WorldWideScience

Sample records for hole geo n-1

  1. Black-Hole Attractors in N=1 Supergravity

    Andrianopoli, L; Ferrara, Sergio; Trigiante, M; Andrianopoli, Laura; Auria, Riccardo D'; Ferrara, Sergio; Trigiante, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We study the attractor mechanism for N=1 supergravity coupled to vector and chiral multiplets and compute the attractor equations of these theories. These equations may have solutions depending on the choice of the holomorphic symmetric matrix f_{\\Lambda\\Sigma} which appears in the kinetic lagrangian of the vector sector. Models with non trivial electric-magnetic duality group which have or have not attractor behavior are exhibited. For a particular class of models, based on an N=1 reduction of homogeneous special geometries, the attractor equations are related to the theory of pure spinors.

  2. Q-Φ criticality in the extended phase space of (n + 1)-dimensional RN-AdS black holes

    Ma, Yu-Bo [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); Shanxi Datong University, School of Physics, Datong (China); Zhao, Ren [Shanxi Datong University, School of Physics, Datong (China); Cao, Shuo [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-15

    In order to achieve a deeper understanding of gravity theories, i.e., the quantum properties of gravity theories and the statistical explanation of gravitational entropy, it is important to further investigate the thermodynamic properties of a black hole at the critical point, besides the phase transition and critical behaviors. In this paper, by using Maxwell's equal area law, we choose T, Q, Φ as the state parameters and study the phase equilibrium problem of a general (n + 1)-dimensional RN-AdS black holes thermodynamic system. The boundary of the two-phase coexistence region and its isotherm and isopotential lines are presented, which may provide a theoretical foundation for studying the phase transition and phase structure of black hole systems. (orig.)

  3. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-1

    Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. (Geothermal Resources International, Inc., San Mateo, CA (USA)); Walkey, W.C. (GEO Operator Corp., Bend, OR (USA))

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY Pi GHz SKY SURVEY. III. THE ELAIS-N1, COMA, AND LOCKMAN HOLE FIELDS

    Croft, Steve; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Whysong, David [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    We present results from a total of 459 repeated 3.1 GHz radio continuum observations (of which 379 were used in a search for transient sources) of the ELAIS-N1, Coma, Lockman Hole, and NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey fields as part of the Pi GHz Sky Survey. The observations were taken approximately once per day between 2009 May and 2011 April. Each image covers 11.8 square degrees and has 100'' FWHM resolution. Deep images for each of the four fields have rms noise between 180 and 310 {mu}Jy, and the corresponding catalogs contain {approx}200 sources in each field. Typically 40-50 of these sources are detected in each single-epoch image. This represents one of the shortest cadence, largest area, multi-epoch surveys undertaken at these frequencies. We compare the catalogs generated from the combined images to those from individual epochs, and from monthly averages, as well as to legacy surveys. We undertake a search for transients, with particular emphasis on excluding false positive sources. We find no confirmed transients, defined here as sources that can be shown to have varied by at least a factor of 10. However, we find one source that brightened in a single-epoch image to at least six times the upper limit from the corresponding deep image. We also find a source associated with a z = 0.6 quasar which appears to have brightened by a factor {approx}3 in one of our deep images, when compared to catalogs from legacy surveys. We place new upper limits on the number of transients brighter than 10 mJy: fewer than 0.08 transients deg{sup -2} with characteristic timescales of months to years; fewer than 0.02 deg{sup -2} with timescales of months; and fewer than 0.009 deg{sup -2} with timescales of days. We also plot upper limits as a function of flux density for transients on the same timescales.

  5. Variation of sigma-hole magnitude with M valence electron population in MX(n)Y(4-n) molecules (n = 1-4; M = C, Si, Ge; X, Y = F, Cl, Br).

    McDowell, Sean A C; Joseph, Jerelle A

    2014-01-14

    Sigma holes are described as electron-deficient regions on atoms, particularly along the extension of covalent bonds, due to non-uniform electron density distribution on the surface of these atoms. A computational study of MX(n)Y(4-n) molecules (n = 1-4; M = C, Si, Ge; X, Y = F, Cl, Br) was undertaken and it is shown that the relative sigma hole potentials on M due to X-M and Y-M can be adequately explained in terms of the variation in the valence electron population of the central M atom. A model is proposed for the depletion of the M valence electron population which explains the trends in sigma hole strengths, especially those that cannot be accounted for solely on the basis of relative electronegativities.

  6. GEO portal

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID GeoPortal is a new application that groups web-based capabilities for on-demand discovery of and access to geospatial content, services, expertise, and...

  7. Geo Uruguay

    2008-06-01

    This book is based on the Geo Uruguay project which consists on the analysis and diagnosis of the environmental impact in the human welfare. The main topics covered in the different chapters are: human welfare, geographical aspects, climate change, transport and energy, changes in land use, coastal features, biodiversity, industrial urbanization, waste and territorial ordering, energy offers like oil, wood, natural gas, coal and electricity

  8. Geo-Neutrinos

    Dye, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments in the field of geo-neutrinos. It describes current and future detection projects, discusses modeling projects, suggests an observational program, and visits geo-reactor hypotheses.

  9. Geo-Neutrinos

    Dye, S.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 (United States); College of Natural Sciences, Hawaii Pacific University, 45-045 Kamehameha Highway, Kaneohe, Hawaii, 96744 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments in the field of geo-neutrinos. It describes current and future detection projects, discusses modeling projects, suggests an observational program, and visits geo-reactor hypotheses.

  10. Geo-neutrino Observation

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  11. GeoServer cookbook

    Iacovella, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This book is ideal for GIS experts, developers, and system administrators who have had a first glance at GeoServer and who are eager to explore all its features in order to configure professional map servers. Basic knowledge of GIS and GeoServer is required.

  12. Development of Geo-Marketing

    Tatiana Ozhereleva

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the state and development of geo-marketing. The author illustrates the multi-aspectedness of geo-marketing: applied technology and management technology. The article demonstrates that geo-marketing can be viewed as a reflection of the processes of co-evolution in society. The author brings to light the specifics of geo-marketing research and situational analysis in geo-marketing. The article describes applications of geo-marketing

  13. Development of Geo-Marketing

    Tatiana Ozhereleva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the state and development of geo-marketing. The author illustrates the multi-aspectedness of geo-marketing: applied technology and management technology. The article demonstrates that geo-marketing can be viewed as a reflection of the processes of co-evolution in society. The author brings to light the specifics of geo-marketing research and situational analysis in geo-marketing. The article describes applications of geo-marketing

  14. South African oil dependency : geo-political, geo-economic and geo-strategic considerations

    2012-01-01

    Ph.D. There is little research undertaken on the economic assessment of oil security of supply from the dimensions of geo-politics, geo-economics and geo-strategy. This study seeks to bridge the gap by providing new analytical and empirical work that captures the impact of geo-politics, geo-economics and geo-strategy on oil supply, consumption and price. This study is the first to define, analyse and contextualise the South African oil security of supply from a geo-political, geo-economic ...

  15. Nonlocal N=1 supersymmetry

    Kimura, Tetsuji [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Physics Department, Lancaster University,Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen,9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Noumi, Toshifumi [Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Department of Physics, Kobe University,Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-10-05

    We construct N=1 supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of Kähler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.

  16. Internet Geo-Location

    2017-12-01

    INTERNET GEO-LOCATION DUKE UNIVERSITY DECEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) MAY 2014 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERNET GEO-LOCATION 5a. CONTRACT...of SpeedTest servers that are used by end users to measure the speed of their Internet connection. The servers log the IP address and the location

  17. Geo-neutrinos and earth's interior

    Fiorentini, Gianni; Lissia, Marcello; Mantovani, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    The deepest hole that has ever been dug is about 12 km deep. Geochemists analyze samples from the Earth's crust and from the top of the mantle. Seismology can reconstruct the density profile throughout all Earth, but not its composition. In this respect, our planet is mainly unexplored. Geo-neutrinos, the antineutrinos from the progenies of U, Th and 40 K decays in the Earth, bring to the surface information from the whole planet, concerning its content of natural radioactive elements. Their detection can shed light on the sources of the terrestrial heat flow, on the present composition, and on the origins of the Earth. Geo-neutrinos represent a new probe of our planet, which can be exploited as a consequence of two fundamental advances that occurred in the last few years: the development of extremely low background neutrino detectors and the progress on understanding neutrino propagation. We review the status and the prospects of the field

  18. GEOS. User Tutorials

    Fu, Pengchen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Settgast, Randolph R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walsh, Stuart D.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, Frederick J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-17

    GEOS is a massively parallel, multi-physics simulation application utilizing high performance computing (HPC) to address subsurface reservoir stimulation activities with the goal of optimizing current operations and evaluating innovative stimulation methods. GEOS enables coupling of di erent solvers associated with the various physical processes occurring during reservoir stimulation in unique and sophisticated ways, adapted to various geologic settings, materials and stimulation methods. Developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as a part of a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Strategic Initiative (SI) project, GEOS represents the culmination of a multi-year ongoing code development and improvement e ort that has leveraged existing code capabilities and sta expertise to design new computational geosciences software.

  19. Geo-neutrino review

    Tolich, N.

    2012-01-01

    The principal source of energy for dynamic processes of the earth, such as plate tectonics is thought to come from the radioactive decays of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K within the earth. These decays produce electron-antineutrinos, so-called geo-neutrinos, the measurement of which near the earth's surface allows for a direct measure of the total radiogenic heat production in the earth. The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have both measured a geo-neutrino flux significantly greater than zero. As shown in these proceedings, more precise future measurements will significantly constrain earth composition models.

  20. Living with geo-resources and geo-hazards

    Hangx, Suzanne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483579X; Niemeijer, André|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132

    2015-01-01

    Two of the key strategic topics on the European Committee’s Horizon2020 Roadmap revolve around geo-resources and geo-hazards, and their impact on societal and economic development. On the way towards a better policy for sustainable geo-resources production, such as oil, gas, geothermal energy and

  1. Why Geo-Humanities

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  2. Black holes

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  3. Black holes

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  4. Department of Geo

    USER

    2016-02-15

    Feb 15, 2016 ... organic carbon, available phosphorus and total nitrogen was rated low. The CEC (NH4OAc) ... method. The study revealed that all the soils were currently not suitable (N1) for cereals but were ..... (2012). Characterization and.

  5. Geo-collaboration under stress

    Looije, R.; Brake, G.M. te; Neerincx, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    “Most of the science and decision making involved in geo-information is the product of collaborative teams. Current geospatial technologies are a limiting factor because they do not provide any direct support for group efforts. In this paper we present a method to enhance geo-collaboration by

  6. Black Holes

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  7. Geo synthetics in hydraulic and coastal engineering: Filters, revetments and sand filled structures

    Bezuijen, A.; Pilarczyk, K. W.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with 2 applications of geo textiles in coastal and hydraulic engineering: Geo textiles in filters and revetments; and geo textiles in sand filled structure. Geo textiles are often replacing granular filters. However, they have different properties than a granular filter. For the application of geo textiles in revetments, the consequences of the different properties will be shown: how permeability is influenced by a geo textile and what can be the consequences of the weight differences between granular and geo textile filters. In the other application, the filter properties of geo textiles are only secondary. In geo textile tubes and containers the geo textile is used as wrapping material to create large unties that will not erode during wave attach. the structures with geo textile tubes and containers serve as an alternative for rock based structures. The first of these structures were more or less constructed by trial and error, but research on the shape of the structures, the stability under wave attach and the durability of the used of the used material has given the possibility to use design tools for these structures. Recently also the morphological aspects of these structures have been investigated. This is of importance because regularly structures with geo textile tubes fail due to insufficient toe protection against the scour hole that that develops in front of the structure, leading to undermining of the structure. Recent research in the Dealt Flume of Deltares and the Large Wave Flume in Hannover has led to better understanding what mechanisms determine the stability under wave attach. It is shown that also the degree of filling is of importance and the position of the water level with respect to the tube has a large influence. (Author)

  8. SU(N,1) inflation

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.; Srednicki, M.

    1985-01-01

    We present a simple model for primordial inflation in the context of SU(N, 1) no-scale n=1 supergravity. Because the model at zero temperature very closely resembles global supersymmetry, minima with negative cosmological constants do not exist, and it is easy to have a long inflationary epoch while keeping density perturbations of the right magnitude and satisfying other cosmological constraints. We pay specific attention to satisfying the thermal constraint for inflation, i.e. the existence of a high temperature minimum at the origin. (orig.)

  9. Black Holes

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  10. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE-OBSERVATION SYSTEM (GEOS).

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Jensen, E.G.; Maxwell, G.L.; VanSchaack, J.R.; Warrick, R.E.; Cranswick, E.; Johnston, M.J.S.; McClearn, R.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor technology has permitted the development of a General Earthquake-Observation System (GEOS) useful for most seismic applications. Central-processing-unit control via robust software of system functions that are isolated on hardware modules permits field adaptability of the system to a wide variety of active and passive seismic experiments and straightforward modification for incorporation of improvements in technology. Various laboratory tests and numerous deployments of a set of the systems in the field have confirmed design goals, including: wide linear dynamic range (16 bit/96 dB); broad bandwidth (36 hr to 600 Hz; greater than 36 hr available); selectable sensor-type (accelerometer, seismometer, dilatometer); selectable channels (1 to 6); selectable record mode (continuous, preset, trigger); large data capacity (1. 4 to 60 Mbytes); selectable time standard (WWVB, master, manual); automatic self-calibration; simple field operation; full capability to adapt system in the field to a wide variety of experiments; low power; portability; and modest costs. System design goals for a microcomputer-controlled system with modular software and hardware components as implemented on the GEOS are presented. The systems have been deployed for 15 experiments, including: studies of near-source strong motion; high-frequency microearthquakes; crustal structure; down-hole wave propagation; teleseismicity; and earth-tidal strains.

  11. GEO600: status and plans

    Willke, B

    2007-01-01

    The GEO600 gravitational wave detector located near Hannover in Germany is one of the four detectors of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC). For almost the entire year of 2006, GEO600 participated in the S5 science run of the LSC. Overall an equivalent of about 270 days of science data with an average peak sensitivity of better than 3 x 10 -22 Hz -1/2 have been acquired so far. In this paper, we describe the status of the GEO600 project during the period between January 2006 and February 2007. In addition, plans for the near-term and medium-term future are discussed

  12. EuroGeoSurveys

    Demicheli, L.; Ludden, J. N.; Robida, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to create safe, healthy and wealthy places to live in, it is vital that we understand our planet. At national level the collection of information on the state of the solid Earth and its processes is normally mandated to Geological Surveys. In fact, a Geological Survey is the national institution responsible for the geological inventory, monitoring, knowledge and research for the security, health and prosperity of the society. And EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organisation representing the Geological Surveys from 33 countries around Europe. With one member for each country of the European Union and beyond, including the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the EGS network covers the whole continent. EGS'principal purpose is to provide geoscientific knowledge that underpins European policies and regulations for the benefit of society. Naturally, in our day-to-day activities, we contribute to the merging of economic, environmental and social agendas. Engaging a joint workforce of several thousands of geoscientists, also involving regional geological surveys in Germany, Italy and Spain, we strive to be the first body to be contacted when there is an international need for European geodata, or'geo-help'. For this reason we work on a daily basis with the EU institutions, and are considered the natural source of information on Earth science issues and relevant downstream applications in Europe. Our General Secretariat is based in the European Quarter of Brussels close to the European Commission, the EU Council, the European Parliament, and the political seat of NATO. Our operational strategy is based on the cooperation between national institutions, which enables to synergistically integrate both information and activities of our member organisations. This has allowed us to make significant progress over the years, permitting geology to become a topic deserving great attention on the European agenda. In order to enable a quick but high quality response to requests for

  13. N =1 supergravitational heterotic galileons

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt

    2017-11-01

    Heterotic M -theory consists of a five-dimensional manifold of the form S 1 / Z 2 × M 4. It has been shown that one of the two orbifold planes, the "observable" sector, can have a low energy particle spectrum which is precisely the N = 1 super-symmetric standard model with three right-handed neutrino chiral supermultiplets. The other orbifold plane constitutes a "hidden" sector which, since its communication with the observable sector is suppressed, will be ignored in this paper. However, the finite fifth-dimension allows for the existence of three-brane solitons which, in order to render the vacuum anomaly free, must appear. That is, heterotic M -theory provides a natural framework for brane-world cosmological scenarios coupled to realistic particle physics. The complete worldvolume action of such three-branes is unknown. Here, treating these solitons as probe branes, we construct their scalar worldvolume Lagrangian as a derivative expansion of the heterotic DBI action. In analogy with similar calculations in the M 5 and AdS 5 context, this leads to the construction of "heterotic Galileons". However, realistic vacua of heterotic M -theory are necessarily N = 1 supersymmetric in four dimensions. Hence, we proceed to supersymmetrize the three-brane worldvolume action, first in flat superspace and then extend the results to N = 1 supergravity. Such a worldvolume action may lead to interesting cosmology, such as "bouncing" universe models, by allowing for the violation of the Null Energy Condition (NEC).

  14. The energy geo-policy

    Duval, M.

    2005-01-01

    This analysis updates and develops the analysis of the energy geo-policy proposed by the French Review of geo-policy. In this framework the today policies of the different sate and geographical actors, as suppliers and consumers of petroleum energy, are examined. Then the author analyzes the political problems resulting from, this petroleum energy transfers by earth and sea and the problems resulting specifically from the nuclear energy. The last part brings the author own opinions. (A.L.B.)

  15. Big Data hvor N=1

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2017-01-01

    Forskningen vedrørende anvendelsen af ’big data’ indenfor sundhed er kun lige begyndt, og kan på sigt blive en stor hjælp i forhold til at tilrettelægge en mere personlig og helhedsorienteret sundhedsindsats for multisyge. Personlig sundhedsteknologi, som kort præsenteres i dette kapital, rummer et...... stor potentiale for at gennemføre ’big data’ analyser for den enkelte person, det vil sige hvor N=1. Der er store teknologiske udfordringer i at få lavet teknologier og metoder til at indsamle og håndtere personlige data, som kan deles, på tværs på en standardiseret, forsvarlig, robust, sikker og ikke...

  16. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner

    Barroso, M.

    2005-03-01

    both in laboratory and in field conditions to study the suitability of this test to assess the quality of the seams in situ. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to assess the quality of the geo-membrane seams from a non-destructive test conducted in situ by determining the time constant. To address the problem of fluid migration through geo-membrane defects, composite liners comprising a geo-membrane with a circular hole over a GCL over a CCL were simulated in tests at three scales. Flow rates at the interface between the geo-membrane and the GCL were measured. Correspondent interface transmissivity was estimated based on final flow rates and observation of the wetted area. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the influence of the pre-hydration of the GCL, the hydraulic head on top of the liner and the confining stress over the liner system, on the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane, as well as to check the feasibility of an extrapolation of the results obtained on small-scale tests to field conditions. It was found that the transmissivity does not seem to be affected by the pre-hydration of the GCLs when low confining stresses were used. It also does not seem to be influenced by the increase in confining stress when non-pre-hydrated GCLs are used. Finally, the transmissivity does not seem to be significantly affected by the increase in hydraulic head. The results also suggest that predictions on flow rates though composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane, which are based on transmissivity values obtained in small scale tests, are conservative. Lastly, based on the transmissivities obtained in this study, empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners consisting of a geo-membrane over a GCL over a CCL are proposed. Flow rates calculated using these equations are in better agreement with the flow rates measured experimentally than the empirical equations reported in literature

  17. Geo-Enabled, Mobile Services

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    We are witnessing the emergence of a global infrastructure that enables the widespread deployment of geo-enabled, mobile services in practice. At the same time, the research community has also paid increasing attention to data management aspects of mobile services. This paper offers me...

  18. GeoGebra for Mathematical Statistics

    Hewson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The GeoGebra software is attracting a lot of interest in the mathematical community, consequently there is a wide range of experience and resources to help use this application. This article briefly outlines how GeoGebra will be of great value in statistical education. The release of GeoGebra is an excellent example of the power of free software…

  19. Brane holes

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in models with large extra dimensions under special conditions one can extract information from the interior of 4D black holes. For this purpose we study an induced geometry on a test brane in the background of a higher-dimensional static black string or a black brane. We show that, at the intersection surface of the test brane and the bulk black string or brane, the induced metric has an event horizon, so that the test brane contains a black hole. We call it a brane hole. When the test brane moves with a constant velocity V with respect to the bulk black object, it also has a brane hole, but its gravitational radius r e is greater than the size of the bulk black string or brane r 0 by the factor (1-V 2 ) -1 . We show that bulk ''photon'' emitted in the region between r 0 and r e can meet the test brane again at a point outside r e . From the point of view of observers on the test brane, the events of emission and capture of the bulk photon are connected by a spacelike curve in the induced geometry. This shows an example in which extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the interior of a lower-dimensional black object. Instead of the bulk black string or brane, one can also consider a bulk geometry without a horizon. We show that nevertheless the induced geometry on the moving test brane can include a brane hole. In such a case the extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the complete region of the brane-hole interior. We discuss thermodynamic properties of brane holes and interesting questions which arise when such an extra-dimensional channel for the information mining exists.

  20. Avian Influenza A (H5N1)

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Tim Uyeki discusses H5N1, a subtype of influenza A virus. This highly pathogenic H5N1 virus doesn't usually infect people, although some rare infections with H5N1 viruses have occurred in humans. We need to use a comprehensive strategy to prevent the spread of H5N1 virus among birds, including having human health and animal health work closely together.

