of the technology these problems were overcome and did not affect the last demonstration. Those considering the use of horizontal wells for environmental remediation will benefit from the knowledge gained from these demonstrations

  16. Casing drilling

    Heenan, D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviewed the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling several wells using only casings as the drill stem. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig called the Casing Drilling {sup TM} system. The system could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of coalbed methane (CBM) reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead, along wire line retrieval, can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core which is typically required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or underbalanced wells with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while simultaneously finding gas. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling {sup TM} could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 9 figs.

  17. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    Andersson, O [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  18. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    Andersson, O.

    1994-08-01

    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs

  19. Drillings at Veitsivaara in Hyrynsalmi

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-04-01

    According to Governmen's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Veitsivaara, Hyrynsalmi the investigation program was started in April 1987. During years 1987-1988 a deep borehole (1002 m) and 4 and 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisso's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. About 75 m deep hole was percussion drilled near the borehole KR1. The spreading of the flushing water in the upper part of bedrock and the quality off the ground of the groundwater were studied by taking watersamples from the hole. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition

  20. Numerical investigation of the prospects of high energy laser in drilling oil and gas wells

    Agha, K.R.; Belhaj, H.A.; Mustafiz, S.; Islam, M.R.; Bjorndalen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Rotary drilling is the primary method used to reach oil and gas formations that was developed over a century ago. Many problems persist with this method, including downtime due to dull bits, the lack of precise vertical or horizontal wells and formation fluid leakage during drilling due to the lack of a seal around the hole. Laser drilling is a new technology that has been proposed as a method to eliminate the current problems while drilling and provide a less expensive alternative to conventional methods. This paper discussed the development of a numerical model based on the fundamental heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena including conduction, melting and vaporization responsible for material removal by laser drilling process. The paper addressed the thermal process involved in laser drilling of sandstone and limestone rocks as well as aluminum and mild steel. The paper outlined the parametric study and discussed the design considerations for a field application. Economical and environmental impacts were also included. It was concluded that more experimental investigation is needed to fully understand the laser operation and to enhance the integrity of the numerical models. In addition, it was concluded that field equipment must be designed to meet the changes in drilling requirements. 19 refs., 10 figs

  1. 21 CFR 872.4130 - Intraoral dental drill.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental drill. 872.4130 Section 872.4130...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4130 Intraoral dental drill. (a) Identification. An intraoral dental drill is a rotary device intended to be attached to a dental handpiece to drill holes in...

  2. Drilling unit

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  3. Drillings at Kivetty in Konginkangas

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-05-01

    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Kivetty, Konginkangas the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1019 m) and 4 about 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 65 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  4. Drillings at Syyry in Sievi

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-10-01

    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Syyry, Sievi the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1022 m) and 4 about 500-700 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 35 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10-20 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 85 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  5. Mineralization and trace element distribution in pyrite using EMPA in exploration drill holes from Cheshmeh Zard gold district, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Zahra Alaminia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral in low sulfidation ore deposits. Experimental studies have shown that low-temperature ( 200°C from hydrothermal or metamorphic fluids (Butler and Rickard, 2000. Framboidal pyrite mostly occurs in sedimentary environments, though it could also form during metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration (Scott et al., 2009. The pyrite formed tends to be enriched in various trace elements such as Au and As. For this study we have combined the geology, alteration, mineralization with recent studies of the description of the deposit from core logging and underground mapping and geochemistry in the CheshmehZard gold district and also investigated the compositional variation and textural differences between pyrite types. This study is based on the results of our alteration and mineralization mapping and detailed logging of 1937.8 m of drill core. Materials and Methods Geology, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization were examined in drill holes along several cross sections. Host-rock alteration minerals and veins were determined for 11 samples using standard X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF techniques. Polished sections were studied by reflected light microscopy and backscattered electron images (BSE. In this study, the trace-element composition of pyrite samples from the Au-III vein system was obtained using electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA data. All analyseswere carried out at the department of Materials Engineering and Physics of the University of Salzburg in Austria. The EMPA measurements and BSE imaging were made using a JXA-8600 electron microprobe. Spot analyses of 30 pyrite grains from CheshmehZard are given in Table 1. Results The study area is located in the north of Khorasan Razavi Province 45 km to the south of Neyshabour. The area near CheshmehZard could become important as a site of economically significant gold mineralization. Six gold-bearing vein

  6. A Comprehensive Comparison Study of Empirical Cutting Transport Models in Inclined and Horizontal Wells

    Asep Mohamad Ishaq Shiddiq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In deviated and horizontal drilling, hole-cleaning issues are a common and complex problem. This study explored the effect of various parameters in drilling operations and how they affect the flow rate required for effective cutting transport. Three models, developed following an empirical approach, were employed: Rudi-Shindu’s model, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s model. Rudi-Shindu’s model needs iteration in the calculation. Firstly, the three models were compared using a sensitivity analysis of drilling parameters affecting cutting transport. The result shows that the models have similar trends but different values for minimum flow velocity. Analysis was conducted to examine the feasibility of using Rudi-Shindu’s, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s models. The result showed that Hopkins’ model is limited by cutting size and revolution per minute (RPM. The minimum flow rate from Tobenna’s model is affected only by well inclination, drilling fluid weight and drilling fluid rheological property. Meanwhile, Rudi-Shindu’s model is limited by inclinations above 45°. The study showed that the investigated models are not suitable for horizontal wells because they do not include the effect of lateral section.

  7. Offset drilling obligations

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  8. Report on televiewer log and stress measurements in core hole USW G-2, Nevada Test Site, October-November, 1982

    Stock, J.M.; Healy, J.H.; Hickman, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and a borehole televiewer log were obtained in hole USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to depths of 1200 m. Results indicate that at the depths tested, the minimum ad maximum horizontal stresses are less than the vertical stress, corresponding to a normal faulting stress regime. Drilling-induced hydrofractures seen in the televiewer log imply a least horizontal principal stress direction of N 60 0 W to N 65 0 W. For reasonable values of the coefficient of friction, the magnitude of the least horizontal stress is close to the value at which slip would occur on preexisting faults of optimal orientation (strike N 25 0 E to N 30 0 E and dipping 60 0 to 67 0 ). The prominent drilling-induced fractures seen in the televiewer log are believed to have been caused by excess downhole pressures applied during drilling the hole. Many throughgoing fractures are also seen in the televiewer log; most of these are high angle, stringing N 10 0 E to N 40 0 E. These fractures show a general decrease in angle of dip with depth. Stress-induced wellbore breakouts are seen at depths below 1050 m. The average N 60 0 W azimuth of these breakouts agrees very closely with the N 60 0 W to N 65 0 W direction of least horizontal principal stress inferred from the drilling-induced hydrofracs. 19 references, 13 figures, 3 tables

  9. Development of a bottom-hole gamma-ray diagnostic capability for high-level environments, during CTBT on-site inspection drilling

    Fontenot, R.; Shakir, S.; Heuze, F.; Butler, M.

    1998-05-01

    Testing completed at NTS confirmed that the Anadrill gamma-ray tool was fully operational up to 50,000 API, as specified in the initial objective. Recorded results were within expected ranges when compared to the hand-held detector. The gamma-ray module will require special 'high-rate' detection software to be loaded prior to drilling operations. The other components within the VIPER system have been modified to operate with either software (normal or 'high-rate') installed in the gamma-ray module. The successful completion of this test is but one step towards the main goal. The next step will be testing this module in the VIPER tool during an actual 're-entry' drilling operation, which could be performed at NTS on a former U.S. event. (author)

  10. A new drilling method-Earthworm-like vibration drilling.

    Wang, Peng; Ni, Hongjian; Wang, Ruihe

    2018-01-01

    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed "earthworm-like drilling" is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a "soft-string" model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling.

  11. New drilling optimization technologies make drilling more efficient

    Chen, D.C.-K. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). Sperry Division

    2004-07-01

    Several new technologies have been adopted by the upstream petroleum industry in the past two decades in order to optimize drilling operations and improve drilling efficiency. Since financial returns from an oil and gas investment strongly depend on drilling costs, it is important to reduce non-productive time due to stuck pipes, lost circulation, hole cleaning and well bore stability problems. The most notable new technologies are the use of computer-based instrumentation and data acquisition systems, integrated rig site systems and networks, and Measurement-While-Drilling and Logging-While-Drilling (MWD/LWD) systems. Drilling optimization should include solutions for drillstring integrity, hydraulics management and wellbore integrity. New drilling optimization methods emphasize information management and real-time decision making. A recent study for drilling in shallow water in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates that trouble time accounts for 25 per cent of rig time. This translates to about $1.5 MM U.S. per well. A reduction in trouble time could result in significant cost savings for the industry. This paper presents a case study on vibration prevention to demonstrate how the drilling industry has benefited from new technologies. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  13. Review of casing while drilling technology

    Pavković Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drilling methods have been plagued with huge operational and financial challenges, such as cost of purchasing, inspecting, handling, transporting the drill equipment and most importantly, tripping in-and-out of the drill string whenever the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA needs a replacement, needs of wiper trip or when total depth is reached. The tripping in-and-out of the drill string not only contributes to Non Productive Time (NPT but also leads to well control difficulties including wellbore instability and lost circulation. All this has led Oil and Gas industry, as well as any other engineering industry, to seek for new ways and methods in order to reduce these problems. Thanks to the advances in technical solutions and constant improvements of conventional drilling methods, a new drilling method - casing while drilling has been developed. Casing Drilling encompasses the process of simultaneously drilling and casing a well, using the active casing and thus optimizes the production. This paper presents a review of casing while drilling method (CwD and its practical usage in drilling wells. The comparison of conventional drilling method and casing while drilling is also presented. The CwD method achieves significantly better results than conventional drilling method.

  14. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  15. [The new eubacterium Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov. isolated from core samples collected by deep-hole drilling of the bottom of Lake Baĭkal].

    Andreeva, I S; Pechurkina, N I; Morozova, O V; Riabchikova, E I; Belikov, S I; Puchkova, L I; Emel'ianova, E K; Torok, T; Repin, V E

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples of sedimentary rocks from various eras of the geological history of the Baikal rift has enabled us to isolate a large number of microorganisms that can be classified into new, previously undescribed species. The present work deals with the identification and study of the morphological, biochemical, and physiological properties of one such strain, Che 82, isolated from sample C-29 of 3.4-3.5 Ma-old sedimentary rocks taken at a drilling depth of 146.74 m. As a result of our investigations, strain Che 82 is described as a new bacterial species, Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov., belonging to the genus Roseomonas within the family Methylobacteriaceae, class Alphaproteobacteria.

  16. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: The mechanism of the drilling of holes in vertical metallic plates by cw CO2 laser radiation

    Likhanskii, V. V.; Loboiko, A. I.; Antonova, G. F.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Sayapin, V. P.

    1999-02-01

    The possibility of making a hole in a vertical plate with the aid of laser radiation at a surface temperature not exceeding the boiling point is analysed neglecting the vapour pressure. The mechanism of the degradation of the liquid layer involving a reduction of its thickness, as a result of the redistribution of the molten mass owing to the operation of the force of gravity and of thermocapillary convection, is examined. The theoretical dependence of the critical size of the molten zone on the plate thickness is obtained and a comparison is made with experimental data.

  17. Drilling reorganizes

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  18. Use of a Combination of Vertical and Horizontal Boreholes in Massive Blasting of Benches in the Surface Quarry Rodež

    Tori, Matija; Vajović, Stanojle; Goleš, Niko; Muhić, Elvir; Peternel, Miha

    2017-12-01

    This article deals with the extraction of minerals (limestone/marl/flysch) in the quarry Rodež, which is located in western Slovenia. During the extraction of minerals in a quarry, drilling and blasting of benches are used. The focus of the article is on the analysis of the parameters related to drilling and blasting in surface excavations when using a combination of explosions and introducing horizontal wells along with vertical holes in the bench. On the basis of the analysis of basic parameters through a combination of drilling horizontal wells and charging those with the ammonal + Anfex explosive, analyses of effects of seismic disturbances on potentially affected buildings have also been conducted. The article is connected to and deals exclusively with the basic parameters of drilling and blasting, with the introduction of horizontal drilling and with the analysis of seismic measurements of threatened buildings in accordance with the German standard German Institute for Standardisation (DIN) 4150 during the use of a new method of blasting.

  19. Use of a Combination of Vertical and Horizontal Boreholes in Massive Blasting of Benches in the Surface Quarry Rodež

    Tori Matija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the extraction of minerals (limestone/marl/flysch in the quarry Rodež, which is located in western Slovenia. During the extraction of minerals in a quarry, drilling and blasting of benches are used. The focus of the article is on the analysis of the parameters related to drilling and blasting in surface excavations when using a combination of explosions and introducing horizontal wells along with vertical holes in the bench. On the basis of the analysis of basic parameters through a combination of drilling horizontal wells and charging those with the ammonal + Anfex explosive, analyses of effects of seismic disturbances on potentially affected buildings have also been conducted. The article is connected to and deals exclusively with the basic parameters of drilling and blasting, with the introduction of horizontal drilling and with the analysis of seismic measurements of threatened buildings in accordance with the German standard German Institute for Standardisation (DIN 4150 during the use of a new method of blasting.