  1. Pricing Analysis in Geo/Geo/1 Queueing System

    Yan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the equilibrium behavior of customers and optimal pricing strategies of servers in a Geo/Geo/1 queueing system. Two common pricing mechanisms are considered. The first one is called ex-post payment (EPP scheme where the server collects tolls proportional to queue times, and the second one is called ex-ante payment (EAP scheme where the server charges a flat fee for the total service. The server sets the toll price to maximize its own profit. It is found that, under a customer’s choice equilibrium, the two toll mechanisms are equivalent from the economic point of view. Finally, we present several numerical experiments to investigate the effects of system parameters on the equilibrium customer joining rate and servers’ profits.

  2. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  3. Black hole astrophysics

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  4. White holes and eternal black holes

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  5. Avian Influenza A (H5N1)

    2009-05-27

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Tim Uyeki discusses H5N1, a subtype of influenza A virus. This highly pathogenic H5N1 virus doesn't usually infect people, although some rare infections with H5N1 viruses have occurred in humans. We need to use a comprehensive strategy to prevent the spread of H5N1 virus among birds, including having human health and animal health work closely together.  Created: 5/27/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  6. Hole superconductivity

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  7. Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report

    2016-07-01

    1 Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report Authors: Irene Gonin and Gregory...Johnson   Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. July 2016 Report No. CG-D-10-16 Maritime Geo-Fence...United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report 1

  8. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  9. Alignment control of GEO 600

    Grote, H; Heinzel, G; Freise, A; Gossler, S; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Ward, H; Casey, M M; Strain, K A; Robertson, D I; Hough, J; Danzmannx, K

    2004-01-01

    We give an overview of the automatic mirror alignment system of the gravitational wave detector GEO 600. In order to achieve the required sensitivity of the Michelson interferometer, the axes of interfering beams have to be superimposed with a residual angle of the order 10 -8 rad. The beam spots have to be centred on the mirrors to minimize coupling of alignment noise into longitudinal signals. We present the actual control topology and results from the system in operation, which controls all alignment degrees of the power-recycled Michelson. With this system continuous lock stretches of more than 121 h duration were achieved

  10. GEO Supersites Data Exploitation Platform

    Lengert, W.; Popp, H.-J.; Gleyzes, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the GEO Geohazard Supersite initiative, an international partnership of organizations and scientists involved in the monitoring and assessment of geohazards has been established. The mission is to advance the scientific understanding of geohazards by improving geohazard monitoring through the combination of in-situ and space-based data, and by facilitating the access to data relevant for geohazard research. The stakeholders are: (1) governmental organizations or research institutions responsible for the ground-based monitoring of earthquake and volcanic areas, (2) space agencies and satellite operators providing satellite data, (3) the global geohazard scientific community. The 10.000's of ESA's SAR products are accessible, since beginning 2008, using ESA's "Virtual Archive", a Cloud Computing assets, allowing the global community an utmost downloading performance of these high volume data sets for mass-market costs. In the GEO collaborative context, the management of ESA's "Virtual Archive" and the ordering of these large data sets is being performed by UNAVCO, who is also coordinating the data demand for the several hundreds of co-PIs. ESA is envisaging to provide scientists and developers access to a highly elastic operational e-infrastructure, providing interdisciplinary data on a large scale as well as tools ensuring innovation and a permanent evolution of the products. Consequently, this science environment will help in defining and testing new applications and technologies fostering innovation and new science findings. In Europe, the collaboration between EPOS, "European Plate Observatory System" lead by INGV, and ESA with support of DLR, ASI, and CNES are the main institutional stakeholders for the GEO Supersites contributing also to a unifying e-infrastructure. The overarching objective of the Geohazard Supersites is: "To implement a sustainable Global Earthquake Observation System and a Global Volcano Observation System as part of the

  11. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  12. Photometrical Observations "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Sukhov, K. P.; Kudak, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Photometrical observations GSS "SBIRS GEO 2" in B,V,R filters were carried near the equinoxes 2014-2015. Used velocity electrophotometer based on the FEU-79 in the pulse-counting mode. Received more than 25 light curves. From the known dimensions are defined; effective reflecting area - Sγλ, the spectral reflectance index - γλ, periods of light variation. Color-indices showed that in the reflected light flux from the GSS prevails "red" component. In the light curves are periodically dips and specular flash. This shows that GSS orbit is not in a static position specified triaxial orientation as in dynamic motion. Assumed following dynamics of the satellite "SBIRS GEO 2" in orbit. Helical scanning the Earth's surface visible infrared sensors satellite occurs with a period P1 = 15.66 sec. and swinging of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in an orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., from the northern to the southern pole. Thus, during the period of swinging GSS going on 2 scan the visible part of the northern and southern hemispheres. In some dates observations dynamics work satellite in orbit changed.

  13. Relativistic hydrodynamic evolutions with black hole excision

    Duez, Matthew D.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Yo, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a numerical code designed to study astrophysical phenomena involving dynamical spacetimes containing black holes in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. We present evolutions of the collapse of a fluid star from the onset of collapse to the settling of the resulting black hole to a final stationary state. In order to evolve stably after the black hole forms, we excise a region inside the hole before a singularity is encountered. This excision region is introduced after the appearance of an apparent horizon, but while a significant amount of matter remains outside the hole. We test our code by evolving accurately a vacuum Schwarzschild black hole, a relativistic Bondi accretion flow onto a black hole, Oppenheimer-Snyder dust collapse, and the collapse of nonrotating and rotating stars. These systems are tracked reliably for hundreds of M following excision, where M is the mass of the black hole. We perform these tests both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We then apply our code to study the effect of the stellar spin parameter J/M 2 on the final outcome of gravitational collapse of rapidly rotating n=1 polytropes. We find that a black hole forms only if J/M 2 2 >1, the collapsing star forms a torus which fragments into nonaxisymmetric clumps, capable of generating appreciable 'splash' gravitational radiation

  14. Kennisagenda Geo-informatie: GISsen met beleid

    Dessing, N.; Lips, F.; Hoogenboom, J.; Vullings, L.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    LNV wil méér geo-informatie inzetten bij de ontwikkeling en uitvoering van beleid en beleidsnota’s ruimer voorzien van kaartmateriaal. Dit betekent dat geo-informatie vaker moet worden benut om lokale knelpunten, mogelijkheden en de gevolgen van alternatieve oplossingen inzichtelijk te maken. Om dit

  15. Requirements elicitation for geo-information solutions

    Robbi Sluter, Claudia; van Elzakker, Corné P.J.M.; Ivanova, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Geo-information solutions can achieve a higher level of quality if they are developed in accordance with a user-centred design that requires definition of the user requirements in the first step of solution construction. We treat a geo-information solution as a system designed to support human-based

  16. User Defined Geo-referenced Information

    Konstantas, Dimitri; Villalba, Alfredo; di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    . In this paper we present two novel mobile and wireless collaborative services and concepts, the Hovering Information, a mobile, geo-referenced content information management system, and the QoS Information service, providing user observed end-to-end infrastructure geo-related QoS information....

  17. [Brief introduction of geo-authentic herbs].

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2013-05-01

    The science of geo-authentic herbs is a characteristic discipline of traditional Chinese medicine established during thousands of years of clinical practices. It has a long history under the guidance of profound theories of traditional Chinese medicine. The words of "geo-authentic product" were derived from an administrative division unit in the ancient times, which layed stress on the good quality of products in particular regions. In ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine, the words of "geo-authentic product" were first found in Concise Herbal Foundation Compilation of the Ming dynasty, and the words of "geo-authentic herbs" were first discovered in Peony Pavilion of the late Ming dynasty. After all, clinical effect is the fundamental evaluation standard of geo-authentic herbs.

  18. GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model User's Guide

    Kouatchou, J.; Molod, A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Auer, B.; Putman, W.; Clune, T.

    2015-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) General Circulation Model (GCM) makes use of the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) to enable model configurations with many functions. One of the options of the GEOS-5 GCM is the GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model (GEOS-5 CTM), which is an offline simulation of chemistry and constituent transport driven by a specified meteorology and other model output fields. This document describes the basic components of the GEOS-5 CTM, and is a user's guide on to how to obtain and run simulations on the NCCS Discover platform. In addition, we provide information on how to change the model configuration input files to meet users' needs.

  19. Refractive Index Sensor Using a Two-Hole Fiber

    Lopez-Cortes, D; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J [Photonics and Optical Physics Laboratory, Optics Department, INAOE Apdo. Postal 51 and 216, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Margulis, W [Department Fiber Photonics, ACREO, Electrum 236, 16440 Stockholm (Sweden); Dominguez-Cruz, R; May-Arrioja, D A, E-mail: darrioja@uat.edu.mx [Depto. de Ingenieria Electronica, UAM Reynosa Rodhe, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Carr. Reynosa-San Fernando S/N, Reynosa, Tamaulipas 88779 (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    We propose to use a twin-hole fiber to measure refractive index of liquids. The key idea is to have a single mode fiber (SMF) having two large air-holes running along the fiber length, the holes do not interact with the core. However, using wet chemical etching we can have access to the hole around the fiber, and further etching increases the holes diameter. The diameter is increased until the fiber exhibits a specific birefringence. Since the holes are open, by immersing the fiber in different liquids (n=1.33 to n=1.42) the value of the birefringence is modified and the refractive index of the liquid can be estimated from the change on the beat length. This process provides a very simple and highly sensitive mechanism for sensing refractive index in liquids, and can also be used for other applications.

  20. Geo synthetics in hydraulic and coastal engineering: Filters, revetments and sand filled structures; Geosinteticos en ingenieria hidraulica y costera: filtros, revestimientos y estructuras llenas de arena

    Bezuijen, A.; Pilarczyk, K. W.

    2014-02-01

    The paper deals with 2 applications of geo textiles in coastal and hydraulic engineering: Geo textiles in filters and revetments; and geo textiles in sand filled structure. Geo textiles are often replacing granular filters. However, they have different properties than a granular filter. For the application of geo textiles in revetments, the consequences of the different properties will be shown: how permeability is influenced by a geo textile and what can be the consequences of the weight differences between granular and geo textile filters. In the other application, the filter properties of geo textiles are only secondary. In geo textile tubes and containers the geo textile is used as wrapping material to create large unties that will not erode during wave attach. the structures with geo textile tubes and containers serve as an alternative for rock based structures. The first of these structures were more or less constructed by trial and error, but research on the shape of the structures, the stability under wave attach and the durability of the used of the used material has given the possibility to use design tools for these structures. Recently also the morphological aspects of these structures have been investigated. This is of importance because regularly structures with geo textile tubes fail due to insufficient toe protection against the scour hole that that develops in front of the structure, leading to undermining of the structure. Recent research in the Dealt Flume of Deltares and the Large Wave Flume in Hannover has led to better understanding what mechanisms determine the stability under wave attach. It is shown that also the degree of filling is of importance and the position of the water level with respect to the tube has a large influence. (Author)

  1. N=1 superstrings with spontaneously broken symmetries

    Ferrara, S.

    1988-01-01

    We construct N=1 chiral superstrings with spontaneously broken gauge symmetry in four space-time dimensions. These new string solutions are obtained by a generalized coordinate-dependent Z 2 orbifold compactification of some non-chiral five-dimensional N=1 and N=2 superstrings. The scale of symmetry breaking is arbitrary (at least classically) and it can be chosen hierarchically smaller than the string scale (α') -1/2 . (orig.)

  2. The GEO 600 laser system

    Zawischa, I; Danzmann, K; Fallnich, C; Heurs, M; Nagano, S; Quetschke, V; Welling, H; Willke, B

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors require high optical power, single frequency lasers with very good beam quality and high amplitude and frequency stability as well as high long-term reliability as input light source. For GEO 600 a laser system with these properties is realized by a stable planar, longitudinally pumped 12 W Nd:YAG rod laser which is injection-locked to a monolithic 800 mW Nd:YAG non-planar ring oscillator. Frequency control signals from the mode cleaners are fed to the actuators of the non-planar ring oscillator which determines the frequency stability of the system. The system power stabilization acts on the slave laser pump diodes which have the largest influence on the output power. In order to gain more output power, a combined Nd:YAG-Nd:YVO sub 4 system is scaled to more than 22 W.

  3. Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation

    Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.

  4. The Case for GEO Hosted SSA Payloads

    Welsch, C.; Armand, B.; Repp, M.; Robinson, A.

    2014-09-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) in the geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) belt presents unique challenges, and given the national importance and high value of GEO satellites, is increasingly critical as space becomes more congested and contested. Space situational awareness capabilities can serve as an effective deterrent against potential adversaries if they provide accurate, timely, and persistent information and are resilient to the threat environment. This paper will demonstrate how simple optical SSA payloads hosted on GEO commercial and government satellites can complement the SSA mission and data provided by Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) and the Geosynchronous Space Situational Awareness Program (GSSAP). GSSAP is built by Orbital Sciences Corporation and launched on July 28, 2014. Analysis performed for this paper will show how GEO hosted SSA payloads, working in combination with SBSS and GSSAP, can increase persistence and timely coverage of high value assets in the GEO belt. The potential to further increase GEO object identification and tracking accuracy by integrating SSA data from multiple sources across different viewing angles including GEO hosted SSA sources will be addressed. Hosting SSA payloads on GEO platforms also increases SSA mission architecture resiliency as the sensors are by distributed across multiple platforms including commercial platforms. This distributed architecture presents a challenging target for an adversary to attempt to degrade or disable. We will present a viable concept of operations to show how data from hosted SSA sensors could be integrated with SBSS and GSSAP data to present a comprehensive and more accurate data set to users. Lastly, we will present an acquisition approach using commercial practices and building on lessons learned from the Commercially Hosted Infra Red Payload CHIRP to demonstrate the affordability of GEO hosted SSA payloads.

  5. Photometric Studies of GEO Debris

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the SMARTS (Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9-m at CTIO for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? In this paper we report on the photometric results. For a sample of 50 objects, more than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus

  6. On matter couplings in N=1 supergravities

    Galperin, A.; Ogievskiy, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible version of N=1 supergravity is proposed. It contains 28+28 fields and is an extension of the new minimal supergravity version. Matter couplings in various N=1 supergravity versions are discussed. The chiral densities are constructed for non-minimal and flexible versions. Therefore these versions admit a general R-non-invariant matter coupling as the minimal supergravity does. A modified Fayet-Iliopoulos type mechanism is conjectured which apparently can work in the non-minimal and flexible versions without R-symmetry of the superpotential unlike the minimal and new minimal ones

  7. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P.; McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S.; Biberacher, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  8. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD); McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Biberacher, M. [Research Studios Austria AG (RSA), Salzburg (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  9. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  10. Antiviral Prophylaxis and H1N1

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Richard Pebody, a consultant epidemiologist at the Health Protection Agency in London, UK, discusses the use of antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis and pandemic H1N1.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  11. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    ... in Port Shepstone, South Africa. Introduction. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 'swine flu' variant is currently a global pandemic.1 The infection associated with this virus is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. However, it may progress to severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) therapy in 31% of patients.2 This may.

  12. Avian influenza A (H5N1)

    de Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2006-01-01

    Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have reached endemic levels among poultry in several southeast Asian countries and have caused a still increasing number of more than 100 reported human infections with high mortality. These developments have ignited

  13. Kennisagenda Geo-informatie: GISsen met beleid

    Dessing, N.; Lips, F.; Hoogenboom, J.; Vullings, L.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    LNV wil méér geo-informatie inzetten bij de ontwikkeling en uitvoering van beleid en beleidsnota’s ruimer voorzien van kaartmateriaal. Dit betekent dat geo-informatie vaker moet worden benut om lokale knelpunten, mogelijkheden en de gevolgen van alternatieve oplossingen inzichtelijk te maken. Om dit te bereiken moet de beschikbaarheid van adequate data en gebruikersvriendelijke en nieuwe GIS-technieken aanmerkelijk verbeteren.

  14. Black holes. Chapter 6

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  15. GEOS Code Development Road Map - May, 2013

    Johnson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Settgast, Randolph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fu, Pengcheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Antoun, Tarabay [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-05-03

    GEOS is a massively parallel computational framework designed to enable HPC-based simulations of subsurface reservoir stimulation activities with the goal of optimizing current operations and evaluating innovative stimulation methods. GEOS will enable coupling of different solvers associated with the various physical processes occurring during reservoir stimulation in unique and sophisticated ways, adapted to various geologic settings, materials and stimulation methods. The overall architecture of the framework includes consistent data structures and will allow incorporation of additional physical and materials models as demanded by future applications. Along with predicting the initiation, propagation and reactivation of fractures, GEOS will also generate a seismic source term that can be linked with seismic wave propagation codes to generate synthetic microseismicity at surface and downhole arrays. Similarly, the output from GEOS can be linked with existing fluid/thermal transport codes. GEOS can also be linked with existing, non-intrusive uncertainty quantification schemes to constrain uncertainty in its predictions and sensitivity to the various parameters describing the reservoir and stimulation operations. We anticipate that an implicit-explicit 3D version of GEOS, including a preliminary seismic source model, will be available for parametric testing and validation against experimental and field data by Oct. 1, 2013.

  16. Nuclear physics for geo-neutrino studies

    Fiorentini, Gianni; Ianni, Aldo; Korga, George; Suvorov, Yury; Lissia, Marcello; Mantovani, Fabio; Miramonti, Lino; Oberauer, Lothar; Obolensky, Michel; Smirnov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Geo-neutrino studies are based on theoretical estimates of geo-neutrino spectra. We propose a method for a direct measurement of the energy distribution of antineutrinos from decays of long-lived radioactive isotopes. We present preliminary results for the geo-neutrinos from 214 Bi decay, a process that accounts for about one-half of the total geo-neutrino signal. The feeding probability of the lowest state of 214 Bi--the most important for geo-neutrino signal--is found to be p 0 =0.177±0.004 (stat) -0.001 +0.003 (sys), under the hypothesis of universal neutrino spectrum shape (UNSS). This value is consistent with the (indirect) estimate of the table of isotopes. We show that achievable larger statistics and reduction of systematics should allow for the testing of possible distortions of the neutrino spectrum from that predicted using the UNSS hypothesis. Implications on the geo-neutrino signal are discussed.

  17. Search for black holes

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Geo-social visual analytics

    Wei Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis and social network analysis typically consider social processes in their own specific contexts, either geographical or network space. Both approaches demonstrate strong conceptual overlaps. For example, actors close to each other tend to have greater similarity than those far apart; this phenomenon has different labels in geography (spatial autocorrelation and in network science (homophily. In spite of those conceptual and observed overlaps, the integration of geography and social network context has not received the attention needed in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of their interaction or their impact on outcomes of interest, such as population health behaviors, information dissemination, or human behavior in a crisis. In order to address this gap, this paper discusses the integration of geographic with social network perspectives applied to understanding social processes in place from two levels: the theoretical level and the methodological level. At the theoretical level, this paper argues that the concepts of nearness and relationship in terms of a possible extension of the First Law of Geography are a matter of both geographical and social network distance, relationship, and interaction. At the methodological level, the integration of geography and social network contexts are framed within a new interdisciplinary field:~visual analytics, in which three major application-oriented subfields (data exploration, decision-making, and predictive analysis are used to organize discussion. In each subfield, this paper presents a theoretical framework first, and then reviews what has been achieved regarding geo-social visual analytics in order to identify potential future research.

  19. Geometries inherent to N=1 supergravities

    Galperin, A.S.; Ogievetsky, V.I.; Sokatchev, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of the talk is devoted to a consideration of linearized N=1 supergravities. The second main part deals with complex geometries inherent to different N=1 supergravities. A special attention is paid to a new version with local symmetry. It is connected to the special nonminimal case (n=0) having a remarkable property of supervolume preservation in Csup(4.4) superspace. Therefore the superdeterminant of change of variables from left to right-handed Rsup(4.4) parametrization is a dimensionless scalar. This geometric invariant has to be constrained to obtain an action. Solving such a constraint on vector and spinor prepotentials in Wess-Zumino gauge one obtains the new supergravity with 12+12 fields and local symmetry. A possible relaxation of this constraint is briefly considered (16+16 fields version) [ru

  20. Finite N=1 SUSY gauge field theories

    Kazakov, D.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors give a detailed description of the method to construct finite N=1 SUSY gauge field theories in the framework of N=1 superfields within dimensional regularization. The finiteness of all Green functions is based on supersymmetry and gauge invariance and is achieved by a proper choice of matter content of the theory and Yukawa couplings in the form Y i =f i (ε)g, where g is the gauge coupling, and the function f i (ε) is regular at ε=0 and is calculated in perturbation theory. Necessary and sufficient conditions for finiteness are determined already in the one-loop approximation. The correspondence with an earlier proposed approach to construct finite theories based on aigenvalue solutions of renormalization-group equations is established

  1. Conformal potential in N dimensions (N>1)

    Barucchi, G [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto di Fisica Matematica dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy))

    1977-07-21

    The conformal invariant model of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan is studied in the case of potential V(Q) = g/2Q/sup 2/(Q/sup 2/ = ..sigma..sub(i=1)sup(N) Qsub(i)sup(2), N>1). By means of the invariance under projective transformations and the rotation symmetry of the system in configuration space, explicit solutions are obtained.

  2. The Population of Optically Faint GEO Debris

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Ed; Buckalew, Brent; Burkhardt, Andrew; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James; Gomez, Juan; Kaleida, Catherine; Lederer, Susan M.; Lee, Chris H.

    2016-01-01

    The 6.5-m Magellan telescope 'Walter Baade' at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile has been used for spot surveys of the GEO orbital regime to study the population of optically faint GEO debris. The goal is to estimate the size of the population of GEO debris at sizes much smaller than can be studied with 1-meter class telescopes. Despite the small size of the field of view of the Magellan instrument (diameter 0.5-degree), a significant population of objects fainter than R = 19th magnitude have been found with angular rates consistent with circular orbits at GEO. We compare the size of this population with the numbers of GEO objects found at brighter magnitudes by smaller telescopes. The observed detections have a wide range in characteristics starting with those appearing as short uniform streaks. But there are a substantial number of detections with variations in brightness, flashers, during the 5-second exposure. The duration of each of these flashes can be extremely brief: sometimes less than half a second. This is characteristic of a rapidly tumbling object with a quite variable projected size times albedo. If the albedo is of the order of 0.2, then the largest projected size of these objects is around 10-cm. The data in this paper was collected over the last several years using Magellan's IMACS camera in f/2 mode. The analysis shows the brightness bins for the observed GEO population as well as the periodicity of the flashers. All objects presented are correlated with the catalog: the focus of the paper will be on the uncorrelated, optically faint, objects. The goal of this project is to better characterize the faint debris population in GEO that access to a 6.5-m optical telescope in a superb site can provide.

  3. A Dancing Black Hole

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  4. Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Black Holes: Theoretical and Experimental Challenges

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    (LIGO/VIRGO/GEO/...) is currently taking data near its planned sensitivity. Coalescing black hole binaries are among the most promising, and most exciting, gravitational wave sources for these detectors. The talk will review the theoretical and experimental challenges that must be met in order to successfully detect gravitational waves from coalescing black hole binaries, and to be able to reliably measure the physical parameters of the source (masses, spins, ...).

  5. Some aspects of N = 1 SYM renormalization

    Stepanyantz Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the BRST invariant version of the higher covariant derivative regularization, we demonstrate that in N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories the three-point vertices with two ghost legs and a single leg of the quantum gauge superfield are finite in all orders. This theorem is proved by the help of the Slavnov–Taylor identities and the supergraph technique. Its correctness is verified by explicit one-loop calculation. Using finiteness of the considered vertices we express the NSVZ relation in terms of the anomalous dimensions of the gauge superfield, of the Faddeev–Popov ghosts, and of the matter superfields.

  6. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  7. Geo-scientific information system

    Gedeon, M.; De Soete, H.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the geological disposal of radioactive waste, the characterization of the Boom Clay and its environment has been going on for more than 30 years. During this time, a great quantity of data was collected to support the research on the reference host rock. A geo-scientific information system was built to store the data acquired in this framework,. The aim was to create a central place where all types of data could be looked up for further analyses and interpretation. All data stored in the system are geographically referenced. The GSIS database was created using PostgreSQL database with PostGIS spatial extension. PostgreSQL is an open-source object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) based on POSTGRES, developed at the University of California at Berkeley Computer Science Department. POSTGRES pioneered many concepts that only became available in some commercial database systems much later. PostgreSQL is an open-source descendant of this original Berkeley code. It supports SQL92 and SQL99 and offers many modern features: complex queries, foreign keys, triggers, views, transactional integrity, multi-version concurrency control. PostGIS is an extension to the PostgreSQL object-relational database system which allows GIS (Geographic Information Systems) objects to be stored in the database. PostGIS includes support for GiST-based R-Tree spatial indexes, and functions for analysis and processing of GIS objects. The GSIS database consists of three principal database domains, the objects database domain (ObjectsDB) and the data domain (DataDB). ObjectsDB includes the definitions (including the geometry/ position) and relative hierarchy of the objects. The objects are defined as structures, enclosed areas or scientific instruments with definable geometry (2D or 3D) including samples used to acquire data (boreholes, piezometers, sampling locations, galleries, sensors, etc.). DataDB includes

  8. Black hole hair removal

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  9. The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks

    Walters, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available across the planet. I congratulate GEO BON on creating this powerful mechanism and wish the GEO BON community great success in each of its future endeavours. Geneva, Switzerland Barbara J. Ryan Executive Director: Group on Earth Observations viii Foreword... of biodiversity data is the desired goal, it would be hard to achieve except via the mechanism of a network, simply because 6 R.J. Scholes et al. sampling and species identification is more cost-effective and situation-appropriate if conducted using local...

  10. Noncommutative black holes

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  11. Black holes without firewalls

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  12. Black holes are hot

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  13. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  14. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  15. What is black hole?

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  16. Critical N = (1, 1) general massive supergravity

    Deger, Nihat Sadik; Moutsopoulos, George; Rosseel, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we study the supermultiplet structure of N = (1, 1) General Massive Supergravity at non-critical and critical points of its parameter space. To do this, we first linearize the theory around its maximally supersymmetric AdS3 vacuum and obtain the full linearized Lagrangian including fermionic terms. At generic values, linearized modes can be organized as two massless and 2 massive multiplets where supersymmetry relates them in the standard way. At critical points logarithmic modes appear and we find that in three of such points some of the supersymmetry transformations are non-invertible in logarithmic multiplets. However, in the fourth critical point, there is a massive logarithmic multiplet with invertible supersymmetry transformations.

  17. Project JADE. Geo scientific studies

    Munier, R.; Follin, S.; Rhen, I.; Gustafson, Gunnar; Pusch, R.

    2001-08-01

    In the present report an evaluation of the geological impact on various deposition methods is presented. The studied methods are KBS-3 V (vertical deposition), KBS-3 H (horizontal deposition) and MLH (medium long holes).The investigation has been subdivided into three separate studies concerning rock mechanics, hydrogeology and structural geology. These are included as appendices. Various methods have been used for the analyses for example DFN-models (Discrete Fracture Networks), DFN, FEM (Finite Element Method), BEM (Boundary Element Method), DEM (Discrete Element Method) and BayMar (Bayesian-Markov). The prerequisites used for these investigations are based on earlier investigations of the TBM tunnel at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. As a consequence thereof, the results presented here are specific to the locale but some conclusions of general character still can be made. In short the results of the investigations can be concluded as follows: If the rock mass exhibits a hydraulic anisotropy, the level of acceptance is strongly correlated to the direction of the deposition tunnels (applies to MLH and KBS-3 H). Differences between the methods concerning mechanical stability have been identified. The final choice of method will depend on the possibility to place the deposition tunnels in a favorable orientation. However, engineering can solve the problems associated to instability in the tunnels. KBS-3 (bored deposition tunnels) is recommended for rock masses in which the stress field has a moderate variation in magnitude and orientation. KBS-3 V (drilled and blasted deposition tunnels) and MLH are considered more robust and therefore recommended for rock masses in which the stress field has a large variation in magnitude or orientation. The impact of the fracture array differs for the studied methods. The level of acceptance differs but the differences are considered to be of no practical importance. For the studied rock mass (Aespoe), KBS-3 is recommended. MLH

  18. Black hole levitron

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  19. Study on geo-information modelling

    Klimešová, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2006), s. 1108-1113 ISSN 1109-2777 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : control GIS * geo-information modelling * uncertainty * spatial temporal approach Web Services Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  20. Model driven geo-information systems development

    Morales Guarin, J.M.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Williams, A.D.

    Continuous change of user requirements has become a constant for geo-information systems. Designing systems that can adapt to such changes requires an appropriate design methodology that supports abstraction, modularity and other mechanisms to capture the essence of the system and help controlling

  1. Communication of geo-scientific safety arguments

    Flavelle, P.; Goodwin, B.; Jensen, M.; Linden, R.; Mazurek, M.; Srivastave, M.; Strom, A.; Sudicky, E.; Voinis, S.

    2007-01-01

    Working Group B addressed the communication of geo-scientific safety arguments through a discussion of practical experience as it related to the methods, types of information and specific arguments found to best communicate geo-scientific concepts and notions of safety with broad audiences including, colleagues, authorities and regulators, political decision makers, academics, and the general public. The following questions were suggested by the programme committee of the AMIGO-2 workshop for discussion by Working Group B with respect to the communication of geo-scientific information and safety arguments: - What is the place of geo-scientific arguments in relation to quantitative and qualitative topics like scenario and FEPs (features, events, processes) assessment, simulated repository evolution, calculated dose or risk impacts, engineering tests of materials, etc., when presenting a safety case to different audiences and with respect to the various stages of the repository programme? (see section 3). - Would we be better off focusing messages to the public on time scales of a few hundred years or a few generations? (see section 4). - How do you handle the fact that geoscience interpretations seldom are unique and data often are open to various interpretations? (see section 5). - How do you handle expert controversy on a specific topic? (see section 6). (authors)

  2. Fundamental Limitations for Imaging GEO Satellites

    2015-10-18

    Fundamental limitations for imaging GEO satellites D. Mozurkewich Seabrook Engineering , Seabrook, MD 20706 USA H. R. Schmitt, J. T. Armstrong Naval...higher spatial frequency. Send correspondence to David Mozurkewich, Seabrook Engineering , 9310 Dubarry Ave., Seabrook MD 20706 E-mail: dave

  3. Variable-scale Geo-information

    Meijers, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of geo-information is changing by the advent of new mobile devices, such as tablet-pc's that harness a lot of computing power. This type of information is more and more applied in mainstream digital consumer products, in a net-centric environment (i.e. dissemination takes place via the

  4. GEO/SQL in water resource manegement

    Andrej Vidmar

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of water resource management concepts shouis the problem of collecting, combining, and using alphanumerical and graphical spatial data. The solution of this problem lies in the use of geographic information systems - GIS. This paper describes the usefulness of GIS programming tool Geo/SQL in water resources management.

  5. Complex Functions with GeoGebra

    Breda, Ana Maria D'azevedo; Dos Santos, José Manuel Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Complex functions, generally feature some interesting peculiarities, seen as extensions of real functions. The visualization of complex functions properties usually requires the simultaneous visualization of two-dimensional spaces. The multiple Windows of GeoGebra, combined with its ability of algebraic computation with complex numbers, allow the…

  6. Black holes in binary stars

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  7. Real-Time Integration of Geo-data in ORM

    Balsters, Herman; Klaver, Chris; Huitema, George B.; Meersman, R; Dillon, T; Herrero, P

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information (geo-data; i.e., data with a spatial component.) is being used for civil, political, and commercial applications. Modeling geo-data can be involved due to its often very complex structure, hence placing high demands on the modeling language employed. Many geo-applications

  8. Hole history, rotary hole DC-3

    1977-10-01

    Purpose of hole DC-3 was to drill into the Umtanum basalt flow using both conventional rotary and core drilling methods. The borehole is to be utilized for geophysical logging, future hydrological testing, and the future installation of a borehole laboratory for long-term pressure, seismic, and moisture migration or accumulation recording in the Umtanum basalt flow in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Hole DC-3 is located east of the 200 West barricaded area on the Hanford reservation

  9. GEOS Atmospheric Model: Challenges at Exascale

    Putman, William M.; Suarez, Max J.

    2017-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) model at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) is used to simulate the multi-scale variability of the Earth's weather and climate, and is used primarily to assimilate conventional and satellite-based observations for weather forecasting and reanalysis. In addition, assimilations coupled to an ocean model are used for longer-term forecasting (e.g., El Nino) on seasonal to interannual times-scales. The GMAO's research activities, including system development, focus on numerous time and space scales, as detailed on the GMAO website, where they are tabbed under five major themes: Weather Analysis and Prediction; Seasonal-Decadal Analysis and Prediction; Reanalysis; Global Mesoscale Modeling, and Observing System Science. A brief description of the GEOS systems can also be found at the GMAO website. GEOS executes as a collection of earth system components connected through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The ESMF layer is supplemented with the MAPL (Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction Layer) software toolkit developed at the GMAO, which facilitates the organization of the computational components into a hierarchical architecture. GEOS systems run in parallel using a horizontal decomposition of the Earth's sphere into processing elements (PEs). Communication between PEs is primarily through a message passing framework, using the message passing interface (MPI), and through explicit use of node-level shared memory access via the SHMEM (Symmetric Hierarchical Memory access) protocol. Production GEOS weather prediction systems currently run at 12.5-kilometer horizontal resolution with 72 vertical levels decomposed into PEs associated with 5,400 MPI processes. Research GEOS systems run at resolutions as fine as 1.5 kilometers globally using as many as 30,000 MPI processes. Looking forward, these systems can be expected to see a 2 times increase in horizontal resolution every two to three years, as well as

  10. Black and white holes

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  11. Black and white holes

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  12. Primary black holes

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  13. Black Hole Hair in Higher Dimensions

    Cao Chao; Chen Yixin; Li Jianlong

    2010-01-01

    We study the property of matter in equilibrium with a static, spherically symmetric black hole in D-dimensional spacetime. It requires that this kind of matter has an equation of state ω = p r /ρ = -n/(n + 2k), k, n epsilon N (where n > 1 corresponds to a mixture of vacuum matter and 'hair' matter), which seems to be independent of D. However, when we associate this result with specific models, we find that these hairy black holes can live only in some special dimensional spacetime: (i) D = 2 + 2k/n while the black hole is surrounded by cosmic strings, which requires D is even or D epsilon N, depending on the value of n, this is consistent with some important results in superstring theory, it might reveal the relation between cosmic string and superstring in another aspect; (ii) the black hole can be surrounded by linear dilaton field only in 4-dimensional spacetime. In both cases, D = 4 is special. We also present some examples of such hairy black holes in higher dimensions, including a toy model with negative energy density. (general)

  14. Astrophysical black holes

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  15. Accreting Black Holes

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  16. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Naked black holes

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Moisture Forecast Bias Correction in GEOS DAS

    Dee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods rely on numerous assumptions about the errors involved in measuring and forecasting atmospheric fields. One of the more disturbing of these is that short-term model forecasts are assumed to be unbiased. In case of atmospheric moisture, for example, observational evidence shows that the systematic component of errors in forecasts and analyses is often of the same order of magnitude as the random component. we have implemented a sequential algorithm for estimating forecast moisture bias from rawinsonde data in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The algorithm is designed to remove the systematic component of analysis errors and can be easily incorporated in an existing statistical data assimilation system. We will present results of initial experiments that show a significant reduction of bias in the GEOS DAS moisture analyses.

  19. GeoMod 2014 - Modelling in geoscience

    Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno

    2016-08-01

    GeoMod is a biennial conference to review and discuss latest developments in analogue and numerical modelling of lithospheric and mantle deformation. GeoMod2014 took place at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, Germany. Its focus was on rheology and deformation at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales: from earthquakes to long-term deformation, from micro-structures to orogens and subduction systems. It also addressed volcanotectonics and the interaction between tectonics and surface processes (Elger et al., 2014). The conference was followed by a 2-day short course on "Constitutive Laws: from Observation to Implementation in Models" and a 1-day hands-on tutorial on the ASPECT numerical modelling software.

  20. Geo-communication and information design

    Brodersen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    of processes, procedures, factors, relations etc., all forming parts of a theory on geo-communication and information design. How do we decide whether to transmit content A or content B to another person? We make a decision. Making decisions does not normally give rise to difficulties, although a great deal......This article is an abstract of the book 'Geo-communication and information design'. The work involved in the book was inspired by the author's sense of wonder that there were apparently no existing theories, models etc. capable of identifying and choosing the content of information in systematic...... of debate might occur during the decision-making process. But if the question is extended to include a demand for systematics and consciousness (control) in the procedure adopted, the whole issue becomes more complex. How do we decide to transmit content A or content B to another person on a systematic...

  1. Photometrical research geostationary satellite "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P; Sukhov, K. P; Kudak, V. I.

    The multicolor photometrical observations GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" were carried in B,V,R filters out during the autumn equinox 2014 and spring 2015 y. Periodic appearance of many light curves and dips of mirror reflections suggests that the GSS was not in orbit in a static position, predetermined three-axis orientation and in dynamic motion. On the basis of computer modeling suggests the following dynamics GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" in orbit. Helically scanning the visible Earth's surface infrared satellite sensors come with period P1 = 15.66 sec. and the rocking of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., most likely with the purpose to survey the greatest possible portion of the earth's surface.

  2. Parametric instability in GEO 600 interferometer

    Gurkovsky, A.G.; Vyatchanin, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present analysis of undesirable effect of parametric instability in signal recycled GEO 600 interferometer. The basis for this effect is provided by excitation of additional (Stokes) optical mode, having frequency ω 1 , and mirror elastic mode, having frequency ω m , when the optical energy stored in the main FP cavity mode, having frequency ω 0 , exceeds a certain threshold and detuning Δ=ω 0 -ω 1 -ω m is small. We discuss the potential of observing parametric instability and its precursors in GEO 600 interferometer. This approach provides the best option to get familiar with this phenomenon, to develop experimental methods to depress it and to test the effectiveness of these methods in situ

  3. The ConnectinGEO Observation Inventory

    Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.; Jirka, S.; McCallum, I.

    2016-12-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations) is an EU-funded project under the H2020 Framework Programme. The primary goal of the project is to link existing coordinated Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector and the GEOSS and Copernicus stakeholders. An expected outcome of the project is a prioritized list of critical gaps within GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) in observations and models that translate observations into practice relevant knowledge. The project defines and utilizes a formalized methodology to create a set of observation requirements that will be related to information on available observations to identify key gaps. Gaps in the information provided by current observation systems as well as gaps in the systems themselves will be derived from five different threads. One of these threads consists in the analysis of the observations and measurements that are currently registered in GEO Discovery and Access Broker (DAB). To this aim, an Observation Inventory (OI) has been created and populated using the current metadata information harmonized by the DAB. This presentation describes the process defined to populate the ConnectinGEO OI and the resulting system architecture. In addition, it provides information on how to systematically access the OI for performing the gap analysis. Furthermore it demonstrates initial findings of the gap analysis, and shortcomings in the metadata that need attention. The research leading to these results benefited from funding by the European Union H2020 Framework Programme under grant agreement n. 641538 (ConnectinGEO).

  4. Undoped p-type GaN1-xSbx alloys: Effects of annealing

    Segercrantz, N.; Baumgartner, Y.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Mao, S. S.; Sarney, W. L.; Svensson, S. P.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2016-12-01

    We report p-type behavior for undoped GaN1-xSbx alloys with x ≥ 0.06 grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures (≤400 °C). Rapid thermal annealing of the GaN1-xSbx films at temperatures >400 °C is shown to generate hole concentrations greater than 1019 cm-3, an order of magnitude higher than typical p-type GaN achieved by Mg doping. The p-type conductivity is attributed to a large upward shift of the valence band edge resulting from the band anticrossing interaction between localized Sb levels and extended states of the host matrix.

  5. On Positive Solutions for the Rational Difference Equation Systems x n+1 = A/x n y n (2), and y n+1 = By n /x n-1 y n-1.

    Ma, Hui-Li; Feng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to investigate the behavior of positive solutions for the following systems of rational difference equations: x n+1 = A/x n y n (2), and y n+1 = By n /x n-1 y n-1, n = 0,1,…, where x -1, x 0, y -1, and y 0 are positive real numbers and A and B are positive constants.

  6. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

  7. Black hole Berry phase

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  8. Black holes are warm

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  9. Black holes matter

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  10. Quantum black holes

    Hooft, G. 't

    1987-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. First, a systematic derivation of the Hawking radiation is given in three different ways. The information loss problem is then discussed in great detail. The last part contains a concise discussion of black hole thermodynamics. This article was published as chapter $6$ of the IOP book "Lectures on General Relativity, Cosmology and Quantum Black Holes" (July $2017$).

  11. Black hole levitron

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  12. Newborn Black Holes

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  13. Lifshitz topological black holes

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  14. The Geo/Geo/1+1 Queueing System with Negative Customers

    Ma, Zhanyou; Guo, Yalin; Wang, Pengcheng; Hou, Yumei

    2013-01-01

    We study a Geo/Geo/1+1 queueing system with geometrical arrivals of both positive and negative customers in which killing strategies considered are removal of customers at the head (RCH) and removal of customers at the end (RCE). Using quasi-birth-death (QBD) process and matrix-geometric solution method, we obtain the stationary distribution of the queue length, the average waiting time of a new arrival customer, and the probabilities of servers in busy or idle period, respectively. Finally, ...