  20. Thermal numerical assessment of jawbone drilling factor during implantology

    Adel Pirjamali Neisiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Optimization drilling parameters in order to temperature decrease during creation of hole in the bone is an interested issue. The aim of this study was to achieve optimum values of drilling parameters based on the creation of minimum temperature during jawbone drilling. Materials and Methods: In this study two models of mandible and maxilla was created and teeth 2, 5 and 8 from maxilla and teeth 25, 28 and 31 from mandible were removed. The drilling operation was performed under different conditions on jawbone models using finite element analysis and the maximum temperatures were measured in adjacent of holes. Results: Drill bit head angle of 70 degrees was created the lowest maximum temperature during drilling operation. The lowest maximum temperatures were observed in the drill bit rotational speed, drill bit feed rate and the force exerted on the drill bit equal to 200 rpm, 120 mm/min and 60 N, respectively. The use of irrigation can decrease the maximum bone temperature about 7ºC. The maximum temperature differences in various regions of mandible and maxilla were approximately about 1ºC. Conclusion: Sharpness of drill bit head angle, reduction of drill bit rotational speed, increasing drill bit feed rate and exerted force on drill bit and also the use of irrigation played effective roles in temperature decrease during jawbone drilling. Drilling site did not have important effect on the temperature changes during jawbone drilling.

  1. Interpretation of hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain indicate the presence of many near-surface geologic inhomogeneities, with no definite indication of deep structural features. A resistive anomaly near drill hole UE25a-6 is interpreted as a thin, vertical, resistive body that nearly intersects the surface, and may be caused by a silicified, or calcified, fracture zone. A resistive anomaly near hole UE25a-7 is probably caused by a near surface, horizontal, lens-shaped body that may represent a devitrified zone in the Tiva Canyon Member. Many conductive anomalies were detected to the southwest of hole UE25a-4. However, these anomalies are interpreted to be caused by variations in the thickness of the surface alluvium

  2. A new drilling method—Earthworm-like vibration drilling

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Ruihe

    2018-01-01

    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed “earthworm-like drilling” is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a “soft-string” model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling. PMID:29641615

  3. The 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of lavas from the Hilo 1-km core hole, Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Sharp, W.D.; Turrin, B.D.; Renne, P.R.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mauna Kea lava flows cored in the HilIo hole range in age from <200 ka to about 400 ka based on 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and K-Ar analyses of 16 groundmass samples and one coexisting plagioclase. The lavas, all subaerially deposited, include a lower section consisting only of tholeiitic basalts and an upper section of interbedded alkalic, transitional tholeiitic, and tholeiitic basalts. The lower section has yielded predominantly complex, discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra that result from mobility of 40Ar and perhaps K, the presence of excess 40Ar, and redistribution of 39Ar by recoil. Comparison of K-Ar ages with 40Ar/39Ar integrated ages indicates that some of these samples have also lost 39Ar. Nevertheless, two plateau ages of 391 ?? 40 and 400 ?? 26 ka from deep in the hole, combined with data from the upper section, show that the tholeiitic section accumulated at an average rate of about 7 to 8 m/kyr and has an mean recurrence interval of 0.5 kyr/flow unit. Samples from the upper section yield relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau and isotope correlation ages of 326 ?? 23, 241 ?? 5, 232 ?? 4, and 199 ?? 9 ka for depths of -415.7 m to -299.2 m. Within their uncertainty, these ages define a linear relationship with depth, with an average accumulation rate of 0.9 m/kyr and an average recurrence interval of 4.8 kyr/flow unit. The top of the Mauna Kea sequence at -280 m must be older than the plateau age of 132 ?? 32 ka, obtained for the basal Mauna Loa flow in the corehole. The upward decrease in lava accumulation rate is a consequence of the decreasing magma supply available to Mauna Kea as it rode the Pacific plate away from its magma source, the Hawaiian mantle plume. The age-depth relation in the core hole may be used to test and refine models that relate the growth of Mauna Kea to the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle plume.

  4. Stability of midface fracture repair using absorbable plate and screw system pilot holes drilled and pin placement at angles other than 90°.

    Carron, Michael A; Zuliani, Giancarlo; Pereira, Lucio; Abuhamdan, Maher; Thibault, Adrianna; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Conventional plating systems use titanium plates for fixation of fractures, with benefits of strength and biocompatibility. However, titanium plates require that screws be placed at a 90° angle to the pilot holes. In the midface, this becomes extremely difficult. Today, a variety of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis systems are available, including resorbable plating systems. Specifically, the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system ultrasonically fuses the plate and the head of the pin when placed and will fill the pilot hole grooves completely even at less than 90° angles, which provides a tremendous advantage in midface fracture repair. To determine if the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system provides plate-screw construct stability in human heads even when placed at acute angles at the midface buttresses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SPECIMENS: Twenty cadaveric head specimens with the mandible removed were prepared by creating osteotomies in the midface buttresses bilaterally. Specimens were defleshed and placed in a 2-part testing rig to hold and position the head for testing in a standard material testing system. Testing was performed at the Wayne State University Bioengineering test laboratories, Detroit, Michigan, using an Instron device and high-speed camera. Specimens were plated on one side of the midface using the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system with pilot holes and pins placed at 90° angles. On the contralateral side, the buttresses were plated with the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system at 60°, 45°, and 30° angles. Data were collected using the TDAS data acquisition system and were compared with matched pairs within each specimen. Ultrasonically vibrated pins placed into absorbable mini-plates at less than 90° angles with the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system were compared with the same amount of stress as the system placed at a 90° angle before demonstrating plate-screw construct failure. RESULTS Fifty-seven paired tests were collected, with 114 total tests. Twenty failures were

  5. ResonantSonic drilling. Innovative technology summary report

    1995-04-01

    The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes

  6. Revisiting elastic anisotropy of biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole based on new texture measurements and texture-based velocity calculations

    Wenk, H.-R.; Vasin, R. N.; Kern, H.; Matthies, S.; Vogel, S. C.; Ivankina, T. I.

    2012-10-01

    A sample of biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu deep drilling project in Finland was investigated by Kern et al. (2008) for crystal preferred orientation and elastic anisotropy. Considerable differences between measured acoustic velocities and velocities calculated on the basis of texture patterns were observed. Measured P-wave anisotropy was 15.1% versus a Voigt average yielding 7.9%. Here we investigate the same sample with different methods and using different averaging techniques. Analyzing time-of-flight neutron diffraction data from Dubna-SKAT and LANSCE-HIPPO diffractometers with the Rietveld technique, much stronger preferred orientation for biotite is determined, compared to conventional pole-figure analysis reported previously. The comparison reveals important differences: HIPPO has much better counting statistics but pole figure coverage is poor. SKAT has better angular resolution. Using the new preferred orientation data and applying a self-consistent averaging method that takes grain shapes into account, close agreement of calculated and measured P-wave velocities is observed (12.6%). This is further improved by adding 0.1 vol.% flat micropores parallel to the biotite platelets in the simulation (14.9%).

  7. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  8. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  9. Cuttings-liquid frictional pressure loss model for horizontal narrow annular flow with rotating drillpipe

    Ofei, T N; Irawan, S; Pao, W

    2015-01-01

    During oil and gas drilling operations, frictional pressure loss is experienced as the drilling fluid transports the drilled cuttings from the bottom-hole, through the annulus, to the surface. Estimation of these pressure losses is critical when designing the drilling hydraulic program. Two-phase frictional pressure loss in the annulus is very difficult to predict, and even more complex when there is drillpipe rotation. Accurate prediction will ensure that the correct equivalent circulating density (ECD) is applied in the wellbore to prevent formation fracture, especially in formations with narrow window between the pore pressure and fracture gradient. Few researchers have attempted to propose cuttings-liquid frictional pressure loss models, nevertheless, these models fail when they are applied to narrow wellbores such as in casing- while-drilling and slimhole applications. This study proposes improved cuttings-liquid frictional pressure loss models for narrow horizontal annuli with drillpipe rotation using Dimensional Analysis. Both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were considered. The proposed model constants were fitted by generated data from a full-scale simulation study using ANSYS-CFX. The models showed improvement over existing cuttings-liquid pressure loss correlations in literature. (paper)

  10. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

  11. Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design

    Zhou Yi Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.

  12. A bit faster : ReedHycalog focuses new drill bit technology on the needs of western Canadian drillers

    Wells, P.

    2009-06-15

    ReedHycalog, a division of National Oilwell Varco Inc., is advancing its drill bit technology and is setting performance records in an effort to meet the needs of drillers in western Canada. This article described the company's new drill bit technology. Through its motor series polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, ReedHycalog developed and commercialized several unique and proprietary drill bit features that reduced variations in torque. This lowered the risk of stick-slip while improving lateral stability, directional control and drilling efficiency. The design of the motor series bits was reviewed along with laboratory and field testing. Smooth torque was identified as one of the greatest challenges when drilling with a drill bit on a directional assembly. Test results revealed that there are 4 distinct characteristics for optimal steerable motor performance, such as smooth torque control components (TCC) that were specifically positioned in the cone of the bit to prevent cutter over engagement reducing in torque fluctuations for optimal tool face control; optimized cutter backrakes that provided high penetration rates in rotating mode, while TCCs were optimized to control torque when sliding; gauge inserts for lateral control that provided a low-friction bearing surface; and laterally exposed gauge cutters that cleaned up the hole in rotating mode, and a tapered upper section that reduced gauge pad interference while in sliding mode. The motor series bits performed extremely well in the vertical, build and horizontal intervals with multiple operators. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  13. Design and development of a quiet, self-thrusting blast hole

    Ottermann, RW

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available and demonstrated. The primary output of this project is a quiet, ergonomically, reliable blast hole drilling system, which is used to drill suitable blast holes by workers responsible for drilling these holes. The system has to be safe and reliable with reduced...

  14. Horizontal Accelerator

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  15. Drilling rig

    Galiopa, A A; Yegorov, E K

    1981-01-04

    A drilling rig is proposed which contains a tower, lifter in the form of n infinite chain, and mobile rotator with holding device connected to the chain, and pipe holder. In order to accelerate the auxiliary operations to move the drilling string and unloaded rotator, the rotator is equipped with a clamp with means for transverse connection of it to both branches of the chain, while the pipe holders equipped with a clamp with means of connecting it to one of the branches of the chain.

  16. Drilling mud

    Rusayev, A A; Bibikov, K V; Simonenkov, I D; Surkova, K I

    1982-01-01

    Drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, water, water output reducer, pH regulator, viscosity reducer and hydrogen sulfide absorber. In order to improve the absorbing capacity of the drilling mud with pH 8-11 and simultaneously preservation of the technological properties of the mud, it contains as the absorber of hydrogen sulfide pyrite cinders with the following ratio of components, % by mass: clay 5.0-35.0; water output reducer 0.2-2.0; pH regulator 0.05-0.25; viscosity reducer 0.1-1.0; pyrite cinders 0.5-4.0; water--the rest.

  17. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    drilling. It has the advantage that the drill string stays in the drilled hole during the entire drilling process and prevents the drilled hole from collapsing while the inner core barrels comprising the drilled core sections are hooked up inside the drill string using a wire.

  18. Experimental analysis of minimum shear stress to drag particles in a horizontal bed; Analise experimental da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito horizontal

    Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails: bad@ucl.br, edson@ct.ufes.br; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails: joaoquirino@ucl.br, brunovl@ucl.br

    2009-12-15

    Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)

  19. Horizontal well impact on heavy oil supply

    Bowers, B.; Bielecki, J.; Hu, J.; Wall, B.; Drummond, K.

    1993-01-01

    Horizontal wells can take advantage of gravity drainage mechanisms, which can be important in conventional heavy oil and bitumen recovery. Horizontal drilling will impact on the development of established conventional heavy oil pools by infill drilling and application of enhanced recovery techniques. There will also be an impact on the development of extensions to established and newly discovered heavy oil pools, as well as a major impact on development of bitumen resources. To assess the impact of horizontal drilling on heavy oil supply, high-impact and low-impact scenarios were evaluated under specified oil-price assumptions for four heavy oil areas in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Horizontal well potential for infill drilling, waterflood projects, and thermal projects was assessed and estimates were made of such developments as reserves additions and heavy oil development wells under the two scenarios. In the low case, projected supply of conventional heavy oil and bitumen stabilizes at a level in the 90,000-94,000 m 3 /d after 1994. In the high case, overall supply continuously grows from 80,000 m 3 /d in 1992 to 140,000 m 3 /d in 2002. Through application of horizontal drilling, reserves additions in western Canada could be improved by ca 100 million m 3 by 2002. 14 figs., 6 tabs

  20. An evaluation of calculation procedures affecting the constituent factors of equivalent circulating density for drilling hydraulics

    Bailey, William J

    1997-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis covers a study of drilling hydraulics offshore. The purpose of drilling hydraulics is to provide information about downhole pressure, suitable surface pump rates, the quality of hole cleaning and optimum tripping speeds during drilling operations. Main fields covered are drilling hydraulics, fluid characterisation, pressure losses, and equivalent circulating density. 197 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. An evaluation of calculation procedures affecting the constituent factors of equivalent circulating density for drilling hydraulics

    Bailey, William J.

    1996-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis covers a study of drilling hydraulics offshore. The purpose of drilling hydraulics is to provide information about downhole pressure, suitable surface pump rates, the quality of hole cleaning and optimum tripping speeds during drilling operations. Main fields covered are drilling hydraulics, fluid characterisation, pressure losses, and equivalent circulating density. 197 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    2011-12-08

    ... National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling AGENCY... proposed action is to approve two Plans of Operations for exploratory uranium drilling on the Cibola... San Mateo. In total, there are up to 279 drill holes that would be drilled over a period not to exceed...

  3. Log response of ultrasonic imaging and its significance for deep mineral prospecting of scientific drilling borehole-2 in Nanling district, China

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Yue, Xuyuan; Zhou, Xinpeng; Li, Jianguo; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The hole NLSD-2, one of the deepest scientific drilling projects in the metallic ore districts of China, is the second scientific drilling deep hole in the Nanling district. Its ultimate depth is 2012.12 m. This hole was created through the implementation of continuous coring, and the measuring of a variety of geophysical well logging methods was performed over the course of the drilling process. This paper analyzes the characteristic responses of the fracture and fractured zone by ultrasonic imaging log data, and characterizes various rules of fracture parameters which change according to drilling depth. It then discusses the denotative meaning of the log results of polymetallic mineralization layers. The formation fractures develop most readily in a depth of 100∼200 m, 600∼850 m and 1450∼1550 m of the hole NLSD-2, and high angle fractures develop most prominently. The strike direction of the fractures is mainly NW-SE, reflecting the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress. For the polymetallic mineralization layer that occurred in the fractured zone, the characteristic response of ultrasonic imaging log is a wide dark zone, and the characteristic responses of conventional logs displayed high polarizability, high density, high acoustic velocity and low resistivity. All the main polymetallic mineralization layers are developed in fractures or fractured zones, and the fractures and fractured zones can be identified by an ultrasonic imaging log, thus the log results indirectly indicate the occurrence of polymetallic mineralization layers. Additionally, the relationship between the dip direction of fractures and the well deviation provides guidance for straightening of the drilling hole. (paper)

  4. Controlled drilling technology for HLW management. Directional drilling and mechanics/stress measurements in the borehole

    Kiho, Kenzo; Shin, Koichi; Okada, Tetsuji; Obuchi, Yasuyoshi; Sunaga, Takayuki; Hase, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been conducting the project on controlled drilling and the logging/measurement technologies in its boreholes. Especially borehole pressure meter and bore hole stress measurement apparatus which can apply to the controlled drilling system was developed. The bore hole was drilled to the 1000 m long in order to intersect the Omagari fault located at Horonobe town in Hokkaido and its core recovery was 99.8% as of FY. 2011. Using borehole logging/measurement/survey, the geological, hydrological, geo-mechanical, geophysical and geochemical data were collected and the Omagari fault was characterized. (author)

  5. Aerated drilling cutting transport analysis in geothermal well

    Wakhyudin, Aris; Setiawan, Deni; Dwi Marjuan, Oscar

    2017-12-01

    Aeratad drilling widely used for geothermal drilling especially when drilled into predicted production zone. Aerated drilling give better performance on preventing lost circulation problem, improving rate of penetration, and avoiding drilling fluid invasion to productive zone. While well is drilled, cutting is produced and should be carried to surface by drilling fluid. Hole problem, especially pipe sticking will occur while the cutting is not lifted properly to surface. The problem will effect on drilling schedule; non-productive time finally result more cost to be spent. Geothermal formation has different characteristic comparing oil and gas formation. Geothermal mainly has igneous rock while oil and gas mostly sedimentary rock. In same depth, formation pressure in geothermal well commonly lower than oil and gas well while formation temperature geothermal well is higher. While aerated drilling is applied in geothermal well, Igneous rock density has higher density than sedimentary rock and aerated drilling fluid is lighter than water based mud hence minimum velocity requirement to transport cutting is larger than in oil/gas well drilling. Temperature and pressure also has impact on drilling fluid (aerated) density. High temperature in geothermal well decrease drilling fluid density hence the effect of pressure and temperature also considered. In this paper, Aerated drilling cutting transport performance on geothermal well will be analysed due to different rock and drilling fluid density. Additionally, temperature and pressure effect on drilling fluid density also presented to merge.

  6. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)

    Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

  7. Precision hole punching on composite fiber reinforced polymer panels

    Abdullah, A. B.; Zain, M. S. M.; Chan, H. Y.; Samad, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Structural materials, such as composite panels, can only be assembled, and in most cases through the use of fasteners, which are fitted into the drilled holes. However, drilling is costly and time consuming, thus affecting productivity. This research aims to develop an alternative method to drilling. In this paper, the precision of the holes was measured and the effects of the die clearance to the areas around the holes were evaluated. Measurement and evaluation were performed based on the profile of the holes constructed using Alicona IFM, a 3D surface measurement technique. Results showed that punching is a potential alternative to drilling but still requires improvements.

  8. Influence of Drilling Parameters on Torque during Drilling of GFRP Composites Using Response Surface Methodology

    Mohan, N. S.; Kulkarni, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer based composites have marked their valuable presence in the area of aerospace, defense and automotive industry. Components made of composite, are assembled to main structure by fastener, which require accurate, precise high quality holes to be drilled. Drilling the hole in composite with accuracy require control over various processes parameters viz., speed, feed, drill bit size and thickens of specimen. TRIAC VMC machining center is used to drill the hole and to relate the cutting and machining parameters on the torque. MINITAB 14 software is used to analyze the collected data. As a function of cutting and specimen parameters this method could be useful for predicting torque parameters. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of drilling parameters to get low torque value. Results show that thickness of specimen and drill bit size are significant parameters influencing the torque and spindle speed and feed rate have least influence and overlaid plot indicates a feasible and low region of torque is observed for medium to large sized drill bits for the range of spindle speed selected. Response surface contour plots indicate the sensitivity of the drill size and specimen thickness to the torque.

  9. Reaction of Topopah Spring tuff with J-13 water at 1500C: samples from drill cores USW G-1, USW GU-3, USW G-4, and UE-25h No. 1

    Oversby, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of Topopah Spring tuff selected from vertical drill holes USW G-1, GU-3, and G-4, and from the horizontal air-drilled hole at Fran Ridge were reacted with J-13 water at 150 0 C. The primary purpose of these experiments was to compare the resulting solution chemistries to estimate the degree of homogeneity that might be expected in thermally affected ground water in a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The second purpose was to relate data obtained from welded devitrified Topopah Spring tuff collected from the potential repository depth to that previously obtained using outcrop samples. The results show very similar aqueous phase chemistries for all samples after reaction for times up to 70 days. The largest difference in final solution concentrations was for silica in one of the samples from Fran Ridge. All vertical drill core samples gave results for silica that were in agreement to within +-6 ppM and indicated solubility controlled by cristobalite. The results for reaction at 150 0 C are in agreement with those obtained in previous experiments using surface outcrop samples from Fran Ridge. The major difference between the drill core results and the outcrop samples is found in the data for room-temperature rinse solutions. The outcrop samples show relatively large amounts of soluble salts that can be easily removed at room temperature. The data for room-temperature rinsing of drill core samples show no significant quantities of readily soluble salts. This result is particularly significant for the samples from the air-drilled hole at Fran Ridge, since drilling fluid that might have removed soluble salts was not used in the portion of the hole from which the samples were obtained. This result strongly suggests that the presence of soluble salts is a surface evaporation phenomenon, and that such materials are unlikely to be present at the depth of the repository

  10. Drilling mud

    Babets, M A; Nechayev, N D; Vinogradova, G P

    1982-01-01

    A drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, alkali, water and stabilizer reagent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the viscosity and static shear stress, the stabilizer reagent contained is composted solid general wastes with the following ratio of components (% by weight): clay 10-15, alkali 0.1-0.2; composted solid general wastes 2-5; water--the rest.

  11. Bucket drill

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  12. Radon/radium detection increases uranium drilling effectiveness

    Morse, R.H.; Cook, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of portable radon detectors has become routine in reconnaissance uranium surveys where water and sediment samples are analyzed in field labs for radon and radium, and in detailed work where drill hole locations are pinpointed by field determinations of radon in soil gas from shallow holes. During the drilling program itself, however, very few operators are taking advantage of radon and radium analyses to decide whether a barren drill hole was a near miss or whether the immediate area can be written off. The technique, which is outlined here, is effective both above and below the water table

  13. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual report

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of the project on Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance. This project is funded under the Department of Energy`s Class I program which is targeted towards improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in fluvial-dominated deltaic deposits. The project involves an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by the drilling of horizontal injection wells to improve production performance. The type of data we have integrated include cross bore hole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on logs and cores, and engineering information. This report covers the second phase of the project which includes a detailed reservoir description of the field by integrating all the available information, followed by flow simulation of the Self Unit under various operating conditions. Based on an examination of the various operating parameters, we observed that the best possible solution to improve the Self Unit performance is to recomplete and stimulate most of the wells followed by an increase in the water injection rate. Drilling of horizontal injection well, although helpful in improving the performance, was not found to be economically feasible. The proposed reservoir management plan will be implemented shortly.

  14. Drilling mortar

    Theodorescu, V; Ditulescu, E

    1979-01-30

    A method is proposed for producing stable drilling mortar from drilled rock which makes it possible to stabilize the walls of the borehole and to maintain producing horizons of oil and gas wells in an undisturbed state. The proposed drilling mortar includes 5-12 wt.-% dry modified calcium lignosulfonate in the form of a solution containing about 30% dry matter with the addition of 0.1 wt.-% anti-foaming agent consisting of C/sub 19/-C/sub 20/ alcohol dissolved in a light petroleum product; cream of milk with about 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a quantity sufficient for reducing the pH value of the ions down to 10.5; sodium chloride in amounts from 5 mg to 100 ml (aqueous phase); ordinarily used agents for ensuring the necessary density, viscosity, and filterability. For example, the preparation of the drilling fluid begins with the processing under laboratory conditions of lignosulfonic pulp obtained in the production of yeast fodder with the following characteristics: specific density, 1.15 kgf/dm/sup 3/; water content, 67% (according to the Dean and Stark method); pH 4.0. In the vessel is placed 1000 cm/sup 3/ lignosulfonic pulp containing 33% dry matter, and the pulp is heated to 90-95/sup 0/C by means of a water bath. To the heated pulp 33 cm/sup 3/ formic acid at a 40-% concentration is added by mixing. The specific temperature of the pulp is maintained in the constant mixing process for two hours. Then the cream of milk containing 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ is added to raise the pH to 10.5. The cooled product is calcium lignosulfonate. To produce a stable form of the drilling mortar, 750 g clay and 10 g trass gel are added to a vessel containing 1500 cm/sup 3/ fresh water by means of mixing. The resulting dispersed mass remains at rest for 12 hours for purposes of hydration. Then 2 g of an anti-foaming agent dissolved in 6 cm/sup 3/ benzene is introduced to 1000 cm/sup 3/ modified calcium lignosulfonate produced by the above method.

  15. Drill-string design for directional wells

    Dawson, R; Corbett, K T [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA)

    1983-01-01

    This paper is concerned with predicting the tension and torsion loads on drill strings in directional wells and with adjusting the string design or well plan to provide adequate strength. Drill-string drag is the incremental force that is required to move the pipe up or down in the hole; torque is the moment required to rotate the pipe. Drag forces are usually given relative to the string weight measured with the string roating but not reciprocating. Measured from the roating string weight, the pick-up drag is usually slightly greater than the slack-off drag. The magnitudes of torque and drag are related in any particular well; high drag forced and exessive torque loads normally occur together. There are a number of phenomena wich contribute to torque and drag. Included are tight hole conditions, sloughing hole, keyseats, differential sticking, cuttings build up due to poor hole cleaning and sliding wellbore friction. With the exception of sliding friction, these causes are associated with problem conditions in the wellbore. Conversely, in wells with good hole conditions, the primary source of torque and drag is sliding friction. This paper is only concerned with the torque and drag caused by sliding friction. The cabability to predict frictional loads on drill pipe has two main benefits. First, more complete knowledge of drill-string loading allows use of improved drill-string design techniques. Drill-string components can be chosen using a systematic approach considering the force involved. Second, deep, highly-deviated wells can be planned to minimize torque and drag. Use of torque and drag as a criteria to select the most appropriate well path will help ensure successful drilling operations to total depth. 1 fig., 2 tabs. (Author).

  16. Interactive Drilling Using Real-time LWD A Chevron Nigeria Ltd And Schlumberger Experience

    Parvez, B.; Ingham, S.; Raginal, O.; Osman, K.

    2002-01-01

    CNL's experience is that the most effective means of GeoSteering horizontal wells is to co-locate the GeoSteering and multi-disciplinary Asset teams in Central location and not at the well site. Real-Time Logging-While-Drilling and reliable data transmissions are both key to successful interactive drilling from a remote location. The accuracy and quality of LWD Real-Time measurements and their use for true geological and GeoSteering evaluation are presented in this paper.Customization of data frames and samples time to acquire a real-time log suite suitable for a specific geological problem will be discussed first then the effects of the drilling environments on sensor response, the relationship of specified sensor accuracy to logging speeds and data transmission rates. The paper then proceeds to the different sources of noise on real-time data and quality control procedures like filter mechanism, spectral analysis and recapturing of the LWD data on the rig.After a brief description of data transmission systems the paper will end with discussion on use of while drilling data for true geological and GeoSteering evaluation and implementation of some new evaluation concepts, decision trees and best practices.Examples will illustrate the customization of data frames. Effects of rate of penetration, tool rotation, sample time on real-time data. Real-time log interpretation like effects of approaching bed boundary, anisotropy and invasion and of hole enlargement

  17. Diagnostic System of Drill Condition in Laminated Chipboard Drilling Process

    Swiderski Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an on-line automatic system for recognition of the drill condition in a laminated chipboard drilling process. Two states of the drill are considered: the sharp enough (still able to drill holes acceptable for processing quality and worn out (excessive drill wear, not satisfactory from the quality point of view of the process. The automatic system requires defining the diagnostic features, which are used as the input attributes to the classifier. The features have been generated from 5 registered signals: feed force, cutting torque, noise, vibration and acoustic emission. The statistical parameters defined on the basis of the auto regression model of these signals have been used as the diagnostic features. The sequential step-wise feature selection is applied for choosing the most discriminative set of features. The final step of recognition is done by support vector machine classifier working in leave one out mode. The results of numerical experiments have confirmed good quality of the proposed diagnostic system.