  15. 5'Azido-N-1-napthylphthalamic acid, a photolabile analog of N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid

    Voet, J.G.; Howley, K.S.; Shumsky, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A photolabile analog of N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), 5'-azido-N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (Az-NPA), has been synthesized and characterized. This potential photoaffinity label for the plasma membrane NPA binding protein competes with [ 3 H]NPA for binding sites on Curcurbita pepo L. (zucchini) hypocotyl cell membranes with K/sub 0.5/ = 2.8 x 10 -7 molar. The K/sub 0.5/ for NPA under these conditions is 2 x 10 -8 molar, indicating that the affinity of Az-NPA for the membranes is only 14-fold lower than NPA. While the binding of Az-NPA to NPA binding sites is reversible in the dark, exposure of the Az-NPA treated membranes to light results in a 30% loss in [ 3 H]NPA binding ability. Pretreatment of the membranes with NPA protects the membranes against photodestruction of [ 3 H]NPA binding sites by Az-NPA supporting the conclusion that Az-NPA destroys these sites by specific covalent attachment

  16. Thermochemical characteristics of La n+1Ni nO3n+1 oxides

    Bannikov, D.O.; Safronov, A.P.; Cherepanov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum nickelates: La 2 NiO 4+δ , La 3 Ni 2 O 7-δ , La 4 Ni 3 O 10-δ and LaNiO 3-δ the members of Ruddlesden-Popper series La n+1 Ni n O 3n+1 were prepared using citrate route. Dissolution enthalpies of complex oxides as well as a number of subsidiary substances were measured by means of Calvet calorimeter in 1 M solution of hydrochloric acid at 25 deg. C. The dissolution scheme of complex oxides in hydrochloric acid was proposed and enthalpies of formation of the complex oxides from binary oxides were calculated considering oxygen nonstoichiometry of these substances. Enthalpies of step-by-step oxidation were evaluated. Partial enthalpy contribution of LaO layers was calculated endothermic equals to 30.9 J/mol while partial enthalpy contribution of perovskite LaNiO 3 layers was negative equals to -97.0 J/mol. Enthalpy of formation of any complex oxide of Ruddlesden-Popper series fits very well to the linear regression based on these values

  17. Research on Utilization of Geo-Energy

    Bock, Michaela; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; GeoEn Working Group

    2013-04-01

    The world's energy demand will increase year by year and we have to search for alternative energy resources. New concepts concerning the energy production from geo-resources have to be provided and developed. The joint project GeoEn combines research on the four core themes geothermal energy, shale gas, CO2 capture and CO2 storage. Sustainable energy production from deep geothermal energy resources is addressed including all processes related to geothermal technologies, from reservoir exploitation to energy conversion in the power plant. The research on the unconventional natural gas resource, shale gas, is focussed on the sedimentological, diagenetic and compositional characteristics of gas shales. Technologies and solutions for the prevention of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide are developed in the research fields CO2 capture technologies, utilization, transport, and CO2 storage. Those four core themes are studied with an integrated approach using the synergy of cross-cutting methodologies. New exploration and reservoir technologies and innovative monitoring methods, e.g. CSMT (controlled-source magnetotellurics) are examined and developed. All disciplines are complemented by numerical simulations of the relevant processes. A particular strength of the project is the availability of large experimental infrastructures where the respective technologies are tested and monitored. These include the power plant Schwarze Pumpe, where the Oxyfuel process is improved, the pilot storage site for CO2 in Ketzin and the geothermal research platform Groß Schönebeck, with two deep wells and an experimental plant overground for research on corrosion. In addition to fundamental research, the acceptance of new technologies, especially in the field of CCS is examined. Another focus addressed is the impact of shale gas production on the environment. A further important goal is the education of young scientists in the new field "geo-energy" to fight skills shortage in this field

  18. Entropy of quasiblack holes

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2010-01-01

    We trace the origin of the black hole entropy S, replacing a black hole by a quasiblack hole. Let the boundary of a static body approach its own gravitational radius, in such a way that a quasihorizon forms. We show that if the body is thermal with the temperature taking the Hawking value at the quasihorizon limit, it follows, in the nonextremal case, from the first law of thermodynamics that the entropy approaches the Bekenstein-Hawking value S=A/4. In this setup, the key role is played by the surface stresses on the quasihorizon and one finds that the entropy comes from the quasihorizon surface. Any distribution of matter inside the surface leads to the same universal value for the entropy in the quasihorizon limit. This can be of some help in the understanding of black hole entropy. Other similarities between black holes and quasiblack holes such as the mass formulas for both objects had been found previously. We also discuss the entropy for extremal quasiblack holes, a more subtle issue.

  19. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  20. The Dawns of the Spanish Geo technic

    Serrano Gonzalez, A.

    2013-01-01

    From a personal perspective, there are analyzed the first steps of the spanish Geotechnical Engineering history understood as an academic discipline but also linked in a very directly way the profession. This evolution is not foreign to the own history of the Geneticist in other countries of our cultural or geographical environment. The contributions discover that our predecessors transmitted important achievements to the international community. The direct presence in the international congresses of that time of the spanish geo technicians is analysed. Three consecutive stages are distinguished, personalizing in each of them the participation of celebrated spanish Civil Engineers. (Author)

  1. GEO Satellites as Space Weather Sensors

    2016-04-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0161 GEO Satellites as Space Weather Sensors Kerri Cahoy MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 77 MASSACHUSETTS AVE CAMBRIDGE ... Cambridge , MA 02139 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AF Office of Scientific...Lohmeyer  and  Cahoy,  2013;   Lohmeyer,  et  al.,  2015].  From  the   statistical  analysis,  we  identified  that

  2. Black holes new horizons

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  3. Sensitization with vaccinia virus encoding H5N1 hemagglutinin restores immune potential against H5N1 influenza virus.

    Yasui, Fumihiko; Itoh, Yasushi; Ikejiri, Ai; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Munekata, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Nakayama, Misako; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-11-28

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) virus causes elevated mortality compared with seasonal influenza viruses like H1N1 pandemic influenza (H1N1 pdm) virus. We identified a mechanism associated with the severe symptoms seen with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. H5N1 HPAI virus infection induced a decrease of dendritic cell number in the splenic extrafollicular T-cell zone and impaired formation of the outer layers of B-cell follicles, resulting in insufficient levels of antibody production after infection. However, in animals vaccinated with a live recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the H5 hemagglutinin, infection with H5N1 HPAI virus induced parafollicular dendritic cell accumulation and efficient antibody production. These results indicate that a recombinant vaccinia encoding H5 hemagglutinin gene does not impair dendritic cell recruitment and can be a useful vaccine candidate.

  4. Chilean geo client application for disasters

    Suárez, Rodrigo F.; Lovison, Lucia; Potters, Martinus

    2018-05-01

    The global network of the Group on Earth Observation, GEO, connects all kinds of professionals from public and private institutions with data providers, sharing information to face the challenges of global changes and human development and they are creating a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) to connect existing data infrastructures. A GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot Project for Disasters in Chile (AIP-8) was created as part of a capacity building initiative and representatives of different national agencies in Chile, along with international experts, formed a GEOSS Capacity Building Working Group (Lovison et al, 2016). Consistent with the objectives of GEOSS AIP-8 Chile, we developed and implemented a prototype service based on web services, mobile applications and other communication channels, which allows connecting different sources of information, aiming to reduce population vulnerability to natural disasters such as: earthquakes, flooding, wild fires and tsunamis, which is presented here. The GEO Chile client application is a JavaScript application using GEODAB brokering services, GIS technology and disaster information provided by national and international disaster services, including public and private organizations, where cartography becomes fundamental as a tool to provide realism and ubiquity to the information. Seven hotpots are targeted: Calbuco, Copahue and Villarrica volcanoes areas, Valparaíso city, which is frequently a victim of wildfires in the zone where population meets forest and Iquique, Illapel and Talcahuano, areas frequently struck by earthquakes and tsunamis.

  5. Constructions, geo-materials and interactions

    Petit, C.; Pijaudier-Cabot, G.; Reynouard, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The development of methods for the evaluation of the functioning safety of buildings and structures during all their service life represents one of the major research goals in civil engineering. The energy production, the industrial development and the management of wastes have led to new safety research problems to ensure the environment and populations protection. The mechanics of geo-materials (soils, concretes, rocks) is the central part of the predictive tools developed to satisfy these socio-economical stakes. The functioning analysis of buildings cover huge size and time scales, from the micro-meter to the kilometer and from the second to the century, and requires various relevant models and multi-subject methods. This volume is divided in 3 parts dealing with: the in-service safety of buildings, the accidental situations, and the behaviour of geo-materials. Five papers dealing with the long-term, seismic and thermal behaviour of concretes were selected for INIS and one paper dealing with the effect of time on a natural clay and on the behaviour of a dam foundations was selected for ETDE. (J.S.)

  6. Black holes with halos

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  7. Introducing the Black Hole

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  8. Do Hypervolumes Have Holes?

    Blonder, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Hypervolumes are used widely to conceptualize niches and trait distributions for both species and communities. Some hypervolumes are expected to be convex, with boundaries defined by only upper and lower limits (e.g., fundamental niches), while others are expected to be maximal, with boundaries defined by the limits of available space (e.g., potential niches). However, observed hypervolumes (e.g., realized niches) could also have holes, defined as unoccupied hyperspace representing deviations from these expectations that may indicate unconsidered ecological or evolutionary processes. Detecting holes in more than two dimensions has to date not been possible. I develop a mathematical approach, implemented in the hypervolume R package, to infer holes in large and high-dimensional data sets. As a demonstration analysis, I assess evidence for vacant niches in a Galapagos finch community on Isabela Island. These mathematical concepts and software tools for detecting holes provide approaches for addressing contemporary research questions across ecology and evolutionary biology.

  9. Colliding black hole solution

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  10. Black-hole thermodynamics

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Including black holes in the scheme of thermodynamics has disclosed a deep-seated connection between gravitation, heat and the quantum that may lead us to a synthesis of the corresponding branches of physics

  11. White dwarfs - black holes

    Sexl, R.; Sexl, H.

    1975-01-01

    The physical arguments and problems of relativistic astrophysics are presented in a correct way, but without any higher mathematics. The book is addressed to teachers, experimental physicists, and others with a basic knowledge covering an introductory lecture in physics. The issues dealt with are: fundamentals of general relativity, classical tests of general relativity, curved space-time, stars and planets, pulsars, gravitational collapse and black holes, the search for black holes, gravitational waves, cosmology, cosmogony, and the early universe. (BJ/AK) [de

  12. Magnonic black holes

    Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, A.S.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the interaction between spin-polarized current and magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons - the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the imp...

  13. Supersymmetric black holes

    de Wit, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The effective action of $N=2$, $d=4$ supergravity is shown to acquire no quantum corrections in background metrics admitting super-covariantly constant spinors. In particular, these metrics include the Robinson-Bertotti metric (product of two 2-dimensional spaces of constant curvature) with all 8 supersymmetries unbroken. Another example is a set of arbitrary number of extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. These black holes break 4 of 8 supersymmetries, leaving the other 4 unbroken. We ha...

  14. Black Holes and Thermodynamics

    Wald, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...

  15. The structure of N = 2 supergravity in N = 1 superfields

    Awada, M.A.; Mokhtari, S.

    1985-01-01

    A formulation of N = 2 supergravity in N = 1 superspace is presented. The authors solve up to all orders the N = 2 supergravity constraints in terms of unconstrained N = 1 superfields. The structure of the N = 2 action in N = 1 superspace is examined. The proposed action coincides in the quadratic limit of the spin (3/2,1) matter fields with the action given by previous workers. (author)

  16. Structure of N = 2 supergravity in N = 1 superfields

    Awada, M.A.; Mokhtari, S. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)

    1985-01-01

    A formulation of N = 2 supergravity in N = 1 superspace is presented. The authors solve up to all orders the N = 2 supergravity constraints in terms of unconstrained N = 1 superfields. The structure of the N = 2 action in N = 1 superspace is examined. The proposed action coincides in the quadratic limit of the spin (3/2,1) matter fields with the action given by previous workers.

  17. Geo-engineering: a curse or a blessing?

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, geo-engineering has been suggested as a viable strategy in dealing with climate change, the main indicator of what has become known as ‘the Anthropocene’. In this paper, I investigate the effects of geo-engineering in terms of freedom – not the only but perhaps the most important

  18. XANES study on Ruddlesdan-Popper phase, Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 1, 2 and ∞)

    Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Kuk; Byeon, Song-Hu; Kim, Don

    2001-01-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper phase, La n+1 Ni n O 3n+ 1 (n = 1, 2, and ∞) compounds were prepared by citrate sol-gel method. We revealed the origin of the variation of the electrical conductivities in La n+1 Ni n O 3n+1 (n= 1, 2, and ∞) using resistivity measurements, Rietveld analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. According to the XANES spectra, it is found that the degree of 4pπ - 4pσ energy splitting between 8345 eV and 8350 eV is qualitatively proportional to the elongation of the out-of-plane Ni-O bond length. With the decrease of 4pπ-4pσ splitting, the strong hybridization of the σ-bonding between Ni-3d and O-2p orbitals creates narrow antibonding σ bands, which finally results in the lower electrical resistivity. (au)

  19. Black holes and beyond

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  20. geo-scientific indicators for safety

    Andersson, J.; Bruno, G.; Deguchi, A.; Fein, E.; Larue, P.J.; Lei, S.; Leung, H.; Norris, S.; Violette, S.; Wollrath, J.

    2007-01-01

    Working Group A was continuation of Working Group B of AMIGO-1, but participants explored more deeply the issues surrounding geo-scientific indicators for safety. The following outcomes were expected. - List different geo-scientific arguments or indicators for safety (with motivation) for various host rocks and sites. Consider dividing the arguments into those that support isolation or retention and discuss their applicability for different time frames. - What actual measurable field evidence supports these arguments/indicators? - What kind of field evidence would go counter to these safety arguments? - What key messages are the most promising in terms of scientific credibility to contribute to the safety case? Possibly examine the same message but in terms of potential ease of communication. The session started with two introductory presentations: - Following the presentations, in discussion the Working Group listed: - Safety Functions where geo-scientific support is needed; - Commonly used chains of argument for supporting these safety functions; - Whether the applicability of the arguments are host rock or site specific and how they apply for different time frames; - Field evidence or other issues that would go counter to the safety arguments; - Key messages most promising in terms of scientific credibility to contribute to the safety case. Overall it was concluded by the Working Group that: - The most important argument is to present a clear understanding of past geological evolution at the particular site, consistent with the global understanding of geological evolution. Efforts should be made to achieve a broad consensus on this from many independent experts. - The supporting arguments are seldom based on a single piece of evidence. It is the chain of arguments rather than individual arguments that is important. - We are primarily interested in 'reasonable' predictability of the geological system. We recognize that most geological systems evolve with time

  1. Optical Photometric Observations of GEO Debris

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Horstman, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We report on a continuing program of optical photometric measurements of faint orbital debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). These observations can be compared with laboratory studies of actual spacecraft materials in an effort to determine what the faint debris at GEO may be. We have optical observations from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile of two samples of debris: 1. GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Curtis-Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 t11 magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. 2. A smaller sample of high area to mass ratio (AMR) objects discovered independently, and acquired using predictions from orbits derived from independent tracking data collected days prior to the observations. Our optical observations in standard astronomical BVRI filters are done with either telescope, and with the telescope tracking the debris object at the object's angular rate. Observations in different filters are obtained sequentially. We have obtained 71 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes. A total of 66 of these sequences have 3 or more good measurements in all filters (not contaminated by star streaks or in Earth's shadow). Most of these sequences show brightness variations, but a small subset has observed brightness variations consistent with that expected from observational errors alone. The majority of these stable objects are redder than a solar color in both B-R and R-I. There is no dependence on color with brightness. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and

  2. Targeted quantification of N-1-(carboxymethyl) valine and N-1-(carboxyethyl) valine peptides of ?-hemoglobin for better diagnostics in diabetes

    Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G.; Batkulwar, Kedar B.; Meshram, Nishita N.; Tiwari, Shalbha; Korwar, Arvind M.; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Kulkarni, Mahesh J.

    2016-01-01

    Background N-1-(Deoxyfructosyl) valine (DFV) ?-hemoglobin (?-Hb), commonly referred as HbA1c, is widely used diagnostic marker in diabetes, believed to provide glycemic status of preceding 90?120?days. However, the turnover of hemoglobin is about 120?days, the DFV-?-Hb, an early and reversible glycation product eventually may undergo irreversible advanced glycation modifications such as carboxymethylation or carboxyethylation. Hence quantification of N-1-(carboxymethyl) valine (CMV) and N-1-(...

  3. 1918 pandemic H1N1 DNA vaccine protects ferrets against 2007 H1N1 virus infection

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    of the H1N1 pandemic virus from 1918 induce protection in ferrets against infection with a H1N1 (A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)) virus which was included in the conventional vaccine for the 2006-2007 season. The viruses are separated by a time interval of 89 years and differ by 21.2% in the HA1 protein...

  4. Preserving location and absence privacy in geo-social networks

    Freni, Dario; Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Mascetti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    accessible to multiple users. This renders it difficult for GeoSN users to control which information about them is available and to whom it is available. This paper addresses two privacy threats that occur in GeoSNs: location privacy and absence privacy. The former concerns the availability of information...... about the presence of users in specific locations at given times, while the latter concerns the availability of information about the absence of an individual from specific locations during given periods of time. The challenge addressed is that of supporting privacy while still enabling useful services....... The resulting geo-aware social networks (GeoSNs) pose privacy threats beyond those found in location-based services. Content published in a GeoSN is often associated with references to multiple users, without the publisher being aware of the privacy preferences of those users. Moreover, this content is often...

  5. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    Background: A novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in ...

  6. Construction of the superalgebras for N=1 supergravity

    Ivanov, E.A.; Niederle, J.

    1984-11-01

    It is shown that the infinite parameter gauge superalgebras of the conformal and of the N=1 Einstein supergravities can be obtained as the closures of various two finite-parameter superalgebras. In the conformal case the standard, minimal and Einsteinian closures are studied. In the case of the N=1 Einstein supergravities the minimal and non-minimal closures are discussed. (author)

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    ... novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Zhanjiang, China ...

  8. Analysis of supply chain management of N1-EAM project

    Wu Jize; Liu Xujia; Liu Huanhuan

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain management directly affect the safe and stable operation of nuclear power plants. China's nuclear power production management information system N1-EAM covers supply chain management business. This paper firstly N1-EAM supply chain management functions, advanced analysis of business processes, Qinshan area combined with supply chain management situation, the initial application of the proposed solutions. (authors)

  9. Analisa Kemampuan Saluran Berdasarkan Metode Contingency N-1 Analysis

    Syukriyadin,; Susanti, Rahmi

    2010-01-01

    Sistem transmisi memegang peranan yang sangatpenting dalam proses penyaluran daya. Oleh karena itupengamanan pada saluran transmisi perlu mendapatperhatian yang serius dalam perencanaannya. Analisakemampuan saluran merupakan aplikasi untuk mempelajarikestabilan sistem. Analisa kemampuan saluran dalampenelitian ini menggunakan metode contingency N-1 analysis.Contingency N-1 analysis merupakan sebuah program untukmemperhitungkan berbagi kondisi yang mungkin terjadidalam sistem dimasa yang akan ...

  10. (H1N1) Influenza in Saurashtra, India

    Mexico in April, 2009,[1] and then in United States (US).[2,3]. This was originally ... duration of hospital stay of such patients was 2‑32 days. All admitted A (H1N1) .... Because of limited resources, only 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus was tested ...

  11. 3D GEO: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH

    A. Georgopoulos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  12. 3D Geo: An Alternative Approach

    Georgopoulos, A.

    2016-10-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  13. Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of GEO Objects

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cardona, Tammaso; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin S.; Bedard, Donald

    2013-01-01

    We report on optical reflection spectroscopy of geosynchronous (GEO) objects in the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. These observations were obtained using imaging spectrographs on the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to determine the composition of these objects by comparing these spectral observations with ground-based laboratory measurements of spacecraft materials. The observations are all low resolution (1 nm after smoothing) obtained through a 5 arcsecond wide slit and using a grism as the dispersing element. The spectral range covered was from 450 nm to 800 nm. All spectra were flux calibrated using observations of standard stars with the exact same instrumental setup. An effort was made to obtain all observations within a limited range of topocentric phase angle, although the solar incident angle is unknown due to the lack of any knowledge of the attitude of the observed surface at the time of observation.

  14. Partial breaking of N = 1, D = 10 supersymmetry

    Bellucci, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper is described the spontaneous partial breaking of N =1, D =10 supersymmetry to N = (1, 0), d = 6 and its dimensionally-reduced versions in the framework of nonlinear realizations. The basic Goldstone superfield is N = (1, 0), d = 6 hyper multiplet superfield satisfying a nonlinear generalization of the standard hyper multiplet constraint. It is here interpreted the generalized constraint as the manifestly world volume supersymmetric form of equations of motion of the type 1 super 5-brane in D 10. The related issues here addressed are a possible existence of brane extension of off-shell hyper multiplet actions, the possibility to utilize vector N = (1, 0), d =6 supermultiplet as the Goldstone one, and the description of 1/4 breaking of N =1, D = 11 supersymmetry

  15. Modelling of Diffuse Failure and Fluidization in geo materials and Geo structures

    Pastor, M.

    2013-01-01

    Failure of geo structures is caused by changes in effective stresses induced by external loads (earthquakes, for instance), change in the pore pressures (rain), in the geometry (erosion), or in materials properties (chemical attack, degradation, weathering). Landslides can by analysed as the failure of a geo structure, the slope. There exist many alternative classifications of landslides can be analyzed as the failure of a geo structure, the slope. There exist many alternative classifications of landslides, but we will consider here a simple classification into slides and flows. In the case of slides, the failure consists on the movement of a part of the slope with deformations which concentrate in a narrow zone, the failure surface. This can be idealized as localized failure, and it is typical of over consolidated or dense materials exhibiting softening. On the other hand, flows are made of fluidized materials, flowing in a fluid like manner. This mechanism of failure is known as diffuse failure, and has received much less attention by researchers. Modelling of diffuse failure of slopes is complex, because there appear difficulties in the mathematical, constitutive and numerical models, which have to account for a phase transition. This work deals with modeling, and we will present here some tools recently developed by the author and the group to which he belongs. (Author)

  16. σ-holes and π-holes: Similarities and differences.

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2018-04-05

    σ-Holes and π-holes are regions of molecules with electronic densities lower than their surroundings. There are often positive electrostatic potentials associated with them. Through these potentials, the molecule can interact attractively with negative sites, such as lone pairs, π electrons, and anions. Such noncovalent interactions, "σ-hole bonding" and "π-hole bonding," are increasingly recognized as being important in a number of different areas. In this article, we discuss and compare the natures and characteristics of σ-holes and π-holes, and factors that influence the strengths and locations of the resulting electrostatic potentials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Merging Black Holes

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  18. Black-hole astrophysics

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  19. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  20. Turbulent black holes.

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  1. Anyon black holes

    Aghaei Abchouyeh, Maryam; Mirza, Behrouz; Karimi Takrami, Moein; Younesizadeh, Younes

    2018-05-01

    We propose a correspondence between an Anyon Van der Waals fluid and a (2 + 1) dimensional AdS black hole. Anyons are particles with intermediate statistics that interpolates between a Fermi-Dirac statistics and a Bose-Einstein one. A parameter α (0 quasi Fermi-Dirac statistics for α >αc, but a quasi Bose-Einstein statistics for α quasi Bose-Einstein statistics. For α >αc and a range of values of the cosmological constant, there is, however, no event horizon so there is no black hole solution. Thus, for these values of cosmological constants, the AdS Anyon Van der Waals black holes have only quasi Bose-Einstein statistics.