  18. Drilling a better pair : new technologies in SAGD directional drilling

    Zimmer, C.; Richter, D. [Statoil Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Person, J.; Tilley, J.; Bittar, M. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Leismer Demonstration Project (LDP) is the first of 8 proposed major steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects for Statoil's Kai Kos Dehseh (KKD) asset in the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen resources are expected to produce approximately 2.2 billion barrels of oil over approximately 35 years with a peak production of 220,000 bbl/day. To date, 23 well pairs have been drilled on 4 drilling pads. The precise placement of well pairs is among the most important factors in a successful SAGD drilling program. The producer well must be placed in relation to the reservoir boundaries. It must also be accurately twinned with the injector well. A strong focus on technological innovation is needed in order to deliver on these high expectations in unconsolidated formations, such as the McMurray oil sands. Lateral SAGD pairs are often drilled with conventional steerable mud motors and logging-while-drilling (LWD) resistivity measurements, but this combination imposes certain limitations in terms of wellbore quality and placement. Several industry firsts were successfully implemented at the Statoil LDP, including a combination of the newest and most cutting-edge directional, measurement, and LWD technology. The keystone of these industry firsts was the use of a soft formation modified, point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS), used on 20 horizontal wells. The RRS was combined with an ultra deep azimuthal resistivity sensor to provide precise geosteering along the bottom bed boundary in the producer wells, resulting in improved reservoir capture and reservoir characterization. This paper described the new drilling system and its impact on the progressive future of directional drilling in SAGD. 8 refs., 1 tab., 22 figs.

  19. Drilling mud

    Baranovskiy, V D; Brintsev, A I; Gusev, V G; Katenev, Ye P; Pokhorenko, I V

    1979-10-25

    A drilling mud is proposed, which contains a dispersion medium, a dispersion phase, for instance, clay, a stabilizer reagent, for instance, carboxymethylcellulose and a weighter. In order to reduce the viscosity and to increase the stability of the mud it contains as the dispersion medium a 75% aqueous solution of the L-7 reagent. To increase the salt resistance of the mud, it additionally contains sodium chloride in a volume of 4.04.5 percent by weight, and to regulate the alkalinity, it additionally contains sodium hydroxide in a volume of 1.1 to 1.3 percent by weight.

  20. Problems in the development of high-rank CBM horizontal wells in the Fanzhuang–Zhengzhuang Block in the Qinshui Basin and countermeasures

    Yongping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coal reservoirs in the Qinshui Basin are characterized by high thermal evolution degree, low permeability, low reservoir pressure, lower gas saturation and strong heterogeneity, so its coalbed methane (CBM development is quite difficult. In this paper, the development practice of high-rank CBM horizontal wells in the Fanzhuang–Zhengzhuang Block was analyzed in terms of geological and engineering factors to clarify the productivity influencing factors, suitable geological conditions and potential tapping countermeasures of multi-lateral horizontal wells. It is shown that the reasons for the low development efficiency of multi-lateral horizontal wells are divided into three types. The first one is geological factor, such as encountering low CBM content areas or faults. The second is engineering factor, such as drilling fluid plugging, drilling collapse, drainage collapse and dust coal blockage. The third is the combination of both factors. It is concluded that encountering low CBM content areas and faults, collapse and blockage are the main reasons for the low production of multi-lateral horizontal wells in the Zhengzhuang–Fanzhuang Block, with the CBM content higher than 20 m3/t, the ratio of critical desorption pressure and reservoir pressure higher than 0.7 and vitrinite reflectance (Ro higher than 3.8. The prerequisite for an open-hole horizontal well in this area to produce CBM at a high rate is that the well lies in the tensile stress zone. Finally, the countermeasures to tap the potential of some inefficient wells were put forward. First, the inefficient wells which are blocked with dust coal or collapsed in the later stage should be stimulated based on classifications. And second, it is necessary to explore new types of horizontal wells so as to deal with borehole collapse and continue the operation in the later stage by using tree-like roof horizontal wells, single-lateral horizontal wells with casing or screen completion and fish

  1. Diamond-set drill bits: savings achieved at Cominak

    Artru, P.; Bibert, F.X.; Croisat, G.

    1988-01-01

    Rotary instead of percussion adoption of drilling in the underground Akouta mine (Niger) has been the cause of important savings in blasting and bolting operations. Other savings affect capital expenditures and indirect savings are coming from better working conditions. For blast holes drilling and bolting, spare parts expenditures are 2.4 times lower with rotary drilling. Drilling rods are cheaper and last longer with rotary drilling. A rotary equipped Jumbos fleet is cheaper to maintain and is 18% more available, due to less mechanical and other breakdowns. Total savings for the mine owner and operator Cominak reach more than a billion of CFA francs [fr

  2. Optimum fluid design for drilling and cementing a well drilled with coil tubing technology

    Swendsen, O.; Saasen, A.; Vassoy, B. [Statoil (Norway); Skogen, E.; Mackin, F.; Normann, S. H.

    1998-12-31

    The strategy, design and drilling fluid and cementing operations in the first two wells drilled with coil tubing technology in the Gullfaks field in the Tampen Spur Area of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are discussed. The drilling fluid use was a solids-free potassium formate/polymer brine-based fluid with a density of 1,50-1.56 g/cc, with flow properties characterized by very low fluid loss due to high extensional viscosity, a low viscosity at all shear rates, and a low degree of shear-thinning. The low viscous drilling fluid is considered to have been the major contributing factor in achieving excellent hole cleaning, no differential sticking, successful setting of cement kick-off plugs, problem-free running of the liner, and excellent zonal isolation when cementing the liner. These experiences led the authors to conclude that it is possible to formulate a brine-based solids-free drilling fluid with low viscosity and fluid loss properties for most formation pressure regimes, and that such a drilling fluid is well suited to drilling highly deviated slim hole wells where hole cleaning and differential sticking present special challenges. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  4. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  5. Avoiding pollution in scientific ocean drilling

    Francis, T.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Scientific ocean drilling has been carried out in the world's oceans since the nineteen sixties. From 1968-83 the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), managed by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California under a contract with the US National Science Foundation, employed the drilling vessel Glomar Challenger for this purpose. In January 1985 the Ocean Drilling Program (GDP), operated by Texas A and M University, began operations with the drillship JOIDES Resolution which continue to this day. The principal funding agency remains the US National Science Foundation, but since its inception GDP has been an international program and currently receives financial support from 21 countries. The ODP operates globally and, as with DSDP before it, drills without a riser or blowout preventer in a wide range of geological environments. Water depths at GDP drill sites have ranged from 38 m to 5969 m, but are typically within the range 1000-5000 m. Depths of penetration at GDP drill sites, while generally less than 1000 m, have ranged up to 2111 m below the sea floor. The drilling fluid is seawater, although occasional slugs of mud are circulated to clean or condition the hole. Thus drilling is carried out without well control, i.e. without the ability to control pressures within the well. Because of the absence of well control, it is vital to ensure that the drillship does not drill into an accumulation of oil or gas. Drilling into a charged reservoir and causing oil or gas to escape into the marine environment is recognised as the main pollution hazard in scientific ocean drilling

  6. Extended Reach Drilling on the example of Reelwell Drilling Method: Influence examination of different drill pipes on drilling performance on Idun field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf by PGNiG Norway AS.

    Krol, Dariusz Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Horizontal or extended reach drilling is incredibly fast growing technology. Although in some areas of the world ERD is still novelty, most of oil companies have been using the technology reliably and successfully for dozens of years. And those companies want to improve well-worn solutions to obtain better performance, thereby reducing costs. One of the main aspects that affects drilling performance and efficiency is adequate choice of drill pipe...

  7. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories

    1986-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from twelve boreholes drilled in Area 25 under the guidance of the Sandia National Laboratory. They were drilled to provide samples and alluvial thickness determinations for the repository surface facilities, especially with respect to foundation conditions. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities and review of hole conditions

  8. Well successfully drilled with high performance water-based fluid: Santos Basins, offshore Brazil

    Fornasier, Frank C.; Luzardo, Juan P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Bishnoi, M.L. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    takes into consideration four quadrants aspects: technical, logistical, economical, and environmental considerations. In addition, it was used to successfully drill the 8-1/2 inch interval with no NPT during horizontal drilling operations, tripping, running casing and cementing. No bit balling was observed, and it allowed excellent performance as demonstrated by wellbore conditions while tripping. The drilling fluid was left in hole for around 4 months. Only circulating and minimum treatments, like alkalinity agents and biocides, were applied. Throughout this period, the drilling fluids properties remained stable, and the caliper log presented excellent quality. (author)

  9. Operational Review of the First Wireline In Situ Stress Test in Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Casey Moore

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific ocean drilling’s first in situ stress measurement was made at Site C0009A during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 319 as part of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2. The Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT, Schlumbergerwireline logging tool was deployed in riser Hole C0009A to measure in situ formation pore pressure, formation permeability (often reported as mobility=permeability/viscosity, and the least principal stress (S3 at several isolated depths (Saffer et al., 2009; Expedition 319 Scientists, 2010. The importance of in situ stress measurements is not only for scientific interests in active tectonic drilling, but also for geomechanical and well bore stability analyses. Certain in situ tools were not previously available for scientific ocean drilling due to the borehole diameter and open hole limits of riserless drilling. The riser-capable drillship, D/V Chikyu,now in service for IODP expeditions, allows all of the techniques available to estimate the magnitudes and orientations of 3-D stresses to be used. These techniques include downhole density logging for vertical stress, breakout and caliper log analyses for maximum horizontal stress, core-based anelastic strain recovery (ASR, used in the NanTroSEIZE expeditions in 2007–2008, and leak-off test (Lin et al., 2008 and minifrac/hydraulic fracturing (NanTroSEIZE Expedition319 in 2009. In this report, the whole operational planning process related to in situ measurements is reviewed, and lessons learned from Expedition 319 are summarized for efficient planning and testing in the future.

  10. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  11. Development of controlled drilling system

    Kiho, Kenzo; Miyakawa, Kimio; Suzuki, Koichi; Sunaga, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, the soft sedimentary rock of the Neogene tertiary is being focused as a host rock for the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal. Especially, the soft sedimentary rock at the offshore, region is thought to be one of the best candidates, since there is no driving force of the underground water. The measurement and logging in the bore hole in order to check the hydro-geological and geomechanical conditions of the host rock is a very important way to examine the potentially of the disposal candidates. The CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has been conducting the project about the controlled drilling technology and the measurement and logging technologies in its borehole. In 2000, as the beginning year of the project, we made the conceptual design of the drilling and measuring systems, and made key tools concerning each technology on an experimental basis. We have been developing sub tools constructing drilling and measuring systems since 2000, and applying these systems to the Horonobe site recent 5 years. We will briefly report the outline of the system and the results of drilling and measurement that were carried out at the Horonobe site. (author)

  12. Ice drilling for blasting boreholes in deep seismic surveys (JARE-43 by steam type drilling system

    Atsushi Watanabe

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A seismic exploration was accomplished in the austral summer of 2001-2002 by the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 along a profile oblique to that held by JARE-41 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica. We used a steam type drilling system to obtain seven blasting boreholes. We spent 7 to 8 hours to make an enough depth of the hole for one shot point. The holes were 35 to 40 cm in diameter and 23.5 to 28.7 m in depth. The average drilling speed was 3.25 m/hr.

  13. Problems in the wellbore integrity of a shale gas horizontal well and corresponding countermeasures

    Zhonglan Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Changning–Weiyuan national shale gas demonstration area, SW Sichuan Basin, the wellbore integrity damage occurs in some shale gas wells and has direct effect on the gas production rate of single shale gas horizontal well. After statistics analysis was performed on the problems related with wellbore integrity, such as casing damage, casing running difficulty and cement sheath blow-by, the multi-factor coupling casing stress calculation and evaluation mode laws established. Then study was conducted on the influential mechanism of multi-factor coupling (temperature effect, casing bending and axial pressure on casing damage. The shale slip mechanism and its relationship with casing sheared formation were analyzed by using the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. Inversion analysis was performed on the main controlling factors of casing friction by using the developed casing hook load prediction and friction analysis software. And finally, based on the characteristics of shale gas horizontal wells, wellbore integrity control measures were proposed in terms of design and construction process, so as to improve the drilling quality (DQ. More specifically, shale gas well casing design calculation method and check standard were modified, well structure and full bore hole trajectory design were optimized, drilling quality was improved, cement properties were optimized and cement sealing integrity during fracturing process was checked. These research findings are significant in the design and management of future shale gas borehole integrity.

  14. Uranium Geologic Drilling Project, Sand Wash Basin, Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado:

    1978-01-01

    This environmental assessment of drill holes in Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado considered the current environment; potential impacts from site preparation, drilling operations, and site restoration; coordination among local, state and federal plans; and consideration of alternative actions for this uranium drilling project

  15. Tesco's Bob Tessari: launching a drilling revolution

    Budd, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 'Casing Drilling' technology, patented by Tesco, which allows operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells, is described. The system is claimed to substantially reduce the amount of lost circulation, loss of well control and bore hole instability problems that have been documented to account for about 25 per cent of total rig time on a well, and at least $4 billion (or 10 per cent of the $40 billion annual global drilling tab) spent on 'unscheduled events' associated with tripping drill pipe. With the Casing Drilling process, wells are drilled using standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe. The host of downhole problems associated with tripping in and out of the hole are avoided, as the casing pipe is never removed. Instead, drill bits and other downhole tools are tripped through the casing with wireline at a rate of about 500 ft per minute, drastically reducing tripping time. Tesco also developed the portable top drive, the manufacture and rental of which constitutes a large part of the company's business, besides helping technologically to make Casing Drilling possible. Much of the company's success is attributed to the tenacity and zest for innovative approaches of the company's CEO, Bob Tessari, who is largely responsible for the company finding itself at the centre of a drilling technology revolution.

  16. Environmental restoration using horizontal wells

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems

  17. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) pressure test

    Thirud, Aase P.

    2003-07-01

    Statoil and Halliburton have completed a successful test of a new ground-breaking formation evaluation technology on the Norwegian shelf. An LWD formation tester, the GeoTapTM sensor, was used to quantify formation pressure during drilling operations. The inaugural job was completed by Halliburton's Sperry-Sun product service line onboard the Bideford Dolphin at the Borg Field while drilling a horizontal production well in the Vigdis Extension development. The GeoTap tool, part of Sperry-Sun's StellarTM MWD/LWT suite, was run in combination with a complete logging-while-drilling sensor package and the Geo-Pilot rotary steerable drilling system. Repeat formation pressures were taken and successfully transmitted to surface. This is the first time this type of technology has been successfully applied on the Norwegian shelf.

  18. Drilling technology advances on four fronts

    Budd, G.

    2002-01-01

    Trends and advances in drilling technology are discussed. Four different major trends have been identified. One of these is proprietary case drilling which is said to allow operators to simultaneously drill, case, and evaluate oil and gas wells. In proprietary case drilling, the well is drilled with standard oil field casing which remains in the hole all the time, eliminating the need for tripping. Drill bits and other downhole tools are lowered via wireline inside the casing and latched to the last joint of casing. Wells are drilled either by rotating the casing or by using a downhole mud motor for steering, using conventional directional tools. This technology was introduced by Tesco and is marketed in 25 countries along with a full range of drilling products and services. Super single rigs are an other trend which, owing to their versatility, combined with relatively small environmental footprint have become the rig of choice in a growing number of drilling programs. Super single rigs use 45-ft. joints of drill pipe, more versatile top drives and they have an automated pipe handling system. Super singles can be used on both vertical and slant wells and offer advantages of lower costs, higher efficiencies and greater drilling depths. Given their low environmental impact hydraulic capability, super singles also find application where zero disturbance rules are in effect, as for example, in some parts of southern Alberta. Directional drilling and MWD are most associated with SAGD projects but they also have been used and made significant difference in other spheres of oil recovery as well. The fact is that about 35 percent of wells drilled today are drilled with some form of directional drilling; this will stimulate the growth of ever more advanced MWD technology. Northern rigs are in a class of their own in that here the emphasis is on keeping the crew warm, as opposed to lots of gadgets. The most immediately-visible heat-conserving modification is the 60-ft wind

  19. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  20. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  1. Numerical Investigation of Influences of Drilling Arrangements on the Mechanical Behavior and Energy Evolution of Coal Models

    Tong-bin Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Destress drilling method is one of the commonly used methods for mitigating rock bursts, especially in coal mining. To better understand the influences of drilling arrangements on the destress effect is beneficial for rock burst mitigation. This study first introduced the rock burst mitigation mechanism of the destress drilling method and then numerically investigated the influences of drilling arrangements on the mechanical properties of coal models through uniaxial compression tests. Based on the test results, the energy evolution (i.e., the energy dissipation and bursting energy indexes influenced by different drilling arrangements was analyzed. When the drilling diameter, the number of drilling holes in one row, or the number of drilling rows increases, the bearing capacity of specimens nonlinearly decreases, but the energy dissipation index increases. In addition, the drilling diameter or the number of drilling holes in one row affects the failure mode weakly, which is different from that of the number of drilling rows. Consequently, the bursting energy index decreases as increasing the drilling diameter or the number of drilling holes in one row, but as increasing the number of drilling rows, the variation law of bursting energy index is not obvious. At last, the influencing mechanism of drilling arrangement on the rock burst prevention mechanism of the destress drilling method was discussed and revealed.

  2. The use of horizontal wells for subsurface soil and aquifer remediation

    May, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The use of directionally controlled horizontal drilling for environmental restoration had its genesis in 1988 when two horizontal remediation wells were drilled at the Savannah River Nuclear Facility near Aiken, South Carolina. Since that time, horizontal remediation wells have been drilled at several Department of Energy and Department of Defense sites as well as on several commercial sites across the country. Directional drilling technology applied to ''Near Surface Horizontal Environmental Drilling'' comes from the oil and gas industry, the utility/pipeline river crossing industry and to a lesser extent the mining industry. Rig designs vary from very small track or wheel mounted rigs using 10 feet (3 meters) drill pipe and having less than 2,500 ft. lb. (3,400 N-m) of torque and 15,000 lb. (67 kN) of push/pull force to extremely large trailer mounted rigs with torques exceeding 60,000 ft. lb. (81,400 N-m) and over 500,000 lb. (2,200 kN) of pull. Vertical depths of horizontal wells drilled to-date have exceeded 250 feet (75 m), but the great majority of contaminant plumes are located at depths of less than 50 feet (15 m). Horizontal well displacements have exceeded 1000 feet (300 m) but most of the projects cover less than 400 feet (120 m). Wells can be drilled ''blind'' (terminate in the earth) or exit back up the earth on the other side of the plume from the drill rig

  3. Dewatering cuts drilling mud and disposal costs

    West, G.; Pharis, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on rig site dewatering of drilling fluids with recycling of processed water that can help an operator to comply with environmental rules by reducing volumes of waste and reducing long term liabilities. It can also reduce disposal costs and provide a cleaner drill site overall. Rig site dewatering is the process of injecting coagulants or flocculating chemicals into the mud entering a large clarifying centrifuge. This coagulates the fine, drilled particles allowing them to be separated from the fluid which can then be handled separately. Most of the environmental concerns during the 1980s involved hazardous materials and toxic wastes. Drilling fluids, many of which are chemically benign, have escaped many of the difficult-to-comply-with rules and regulations. During the 1990s, however, operators may be required to submit a written plan for liquid waste reduction for even nonhazardous materials. Many states and local agencies may institute total bans on oil field wastes. Drilling rigs typically produce about 1 bbl of liquid waste for every 1 ft of hole drilled. Thus, a typical drilling operation can produce a large quantity of waste

  4. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling

    Rowley, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  5. Research on technical and technological parameters of inclined drilling

    М. В. Двойников

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of investigation results showed that the main source of oscillations is linked to bending and compressing stresses, caused by well deviations as well as rigidity of the drilling tool. In effect, in the bottom-hole assembly occur auto-oscillations, making it impossible to correct azimuth and zenith angles. Alteration of rigidity in the bottom part of the tool and drilling parameters, implying reduced rotation speed of the drill string and regulation of drill bit pressure, can partially solve this problem, though increase in rotation speed is limited by technical characteristics of existing top drive systems.

  6. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  7. Black holes

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  8. Design of a Pneumatic Tool for Manual Drilling Operations in Confined Spaces

    Janicki, Benjamin

    This master's thesis describes the design process and testing results for a pneumatically actuated, manually-operated tool for confined space drilling operations. The purpose of this device is to back-drill pilot holes inside a commercial airplane wing. It is lightweight, and a "locator pin" enables the operator to align the drill over a pilot hole. A suction pad stabilizes the system, and an air motor and flexible drive shaft power the drill. Two testing procedures were performed to determine the practicality of this prototype. The first was the "offset drill test", which qualified the exit hole position error due to an initial position error relative to the original pilot hole. The results displayed a linear relationship, and it was determined that position errors of less than .060" would prevent the need for rework, with errors of up to .030" considered acceptable. For the second test, a series of holes were drilled with the pneumatic tool and analyzed for position error, diameter range, and cycle time. The position errors and hole diameter range were within the allowed tolerances. The average cycle time was 45 seconds, 73 percent of which was for drilling the hole, and 27 percent of which was for positioning the device. Recommended improvements are discussed in the conclusion, and include a more durable flexible drive shaft, a damper for drill feed control, and a more stable locator pin.

  9. ResonantSonic drilling: History, progress, and advances in environmental restoration programs

    Moak, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    ResonantSonic drilling is being used in the environmental industry to drill faster, cheaper, and safer than conventional drilling methodologies. The ResonantSonic drilling method requires no mud, air, or water for rapid penetration through geologic materials ranging from rock and clay to sand and boulders. A specialized drill head imparts high frequency vibrations into steel drill pipe and creates a drilling action which allows the retrieval of continuous, undisturbed cores. An added benefit is that the method can be used for angle drilling. The ResonantSonic method has been used in the past for projects ranging from pile driving to horizontal drilling. Current programs utilize the technique as a valuable tool for obtaining in situ, pristine environmental samples. In the future, this drilling technology could be used for remote, automated sampling at hazardous waste sites

  10. ResonantSonic drilling: History, progress and advances in environmental restoration programs

    Volk, B.W.; McLellan, G.W.; Moak, D.J.; Lerch, R.E.; Thompson, K.M.; Barrow, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    ResonantSonic SM drilling is being used in the environmental industry to drill faster, cheaper, and safer than conventional drilling methodologies. ResonantSonic is a registered service mark of the Water Development Corporation, Woodland, California. The ResonantSonic drilling method, requires no mud, air or water for rapid penetration through geologic materials ranging from rock and clay to sand and boulders. The specialized drill head imparts high frequency vibrations into a steel drill pipe creating a drilling action which allows the retrieval of continuous, undisturbed cores. An added benefit is that the method can be used for angle drilling. The ReasonantSonic method has been used in the past for projects ranging from pile driving to horizontal drilling. Current programs are utilizing the technique as a valuable tool for obtaining in situ, pristine environmental samples. In the future, this drilling technology could be used for remote, automated sampling at hazardous waste sites

  11. Drilling trends in the nineties

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on various aspects of well drilling in the 1990s, papers were presented on drilling waste management, well completion and workovers, drilling fluids, drilling rig equipment and design, drilling mechanics, drill stem testing and materials, cementing, business management, health and safety, environmental issues, and directional drilling technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 46 papers from this conference

  12. Simulation of friction stir drilling process

    Vijayabaskar, P.; Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss

    2018-05-01

    The project is the study of the thermal drilling process. The process is a hole forming process in the sheet metals using the heat generated by means of friction. The main advantage of the process over the conventional drilling process is that the holes formed using this process does not need any backing arrangements such as weld nuts, rivet nuts etc. Because the extruded bush itself acts as a supporting structure for the fasteners. This eliminates the need for the access to the backside of the work material for fastening operations. The major factors contributing the thermal drilling operation are the spindle speed and the thrust force required for forming a hole. The process of finding out the suitable thrust force and the speed for drilling a particular material with particular thickness is a tedious process. The process can be simplified by forming a mathematical model by combining the empirical formulae from the literature. These formulae were derived in the literature from the experimental trials by following certain assumptions. In this paper a suitable mathematical model is formed by replicating the experiments and tried to be validated by the results from numerical analysis. The numerical analysis of the model is done using the ANSYS software.

  13. Multilateral wells drilling technology implementation in the Castilla Field - Colombia, to improve Guadalupe reservoirs drainage: Castilla 32, 33, and 34 ML wells cases study

    Florez, Alberto; Mercado, Orlando; Rodriguez, Sandra; Rojas, Ricardo; Naranjo, Carlos A. [ECOPETROL, Bogota (Colombia); Velez, Jorge [Halliburton Latin-America, Santa Fe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2008-07-01

    National Colombian Petroleum Company - ECOPETROL, is in the process of evaluating different technologies to increase production and improve recovery factors in their mature oil and gas fields. As part of that process, a multidisciplinary team evaluated the feasibility of multilateral well technology implementation in some of their mature fields that are currently in the late-development phase. Castilla field, located in the eastern planes of Colombia, was selected as the first option for multilateral technology implementation based in reservoir features, type of oil, and field antecedents. This paper presents the process used to conceptualize the optimum multilateral well design for Castilla field, integrating all of the geological and engineering disciplines. Geology: geological model visualization, target zones definition, pay zones lateral continuity, petrophysical properties, and fluids distribution were evaluated to select the areas to drill with advanced architecture well design. Reservoir: basic reservoir performance simulation was performed to evaluate productivity with horizontal and multilateral wells, and the difference in final reserves recovery compared with current conventional directional wells. Water production and coning problems were identified as key factors to define the multilateral well implementation in this field. Drilling: trajectory design, multilateral junction depth definition and TAML level selection, casing point's definition, drilling time and AFE estimation were the technical aspects evaluated during the planning phase to determine if the technology would be feasible. A comparison with conventional pad design was conducted to validate economic value. Multilateral TAML level 4 system selection flow process is presented applying oil industry best practices. Completion: The optimum lateral completion and production assembly design were main concerns during the planning process. Slotted liners, screens, and open-hole completion

  14. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  15. Comparative study of conventional and ultrasonically-assisted bone drilling.

    Alam, K; Ahmed, Naseer; Silberschmidt, V V

    2014-01-01

    Bone drilling is a well-known surgical procedure in orthopaedics and dentistry for fracture treatment and reconstruction. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of the drill-bone interaction is necessary to overcome challenges associated with the process and related postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of a novel drilling technique, ultrasonically-assisted drilling (UAD), and its possible utilization in orthopaedic surgeries. The study was performed by conducting experiments to understand the basic mechanics of the drilling process using high speed filming of the drilling zone followed by measurements to quantify thrust force, surface roughness and cracking of the bone near the immediate vicinity of the hole with and without ultrasonic assistance. Compared to the spiral chips produced during conventional drilling (CD), UAD was found to break the chips in small pieces which facilitated their fast evacuation from the cutting region. In UAD, lower drilling force and better surface roughness was measured in drilling in the radial and longitudinal axis of the bone. UAD produced crack-free holes which will enhance postoperative performance of fixative devices anchoring the bone. UAD may be used as a possible substitute for CD in orthopaedic clinics.