  2. Black holes go supersonic

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    In modern physics, the unification of gravity and quantum mechanics remains a mystery. Gravity rules the macroscopic world of planets, stars and galaxies, while quantum mechanics governs the micro-cosmos of atoms, light quanta and elementary particles. However, cosmologists believe that these two disparate worlds may meet at the edges of black holes. Now Luis Garay, James Anglin, Ignacio Cirac and Peter Zoller at the University of Innsbruck in Austria have proposed a realistic way to make an artificial 'sonic' black hole in a tabletop experiment (L J Garay et al. 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 4643). In the February issue of Physics World, Ulf Leonhardt of the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, UK, explains how the simulated black holes work. (U.K.)

  3. Black Hole Paradoxes

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals. (paper)

  4. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  5. Slowly balding black holes

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  6. Modeling black hole evaporation

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  7. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  8. Moulting Black Holes

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that ...

  9. Are black holes springlike?

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  10. Dancing with Black Holes

    Aarseth, S. J.

    2008-05-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  11. Scattering from black holes

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  12. Virtual Black Holes

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  13. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  14. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  15. Partons and black holes

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  16. Integrated Geo Hazard Management System in Cloud Computing Technology

    Hanifah, M. I. M.; Omar, R. C.; Khalid, N. H. N.; Ismail, A.; Mustapha, I. S.; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Roslan, R.; Zalam, W. M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Geo hazard can result in reducing of environmental health and huge economic losses especially in mountainous area. In order to mitigate geo-hazard effectively, cloud computer technology are introduce for managing geo hazard database. Cloud computing technology and it services capable to provide stakeholder's with geo hazards information in near to real time for an effective environmental management and decision-making. UNITEN Integrated Geo Hazard Management System consist of the network management and operation to monitor geo-hazard disaster especially landslide in our study area at Kelantan River Basin and boundary between Hulu Kelantan and Hulu Terengganu. The system will provide easily manage flexible measuring system with data management operates autonomously and can be controlled by commands to collects and controls remotely by using “cloud” system computing. This paper aims to document the above relationship by identifying the special features and needs associated with effective geohazard database management using “cloud system”. This system later will use as part of the development activities and result in minimizing the frequency of the geo-hazard and risk at that research area.

  17. A GeoWall with Physics and Astronomy Applications

    Dukes, Phillip; Bruton, Dan

    2008-03-01

    A GeoWall is a passive stereoscopic projection system that can be used by students, teachers, and researchers for visualization of the structure and dynamics of three-dimensional systems and data. The type of system described here adequately provides 3-D visualization in natural color for large or small groups of viewers. The name ``GeoWall'' derives from its initial development to visualize data in the geosciences.1 An early GeoWall system was developed by Paul Morin at the electronic visualization laboratory at the University of Minnesota and was applied in an introductory geology course in spring of 2001. Since that time, several stereoscopic media, which are applicable to introductory-level physics and astronomy classes, have been developed and released into the public domain. In addition to the GeoWall's application in the classroom, there is considerable value in its use as part of a general science outreach program. In this paper we briefly describe the theory of operation of stereoscopic projection and the basic necessary components of a GeoWall system. Then we briefly describe how we are using a GeoWall as an instructional tool for the classroom and informal astronomy education and in research. Finally, we list sources for several of the free software media in physics and astronomy available for use with a GeoWall system.

  18. N-1: Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Tour Areas

    Geist, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Group N-1 develops and provides training on nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies intended for nuclear material accounting and control to fulfill both international and domestic obligations. The N-1 group is located at Technical Area (TA)-35 in Buildings 2 and 27. Visitors to the area can observe developed and fielded NDA technologies, as well as the latest research efforts to develop the next generation of NDA technologies. Several areas are used for NDA training. The N-1 School House area typically is used for basic training on neutron- and gamma-ray-based NDA techniques. This area contains an assortment of gamma-ray detector systems, including sodium iodide and high-purity germanium and the associated measurement components. Many types of neutron assay systems are located here, including both standard coincidence and multiplicity counters. The N-1 School House area is also used for holdup training; located here are the mock holdup assemblies and associated holdup measurement tools. Other laboratory areas in the N-1 space are used for specialized training, such as waste NDA, calorimetry, and advanced gamma-ray NDA. Also, many research laboratories in the N-1 space are used to develop new NDA technologies. The calorimetry laboratory is used to develop and evaluate new technologies and techniques that measure the heat signature from nuclear material to determine mass. The micro calorimetry laboratory is being used to develop advanced technologies that can measure gamma rays with extremely high resolution. This technique has been proven in the laboratory setting, and the team is now working to cultivate a field-capable system. The N-1 group also develops remote and unattended systems for the tracking and control of nuclear material. A demonstration of this technology is located within one of the laboratory spaces. The source tracker software was developed by N-1 to monitor the locations and quantities of nuclear materials. This software is currently used to track

  19. Over spinning a black hole?

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  20. Influenza A (H1N1) organising pneumonia.

    Torrego, Alfons; Pajares, Virginia; Mola, Anna; Lerma, Enrique; Franquet, Tomás

    2010-04-27

    In November 2009, countries around the world reported confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1, including over 6000 deaths. No peak in activity has been seen. The most common causes of death are pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with organising pneumonia associated with influenza A (H1N1) infection confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy. Organising pneumonia should also be considered as a possible complication of influenza A (H1N1) infection, given that these patients can benefit from early diagnosis and appropriate specific management.

  1. Bi-static Optical Observations of GEO Objects

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Edwin S.; Cowardin, Heather; Lederer, Susan M.; Buckalew, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A bi-static study of objects at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) was conducted using two ground-based wide-field optical telescopes. The University of Michigan's 0.6-m MODEST (Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope) located at the Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory in Chile was employed in a series of coordinated observations with the U.S. Naval Observatory's (USNO) 1.3-m telescope at the USNO Flagstaff Station near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. The goals of this project are twofold: (1) Obtain optical distances to known and unknown objects at GEO from the difference in the observed topocentric position of objects measured with respect to a reference star frame. The distance can be derived directly from these measurements, and is independent of any orbital solution. The wide geographical separation of these two telescopes means that the parallax difference is larger than ten degrees, and (2) Compare optical photometry in similar filters of GEO objects taken during the same time period from the two sites. The object's illuminated surfaces presented different angles of reflected sunlight to the two telescopes.During a four hour period on the night.of 22 February 2014 (UT), coordinated observations were obtained for eight different GEO positions. Each coordinated observation sequence was started on the hour or half-hour, and was selected to ensure the same cataloged GEO object was available in the field of view of both telescopes during the thirty minute observing sequence. GEO objects were chosen to be both controlled and uncontrolled at a range of orbital inclinations, and the objects were not tracked. Instead both telescopes were operated with all drives off in GEO survey mode to discover un-cataloged objects at GEO. The initial results from this proof-of-concept observing run will be presented, with the intent of laying the foundation for future large-scale bi-static observing campaigns of the GEO regime.

  2. Geo-communication, web-services, and spatial data infrastructure

    Brodersen, Lars; Nielsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of web-services as index-portals based on geo-information has changed the conditions for both content and form of geo-communication. A high number of players and interactions as well as a very high number of all kinds of information and combinations of these caracterise web...... looks very complex, and it will get even more complex. Therefore, there is a strong need for theories and models that can describe this complex web in the SDI and geo-communication consisting of active components, passive components, users, and information in order to make it possible to handle...

  3. GeoLab: A Geological Workstation for Future Missions

    Evans, Cynthia; Calaway, Michael; Bell, Mary Sue; Li, Zheng; Tong, Shuo; Zhong, Ye; Dahiwala, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The GeoLab glovebox was, until November 2012, fully integrated into NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) Analog Testbed. The conceptual design for GeoLab came from several sources, including current research instruments (Microgravity Science Glovebox) used on the International Space Station, existing Astromaterials Curation Laboratory hardware and clean room procedures, and mission scenarios developed for earlier programs. GeoLab allowed NASA scientists to test science operations related to contained sample examination during simulated exploration missions. The team demonstrated science operations that enhance theThe GeoLab glovebox was, until November 2012, fully integrated into NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) Analog Testbed. The conceptual design for GeoLab came from several sources, including current research instruments (Microgravity Science Glovebox) used on the International Space Station, existing Astromaterials Curation Laboratory hardware and clean room procedures, and mission scenarios developed for earlier programs. GeoLab allowed NASA scientists to test science operations related to contained sample examination during simulated exploration missions. The team demonstrated science operations that enhance the early scientific returns from future missions and ensure that the best samples are selected for Earth return. The facility was also designed to foster the development of instrument technology. Since 2009, when GeoLab design and construction began, the GeoLab team [a group of scientists from the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office within the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at JSC] has progressively developed and reconfigured the GeoLab hardware and software interfaces and developed test objectives, which were to 1) determine requirements and strategies for sample handling and prioritization for geological operations on other planetary surfaces, 2) assess the scientific contribution of selective in-situ sample

  4. Paradigm shift from cartography to geo-communication

    Brodersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures......-information is actually not possible at all without having a usage (a project identity and a purpose) in mind. Objective and neutral geo-information does not exist. Therefore the overall philosophy of the geo-domain will be that it is a communication discipline....

  5. Nonsingular black hole

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  6. When Black Holes Collide

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  7. Barber. Symphony N 1, Op. 9 / Michael Oliver

    Oliver, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Barber. Symphony N 1, Op. 9. The School for Scandal Overture, Op. 5 Beach. Symphony in E minor, Op. 32, "Gaelic". Detroit Symphony Orchestra /Neeme Järvi" Chandes cassette ABTD 1550; CD CHAN 8958 (72 minutes)

  8. Recurrence relations for toric N = 1 superconformal blocks

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2012-09-01

    General 1-point toric blocks in all sectors of N = 1 superconformal field theories are analyzed. The recurrence relations for blocks coefficients are derived by calculating their residues and large Δ asymptotics.

  9. N=1 supersymmetric extension of the baby Skyrme model

    Adam, C.; Queiruga, J. M.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2011-01-01

    We construct a method to supersymmetrize higher kinetic terms and apply it to the baby Skyrme model. We find that there exist N=1 supersymmetric extensions for baby Skyrme models with arbitrary potential.

  10. Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1 / Ivan March

    March, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1, Op.64b, N2, Op.64c. Philharmonia Orchestra, Barry Wordsworth" Collins Classics cassette 1116-4. CD. Võrreldud Neeme Järvi plaadistustega 1116-2

  11. Properties of general classical CPsup(n-1) solutions

    Din, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    The general classical solutions with finite action of the CPsup(n-1) model are displayed. Various properties of the solutions such as topological charge, action, Baecklund like transformations and stability are discussed

  12. Sugawara construction for affine SL(N,1)

    Henningson, M.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the sl(N,1) superalgebras, their affine extensions and their representations. This is used to perform a Sugawara construction of the Virasoro algebra. The allowed values of the conformal anomaly and the conformal dimension are computed. (orig.)

  13. GEO 600 online detector characterization system

    Balasubramanian, R; Babak, S; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T

    2005-01-01

    A world-wide network of interferometric gravitational wave detectors is currently operational. The detectors in the network are still in their commissioning phase and are expected to achieve their design sensitivity over the next year or so. Each detector is a complex instrument involving many optical, mechanical and electronic subsystems and each subsystem is a source of noise at the output of the detector. Therefore, in addition to recording the main gravitational wave data channel at the output of the interferometer, the state of each detector subsystem is monitored and recorded. The analysis of these subsidiary data serves a dual purpose: first, it helps us to identify the primary sources of noise which could then be either removed altogether or reduced substantially and second, it helps us in vetoing spurious signals at the output of the interferometer. However, since these subsidiary data are both large in volume (1 MB s -1 ) as well as complex in nature, it is not possible to look at all these data manually. We require an online monitoring and analysis tool which can process all the data channels for various noise artefacts such as transients, drifting of narrowband noise sources, noise couplings between data channels etc, and summarize the results of the analysis in a manner that can be accessed and interpreted conveniently. In this paper we describe the GEO 600 online detector characterization system (GODCS), which is the tool that is being used to monitor the output of the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector situated near Hanover in Germany. We describe the various algorithms that we use and how the results of several algorithms can be combined to make meaningful statements about the state of the detector. We also give implementation details such as the software architecture and the storage and retrieval of the output of GODCS. This paper will be useful to researchers in the area of gravitational wave astronomy as a record of the various analyses and

  14. Photometric Studies of Orbital Debris at GEO

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Hortsman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Orbital debris represents a significant and increasing risk to operational spacecraft. Here we report on photometric observations made in standard BVRI filters at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in an effort to determine the physical characteristics of optically faint debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan s 0.6-m Curtis-Schmidt telescope (known as MODEST, for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. For a sample of 50 objects, calibrated sequences in RB- V-I-R filters have been obtained with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could imply that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For irregularly shaped objects tumbling at unknown orientations and rates, such sequential filter measurements using one telescope are subject to large errors for interpretation. If all observations in all filters in a particular sequence are of the same surface at the same solar and viewing angles, then the colors are meaningful. Where this is not the case, interpretation of the observed colors is impossible. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m observes in B, and the Schmidt in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are both the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Now the observed B-R color is a true measure of the scattered illuminated area of the debris piece for that observation.

  15. Photometric Studies of GEO Orbital Debris

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R=15th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? More than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes for a sample of 50 objects have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus the B-R color is a true measure of the surface of the debris piece facing the

  16. Early Detection of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Nasreen, Sharifa; Muneer, Syeda Mah-E; Homaira, Nusrat; Goswami, Doli Rani; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Husain, Mohammad Mushtuq; Jamil, Khondokar Mahbuba; Khatun, Selina; Ahmed, Mujaddeed; Chakraborty, Apurba; Fry, Alicia; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Azim, Tasnim; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Brooks, Abdullah; Hossain, Mohamed Jahangir; Klimov, Alexander; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    To explore Bangladesh’s ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June–July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population. PMID:22257637

  17. Some comments on N=1 gauge theories from wrapped branes

    Apreda, R.; Bigazzi, F.; Petrini, M.; Cotrone, A.L.; Zaffaroni, A.

    2001-12-01

    We discuss various aspects of gauge theories realized on the world-volume of wrapped branes. In particular we analyze the coupling of SYM operators to space-time fields both in N=1 and N=2 models and give a description of the gluino condensate in the Maldacena-Nunez N=1 solution. We also explore the seven dimensional BPS equations relevant for these solutions and their generalizations. (author)

  18. String Loop Threshold Corrections for N=1 Generalized Coxeter Orbifolds

    Kokorelis, Christos

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the calculation of threshold corrections to gauge coupling constants for the, only, non-decomposable class of abelian (2, 2) symmetric N=1 four dimensional heterotic orbifold models, where the internal twist is realized as a generalized Coxeter automorphism. The latter orbifold was singled out in earlier work as the only N=1 heterotic $Z_N$ orbifold that satisfy the phenomenological criteria of correct minimal gauge coupling unification and cancellation of target space modular anom...

  19. Generalized Hitchin system, spectral curve and N=1 dynamics

    Xie, Dan; Yonekura, Kazuya [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-01-02

    A generalized Hitchin equation was proposed as the BPS equation for a large class of four dimensional N=1 theories engineered using M5 branes. In this paper, we show how to write down the spectral curve for the moduli space of generalized Hitchin equations, and extract interesting N=1 dynamics out of it, such as deformed modui space, chiral ring relation, SUSY breaking, etc. Holomorphy plays a crucial role in our construction.

  20. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    Wilczek, Frank

    1995-01-01

    1. Qualitative introduction to black holes : classical, quantum2. Model black holes and model collapse process: The Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom metrics, The Oppenheimer-Volkov collapse scenario3. Mode mixing4. From mode mixing to radiance.

  1. Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes

    Giddings, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    These lectures give a pedagogical review of dilaton gravity, Hawking radiation, the black hole information problem, and black hole pair creation. (Lectures presented at the 1994 Trieste Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology)

  2. Quantum aspects of black holes

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  3. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  4. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner; Contribution a l'etude des transferts de masse au niveau des joints de geomembrane et a l'interface entre geomembrane et geosynthetique bentonitique

    Barroso, M

    2005-03-15

    carried out both in laboratory and in field conditions to study the suitability of this test to assess the quality of the seams in situ. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to assess the quality of the geo-membrane seams from a non-destructive test conducted in situ by determining the time constant. To address the problem of fluid migration through geo-membrane defects, composite liners comprising a geo-membrane with a circular hole over a GCL over a CCL were simulated in tests at three scales. Flow rates at the interface between the geo-membrane and the GCL were measured. Correspondent interface transmissivity was estimated based on final flow rates and observation of the wetted area. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the influence of the pre-hydration of the GCL, the hydraulic head on top of the liner and the confining stress over the liner system, on the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane, as well as to check the feasibility of an extrapolation of the results obtained on small-scale tests to field conditions. It was found that the transmissivity does not seem to be affected by the pre-hydration of the GCLs when low confining stresses were used. It also does not seem to be influenced by the increase in confining stress when non-pre-hydrated GCLs are used. Finally, the transmissivity does not seem to be significantly affected by the increase in hydraulic head. The results also suggest that predictions on flow rates though composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane, which are based on transmissivity values obtained in small scale tests, are conservative. Lastly, based on the transmissivities obtained in this study, empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners consisting of a geo-membrane over a GCL over a CCL are proposed. Flow rates calculated using these equations are in better agreement with the flow rates measured experimentally than the empirical equations reported in

  5. A novel insight into beaconless geo-routing

    Bader, Ahmed; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Beaconless geo-routing protocols have been traditionally analyzed assuming equal communication ranges for the data and control packets. This is not true in reality, since the communication range is in practice function of the packet length. As a

  6. Formulation of caesium based and caesium containing geo-polymers

    Berger, S.; Joussot-Dubien, C.; Frizon, F. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, DEN, Decontamination and Conditioning Department, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/L2ED, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2009-10-15

    Cement encapsulation is widely used as a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste immobilisation process. Among these wastes, caesium ions are poorly immobilised by Portland cement based materials. This work consists of an experimental investigation into the ability of geo-polymers to effectively encapsulate this chemical species and to determine the impact of caesium incorporation on the geo-polymer properties. Geo-polymers were synthesised with several compositions based on the activation of metakaolin with an alkali hydroxide solution containing caesium. The setting time, mineralogy, porosity and mechanical properties of the samples were examined for one month. Leach tests were conducted during the same period to determine the immobilisation efficiency. The results depend to a large extent on the composition of the activation solution in terms of soluble silica content and alkali used. These parameters determine both the degree of condensation and the geo-polymer composition. (authors)

  7. Instrumental Genesis in GeoGebra Based Board Game Design

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I address the use of digital tools (GeoGebra) in open ended design activities, with primary school children. I present results from the research and development project “Creative Digital Mathematics”, which aims to use the pupil’s development of mathematical board games as a vehicle...... in their work with GeoGebra and how they relate their work with GeoGebra and mathematics to fellow pupils and real life situations. The results show that pupils’ consider development of board games as meaningful mathematical activity, and that they develop skills with GeoGebra, furthermore the pupils considers...... potential use of their board game by classmates in their design activities....

  8. Geo-communication and web-based infrastructure

    Brodersen, Lars; Nielsen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The role of geo-information and the distribution of geo-information have changed dramatically since the introduction of web-services on the Internet. In the framework of web-services maps should be seen as an index to further geo-information. Maps are no longer an aim in themselves. In this context...... web-services perform the function as index-portals on the basis of geoinformation. The introduction of web-services as index-portals based on geoinformation has changed the conditions for both content and form of geocommunication. A high number of players and interactions (as well as a very high...... number of all kinds of information and combinations of these) characterize web-services, where maps are only a part of the whole. These new conditions demand new ways of modelling the processes leading to geo-communication. One new aspect is the fact that the service providers have become a part...

  9. Balancing geo-privacy and spatial patterns in epidemiological studies

    Chien-Chou Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To balance the protection of geo-privacy and the accuracy of spatial patterns, we developed a geo-spatial tool (GeoMasker intended to mask the residential locations of patients or cases in a geographic information system (GIS. To elucidate the effects of geo-masking parameters, we applied 2010 dengue epidemic data from Taiwan testing the tool’s performance in an empirical situation. The similarity of pre- and post-spatial patterns was measured by D statistics under a 95% confidence interval. In the empirical study, different magnitudes of anonymisation (estimated Kanonymity ≥10 and 100 were achieved and different degrees of agreement on the pre- and post-patterns were evaluated. The application is beneficial for public health workers and researchers when processing data with individuals’ spatial information.

  10. 76 FR 14392 - GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data

    2011-03-16

    ... these chemicals. LISA also maintains EPA inspection findings, the identity of the inspection team, and... in accordance with the FIFRA Information Security Manual. In addition, GeoLogics Corporation is...

  11. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  12. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  13. Formulation of caesium based and caesium containing geo-polymers

    Berger, S.; Joussot-Dubien, C.; Frizon, F.

    2009-01-01

    Cement encapsulation is widely used as a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste immobilisation process. Among these wastes, caesium ions are poorly immobilised by Portland cement based materials. This work consists of an experimental investigation into the ability of geo-polymers to effectively encapsulate this chemical species and to determine the impact of caesium incorporation on the geo-polymer properties. Geo-polymers were synthesised with several compositions based on the activation of metakaolin with an alkali hydroxide solution containing caesium. The setting time, mineralogy, porosity and mechanical properties of the samples were examined for one month. Leach tests were conducted during the same period to determine the immobilisation efficiency. The results depend to a large extent on the composition of the activation solution in terms of soluble silica content and alkali used. These parameters determine both the degree of condensation and the geo-polymer composition. (authors)

  14. Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism exploitation

    Dong, Suocheng; Hou, Xiaoli

    2004-11-01

    Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism development was discussed in the article. Since 1990s, geo-information science methods, which take the 3S (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing) as core techniques, has played an important role in resources reconnaissance, data management, environment monitoring, and regional planning. Geo-information science methods can easily analyze and convert geographic spatial data. The application of 3S methods is helpful to sustainable development in tourism. Various assignments are involved in the development of ecotourism, such as reconnaissance of ecotourism resources, drawing of tourism maps, dealing with mass data, and also tourism information inquire, employee management, quality management of products. The utilization of geo-information methods in ecotourism can make the development more efficient by promoting the sustainable development of tourism and the protection of eco-environment.