  16. Geologic and geophysical data for wells drilled at Raft River Valley, Cassia County, Idaho, in 1977-1978 and data for wells drilled previously

    Nathenson, Manuel; Urban, Thomas C.; Covington, Harry R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to better define the size of the thermal anomaly in the Raft River Valley, Idaho, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled a series of intermediate-depth (nominal 500-ft depth) wells in 1977 and 1978.  This report presents geologic, geophysical, and temperature data for these drill holes, along with data for five wells drilled by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory with U.S. Department of Energy Funding.  Data previously reported for other drill holes are also included in order to make them available as digital files.

  17. Air distribution system with the discharge action in the working cavity of downhole air hammer drills

    Timonin, VV; Alekseev, SE; Kokoulin, DI; Kubanychbek, B.

    2018-03-01

    It is proposed to carry out pre-mine methane drainage using underground degassing holes made by downhole air hammer drills. The features of downhole air drills are described. The downhole air drill layout with the simple-shape striking part is presented with its pluses and minuses. The researchers point at available options to eliminate the shortcomings. The improved layout of the downhole air hammer drill is suggested. The paper ends with the test data on the prototype air hammer drill, its characteristics and trial drilling results.

  18. Black holes

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  19. Study for increasing micro-drill reliability by vibrating drilling

    Yang Zhaojun; Li Wei; Chen Yanhong; Wang Lijiang

    1998-01-01

    A study for increasing micro-drill reliability by vibrating drilling is described. Under the experimental conditions of this study it is observed, from reliability testing and the fitting of a life-distribution function, that the lives of micro-drills under ordinary drilling follow the log-normal distribution and the lives of micro-drills under vibrating drilling follow the Weibull distribution. Calculations for reliability analysis show that vibrating drilling can increase the lives of micro-drills and correspondingly reduce the scatter of drill lives. Therefore, vibrating drilling increases the reliability of micro-drills

  20. The Hans Tausen drill

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...

  1. A status report on artificial lift systems and challenges in North Dakota horizontal completions

    Fangmeier, K. [Amerada Hess Corp., ND (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Partially pressure depleted reservoirs and unfavorable horizontal flow geometries can impact artificial lift designs and diagnostics. In addition, terrain slugging, drilling fines, high gas volume fractions, H{sub 2}S gas and high bottom hole temperatures also pose challenges. This paper provides an overview of various systems utilized by Amerada Hess, a company which examines methods of reducing gas lift gas volumes to achieve maximum flow. A description of naturally fractured reservoirs and limited natural fractures was provided. A comparison was presented between the original conditions at Beaver Lodge Madison and existing conditions with horizontal development. Various artificial lift challenges were examined. It was suggested that high volume lift utilizing gas lift was the preferred artificial lift system for high volume wells. It was noted that downhole sensors can be used as an indicator of potential run life. However, reliability is limited by downhole operating temperatures and electrical ground faults. A comparison of friendly and unfriendly flow systems was presented, as well as a gas lift pressure chart. A summary of average gas volume systems was provided as well as an example of a response to increase drawdown. Examples of downhole Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) sensors were provided, as well as possible flowing pressure profiles in horizontal completion because of the constraints of lift capacity. It was concluded that a single point injection and proven gas lift system is the next step in high volume lift strategy. 2 tabs, 16 figs.

  2. Tragacanth gum: an effective oil well drilling fluid additive

    Mahto, V.; Sharma, V. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-02-15

    The low penetration rate, excessive torque and drag, poor hole cleaning and formation damage are major impediments in drilling oil and gas well. These have a major impact on drilling efficiency and well economics. Keeping these in mind, an attempt was made to design a water based drilling fluid system using Indian bentonite clays and tragacanth gum. The effect of tragacanth gum on rheological behavior of three different Indian bentonite water suspensions was studied and a drilling fluid system was developed. The filtrates of these drilling fluids were subjected to formation damage study on the field core using Ruska Liquid Permeameter. The laboratory investigation furnishes that tragacanth gum acts as a good viscosifier and fluid loss control agent. The drilling fluid filtrate also has less effect on formation damage. (author)

  3. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  4. South African drilling

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    According to the president of the South African Drilling Association, the drilling industry is meeting head-on the challenges created by the worldwide recession. The paper is a synopsis of several of the papers presented at the SADA symposium and a look at several mining-related drilling projects in South Africa. These papers include grouting techniques, the use of impregnated bits in hard rock drilling, tunnel boring for mines, surveying improvement methods and the use of explosives to increase groundwater yield

  5. Application of Numerical Simulation for the Analysis of the Processes of Rotary Ultrasonic Drilling

    Naď Milan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is a hybrid process that combines diamond grinding with ultrasonic machining. It is most suitable to machine hard brittle materials such as ceramics and composites. Due to its excellent machining performance, RUM is very often applied for drilling of hard machinable materials. In the final phase of drilling, the edge deterioration of the drilled hole can occur, which results in a phenomenon called edge chipping. During hole drilling, a change in the thickness of the bottom of the drilled hole occurs. Consequently, the bottom of the hole as a plate structure is exposed to the transfer through the resonance state. This resonance state can be considered as one of the important aspects leading to edge chipping. Effects of changes in the bottom thickness and as well as the fillet radius between the wall and bottom of the borehole on the stress-strain states during RUM are analyzed.

  6. Application of Numerical Simulation for the Analysis of the Processes of Rotary Ultrasonic Drilling

    Naď, Milan; Čičmancová, Lenka; Hajdu, Štefan

    2016-12-01

    Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is a hybrid process that combines diamond grinding with ultrasonic machining. It is most suitable to machine hard brittle materials such as ceramics and composites. Due to its excellent machining performance, RUM is very often applied for drilling of hard machinable materials. In the final phase of drilling, the edge deterioration of the drilled hole can occur, which results in a phenomenon called edge chipping. During hole drilling, a change in the thickness of the bottom of the drilled hole occurs. Consequently, the bottom of the hole as a plate structure is exposed to the transfer through the resonance state. This resonance state can be considered as one of the important aspects leading to edge chipping. Effects of changes in the bottom thickness and as well as the fillet radius between the wall and bottom of the borehole on the stress-strain states during RUM are analyzed.

  7. Casing drilling - first experience in Brazil; Casing drilling - primeira experiencia no Brasil

    Placido, Joao Carlos Ribeiro; Medeiros, Fernando; Lucena, Humberto; Medeiros, Joao Carlos Martins de; Costa, Vicente Abel Soares Rosa da; Silva, Paulo Roberto Correa da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Renato J.M. [Tesco, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the 'Casing Drilling' technology and its first experience in Brazil. This new process of casing while drilling was first developed to reduce costs. This system integrates the drilling process and casing running in one operation, promoting a more efficient well construction system, reducing trip time and costs of drill pipes and their transportation. Besides, this methodology intends to eliminate hole problems related to trouble zones with abnormal pressure with loss circulation, to overcome zones with wellbore instabilities, and to facilitate well control. Two companies have been identified using this technology: Tesco and Weatherford. However, there are differences between the techniques used by these companies, which are described in this paper. In the first experience in Brazil, it was decided to field test the technology developed by Tesco. This paper describes the preparation, the operation and the results of this first test. (author)

  8. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  9. Horizontal well geosteering: planning, monitoring and geosteering

    Mottahedeh, R.

    2008-11-15

    The geosteering process should not be seen as a process solely designated for the most expensive or highest profile horizontal wells. It can be regarded as another tool for improving the odds of success by remaining in the productive zone for longer periods of drilling. Also, it can be used to optimize the positioning of a horizontal wellbore in the sweet spots within the reservoir. The current process has been successfully applied to large infill drilling programs at over 40 wells for heavy oil, tight gas, conventional oil and gas plays and for Mannville coalbed methane (CBM) in Alberta. The service has been provided irrespective of location, as long as the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML)/Pason Satellite service is available. Exploration and production (E&P) companies are continuously being driven to reduce the cost per barrel of oil equivalent (BOE). E&P needs and technologies related to advanced and accurate directional drilling, communication of vital data in real-time through the internet, as well as reduced cycle time associated with advanced forward-looking 3D geo-modelling and visualization technologies, are currently converging. The motivation to reduce costs has been responsible for advancing the horizontal well geosteering process by incorporating the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool into mainstream drilling practices. The universal economic benefits gained can be found in all resource play types (conventional oil and gas, heavy oil, tight gas and coalbed methane). It is important to note that the process described here is essentially collaborative. For best results, there must be cooperation between the E&P operational geologist, wellsite geologist, directional driller and geo-modelling staff, as well as the engineering consultants involved in the project (i.e. the team as a whole).

  10. Gaspe hole sets depth record

    1970-03-09

    The deepest diamond-cored hole in the Western Hemisphere, Gulf Sunnybank No. 1 on the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec, has been completed at a depth of 11,600 ft. This is the deepest cored hole to be drilled anywhere in search of oil and gas production, and the deepest to be drilled using a wire-line core recovery technique. The well was completed in 183 days, and was cored continuously below the surface casing which was set and cemented at 1,004 ft. After underreaming a portion of the bottom of the hole, intermediate casing was set and cemented at 8,000 ft as a safety precaution against possible high oil or gas-fluid pressure. Actual coring time, after deducting time for underreaming and casing operations, was 152 days. Because of the cost of transporting a conventional oil-drilling rig to the E. location, the 89-ft mining rig was modified for the project. The contractor was Heath and Sherwood Drilling (Western) Ltd.

  11. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  12. Improving steamflood effectiveness by horizontal producers

    Leonhardt, B. [Wintershall AG, Barnstorf (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The Emlichheim oilfield is located in North-West-Germany on the Dutch-German border being the Southern downdip part of the Schoonebeek anticline. The field was discovered in 1943 and came on production in 1944. Since production startup, Wintershall operates the field as owner of the concession (90% share of interest) in a joint venture with Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH (10%). For more than 50 years an average crude oil production of 150.000 t/year has been maintained. Starting with huff ''n'' puff and hot water flooding in the late 60's, the first steam flood project was implemented in 1981. Further steamflood projects started in 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1998 in different areas of the field. Until 1997, only vertical production wells were drilled in the field. Wellbore stability seemed to be a major problem for drilling horizontal wells in the unconsolidated sandstone reservoir at that time. In 1999 an innovative steamflood project was started with three newly drilled horizontal producers surrounding a vertical steam injector. First results are showing a significant improvement in the performance as compared to the earlier projects and offer new chances for further development of the field. Today, the field could no longer be operated without the steam projects as roughly 95% of the field production is coming from thermal EOR. This paper gives a brief overview of the field and its production history, the planning and realization of a current steamflood project using horizontal well technology as well as its performance compared to the earlier projects. It also describes the experience of drilling horizontal wells in the unconsolidated sandstone. A brief outlook to the future field development is given. (orig.)

  13. Drilling contracts and incentives

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  14. The effect of drilling parameters for surface roughness in drilling of AA7075 alloy

    Yaşar Nafiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA7075 aluminum alloy has been very popular significantly interest in the production of structural components in automotive and aviation applications due to its high strength, low density, good plasticity and better machinability comparable to many metals. Particularly, final products must have uniformly high quality to ensure essential safety standards in the aircraft industry. The optimization of hole quality which can variable according to tool geometry and drilling parameters is important in spite of high machinability rate of AA7075 alloy. In this study, the effects of drilling parameters on average surface roughness (Ra has been investigated in drilling of AA7075 with tungsten carbide drills. Machining experiments were performed with three different drill point angles and three different levels of cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed. The effects of drilling parameters on thrust force has been determined with ANOVA in %95 confidence level. Feed rate was determined as the most important factor on Ra according to ANOVA results. Moreover, it was shown that increasing feed rate leads to increase of Ra while increasing drill point angle leads to decrease of Ra. The optimum surface roughness was obtained with point angle of 130°, cutting speed of 40 m/min and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, thereby the validity of optimization was confirmed with Taguchi method.

  15. New Proposed Drilling at Surtsey Volcano, Iceland

    Jackson, Marie D.

    2014-12-01

    Surtsey, an isolated oceanic island and a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is a uniquely well-documented natural laboratory for investigating processes of rift zone volcanism, hydrothermal alteration of basaltic tephra, and biological colonization and succession in surface and subsurface pyroclastic deposits. Deposits from Surtsey's eruptions from 1963 to 1967 were first explored via a 181-meter hole drilled in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey and Icelandic Museum of Natural History.

  16. Drilling in tempered glass – modelling and experiments

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    The present paper reports experimentally and numerically obtained results for the process of drilling in tempered glass. The experimental results are drilling depths on the edge in 19mm tempered glass with a known residual stress state measured by a scattered light polariscope. The experiments have...... been modelled using a state-of-the-art model and compared with satisfying result to the performed experiments. The numerical model has been used for a parametric study, investigating the redistribution of residual stresses during the process of drilling. This is done for investigating the possibility...... of applying forces in such holes and thereby being able to mechanically assemble tempered glass without the need of drilling holes before the tempering process. The paper is the result of currently ongoing research and the results should be treated as so....

  17. Black Holes

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  18. Key technology for treating slack coal blockage in CBM recovery: A case study from multi-lateral horizontal wells in the Qinshui Basin

    Yong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of coal bed, slack coal production is inevitable in gas recovery sby water drainage. When coalbed methane (CBM wells are reentered after low energy exploitation and shut-in, the negative effect of slack coal production on productivity of CBM is irreversible. In this paper, the CBM occurrence characteristics and multi-lateral horizontal well trajectory in the Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, were analyzed. In the multi-lateral horizontal wells, the expected gas production rate could not be reached and the production rate after shut-in maintenance could not restore to the level before shut-in. The reason for these issues is that migration pathways in the reservoirs are blocked by slack coal deposits, while formation water and slack coal deposit accumulated at the troughs of horizontal sections enlarge the resistance for gas to flow into the bottom hole. Furthermore, three key technologies to deal with slack coal blockage were proposed. Firstly, CBM horizontal well trajectory should follow the principle of keeping the wellbores smooth and updip instead of being “wavy”, on the premise of guaranteeing CBM drilling rate. Secondly, the cavities of production wells, as an important part of multi-lateral horizontal wells, are capable of settling sand, and can be used for gas–liquid–solid separation. And thirdly, a tree-like horizontal well with its main hole set on stable seam top or floor, provides a stable well flushing passage for coal powder. This research provides a useful attempt in solving the problem of slack coal production in gas recovery by water drainage.

  19. Black Holes

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  20. Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Drill Point Angle and Wear on the Drilling of Woven CFRPs

    Norberto Feito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the drill geometry on the drilling of woven Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite (CFRPs. Although different geometrical effects can be considered in drilling CFRPs, the present work focuses on the influence of point angle and wear because they are the important factors influencing hole quality and machining forces. Surface quality was evaluated in terms of delamination and superficial defects. Three different point angles were tested representative of the geometries commonly used in the industry. Two wear modes were considered, being representative of the wear patterns commonly observed when drilling CFRPs: flank wear and honed cutting edge. It was found that the crossed influence of the point angle and wear were significant to the thrust force. Delamination at the hole entry and exit showed opposite trends with the change of geometry. Also, cutting parameters were checked showing the feed’s dominant influence on surface damage.

  1. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug

  2. Model of the final borehole geometry for helical laser drilling

    Kroschel, Alexander; Michalowski, Andreas; Graf, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    A model for predicting the borehole geometry for laser drilling is presented based on the calculation of a surface of constant absorbed fluence. It is applicable to helical drilling of through-holes with ultrashort laser pulses. The threshold fluence describing the borehole surface is fitted for best agreement with experimental data in the form of cross-sections of through-holes of different shapes and sizes in stainless steel samples. The fitted value is similar to ablation threshold fluence values reported for laser ablation models.

  3. Brushy Basin drilling project, Cedar Mountain, Emergy County, Utah

    Kiloh, K.D.; McNeil, M.; Vizcaino, H.

    1980-03-01

    A 12-hole drilling program was conducted on the northwestern flank of the San Rafael swell of eastern Utah to obtain subsurface geologic data to evaluate the uranium resource potential of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). In the Cedar Mountain-Castle Valley area, the Brushy Basin Member consists primarily of tuffaceous and carbonaceous mudstones. Known uranium mineralization is thin, spotty, very low grade, and occurs in small lenticular pods. Four of the 12 drill holes penetrated thin intervals of intermediate-grade uranium mineralization in the Brushy Basin. The study confirmed that the unit does not contain significant deposits of intermediate-grade uranium

  4. Quality in drilling operations

    Duncan, E; Gervais, I [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y; Pangarkar, S; Stibbs, B [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  5. Quality in drilling operations

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  6. A comparative evaluation of drilling techniques for deposits containing free gold using radioactive gold particles as tracers

    Clarkson, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the summers of 1992 and 1994, the author designed and carried out a statistically valid research program using radioactivated gold particles as tracers (radiotracers). Two types of fully cased normal circulation (N / C) drills, two types of reverse circulation (R/C) drills and three solid auger drills were evaluated under a variety of field conditions. A frozen cylindrical core of compacted gravels containing four sizes ( 1.2, 0.60, 0.30 and 0.15 mm), (+l4,+28,+48and+100 mesh)of radiotracers was placed in 44 drill holes and the holes were re drilled. Scintillometers were used to track free gold losses due to spillage and blow-by around the collar (top) of the hole. Some gold particles were located in temporary traps in the drilling equipment and these particles would have contaminated subsequent samples (as carry-over). Several myths commonly attributed to particular drilling methods were dispelled. There was no significant difference between the recovery of the four sizes of gold particles with any of the drills tested. Observations and down-hole scintillometer records indicated that the free gold particles did not follow the bit down the hole and were either carried out of the hole or forced onto the sides of the hole at or above the depth at which the radioactive gold was positioned. A comparative evaluation of the results of these tests is presented

  7. Microstructure modification of 2024 aluminum alloy produced by friction drilling

    Eliseev, A.A., E-mail: alan@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Fortuna, S.V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Kolubaev, E.A. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Kalashnikova, T.A. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-13

    In this study modification of AA2024 microstructure produced by friction drilling was investigated. To reveal the role of deformation, high temperature and friction on microstructure modification methods of optical and scanning electron microscopy and microhardness test were used. Different zones of material around friction drilling hole has a special characterization through grain size, volume fraction and size of incoherent second phase particles and microhardness. It has been found that deformation, high temperature and friction in friction drilling process lead to recrystallization of grain structure and dissolution of incoherent second phase particles due to strain-induced dissolution effect. Microhardness of recrystallized material has increased.

  8. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs

  9. Evaluation of circularity error in drilling of syntactic foam composites

    Ashrith H., S.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gaitonde, Vinayak

    2018-04-01

    Syntactic foams are widely used in structural applications of automobiles, aircrafts and underwater vehicles due to their lightweight properties combined with high compression strength and low moisture absorption. Structural application requires drilling of holes for assembly purpose. In this investigation response surface methodology based mathematical models are used to analyze the effects of cutting speed, feed, drill diameter and filler content on circularity error both at entry and exit level in drilling of glass microballoon reinforced epoxy syntactic foam. Experiments are conducted based on full factorial design using solid coated tungsten carbide twist drills. The parametric analysis reveals that circularity error is highly influenced by drill diameter followed by spindle speed at the entry and exit level. Parametric analysis also reveals that increasing filler content decreases circularity error by 13.65 and 11.96% respectively at entry and exit levels. Average circularity error at the entry level is found to be 23.73% higher than at the exit level.

  10. Confined compressive strength model of rock for drilling optimization

    Xiangchao Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The confined compressive strength (CCS plays a vital role in drilling optimization. On the basis of Jizba's experimental results, a new CCS model considering the effects of the porosity and nonlinear characteristics with increasing confining pressure has been developed. Because the confining pressure plays a fundamental role in determining the CCS of bottom-hole rock and because the theory of Terzaghi's effective stress principle is founded upon soil mechanics, which is not suitable for calculating the confining pressure in rock mechanics, the double effective stress theory, which treats the porosity as a weighting factor of the formation pore pressure, is adopted in this study. The new CCS model combined with the mechanical specific energy equation is employed to optimize the drilling parameters in two practical wells located in Sichuan basin, China, and the calculated results show that they can be used to identify the inefficient drilling situations of underbalanced drilling (UBD and overbalanced drilling (OBD.

  11. Automated steering systems applied to complex horizontal well in South Italy

    Calderoni, A.; Ligrone, A.; Trampini, A. [ENI AGIP (Italy); Oppelt, J.; Gauld, S. [Baker Hughes INTEQ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new drilling system that not only improved the quality of the borehole trajectory, but also resulted in significant savings in capital cost is described. The new concept in drilling is the result of a joint development between a major oil company and an oilfield service provider. Through providing a breakthrough technology in directional steering systems the accuracy of the borehole steering has been substantially improved. The new concept involves the use of a straight hole drilling system (SDD) in the upper hole section, in combination with the rotary steering system, AutoTrak, in the 8.5 inch hole size. By synergistically using the new automated tools, the well was drilled much more efficiently than offset wells, producing substantial time savings, a smoother trajectory and less friction. Details of the different automated directional drilling systems that were used together in a well for the first time at Monte Enoc 9 in South Italy are described. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam drilling: A review

    Gautam, Girish Dutt; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Laser beam drilling (LBD) is one of non contact type unconventional machining process that are employed in machining of stiff and high-strength materials, high strength temperature resistance materials such as; metal alloys, ceramics, composites and superalloys. Most of these materials are difficult-to-machine by using conventional machining methods. Also, the complex and precise holes may not be obtained by using the conventional machining processes which may be obtained by using unconventional machining processes. The laser beam drilling in one of the most important unconventional machining process that may be used for the machining of these materials with satisfactorily. In this paper, the attention is focused on the experimental and theoretical investigations on the pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different categories of materials such as ferrous materials, non-ferrous materials, superalloys, composites and Ceramics. Moreover, the review has been emphasized by the use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials in order to enhance productivity of this process without adverse effects on the drilled holes quality characteristics. Finally, the review is concluded with the possible scope in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling. This review work may be very useful to the subsequent researchers in order to give an insight in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials and research gaps available in this area.

  13. Drilling Experiments of Dummy Fuel Rods Using a Mock-up Drilling Device and Detail Design of Device for Drilling of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, H. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G

    2007-07-15

    KAERI are developing the safety evaluation method and the analysis technology for high burn-up nuclear fuel rod that is the project, re-irradiation for re-instrumented fuel rod. That project includes insertion of a thermocouple in the center hole of PWR nuclear fuel rod with standard burn-up, 3,500{approx}4,000MWD/tU and then inspection of the nuclear fuel rod's heat performance during re-irradiation. To re-fabricate fuel rod, two devices are needed such as a drilling machine and a welding machine. The drilling machine performs grinding a center hole, 2.5 mm in diameter and 50 mm in depth, for inserting a thermocouple. And the welding machine is used to fasten a end plug on a fuel rod. Because these two equipment handle irradiated fuel rods, they are operated in hot cell blocked radioactive rays. Before inserting any device into hot cell, many tests with that machine have to be conducted. This report shows preliminary experiments for drilling a center hole on dummy of fuel rods and optimized drilling parameters to lessen operation time and damage of diamond dills. And the design method of a drilling machine for irradiated nuclear fuel rods and detail design drawings are attached.

  14. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  15. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] 51 seismic hole histories

    1987-09-01

    This report is a compilation of data from fifty-one shallow boreholes drilled within the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the adjacent Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands. The boreholes were drilled to determine the alluvial thickness and subsurface structure. Once drilled the boreholes were used to emplace explosive charges of three seismic refraction surveys conducted in 1981, 1983 and 1984. The information presented in this report includes location maps, daily activities and reviews of hole condition

  16. Hydrodynamics of the Fluid Filtrate on Drilling-In

    Abbasov, É. M.; Agaeva, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    The volume of the liquid penetrating into the formation after drilling-in has been determined on the basis of theoretical investigations. The dynamics of change in the bottom-hole pressure has been determined in this process. It has been shown that because of the water hammer, the bottom-hole pressure can be doubled in the presence of large fractures and pores closer to the well-bottom zone.

  17. Machining of the nuclear tube sheet with small hole diameter

    Lin Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    Regarding the tube sheet for the heat exchanger of Qinshan Phase II extension project, its material is 00Cr19Ni10 forgings, the tube sheet thickness is 125 mm, requiring 178-φ10.35 0 +0.05 hole, the tube array shall take the shape of equilateral triangle, the center distance is 15 mm, and the tube hole roughness is Ra 3.2. The guide sleeve shall be adopted for positioning prior to machining of the high precision small hole of the thick tube sheet, and the gun drill and BTA drill shall be adopted for testing, finally BTA drilling with internal chip removal shall be adopted, this method shall overcome the disadvantage factor of BTA drilling and shall be the new approach for drilling. The diameter of BTA drill is φ10.34 mm. The machined hole diameter shall be φ10.375-φ10.355 mm. The ellipticity of the tube hole shall be less than 0.01 mm, the pipe bridge dimension shall be 4.6 mm, conforming to the requirement of the drawing. The paper presents the precautions during machining so as to provide the reference for the similar pipe hole machining in the future. (author)

  18. Drilling bits for deep drilling and process for their manufacture

    Rhode, H.; Juergens, R.; Feenstra, R.; Busking, B.E.

    1978-11-30

    The invention concerns a drilling head or a drilling bit for use in deep drilling in underground formations and particularly concerns a drilling bit with a drilling bit body, which has a shank and a hollow space, which is connected with a duct extending through the shank. The drilling bit body has several separate cutting elements for removing material from the floor of a borehole and hydraulic devices for cooling and/or cleaning the cutting elements are provided.