  15. Recurring coronal holes and their rotation rates during the solar cycles 22-24

    Prabhu, K.; Ravindra, B.; Hegde, Manjunath; Doddamani, Vijayakumar H.

    2018-05-01

    Coronal holes (CHs) play a significant role in making the Earth geo-magnetically active during the declining and minimum phases of the solar cycle. In this study, we analysed the evolutionary characteristics of the Recurring CHs from the year 1992 to 2016. The extended minimum of Solar Cycle 23 shows unusual characteristics in the number of persistent coronal holes in the mid- and low-latitude regions of the Sun. Carrington rotation maps of He 10830 Å and EUV 195 Å observations are used to identify the Coronal holes. The latitude distribution of the RCHs shows that most of them are appeared between ± 20° latitudes. In this period, more number of recurring coronal holes appeared in and around 100° and 200° Carrington longitudes. The large sized coronal holes lived for shorter period and they appeared close to the equator. From the area distribution over the latitude considered, it shows that more number of recurring coronal holes with area <10^{21} cm2 appeared in the southern latitude close to the equator. The rotation rates calculated from the RCHs appeared between ± 60° latitude shows rigid body characteristics. The derived rotational profiles of the coronal holes show that they have anchored to a depth well below the tachocline of the interior, and compares well with the helioseismology results.

  16. Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes

    Ruderfer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)

  17. Warped products and black holes

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics near a black hole

    Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical computer study of hydromagnetic flow near a black hole is presented. First, the equations of motion are developed to a form suitable for numerical computations. Second, the results of calculations describing the magnetic torques exerted by a rotating black hole on a surrounding magnetic plasma and the electric charge that is induced on the surface of the black hole are presented. (auth)

  19. The composite N1 component to gaps in noise.

    Pratt, Hillel; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2005-11-01

    To indicate whether the double peaked N(1) to gaps in continuous white noise is a composite of onset and offset responses to transients or whether it reflects higher processing such as change or mismatch detection and to assess the role of attention in this process. Evoked potentials were recorded to two binaural stimulus types: (1) gaps of different durations randomly distributed in continuous white noise; and (2) click pairs at intervals identical to those between gap onsets and offsets in the continuous noise stimulus. Potentials to these stimuli were recorded while subjects read a text and while detecting gaps in noise or click pairs. Potentials were detected to all click pairs and to gaps of 5 ms or longer, corresponding to the subjects' psychoacoustic gap detection threshold. With long gap durations of 200-800 ms, distinct potentials to gap onset and gap offset were observed. The waveforms to all click pairs and to offsets of long gaps were similar and single-peaked, while potentials to gaps of 10 ms and longer, and potentials to onsets of long gaps were double-peaked, consisting of two N(1) negativities, 60 ms apart, irrespective of gap duration. The first (N(1a)), was more frontal in its distribution and similar to that of clicks. The second (N(1b)) peak's distribution was more central/temporal and its source locations and time course of activity were distinct. No effects of attention on any of the varieties and constituents of N(1) were observed. Comparing potentials to gap onsets, to click pairs and to gap offsets, suggests that potentials to gap onsets involve not only sound onset/offset responses (N(1), N(1a)) but also the subsequent pre-attentive perception of the cessation of an ongoing sound (N(1b)). We propose that N(1b) is distinct from change or mismatch detection and is associated with termination of an ongoing continuous stimulus. We propose to call it the N(egation)-process. A constituent of the N(1) complex is shown to be associated with the

  20. Internal (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) resistive modes in the toroidal Tokomak with circular cross sections

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.; Edery, D.; Soule, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    A linear analysis is presented of the toroidal coupling between the internal resistive modes (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) in the Tokomak with circular cross sections. One includes the resistive and diamagnetic effects in the singular layers where the safety factor q takes respectively the values one and two. By expanding the MHD equations in powers of epsilon, the local inverse of the aspect ratio, one obtains a system of two coupled equations for the harmonic amplitudes. When the shear is finite on q=1, the toroidal coupling is negligible. In the opposite limit, one can explain: the experimental behaviour of the (m=1, n=1) mode before the internal disruption; the simultaneous observation of the modes (m=1, n=1) and [de

  1. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  2. Geo-electric measurements – internal state of historic masonry

    Schueremans, Luc

    2009-01-01

    A geophysical resistivity measuring device was modified to perform automatic monitoring of historical masonry structures before, during and after grout injection for consolidation purposes. The obtained image is called a geo-electrical tomography. The technique was used to evaluate the deteriorated masonry of the recently partly collapsed Maagdentoren in Zichem,(B). Geo-electric measuring techniques have been adapted from application in geology to be used as a non-destructive technique for t...

  3. Multi-User GeoGebra for Virtual Math Teams

    Gerry Stahl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams to discuss mathematics. The VMT collaboration environment now includes the dynamic mathematics application, GeoGebra. It offers a multi-user version of GeoGebra, which can be used in concert with VMT’s chat, web browsers, curricula and wiki repository.

  4. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    2002-01-01

    The largest share of space missions is going to the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO); they have the highest commercial importance. The paper first shows the historic trend of specific transportation costs to GEO from 1963 to 2002. It started out with more than 500 000 /kg(2002-value) and has come down to 36 000 /kg. This reduction looks impressive, however, the reason is NOT improved technology or new techniques but solely the growth of GEO payloads`unit mass. The first GEO satellite in 1963 did have a mass of 36 kg mass (BoL) . This has grown to a weight of 1600 kg (average of all GEO satellites) in the year 2000. Mass in GEO after injection is used here instead of GTO mass since the GTO mass depends on the launch site latitude. The specific cost reduction is only due to the "law-of-scale", valid in the whole transportation business: the larger the payload, the lower the specific transportation cost. The paper shows the actual prices of launch services to GTO by the major launch vehicles. Finally the potential GEO transportation costs of future launch systems are evaluated. What is the potential reduction of specific transportation costs if reusable elements are introduced in future systems ? Examples show that cost reductions up to 75 % seem achievable - compared to actual costs - but only with launch systems optimized according to modern principles of cost engineering. 1. 53rd International Astronautical Congress, World Space Congress Houston 2. First Submission 3. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future 4. KOELLE, D.E. 5. IAA.1.1 Launch Vehicles' Cost Engineering and Economic Competitiveness 6. D.E. Koelle; A.E. Goldstein 7. One overhead projector and screen 8. Word file attached 9. KOELLE I have approval to attend the Congress. I am not willing to present this paper at the IAC Public Outreach Program.

  5. Using GeoMapApp in the Classroom

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The GeoMapApp tool has been updated with enhanced functionality that is useful in the classroom. Hosted as a service of the IEDA Facility at Columbia University, GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org) is a free resource that integrates a wide range of research-grade geoscience data in one intuitive map-based interface. It includes earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, plate tectonic data sets, and a high-resolution topography/bathymetry base map. Users can also import and analyse their own data files. Layering and transparency capabilities allow users to compare multiple data sets at once. The GeoMapApp interface presents data in its proper geospatial context, helping students more easily gain insight and understanding from the data. Simple tools for data manipulation allow students to analyse the data in different ways such as generating profiles and producing visualisations for reports. The new Save Session capability is designed to assist in the classroom: The educator saves a pre-loaded state of GeoMapApp. When shared with the class, the saved session file allows students to open GeoMapApp with exactly the same data sets loaded and the same display parameters chosen thus freeing up valuable time in which students can explore the data. In this presentation, activities related to plate tectonics will be highlighted. One activity helps students investigate plate boundaries by exploring earthquake and volcano locations. Another requires students to calculate the rate of seafloor spreading using crustal age data in various ocean basins. A third uses the GeoMapApp layering technique to explore the influence of geological forces in shaping the landscape. Educators report that using GeoMapApp in the classroom lowers the barriers to data accessibility for students; fosters an increased sense of data "ownership" - GeoMapApp presents the same data in the same tool used by researchers; allows engagement with authentic geoscience data; promotes STEM skills and

  6. Simulation of Telescope Detectivity for Geo Survey and Tracking

    Richard, P.

    2014-09-01

    As the number of space debris on Earths Orbit increases steadily, the need to survey, track and catalogue them becomes of key importance. In this context, CNES has been using the TAROT Telescopes (Rapid Telescopes for Transient Objects owned and operated by CNRS) for several years to conduct studies about space surveillance and tracking. Today, two testbeds of services using the TAROT telescopes are running every night: one for GEO situational awareness and the second for debris tracking. Additionally to the CNES research activity on space surveillance and tracking domain, an operational collision avoidance service for LEO and GEO satellites is in place at CNES for several years. This service named CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation: Alerts and Recommendations) is used by CNES as well as by external customers. As the optical debris tracking testbed based on TAROT telescopes is the first step toward an operational provider of GEO measures that could be used by CAESAR, simulations have been done to help choosing the sites and types of telescopes that could be added in the GEO survey and debris tracking telescope network. One of the distinctive characteristics of the optical observation of space debris compared to traditional astronomic observation is the need to observe objects at low elevations. The two mains reasons for this are the need to observe the GEO belt from non-equatorial sites and the need to observe debris at longitudes far from the telescope longitude. This paper presents the results of simulations of the detectivity for GEO debris of various telescopes and sites, based on models of the GEO belt, the atmosphere and the instruments. One of the conclusions is that clever detection of faint streaks and spread sources by image processing is one of the major keys to improve the detection of debris on the GEO belt.

  7. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    prominences, have a significantly higher rate of occurrence in the vicinity of coronal .... coronal holes due to the birth of new holes or the growth of existing holes. .... Statistics of newly formed coronal hole areas (NFOCHA) associated with ...

  8. From binary black hole simulation to triple black hole simulation

    Bai Shan; Cao Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang; Yu, Jui-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Black hole systems are among the most promising sources for a gravitational wave detection project. Now, China is planning to construct a space-based laser interferometric detector as a follow-on mission of LISA in the near future. Aiming to provide some theoretical support to this detection project on the numerical relativity side, we focus on black hole systems simulation in this work. Considering the globular galaxy, multiple black hole systems also likely to exist in our universe and play a role as a source for the gravitational wave detector we are considering. We will give a progress report in this paper on our black hole system simulation. More specifically, we will present triple black hole simulation together with binary black hole simulation. On triple black hole simulations, one novel perturbational method is proposed.

  9. Treatment and Prevention of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza.

    Rewar, Suresh; Mirdha, Dashrath; Rewar, Prahlad

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza is a respiratory infection common to pigs worldwide caused by type A influenza viruses, principally subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3. Swine influenza viruses also can cause moderate to severe illness in humans and affect persons of all age groups. People in close contact with swine are at especially high risk. Until recently, epidemiological study of influenza was limited to resource-rich countries. The World Health Organization declared an H1N1 pandemic on June 11, 2009, after more than 70 countries reported 30,000 cases of H1N1 infection. In 2015, incidence of swine influenza increased substantially to reach a 5-year high. In India in 2015, 10,000 cases of swine influenza were reported with 774 deaths. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend real-time polymerase chain reaction as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. Antiviral drugs are the mainstay of clinical treatment of swine influenza and can make the illness milder and enable the patient to feel better faster. Antiviral drugs are most effective when they are started within the first 48 hours after the clinical signs begin, although they also may be used in severe or high-risk cases first seen after this time. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu, Genentech) or zanamivir (Relenza, GlaxoSmithKline). Prevention of swine influenza has 3 components: prevention in swine, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans. Because of limited treatment options, high risk for secondary infection, and frequent need for intensive care of individuals with H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high-risk populations and public education are critical to control of swine influenza out breaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Geo textiles and related products used in the waterproofing of reservoirs. Situation in Morocco

    Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the geo textiles, and products related to geo textiles, used for the building of water-storage reservoirs, which can be applicable to the construction of this kind of structures in Morocco. It presents different types of geo textiles and related products most commonly used in reservoirs, such as geo nets, geo grids, geo mats and geo composites, describing their characteristics and experimental methodology. Furthermore, and drawing on the Spanish Manual for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Reservoirs, emphasis is placed on the functions that geo synthetics can perform, such as protection and filter in the case of geo textiles, and drainage in the case of geo nets and draining composites. Finally, several works of this sort of structures located in Morocco are cited. (Author)

  11. Cementation of nuclear graphite using geo-polymers

    Girke, N.A.; Steinmetz, H.J.; Bukaemsky, A.; Bosbach, D.; Hermann, E.; Griebel, I.

    2012-01-01

    Geo-polymers are solid aluminosilicate materials usually formed by alkali hydroxide or alkali silicate activation of solid precursors such as coal fly ash, calcined clay and/or metallurgical slag. Today the primary application of geo-polymer technology is in the development of alternatives to Portland-based cements. Variations in the ratio of aluminium to silicon, and alkali to silicon or addition of structure support, produce geo-polymers with different physical and mechanical properties. These materials have an amorphous three-dimensional structure that gives geo-polymers certain properties, such as fire and acid resistance, low leach rate, which make them an ideal substitute for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in a wide range of applications especially in conditioning and storage of radioactive waste. Therefore investigations have been initiated about how and to which amount graphite as a hydrophobic material can be mixed with cement or concrete to form stable waste products and which concretes fulfill the specifications at best. As result geo-polymers have been identified as a promising matrix for graphite containing nuclear wastes. With geo-polymers both favorable properties in the cementation process and a high long time structural stability of the products can be achieved. (authors)

  12. The Distributed Geothermal Market Demand Model (dGeo): Documentation

    McCabe, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-06

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Distributed Geothermal Market Demand Model (dGeo) as a tool to explore the potential role of geothermal distributed energy resources (DERs) in meeting thermal energy demands in the United States. The dGeo model simulates the potential for deployment of geothermal DERs in the residential and commercial sectors of the continental United States for two specific technologies: ground-source heat pumps (GHP) and geothermal direct use (DU) for district heating. To quantify the opportunity space for these technologies, dGeo leverages a highly resolved geospatial database and robust bottom-up, agent-based modeling framework. This design is consistent with others in the family of Distributed Generation Market Demand models (dGen; Sigrin et al. 2016), including the Distributed Solar Market Demand (dSolar) and Distributed Wind Market Demand (dWind) models. dGeo is intended to serve as a long-term scenario-modeling tool. It has the capability to simulate the technical potential, economic potential, market potential, and technology deployment of GHP and DU through the year 2050 under a variety of user-defined input scenarios. Through these capabilities, dGeo can provide substantial analytical value to various stakeholders interested in exploring the effects of various techno-economic, macroeconomic, financial, and policy factors related to the opportunity for GHP and DU in the United States. This report documents the dGeo modeling design, methodology, assumptions, and capabilities.

  13. Calibration of GEO 600 for the S1 science run

    Hewitson, M; Grote, H; Heinzel, G; Strain, K A; Ward, H; Weiland, U

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the interferometric gravitational wave detector GEO 600 took part in a coincident science run (S1) with other detectors world-wide. When completed, GEO will employ a dual-recycling scheme which will allow its peak sensitivity to be tuned over a range of frequencies in the detection band. Still in the commissioning phase, GEO was operated as a power-recycled Michelson for the duration of S1. The accurate calibration of the sensitivity of GEO to gravitational waves is a critical step in preparing GEO data for exchange with other detectors forming a world-wide detector network. An online calibration scheme has been developed to perform real-time calibration of the power-recycled GEO detector. This scheme will later be extended to cover the more complex case of the dual-recycled interferometer in which multiple output signals will need to be combined to optimally recover a calibrated strain channel. This report presents an outline of the calibration scheme that was used during S1. Also presented are results of detector characterization work that arises naturally from the calibration work

  14. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction in Pr(n+2)(n+1)Nin(n-1)+2Sin(n+1) compounds

    Jiles, D.C.; Song, S.H.; Snyder, J.E.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Lograsso, T.A.; Wu, D.; Pecharsky, A.O.; Mudryk, Ya.; Dennis, K.W.; McCallum, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction of members of a homologous series of compounds based on the alloy series Pr (n+2)(n+1) Ni n(n-1)+2 Si n(n+1) have been measured. The crystal structures of these compounds are closely interrelated because they form trigonal prismatic columns in which the number of trigonal prisms that form the base of the trigonal columns is determined by the value of n in the chemical formula. Two compositions were investigated, Pr 5 Ni 2 Si 3 and Pr 15 Ni 7 Si 10 , corresponding to n=3 and n=4, respectively. The results were analyzed and used to determine the location of magnetic phase transitions by calculating the magnetic contribution to thermal expansion using the Gruneisen-Debye theory. This allowed more precise determination of the magnetic transition temperatures than could be achieved using the total thermal expansion. The results show two phase transitions in each material, one corresponding to the Curie temperature and the other at a lower temperature exhibiting characteristics of a spin reorientation transition

  15. The geo-genic radon potential map of the aspiring 'Buzau Land' Geo-park

    Moldovan, M. C.; Burghele, B. D.; Roba, C. A.; Sferle, T. L.; Buterez, C.; Mitrofan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping the geo-genic radon potential in Buzau County is part of a research project aiming to apply research for sustainable development and economic growth following the principles of geo-conservation in order to support the 'Buzau Land' UNESCO Geo-park initiative. The mapping of geo-genic radon will be used as an overview for planning purposes. The main geological formations of the studied area were identified as Cretaceous and Paleogene flysch, included in a thin-skinned nappes pile and consisting of alternating sandstones, marls, clays and, subordinately, conglomerates, all tightly folded or faulted. Significant variations in the concentration of radon were therefore determined in the ground. However, no high values were determined, the maximum measured activity concentration being 101.6 kBq m -3 . (authors)

  16. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  17. Visual form predictions facilitate auditory processing at the N1.

    Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2017-02-20

    Auditory-visual (AV) events often involve a leading visual cue (e.g. auditory-visual speech) that allows the perceiver to generate predictions about the upcoming auditory event. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that when an auditory event is predicted, processing is sped up, i.e., the N1 component of the ERP occurs earlier (N1 facilitation). However, it is not clear (1) whether N1 facilitation is based specifically on predictive rather than multisensory integration and (2) which particular properties of the visual cue it is based on. The current experiment used artificial AV stimuli in which visual cues predicted but did not co-occur with auditory cues. Visual form cues (high and low salience) and the auditory-visual pairing were manipulated so that auditory predictions could be based on form and timing or on timing only. The results showed that N1 facilitation occurred only for combined form and temporal predictions. These results suggest that faster auditory processing (as indicated by N1 facilitation) is based on predictive processing generated by a visual cue that clearly predicts both what and when the auditory stimulus will occur. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  19. Black Holes and Firewalls

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.

  20. Beyond the black hole

    Boslough, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  1. Bumpy black holes

    Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martinez, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary non-monotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black ring...

  2. The SmartGeo Portal: A retrospective

    Heilmann, Zeno; Satta, Guido; Bonomi, Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    The SmartGeo portal was created in a follow-up project that evolved from the geophysical data imaging services of a Grid computing portal for Geoscience, called GRIDA3. The scope of the project was to support commercial geotechnical service providers as well as academic researchers working in near-surface geoscience. Starting from the existing services, the SmartGeo portal was set up on new hardware, using the latest version of the grid portal environment EnginFrame. After a first working version was established, the services were reviewed, updated and accompanied by new services according to the feedback we received from our partners. One partner for instance experienced large difficulties in a project that aimed at delineating the aquifer for finding water pollutant substances in an industrial area of Basel. The seismic imaging service inherited from the previous portal was employing a data-driven algorithm optimized to provide, directly during data acquisition, nearly in real-time a first image of the subsurface structure. Different to this, our user needed for his data from a geologically very complex and noisy urban environment the maximum lateral resolution and noise reduction possible. For this purpose we added two cutting edge data imaging algorithms able to deliver such high precision results by simultaneously optimizing, for every single image point, all parameters of the mathematical model---a procedure which increased the computational effort by one or two magnitudes, respectively. Thus, parallel computing on grid infrastructure served for maximizing the image resolution instead for generating real-time results. This proved also very useful for the data of an academic partner, recorded for imaging the structure of a shallow sedimentary basin, where we could obtain strongly improved seismic velocity information using these new algorithms. A general user request was to implement interactive data visualization tools. To fulfill this demand we took

  3. Internal structure of black holes

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  4. Black holes and holography

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.

  5. H1N1, globalization and the epidemiology of inequality.

    Sparke, Matthew; Anguelov, Dimitar

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in relation to wider work on globalization and the epidemiology of inequality. The media attention and economic resources diverted to the threats posed by H1N1 were significant inequalities themselves when contrasted with weaker responses to more lethal threats posed by other diseases associated with global inequality. However, the multiple inequalities revealed by H1N1 itself in 2009 still provide important insights into the future of global health in the context of market-led globalization. These lessons relate to at least four main forms of inequality: (1) inequalities in blame for the outbreak in the media; (2) inequalities in risk management; (3) inequalities in access to medicines; and (4) inequalities encoded in the actual emergence of new flu viruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quiver tails and N=1 SCFTs from M5-branes

    Agarwal, Prarit [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bah, Ibrahima [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California,Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Maruyoshi, Kazunobu [California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We study a class of four-dimensional N=1 superconformal field theories obtained by wrapping M5-branes on a Riemann surface with punctures. We identify four-dimensional UV descriptions of the SCFTs corresponding to curves with a class of punctures. The quiver tails appearing in these UV descriptions differ significantly from their N=2 counterpart. We find a new type of object that we call the ‘Fan’. We show how to construct new N=1 superconformal theories using the Fan. Various dual descriptions for these SCFTs can be identified with different colored pair-of-pants decompositions. For example, we find an N=1 analog of Argyres-Seiberg duality for the SU(N) SQCD with 2N flavors. We also compute anomaly coefficients and superconformal indices for these theories and show that they are invariant under dualities.

  7. N=1 Mirror Symmetry and Open/Closed String Duality

    Mayr, Peter

    2002-01-01

    We show that the exact N=1 superpotential of a class of 4d string compactifications is computed by the closed topological string compactified to two dimensions. A relation to the open topological string is used to define a special geometry for N=1 mirror symmetry. Flat coordinates, an N=1 mirror map for chiral multiplets and the exact instanton corrected superpotential are obtained from the periods of a system of differential equations. The result points to a new class of open/closed string dualities which map individual string world-sheets with boundary to ones without. It predicts an mathematically unexpected coincidence of the closed string Gromov-Witten invariants of one Calabi-Yau geometry with the open string invariants of the dual Calabi-Yau.

  8. N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on the lattice

    Piemonte, Stefano

    2015-04-08

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) relates two classes of particles of our universe, bosons and fermions. SUSY is considered nowadays a fundamental development to explain many open questions about high energy physics. The N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is a SUSY model that describes the interaction between gluons and their fermion superpartners called ''gluinos''. Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice are a powerful tool to explore the non-perturbative dynamics of this theory and to understand how supersymmetry emerges at low energy. This thesis presents new results and new simulations about the properties of N=1 SYM, in particular about the phase diagram at finite temperature.

  9. Narcolepsy: Association with H1N1 Infection and Vaccination

    Ji Hyun Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between H1N1 influenza infection and vaccinations. This article reviews the various studies, and suggests the biological mechanisms explaining why and how H1N1 influenza infection or vaccine stimulates the autoimmune response, thereby resulting in narcolepsy. Among the vaccines, the effect of Pandemrix was scrutinized more than other vaccines, due to its higher association with an increase of narcolepsy onset. The consequences of using other vaccines which contain same or different adjuvants as Pandemrix, were also analyzed.

  10. Statistical black-hole thermodynamics

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole

  11. Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...

  12. Stochastic variables in N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Lechtenfeld, O.

    1984-06-01

    The stochastic structure of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is rederived by using a previously developed method for the construction of the (nonlocal) Nicolai map. The stochastic variables correspond to the fixed points of this mapping. The relations are derived in a light cone gauge and in general covariant gauges. (orig.)

  13. N=1 supergravity off-shell in six dimensions

    Smith, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the N=1 supergravity in six dimensions showns useful characteristics to study the unification of a gauge theory together with the supergravity, via dimensinal reduction, giving a geometrical interpretation for the internal quantum numbers in the reduced theory. (L.C.) [pt

  14. The critical $A_{n-1}^{(1)}$ chain

    Kojima, T.; Yamasita, S.

    2000-01-01

    We study the $A_{n-1}^{(1)}$ spin chain at the critical regime $|q|=1$. We give the free boson realizations of the type-I vertex operators and their duals. Using these free boson realizations, we give the integral representations for the correlation functions.

  15. 1/N expansion in SUSY CPsup(N-1) model

    Krivoshchekov, V.K.; Medvedev, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The 1/N expansion for supersymmetric two-dimensional CPsup(N-1) model has been constructed in the superfield formalism. The subtraction procedure and the way to choose manifestly supersymmetric gauge is formulated to define UV and IR regular Green functions for any given order in 1/N

  16. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.

  17. Gauge and gravitational anomalies in D=4 N=1 orientifolds.

    S Scrucca, C.; Serone, M.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze in detail the cancellation of U(1)-gauge and U(1)-gravitational anomalies in certain D=4 N=1 Type IIB orientifolds, from a string theory point of view. We verify the proposal that these anomalies are cancelled by a Green-Schwarz mechanism involving only twisted RR fields.By factorizing

  18. Morse theory applied to N=1 and 2 superconformal theories

    Marzban, C.

    1989-12-01

    Various spaces are singled-out as candidates for the space of all 2-d N=1 and 2 supersymmetric quantum field theories, respectively. This is done by treating the c-function as a Morse-function on these spaces. (author). 10 refs

  19. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Escola de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: to describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: the most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: the most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or cranio caudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms. (author)

  20. N=1 superfield anatomy of the Fayet-Sohnius multiplet

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.

    1981-01-01

    The constraints on N=2 Fayet-Sohnius superfield are interpreted as analyticity conditions. This N=2 superfield reduces to two chiral N=1 superfields defined in two different complex (4.2) superspaces, both on and off mass shell. The central charge operator is realized bilinearly in spinor derivatives [ru

  1. The particle interpretation of N = 1 supersymmetric spin foams

    Baccetti, Valentina [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Livine, Etera R [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69007 Lyon (France); Ryan, James P, E-mail: baccetti@neve.fis.uniroma3.i, E-mail: etera.livine@ens-lyon.f, E-mail: james.ryan@aei.mpg.d [MPI fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-21

    We show that N = 1-supersymmetric BF theory in 3D leads to a supersymmetric spin foam amplitude via a lattice discretization. Furthermore, by analysing the supersymmetric quantum amplitudes, we show that they can be re-interpreted as 3D gravity coupled to embedded fermionic Feynman diagrams.

  2. The particle interpretation of N = 1 supersymmetric spin foams

    Baccetti, Valentina; Livine, Etera R; Ryan, James P

    2010-01-01

    We show that N = 1-supersymmetric BF theory in 3D leads to a supersymmetric spin foam amplitude via a lattice discretization. Furthermore, by analysing the supersymmetric quantum amplitudes, we show that they can be re-interpreted as 3D gravity coupled to embedded fermionic Feynman diagrams.

  3. The superspace-translation tensor and linearized N = 1 supergravities

    Bedding, S.P.; Lang, W.

    1982-01-01

    The recently proposed superspace-translation tensor is considered as the source of supergravities in the context of N = 1 supersymmetry. It is shown how the structure of this tensor leads to a complete evaluation of the linearized supervielbein in terms of unconstrained prepotentials with derived transformation laws. Connection with formulations using torsion constraints is made. (orig.)

  4. Campus Response to Novel Influenza H1N1

    Journal of American College Health, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been engaged in pandemic planning since 2005 when the threat of H5N1 was brought to the attention of health care providers and organizations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization. Schools developed plans, based on a 1918 scenario, that were centered on evacuation of…

  5. An N=1 superfield action for M2 branes

    Mauri, Andrea; Petkou, Anastasios C.

    2008-01-01

    We present an octonionic N=1 superfield action that reproduces in components the action of Bagger and Lambert for M2 branes. By giving an expectation value to one of the scalars we obtain the maximally supersymmetric superfield action for D2 branes

  6. H1N1 Influenza A hos mennesker og svin

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Den nye pandemiske influenza A stamme H1N1 er hovedsagelig et nyt virus, som spredes mellem mennesker, men virusset er formodentlig opstået ved blanding af to svineinfluenza-virus og har derfor bibeholdt evnen til at kunne smitte fra mennesker til svin og fra svin til svin. Det er derfor vigtigt...

  7. Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1

    2012-06-06

    Dr. George Nelson, a CDC medical officer, discusses the relationship between pneumococcal pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  8. GeoPro: Technology to Enable Scientific Modeling

    C. Juan

    2004-01-01

    Development of the ground-water flow model for the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System (DVRFS) required integration of numerous supporting hydrogeologic investigations. The results from recharge, discharge, hydraulic properties, water level, pumping, model boundaries, and geologic studies were integrated to develop the required conceptual and 3-D framework models, and the flow model itself. To support the complex modeling process and the needs of the multidisciplinary DVRFS team, a hardware and software system called GeoPro (Geoscience Knowledge Integration Protocol) was developed. A primary function of GeoPro is to manage the large volume of disparate data compiled for the 100,000-square-kilometer area of southern Nevada and California. The data are primarily from previous investigations and regional flow models developed for the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain projects. GeoPro utilizes relational database technology (Microsoft SQL Server(trademark)) to store and manage these tabular point data, groundwater flow model ASCII data, 3-D hydrogeologic framework data, 2-D and 2.5-D GIS data, and text documents. Data management consists of versioning, tracking, and reporting data changes as multiple users access the centralized database. GeoPro also supports the modeling process by automating the routine data transformations required to integrate project software. This automation is also crucial to streamlining pre- and post-processing of model data during model calibration. Another function of GeoPro is to facilitate the dissemination and use of the model data and results through web-based documents by linking and allowing access to the underlying database and analysis tools. The intent is to convey to end-users the complex flow model product in a manner that is simple, flexible, and relevant to their needs. GeoPro is evolving from a prototype system to a production-level product. Currently the DVRFS pre- and post-processing modeling tools are being re

  9. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) through 2025

    Ryan, Barbara; Cripe, Douglas

    Ministers from the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Member governments, meeting in Geneva, Switzerland in January 2014, unanimously renewed the mandate of GEO through 2025. Through a Ministerial Declaration, they reconfirmed that GEO’s guiding principles of collaboration in leveraging national, regional and global investments and in developing and coordinating strategies to achieve full and open access to Earth observations data and information in order to support timely and knowledge-based decision-making - are catalysts for improving the quality of life of people around the world, advancing global sustainability, and preserving the planet and its biodiversity. GEO Ministers acknowledged and valued the contributions of GEO Member governments and invited all remaining Member States of the United Nations to consider joining GEO. The Ministers also encouraged all Members to strengthen national GEO arrangements, and - of particular interest to COSPAR - they highlighted the unique contributions of Participating Organizations. In this regard, ten more organizations saw their applications approved by Plenary and joined the ranks along with COSPAR to become a Participating Organization in GEO, bringing the current total to 77. Building on the efforts of a Post-2015 Working Group, in which COSPAR participated, Ministers provided additional guidance for GEO and the evolution of its Global Earth Observation System of System (GEOSS) through 2025. Five key areas of activities for the next decade include the following: 1.) Advocating for the value of Earth observations and the need to continue improving Earth observation worldwide; 2.) Urging the adoption and implementation of data sharing principles globally; 3.) Advancing the development of the GEOSS information system for the benefit of users; 4.) Developing a comprehensive interdisciplinary knowledge base defining and documenting observations needed for all disciplines and facilitate availability and accessibility of

  10. Characterisation of irradiation effect on geo-polymers

    Chupin, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to improve knowledge about the radiation effect on geo-polymer behavior in terms of dihydrogen release and general strength in order to consider them as an alternative to usual nuclear waste cementitious coating matrices. Using various characterization techniques (nitrogen adsorption, low temperature DSC, FTIR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy) and by means of simulation irradiations (gamma, heavy ions), it has been shown that all the water present in the geo-polymer could be radiolyzed and that there was a confinement effect on the water radiolysis under low LET irradiation, probably due to efficient energy transfers from the solid matrix to the interstitial solution. Three dihydrogen production rates have been identified with the absorbed dose, depending on the concentration of dissolved dioxygen and the dihydrogen accumulation in the geo-polymer matrix. The good mechanical strength of the geo-polymer has been shown up to 9 MGy under gamma irradiation and is due to its high stability under irradiation. This could be explained by the fast recombination of the defects observed by EPR spectroscopy. However, phase crystallization was revealed during irradiation with heavy ions, which may induce some weakening of the geo-polymer network under alpha irradiation. The overall results helped to understand the phenomenology in a waste package under storage conditions. (author) [fr

  11. Artificial black holes

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  12. The Antarctic ozone hole

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  13. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  14. Quantum effects in black holes

    Frolov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered

  15. Particle creation by black holes

    Hawking, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de

  16. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  17. The Key Driving Forces for Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries

    Shufang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of China and the implementation of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” strategy, research on geo-economics between China and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries has become increasingly important. Current studies mainly focus on influencing factors, while there is little consideration about how these influencing factors act on geo-economic relationships. Therefore, this paper explores the key driving forces for geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries by use of the structural equation modeling based on Partial Lease Squares. There are three main findings: (1 Economic factors have the greatest impact on geo-economic relationships and the total path effect is 0.778. Geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture act on geo-economic relationships directly and indirectly. Their total path effects are 0.731, 0.645 and 0.513, respectively. (2 Indirect effects of geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture impacting geo-economic relationships are far greater than direct effects. Geo-culture, in particular, has a vital mediating effect on geo-economic relationships. (3 Economic drivers promote geo-economic relationships through market, industrial policy, technical, network and benefit-sharing mechanisms. Political drivers improve geo-economic relationships through cooperation, negotiation, coordination and institutional mechanisms. Cultural drivers enhance geo-economic relationships through transmission mechanism. Location drivers facilitate geo-economic relationships through selection mechanism. We provide new insights on the geo-economic relationships through quantitative analysis and enrich the existing literature by revealing the key driving forces and mechanisms for geo-economic relationships.

  18. What is a black hole

    Tipler, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    A definition of a black hole is proposed that should work in any stably causal space-time. This is that a black hole is the closure of the smaller future set that contains all noncosmological trapped surfaces and which has its boundary generated by null geodesic segments that are boundary generators of TIPs. This allows precise definitions of cosmic censorship and white holes. (UK)

  19. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  20. Acceleration of black hole universe

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  1. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  2. Black holes and the multiverse

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse

  3. Black holes and the multiverse

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  4. Black-hole driven winds

    Punsly, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the physical mechanism that allows a large scale magnetic field to torque a rapidly rotating, supermassive black hole. This is an interesting problem as it has been conjectured that rapidly rotating black holes are the central engines that power the observed extragalactic double radio sources. Axisymmetric solutions of the curved space-time version of Maxwell's equations in the vacuum do not torque black holes. Plasma must be introduced for the hole to mechanically couple to the field. The dynamical aspect of rotating black holes that couples the magnetic field to the hole is the following. A rotating black hole forces the external geometry of space-time to rotate (the dragging of inertial frames). Inside of the stationary limit surface, the ergosphere, all physical particle trajectories must appear to rotate in the same direction as the black hole as viewed by the stationary observers at asymptotic infinity. In the text, it is demonstrated how plasma that is created on field lines that thread both the ergosphere and the equatorial plane will be pulled by gravity toward the equator. By the aforementioned properties of the ergosphere, the disk must rotate. Consequently, the disk acts like a unipolar generator. It drives a global current system that supports the toroidal magnetic field in an outgoing, magnetically dominated wind. This wind carries energy (mainly in the form of Poynting flux) and angular momentum towards infinity. The spin down of the black hole is the ultimate source of this energy and angular momentum flux

  5. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  7. Probe into geo-information science and information science in nuclear and geography science in China

    Tang Bin

    2001-01-01

    In the past ten years a new science-Geo-Information Science, a branch of Geoscience, developed very fast, which has been valued and paid much attention to. Based on information science, the author analyzes the flow of material, energy, people and information and their relations, presents the place of Geo-Information Science in Geo-science and its content from Geo-Informatics, Geo-Information technology and the application of itself. Finally, the author discusses the main content and problem existed in Geo-Information Science involved in Nuclear and Geography Science

  8. A distributed charge storage with GeO2 nanodots

    Chang, T.C.; Yan, S.T.; Hsu, C.H.; Tang, M.T.; Lee, J.F.; Tai, Y.H.; Liu, P.T.; Sze, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a distributed charge storage with GeO 2 nanodots is demonstrated. The mean size and aerial density of the nanodots embedded in SiO 2 are estimated to be about 5.5 nm and 4.3x10 11 cm -2 , respectively. The composition of the dots is also confirmed to be GeO 2 by x-ray absorption near-edge structure analyses. A significant memory effect is observed through the electrical measurements. Under the low voltage operation of 5 V, the memory window is estimated to ∼0.45 V. Also, a physical model is proposed to demonstrate the charge storage effect through the interfacial traps of GeO 2 nanodots

  9. Towards Geo-spatial Hypermedia: Concepts and Prototype Implementation

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Vestergaard, Peter Posselt; Ørbæk, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines spatial hypermedia with techniques from Geographical Information Systems and location based services. We describe the Topos 3D Spatial Hypermedia system and how it has been developed to support geo-spatial hypermedia coupling hypermedia information to model representations...... of real world buildings and landscapes. The prototype experiments are primarily aimed at supporting architects and landscape architects in their work on site. Here it is useful to be able to superimpose and add different layers of information to, e.g. a landscape depending on the task being worked on. We...... and indirect navigation. Finally, we conclude with a number of research issues which are central to the future development of geo-spatial hypermedia, including design issues in combining metaphorical and literal hypermedia space, as well as a discussion of the role of spatial parsing in a geo-spatial context....

  10. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    Tsallis, Constantino; Cirto, Leonardo J.L.

    2013-01-01

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S BG of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L 2 (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L 3 . Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S BG is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L d-1 if d>1, instead of being proportional to L d (d ≥ 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  11. Framework 'interstitial' oxygen in La10(GeO4)5-(GeO5)O2 apatite electrolyte

    Pramana, S.S.; White, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen conduction at low temperatures in apatites make these materials potentially useful as electrolytes in solid-oxide fuel cells, but our understanding of the defect structures enabling ion migration is incomplete. While conduction along [001] channels is dominant, considerable inter-tunnel mobility has been recognized. Using neutron powder diffraction of stoichiometric 'La 10 (GeO 4 ) 6 O 3 ', it has been shown that this compound is more correctly described as an La 10 (GeO 4 ) 5- (GeO 5 )O 2 apatite, in which high concentrations of interstitial oxygen reside within the channel walls. It is suggested that these framework interstitial O atoms provide a reservoir of ions that can migrate into the conducting channels of apatite, via a mechanism of inter-tunnel oxygen diffusion that transiently converts GeO 4 tetrahedra to GeO 5 distorted trigonal bipyramids. This structural modification is consistent with known crystal chemistry and may occur generally in oxide apatites. (orig.)

  12. Using the GeoFEST Faulted Region Simulation System

    Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Donnellan, Andrea; Judd, Michele A.; Norton, Charles D.; Baker, Teresa; Tisdale, Edwin R.; Li, Peggy

    2004-01-01

    GeoFEST (the Geophysical Finite Element Simulation Tool) simulates stress evolution, fault slip and plastic/elastic processes in realistic materials, and so is suitable for earthquake cycle studies in regions such as Southern California. Many new capabilities and means of access for GeoFEST are now supported. New abilities include MPI-based cluster parallel computing using automatic PYRAMID/Parmetis-based mesh partitioning, automatic mesh generation for layered media with rectangular faults, and results visualization that is integrated with remote sensing data. The parallel GeoFEST application has been successfully run on over a half-dozen computers, including Intel Xeon clusters, Itanium II and Altix machines, and the Apple G5 cluster. It is not separately optimized for different machines, but relies on good domain partitioning for load-balance and low communication, and careful writing of the parallel diagonally preconditioned conjugate gradient solver to keep communication overhead low. Demonstrated thousand-step solutions for over a million finite elements on 64 processors require under three hours, and scaling tests show high efficiency when using more than (order of) 4000 elements per processor. The source code and documentation for GeoFEST is available at no cost from Open Channel Foundation. In addition GeoFEST may be used through a browser-based portal environment available to approved users. That environment includes semi-automated geometry creation and mesh generation tools, GeoFEST, and RIVA-based visualization tools that include the ability to generate a flyover animation showing deformations and topography. Work is in progress to support simulation of a region with several faults using 16 million elements, using a strain energy metric to adapt the mesh to faithfully represent the solution in a region of widely varying strain.

  13. Real Time Adaptive Stream-oriented Geo-data Filtering

    A. A. Golovkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting-edge engineering maintenance software systems of various objects are aimed at processing of geo-location data coming from the employees’ mobile devices in real time. To reduce the amount of transmitted data such systems, usually, use various filtration methods of geo-coordinates recorded directly on mobile devices.The paper identifies the reasons for errors of geo-data coming from different sources, and proposes an adaptive dynamic method to filter geo-location data. Compared with the static method previously described in the literature [1] the approach offers to align adaptively the filtering threshold with changing characteristics of coordinates from many sources of geo-location data.To evaluate the efficiency of the developed filter method have been involved about 400 thousand points, representing motion paths of different type (on foot, by car and high-speed train and parking (indoors, outdoors, near high-rise buildings to take data from different mobile devices. Analysis of results has shown that the benefits of the proposed method are the more precise location of long parking (up to 6 hours and coordinates when user is in motion, the capability to provide steam-oriented filtering of data from different sources that allows to use the approach in geo-information systems, providing continuous monitoring of the location in streamoriented data processing in real time. The disadvantage is a little bit more computational complexity and increasing amount of points of the final track as compared to other filtration techniques.In general, the developed approach enables a significant quality improvement of displayed paths of moving mobile objects.

  14. GEO Optical Data Association with Concurrent Metric and Photometric Information

    Dao, P.; Monet, D.

    Data association in a congested area of the GEO belt with occasional visits by non-resident objects can be treated as a Multi-Target-Tracking (MTT) problem. For a stationary sensor surveilling the GEO belt, geosynchronous and near GEO objects are not completely motionless in the earth-fixed frame and can be observed as moving targets. In some clusters, metric or positional information is insufficiently accurate or up-to-date to associate the measurements. In the presence of measurements with uncertain origin, star tracks (residuals) and other sensor artifacts, heuristic techniques based on hard decision assignment do not perform adequately. In the MMT community, Bar-Shalom [2009 Bar-Shalom] was first in introducing the use of measurements to update the state of the target of interest in the tracking filter, e.g. Kalman filter. Following Bar-Shalom’s idea, we use the Probabilistic Data Association Filter (PDAF) but to make use of all information obtainable in the measurement of three-axis-stabilized GEO satellites, we combine photometric with metric measurements to update the filter. Therefore, our technique Concurrent Spatio- Temporal and Brightness (COSTB) has the stand-alone ability of associating a track with its identity –for resident objects. That is possible because the light curve of a stabilized GEO satellite changes minimally from night to night. We exercised COSTB on camera cadence data to associate measurements, correct mistags and detect non-residents in a simulated near real time cadence. Data on GEO clusters were used.