  19. Fifty Years of Soviet and Russian Drilling Activity in Polar and Non-Polar Ice: A Chronological History

    2007-10-01

    cable being separated from the drill, and further drilling ceased. The drilling operation consisted of three men working one shift. They achieved a...thickness is 160–180 m according to radio-echo sounding data. A 93-m-deep hole was drilled by two men over 127 hours (the total penetration time of...TR-07-20 89 Figure 31. KEMS-112 electro-mechanical core drill: (1) drill head, (2) core barrel, (3) nipple , (4) barrel, (5) chip filter, (6

  20. Improving recovery efficiency of water-drive channel sandstone reservoir by drilling wells laterally

    Zhiguo, F.; Quinglong, D.; Pingshi, Z.; Bingyu, J.; Weigang, L. [Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

    1998-12-31

    Example of drilling a horizontal well in reservoir rock of only four meter thick by using existing casing pipe of low efficiency vertical wells to induce production in the top remaining reservoir is described. The experience shows that drilling horizontal wells laterally in thin bodies of sandstone reservoirs and improve their productivity is a feasible proposition. Productivity will still be low, but it can be improved by well stimulation. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Further description of the petrology of the Topopah Spring member of the paintbrush tuff in drill holes UE25A-1 and USW-G1 and of the lithic-rich tuff in USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Carroll, P.I.; Caporuscio, F.A.; Bish, D.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Lithic-rich tuff and two Tertiary volcanic units that occur in cores from drill holes UE25a-1 and USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Recently they have been suggested as possibly suitable for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive waste. Earlier petrologic characterization of these units is augmented here. The Topopah Spring Member (approximately 350 m thick) has two compound cooling units. The upper, thinner unit is densely welded to vitrophyric. The lower unit ranges from nonwelded to vitrophyric, and its nonwelded base is extensively zeolitized to clinoptilolite and mordenite. Heulandite occurs as fracture fill in the overlying vitrophyric part, but zeolites are absent above that vitrophyre. Here primary devitrification plus vapor-phase crystallization dominate the mineralogy. Vapor-phase effects are especially prominent between the two vitrophyres in both cores and include numerous large lithophysal cavities throughout most of this moderately to densely welded tuff. The Lithic-rich tuff extends from 1203 to 1506 m in the USW-G1 drill core. It is nonwelded to partly welded but is well indurated due to pervasive intergrowths of authigenic minerals. These phases are analcime, albite, alkali feldspar, sericite, chlorite and quartz. The transition from analcime to secondary albite corresponds to Iijima's zeolite Zone IV boundary, and this boundary appears in USW-G1 at 1326 m. However, analcime remains as a prominent phase through most of the Lithic-rich tuff. Further work is necessary to assess the suitability of either of these horizons for a waste repository. In the Topopah Spring Member, both mechanical and hydrologic properties of thick lithophysal zone must be studied, as well as the complete sequence of fracture fill. For both units, zeolite and clay mineral stabilities need to be investigated

  2. Drilling contract issues

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  3. Neogene and Quaternary geology of a stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound

    Gohn, Gregory S.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Cronin, Thomas M.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gibson, Thomas G.; Rubin, Meyer; Willard, Debra A.

    1996-01-01

    During April and May, 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled a 510-ft-deep, continuously cored, stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound, as part of a field study of the Neogene and Quaternary geology of the Mississippi coastal area. The USGS drilled two new holes at the Horn Island site. The first hole was continuously cored to a depth of 510 ft; coring stopped at this depth due to mechanical problems. To facilitate geophysical logging, an unsampled second hole was drilled to a depth of 519 ft at the same location.

  4. Short-radius horizontal well re-entry learning curve: prize, cost and operational experience

    Boote, K. [Ocelot Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacDonald, R. [Lauron Engineering Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Six mature vertical wells in Alberta belonging to Ocelot Energy Inc., were reentered and drilled horizontally. Experiences gained, the modifications made to the drilling program and the rewards in the form of incremental oil, were discussed. Details of pre- and post-performance, operational experiences with exiting the casing, building the curve, overbalance versus underbalanced drilling, motors, directional equipment, setting liners, remedial workovers and the cost of the operation were part of the discussion.

  5. Drilling technologies in hydrogeological survey

    Vorlíček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the drilling technologies used in hydrogeology. The main aim of the work is to explore types of drilling technologies used at hydrogeological drilling wells and modern technologies that could potentially be used in the future. The work also summarizes a historical development of drilling techniques, a drilling process procedure, information obtained from boreholes and the most common types of drilling fluids.

  6. Interaction between drilled shaft and mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall : project summary.

    2015-08-31

    Drilled shafts are being constructed within the reinforced zone of mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls (Figure 1). The drilled shafts may be subjected to horizontal loads and push against the front of the wall. Distress of MSE wall panels has b...

  7. A Proposal for Research and Development of an Explosive Drilling Technique for Geothermal Wells

    None

    1975-10-01

    In order to make large scale use of the geothermal energy available it will be necessary to drill many thousands of holes deep into the earth. The objective of the proposed research is to greatly decrease drilling time and cost. Studies made of a new explosive drilling technique indicate that savings in time of from 70 to 80 percent. The research plan is to utilize explosive in the form of multiple-faced shaped charge capsules. [DJE-2005

  8. Heave disturbance attenuation in managed pressure drilling from a floating platform using model predictive control

    Hatlevik, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Since a large part of the Norwegian oil shelf has been active for over a generation, many fields begin to be depleted and the drilling operations requires tight down hole pressure margins. And by improving the pressure control for the drilling operations former undrillable wells becomes drillable. Which will make the the oilfields more profitable, and extend their life expectancy. It will also make drilling operations safer by preventing kicks and preventing environmental damages caused by mu...

  9. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    Fairbank, Brian D. [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada); Smith, Nicole [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag

  10. A cadaveric study of bone tissue temperature during pin site drilling utilizing fluoroptic thermography.

    Muffly, Matthew; Winegar, Corbett; Miller, Mark Carl; Altman, Gregory

    2018-05-03

    Using fluoroptic thermography, temperature was measured during pin site drilling of intact cortical human cadaver bone with a combination of one-step drilling, graduated drilling, and one-step drilling with irrigation of 5.0 mm Schanz pins. A 1440 rpm constant force drilling was used to on tibial diaphyses while a sensor probe placed 0.5 mm adjacent to the drill hole measured temperature. Four drilling techniques on each of the tibial segments were performed: 3.5mm drill bit, 5.0mm Schanz pin, 5.0 mm Schanz pin in 3.5 mm pre-drilled entry site, 5.0 mm Schanz pin utilizing irrigation. One-step drilling using a 5.0 mm Schanz pin without irrigation produced a temperature that exceeded the threshold temperature for heat-induced injury in 5 of the 8 trials. With the other three drilling techniques, only one in24 trials produced a temperature that would result in thermal injury. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.003). The use of irrigation significantly reduced the maximum bone tissue temperature in one-step drilling of a 5.0 mm Schanz pin (p = 0.02). One-step drilling with a 3.5 mm drill bit achieved maximum temperature significantly faster than graduated drilling and drilling with irrigation using a 5.0 mm Schanz pin (p drilling with a 5.0 mm Schanz pin into cortical bone can produce temperatures that can lead to heat-induced injury. Irrigation alone can reduce the temperatures sufficiently to avoid damage. Pre-drilling can increase temperatures significantly but the extent of any injury should be small.

  11. Characterization of rotary-percussion drilling as a seismic-while-drilling source

    Xiao, Yingjian; Hurich, Charles; Butt, Stephen D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper focuses on an evaluation of rotary-percussion drilling (RPD) as a seismic source. Two field experiments were conducted to characterize seismic sources from different rocks with different strengths, i.e. weak shale and hard arkose. Characterization of RPD sources consist of spectral analysis and mean power measurements, along with field measurements of the source radiation patterns. Spectral analysis shows that increase of rock strength increases peak frequency and widens bandwidth, which makes harder rock more viable for seismic-while-drilling purposes. Mean power analysis infers higher magnitude of body waves in RPD than in conventional drillings. Within the horizontal plane, the observed P-wave energy radiation pattern partially confirms the theoretical radiation pattern under a single vertical bit vibration. However a horizontal lobe of energy is observed close to orthogonal to the axial bit vibration. From analysis, this lobe is attributed to lateral bit vibration, which is not documented elsewhere during RPD. Within the horizontal plane, the observed radiation pattern of P-waves is generally consistent with a spherically-symmetric distribution of energy. In addition, polarization analysis is conducted on P-waves recorded at surface geophones for understanding the particle motions. P-wave particle motions are predominantly in the vertical direction showing the interference of the free-surface.

  12. Drilling cost analysis

    Anand, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Drilling assumes greater importance in present day uranium exploration which emphasizes to explore more areas on the basis of conceptual model than merely on surface anomalies. But drilling is as costly as it is important and consumes a major share (50% to 60%) of the exploration budget. As such the cost of drilling has great bearing on the exploration strategy as well as on the overall cost of the project. Therefore, understanding the cost analysis is very much important when planning or intensifying an exploration programme. This not only helps in controlling the current operations but also in planning the budgetary provisions for future operations. Also, if the work is entrusted to a private party, knowledge of in-house cost analysis helps in fixing the rates of drilling in different formations and areas to be drilled. Under this topic, various factors that contribute to the cost of drilling per meter as well as ways to minimize the drilling cost for better economic evaluation of mineral deposits are discussed. (author)

  13. Drilling for scientific purpose

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1987-09-01

    Drilling for scientific purpose is a process of conducting geophysical exploration at deep underground and drilling for collecting crust samples directly. This is because earth science has advanced to get a good understanding about the top of the crust and has shifted its main interest to the lower layer of the crust in land regions. The on-land drilling plan in Japan has just started, and the planned drilling spots are areas around the Minami River, Hidaka Mts., kinds of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granite in outside zone, the extension of Japan Sea, Ogasawara Is., Minami-Tori Is., and active volcanos. The paper also outlines the present situation of on-land drilling in the world, focusing on the SG-3rd super-deep well SG-3 on the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Satori SG-1st well SG-1 in Azerbaidzhan S.S.R, V.S.S.R, Sweden's wells, Cyprus' wells, Bayearn well Plan in West Germany, and Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program in the U.S. At its end, the paper explains the present situation and the future theme of the Japanese drilling technique and points out the necessity of developing equipment, and techniques. (14 figs, 5 tabs, 26 refs)

  14. Drilling and well technology

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Lessons learned from installation of an environmental horizontal well

    Oakley, D.B.; Nickelson, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    At Williams Air Force Base near Phoenix, Arizona, a Pilot Study/Demonstration Study is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal vs vertical wells in remediating and containing a jet fuel contaminant plume. An early stage of this project included successful installation of the world's longest, deepest environmental horizontal well. The horizontal well was installed using river crossing technology developed for drilling boreholes and installing utility conduits under rivers. Boreholes more than 5,000 ft. long have been successfully installed using river crossing technology. However, these boreholes are typically shallower than 100 ft. below land surface. Installation of the environment horizontal well proved to be extremely challenging because of the depth, the length of the borehole, and the requirements dictated by well installation criteria. Two installation attempts failed before the successful installation. The first installation attempt failed during well material installation. The second attempt resulted in the drill string becoming permanently stuck and abandoned downhole. The history of the two failed and one successful installation attempts demonstrates several lessons learned, including (1) streamline the well materials installation process as much as possible; (2) guar-gum-based drilling muds do not have the gel strength to remove sufficient cuttings from deep boreholes; (3) if sandpack around the well screen is required, a prepack screen should be installed--avoid using tremie pipes for installing a sandpack; (4) drill string location information provided by surface magnetic systems is unreliable at 150 ft. or more bls; and (5) for difficult drilling conditions, 24 hr./day drilling is recommended

  16. Formation evaluation using measurements recorded while drilling

    Coope, D.F.; Hendricks, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    Two of the measurements recorded while drilling (MWD), gamma ray and resistivity, are traditionally formation evaluation measurements. However, their primary user thus far has been the drilling engineer. The authors believe that MWD will have increasing importance in formation evaluation, and that a good understanding of MWD resistivity and gamma ray logs will be needed by the log analyst. MWD gamma ray and resistivity logs are similar to their wireline counterparts, but there are significant differences. The differences stem from different invasion (or lack of invasion) development for MWD as opposed to open hole wireline; drill collar influence on both the resistivity and gamma ray (GR) measurements - this influence is both positive and negative; and logging speed (drilling rate for MWD) is much slower for MWD and can vary erratically. The MWD logs presented in this paper demonstrate the value of using MWD logs. Emphasis is placed on both the qualitative and quantitative techniques available to the log analyst to help him get maximum benefit from the MWD logs

  17. Characterization and Effects of Fiber Pull-Outs in Hole Quality of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Composite.

    Alizadeh Ashrafi, Sina; Miller, Peter W; Wandro, Kevin M; Kim, Dave

    2016-10-13

    Hole quality plays a crucial role in the production of close-tolerance holes utilized in aircraft assembly. Through drilling experiments of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites (CFRP), this study investigates the impact of varying drilling feed and speed conditions on fiber pull-out geometries and resulting hole quality parameters. For this study, hole quality parameters include hole size variance, hole roundness, and surface roughness. Fiber pull-out geometries are quantified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the mechanically-sectioned CFRP-machined holes, to measure pull-out length and depth. Fiber pull-out geometries and the hole quality parameter results are dependent on the drilling feed and spindle speed condition, which determines the forces and undeformed chip thickness during the process. Fiber pull-out geometries influence surface roughness parameters from a surface profilometer, while their effect on other hole quality parameters obtained from a coordinate measuring machine is minimal.

  18. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  19. Drilling rig mast

    Bulgakov, E.S.; Barashkov, V.A.; Lebedev, A.I.; Panin, N.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-01-07

    A drilling rig mast is proposed that contains a portal with a carrier shaft hinged to it and struts with stays. In order to decrease the time expended in the assembly and dessembly of the drilling rig, the portal is constructed from mobile and immobile parts that are connected together by a ball pivot; the immobile section of the portal has a T-shaped recess for directing the mobile section.

  20. Metre by metre: Advances in drilling technology are unlocking the doors to stubborn reserves

    Jaremko, D.

    2004-03-01

    Advances in drilling technology such as horizontal drilling, controlled pressure drilling, underbalanced or reduced overbalanced drilling, steam assisted cavity drainage, the modified magnetic ranging system and a growing arsenal of on-line controls such as measurement-while drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) are constantly enlarging the sites to which operators can go, the range of the pay zone that they can conquer, and to design increasingly site-specific approaches to deal with the change of formation characteristics from location to location. This article provides an overview of recent advances, focusing on underbalanced, balanced and reduced overbalanced drilling, and latest versions of data acquisition systems such as MWD and LWD which are capable of operating at twice the speed of conventional systems and provide accurate data even under the extremely difficult conditions found in hostile offshore environment.