  15. Supersymmetric solutions of N =(1 ,1 ) general massive supergravity

    Deger, N. S.; Nazari, Z.; Sarıoǧlu, Ö.

    2018-05-01

    We construct supersymmetric solutions of three-dimensional N =(1 ,1 ) general massive supergravity (GMG). Solutions with a null Killing vector are, in general, pp-waves. We identify those that appear at critical points of the model, some of which do not exist in N =(1 ,1 ) new massive supergravity (NMG). In the timelike case, we find that many solutions are common with NMG, but there is a new class that is genuine to GMG, two members of which are stationary Lifshitz and timelike squashed AdS spacetimes. We also show that in addition to the fully supersymmetric AdS vacuum, there is a second AdS background with a nonzero vector field that preserves 1 /4 supersymmetry.

  16. Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D, N=1 superspace

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; III, William D. Linch; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of constructing the supersymmetric action for all fields, massless and massive, obtained by Kaluza-Klein compactification from type II theory or M-theory in a closed form, we embed the (Abelian) tensor hierarchy of p-forms in four-dimensional, N=1 superspace and construct its Chern-Simons-like invariants. When specialized to the case in which the tensors arise from a higher-dimensional theory, the invariants may be interpreted as higher-dimensional Chern-Simons forms reduced to four dimensions. As an application of the formalism, we construct the eleven-dimensional Chern-Simons form in terms of four-dimensional, N=1 superfields.

  17. Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D, N=1 superspace

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; III, William D. Linch; Robbins, Daniel [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-03-09

    With the goal of constructing the supersymmetric action for all fields, massless and massive, obtained by Kaluza-Klein compactification from type II theory or M-theory in a closed form, we embed the (Abelian) tensor hierarchy of p-forms in four-dimensional, N=1 superspace and construct its Chern-Simons-like invariants. When specialized to the case in which the tensors arise from a higher-dimensional theory, the invariants may be interpreted as higher-dimensional Chern-Simons forms reduced to four dimensions. As an application of the formalism, we construct the eleven-dimensional Chern-Simons form in terms of four-dimensional, N=1 superfields.

  18. 4d N=1 from 6d (1,0)

    Razamat, Shlomo S. [Physics Department, Technion,Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Vafa, Cumrun [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zafrir, Gabi [Physics Department, Technion,Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, the University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2017-04-11

    We study the geometry of 4d N=1 SCFT’s arising from compactification of 6d (1,0) SCFT’s on a Riemann surface. We show that the conformal manifold of the resulting theory is characterized, in addition to moduli of complex structure of the Riemann surface, by the choice of a connection for a vector bundle on the surface arising from flavor symmetries in 6d. We exemplify this by considering the case of 4d N=1 SCFT’s arising from M5 branes probing ℤ{sub k} singularity compactified on a Riemann surface. In particular, we study in detail the four dimensional theories arising in the case of two M5 branes on ℤ{sub 2} singularity. We compute the conformal anomalies and indices of such theories in 4d and find that they are consistent with expectations based on anomaly and the moduli structure derived from the 6 dimensional perspective.

  19. N = 1 dual string pairs and their modular superpotentials

    Luest, D.

    1998-01-01

    We review the duality between heterotic and F-theory string vacua with N=1 space-time supersymmetry in eight, six and four dimensions. In particular, we discuss two chains of four-dimensional F-theory/heterotic dual string pairs, where F-theory is compactified on certain elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds, and the dual heterotic vacua are given by compactifications on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds plus the specification of the E 8 x E 8 gauge bundles. We show that the massless spectra of the dual pairs agree by using, for one chain of models, an index formula to count the heterotic bundle moduli and determine the dual F-theory spectra from the Hodge numbers of the fourfolds and of the type IIB base spaces. Moreover as a further check, we demonstrate that for one particular heterotic/F-theory dual pair the N=1 superpotentials are the same. (orig.)

  20. Ageing behaviour of [(n-1)/n] active redundancy systems

    Eid, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ageing of systems becomes a real concern if intelligent maintenance is required. Determining the ageing behaviour of a system necessitate having a powerful calculating tool and knowing the ageing behaviour of the basic components of the systems. Consequently, time dependent failure rates are required for basic components and need to be determined for systems. As, this is the general problem in reliability analysis, only (n-1)/n active redundancy system will be examined in the paper. Systems with (n-1)/n active redundancy are commonly used in a wide range of engineering fields. This should permit a priori improving the system reliability. Still, a deeper analysis of the ageing behaviour of such systems may reveal some particular aspects. (authors). 2 refs., 5 figs

  1. Geo-communication and Web-based Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Brodersen, Lars; Nielsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    -services. This paper discusses the relations between the different components of SDI and geo-communication as well as the impacts thereof. Discussed is also a model for the organization of the passive components of the infrastructure; i.e. legislation, collaboration, standards, models, specifications, web......! Therefore there is a strong need for theories and models that can describe this complex web in the SDI and geo-communication consisting of active components, passive components, users and information in order to make it possible to handle the complexity and to give the necessary framework....

  2. GeoCEGAS: natural gas distribution management system

    Ribeiro, Lorena C.J. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Targa, Fernando O. [Gestao Empresarial e Informatica Ltda. (GEMPI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This Technical Paper approach the conception, architecture, design, construction, and implementation of GeoCEGAS, a spatially enabled corporate management information system, oriented to store and provide Web access, to information associated with the natural gas distribution network, owned by CEGAS. This paper reports business processes, business entities and business intelligence approached on the project, as well as an overview of system architecture, applications, and technology used on the implementation of GeoCEGAS. Finally, is presented an introduction to the work methodology used, as well a synopsis of benefits achievements. (author)

  3. Geo-communication and web-based geospatial infrastructure

    Brodersen, Lars; Nielsen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of web-services as index-portals based on geoinformation has changed the conditions for both content and form of geocommunication. A high number of players and interactions (as well as a very high number of all kinds of information and combinations of these) characterize web-services......, where maps are only a part of the whole. These new conditions demand new ways of modelling the processes leading to geo-communication. One new aspect is the fact that the service providers have become a part of the geo-communication process with influence on the content. Another aspect...

  4. User guide for the SYVAC geosphere program GEO3

    Oldfield, S.G.; Broyd, T.W.

    1983-11-01

    A User Guide for the computer model GEO3, of radionuclide migration through a saturated or unsaturated, multi-layered rock strata. GEO3 uses either a numerical (unsaturated) or analytical (saturated) solution to equations of the one dimensional flow and three dimensional transport of radionuclides in the groundwater, including the effects of linear equilibrium sorption (for porous or fractured media), longitudinal and transverse dispersion, and chain decay for arbitrary chain lengths. The model is designed to be incorporated into the SYVAC (SYstems Variability Analysis Code) computer program, the function of which is to perform generic uncertainty assessments on hypothetical vault-geosphere-biosphere combinations, taking into account parameter variability and uncertainty. (author)

  5. Observation of GEO Satellite Above Thailand’s Sky

    Kasonsuwan, K.; Wannawichian, S.; Kirdkao, T.

    2017-09-01

    The direct observations of Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites above Thailand’s sky by 0.7-meters telescope were proceeded at Inthanon Mt., Chiang Mai, Thailand. The observation took place at night with Sidereal Stare Mode (SSM). With this observing mode, the moving object will appear as a streak. The star identification for image calibration is based on (1) a star catalogue, (2) the streak detection of the satellite using the software and (3) the extraction of the celestial coordinate of the satellite as a predicted position. Finally, the orbital elements for GEO satellites were calculated.

  6. The live service of video geo-information

    Xue, Wu; Zhang, Yongsheng; Yu, Ying; Zhao, Ling

    2016-03-01

    In disaster rescue, emergency response and other occasions, traditional aerial photogrammetry is difficult to meet real-time monitoring and dynamic tracking demands. To achieve the live service of video geo-information, a system is designed and realized—an unmanned helicopter equipped with video sensor, POS, and high-band radio. This paper briefly introduced the concept and design of the system. The workflow of video geo-information live service is listed. Related experiments and some products are shown. In the end, the conclusion and outlook is given.

  7. Programmers's manual for the SYVAC geosphere program GEO2

    Oldfield, S.G.; Broyd, T.W.

    1983-11-01

    A Programmers' Manual for the computer model GEO2, of radionuclide migration through an unsaturated multi-layered rock strata GEO2 uses a numerical solution to equations of one dimensional flow and transport of radionuclides in the groundwater, including the effects of linear equilibrium sorption (for porous or fractured media), linear dispersion and chain decay for arbitrary chain lengths, The model is designed to be incorporated into the SYVAC (SYstems Variability Analysis Code) computer program the function of which is to perform generic uncertainty assessments on hypothetical vault-geosphere-biosphere combinations, taking into account parameter variability and uncertainty. (author)

  8. An Overview of the GEOS-5 Aerosol Reanalysis

    da Silva, Arlindo; Colarco, Peter Richard; Damenov, Anton Spasov; Buchard-Marchant, Virginie; Randles, Cynthia A.; Gupta, Pawan

    2011-01-01

    GEOS-5 is the latest version of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) earth system model. GEOS-5 contains components for atmospheric circulation and composition (including data assimilation), ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, and land surface processes. In addition to traditional meteorological parameters, GEOS-5 includes modules representing the atmospheric composition, most notably aerosols and tropospheric/stratospheric chemical constituents, taking explicit account of the impact of these constituents on the radiative processes of the atmosphere. MERRA is a NASA meteorological reanalysis for the satellite era (1979-present) using GEOS-5. This project focuses on historical analyses of the hydrological cycle on a broad range of weather and climate time scales. As a first step towards an integrated Earth System Analysis (IESA), the GMAO is extending MERRA with reanalyses for other components of the earth system: land, ocean, bio-geochemistry and atmospheric constituents. In this talk we will present results from the MERRA-driven aerosol reanalysis covering the Aqua period (2003-present). The assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in GEOS-5 involves very careful cloud screening and homogenization of the observing system by means of a Neural Net scheme that translates MODIS radiances into AERONET calibrated AOD. These measurements are further quality controlled using an adaptive buddy check scheme, and assimilated using the Local Displacement Ensemble (LDE) methodology. For this reanalysis, GEOS-5 runs at a nominal 50km horizontal resolution with 72 vertical layers (top at approx. 8Skm). GEOS-5 is driven by daily biomass burning emissions derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We will present a summary of our efforts to validate such dataset. The GEOS-5 assimilated aerosol fields are first validated by comparison to independent in-situ measurements (AERONET and PM2.5 surface concentrations). In order to asses aerosol

  9. (N+1)-dimensional Lorentzian evolving wormholes supported by polytropic matter

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Arostica, Fernanda; Bahamonde, Sebastian [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we study (N+1)-dimensional evolving wormholes supported by energy satisfying a polytropic equation of state. The considered evolving wormhole models are described by a constant redshift function and generalizes the standard flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The polytropic equation of state allows us to consider in (3+1)-dimensions generalizations of the phantom energy and the generalized Chaplygin gas sources. (orig.)

  10. CPsup(N-1) model: a toy model for QCD

    Cant, R.J.; Davis, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The authors examine the CP 2 sup(N-1) models and discuss their relevance as toy models for QCD 4 . Specifically, they study the role of instantons, theta vacua, and confinement in the 1/N expansion. The results, and comparisons with other two-dimensional models, suggest that most of the interesting features of these models are peculiarities of two-dimensional space-time and cannot be expected to reappear in QCD 4 . (Auth.)

  11. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.

  12. Generalized supersymmetric cosmological term in N=1 supergravity

    Concha, P.K.; Rodríguez, E.K. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino,Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Salgado, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-04

    An alternative way of introducing the supersymmetric cosmological term in a supergravity theory is presented. We show that the AdS-Lorentz superalgebra allows to construct a geometrical formulation of supergravity containing a generalized supersymmetric cosmological constant. The N=1, D=4 supergravity action is built only from the curvatures of the AdS-Lorentz superalgebra and corresponds to a MacDowell-Mansouri like action. The extension to a generalized AdS-Lorentz superalgebra is also analyzed.

  13. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    2010-03-29

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.  Created: 3/29/2010 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/29/2010.

  14. Contextualizing ethics: ventilators, H1N1 and marginalized populations.

    Silva, Diego S; Nie, Jason X; Rossiter, Kate; Sahni, Sachin; Upshur, Ross E G

    2010-01-01

    If the H1N1 pandemic worsens, there may not be enough ventilated beds to care for all persons with respiratory failure. To date, researchers who explicitly discuss the ethics of intensive care unit admission and the allocation of ventilators during an influenza pandemic have based criteria predominantly on the principles of utility and efficiency, that is, promoting actions that maximize the greatest good for the greatest number of people. However, haphazardly applying utility and efficiency potentially disadvantages marginalized populations who might be at increased risk of severe reactions to H1N1. In Canada, Aboriginals represent 3% of Canadians, yet 11% of H1N1 cases requiring hospitalization involve Aboriginal persons. Aboriginal persons suffer from high rates of obesity due to socio-economic inequalities. Obesity is also a risk factor for severe H1N1 reactions. Yet, since obesity is found to increase the duration of stay in ventilated beds and a long stay is not considered an optimal use of ventilators, applying the principles of utility and efficiency may magnify existing social inequalities. Although promoting utility and efficiency is important, other ethical principles, such as equity and need, require thoughtful consideration and implementation. Furthermore, since public resources are being used to address a public health hazard, the viewpoints of the public, and specifically stakeholders who will be disproportionately affected, should inform decision-makers. Finally, giving attention to the needs and rights of marginalized populations means that ventilators should not be allocated based on criteria that exacerbate the social injustices faced by these groups of people.

  15. 30 CFR 57.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 57.7055 Section 57.7055... Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives, blasting agents...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 56.7055 Section 56.7055... Piercing Drilling § 56.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives blasting agents, or detonators. [56 FR 46508, Sept...

  17. N = 1 supercurrents of eleven-dimensional supergravity

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Butter, Daniel; Linch, William D.

    2018-05-01

    Eleven-dimensional supergravity can be formulated in superspaces locally of the form X × Y where X is 4D N = 1 conformal superspace and Y is an arbitrary 7-manifold admitting a G 2-structure. The eleven-dimensional 3-form and the stable 3-form on Y define the lowest component of a gauge superfield on X × Y that is chiral as a superfield on X. This chiral field is part of a tensor hierarchy giving rise to a superspace Chern-Simons action and its real field strength defines a lifting of the Hitchin functional on Y to the G 2 superspace X × Y . These terms are those of lowest order in a superspace Noether expansion in seven N = 1 conformal gravitino superfields Ψ. In this paper, we compute the O(Ψ) action to all orders in the remaining fields. The eleven-dimensional origin of the resulting non-linear structures is parameterized by the choice of a complex spinor on Y encoding the off-shell 4D N = 1 subalgebra of the eleven-dimensional super-Poincaré algebra.

  18. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  19. ATLAS simulated black hole event

    Pequenão, J

    2008-01-01

    The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

  20. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  1. Optical appearance of white holes

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  2. Black holes and everyday physics

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Black holes have piqued much curiosity. But thus far they have been important only in ''remote'' subjects like astrophysics and quantum gravity. It is shown that the situation can be improved. By a judicious application of black hole physics, one can obtain new results in ''everyday physics''. For example, black holes yield a quantum universal upper bound on the entropy-to-energy ratio for ordinary thermodynamical systems which was unknown earlier. It can be checked, albeit with much labor, by ordinary statistical methods. Black holes set a limitation on the number of species of elementary particles-quarks, leptons, neutrinos - which may exist. And black holes lead to a fundamental limitation on the rate at which information can be transferred for given message energy by any communication system. (author)

  3. The search for black holes

    Torn, K.

    1976-01-01

    Conceivable experimental investigations to prove the existence of black holes are discussed. Double system with a black hole turning around a star-satellite are in the spotlight. X-radiation emmited by such systems and resulting from accretion of the stellar gas by a black hole, and the gas heating when falling on the black hole might prove the model suggested. A source of strong X-radiation observed in the Cygnus star cluster and referred to as Cygnus X-1 may be thus identified as a black hole. Direct registration of short X-ray pulses with msec intervals might prove the suggestion. The lack of appropriate astrophysic facilities is pointed out to be the major difficulty on the way of experimental verifications

  4. Black hole final state conspiracies

    McInnes, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of 'conspiracies' between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required 'conspiracies' if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy

  5. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  6. Compressibility of rotating black holes

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).

  7. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  8. Linking GeoGebra to Explorations of Linear Relationships

    Aventi, Belinda; Serow, Penelope; Tobias, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Increasing pressure is mounting from all areas of society to maximise technology use within educational domains. Whilst curriculum documents call for the utilisation of technology as a teaching tool in the mathematics classroom, the benefits of exploring forms of dynamic mathematical software, such as GeoGebra, are often introduced in the senior…

  9. GIS and correlation analysis of geo-environmental variables ...

    GIS and correlation analysis of geo-environmental variables influencing malaria prevalence in the Saboba district of Northern Ghana. ... The study also applied spline interpolation technique to map malaria prevalence in the district using standardised malaria incidence. The result indicates that distance to marshy areas is ...

  10. A putative Type IIS restriction endonuclease GeoICI from ...

    2016-02-15

    Feb 15, 2016 ... 41(1), 27–38 * Indian Academy of Sciences. 27. Keywords. ... tis (Subang Jaya, Malaysia), DEAE-cellulose and Phosphocel- lulose P11 were from ... conditions at 67.5°C, subsequently the culture was chilled down and centrifuged. ..... influence of ionic strength on GeoICI REase activity. 0.3 μg PCR.

  11. Regional Files of GEOS3/SEASAT/GEOSAT Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gravity anomalies and sea surface heights have been computed on a 0.125 degree grid in the ocean areas from a combined GEOS3/SEASAT/GEOSAT altimeter data set. This...

  12. Narrating national geo information infrastructures : Balancing infrastructures and innovation

    Koerten, H.; Veenswijk, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines narratives relating to the development of National Geo Information Infrastructures (NGII) in eth-nographic research on a Dutch NGII project which was monitored throughout its course. We used an approach which focuses on narratives concerning the environment, groups and practice

  13. Toward GEOS-6, A Global Cloud System Resolving Atmospheric Model

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is committed to observing and understanding the weather and climate of our home planet through the use of multi-scale modeling systems and space-based observations. Global climate models have evolved to take advantage of the influx of multi- and many-core computing technologies and the availability of large clusters of multi-core microprocessors. GEOS-6 is a next-generation cloud system resolving atmospheric model that will place NASA at the forefront of scientific exploration of our atmosphere and climate. Model simulations with GEOS-6 will produce a realistic representation of our atmosphere on the scale of typical satellite observations, bringing a visual comprehension of model results to a new level among the climate enthusiasts. In preparation for GEOS-6, the agency's flagship Earth System Modeling Framework [JDl] has been enhanced to support cutting-edge high-resolution global climate and weather simulations. Improvements include a cubed-sphere grid that exposes parallelism; a non-hydrostatic finite volume dynamical core, and algorithm designed for co-processor technologies, among others. GEOS-6 represents a fundamental advancement in the capability of global Earth system models. The ability to directly compare global simulations at the resolution of spaceborne satellite images will lead to algorithm improvements and better utilization of space-based observations within the GOES data assimilation system

  14. Actual problems of geo-environment and sounding systems

    Burakhovich, T. K.; Kobolev, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the conference "Actual problems of geo-environment and sounding systems", dedicated to the memory of outstanding scientists - Vladimir Nikolaevich Shuman and Sergei Nikolaevich Kulik, who made a great contribution to the theory, methodology and geological interpretation of deep electromagnetic electromagnetic sounding of the Earth.

  15. A novel insight into beaconless geo-routing

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Beaconless geo-routing protocols have been traditionally analyzed assuming equal communication ranges for the data and control packets. This is not true in reality, since the communication range is in practice function of the packet length. As a consequence, a substantial discrepancy may exist between analytical and empirical results offered in beaconless geo-routing literature. Furthermore, performance of beaconless geo-routing protocols has typically considered using single-hop metrics only. End-to-end performance is considered in literature only occasionally and mainly in terms of simulation only. In this paper, we re-examine this class of protocols. We first incorporate practical packet detection models in order to capture the dependency of the communication range on the packet\\'s length. We then develop a detailed analytical framework for the end-to-end delay and energy performance of beaconless geo-routing protocols. Finally, we present two different application scenarios and study various tradeoffs in light of the framework developed. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Recent Updates to the GEOS-5 Linear Model

    Holdaway, Dan; Kim, Jong G.; Errico, Ron; Gelaro, Ronald; Mahajan, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) is close to having a working 4DVAR system and has developed a linearized version of GEOS-5.This talk outlines a series of improvements made to the linearized dynamics, physics and trajectory.Of particular interest is the development of linearized cloud microphysics, which provides the framework for 'all-sky' data assimilation.

  17. Big Data analytics in the Geo-Spatial Domain

    R.A. Goncalves (Romulo); M.G. Ivanova (Milena); M.L. Kersten (Martin); H. Scholten; S. Zlatanova; F. Alvanaki (Foteini); P. Nourian (Pirouz); E. Dias

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractBig data collections in many scientific domains have inherently rich spatial and geo-spatial features. Spatial location is among the core aspects of data in Earth observation sciences, astronomy, and seismology to name a few. The goal of our project is to design an efficient data

  18. Impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on ...

    We examined vegetation-disturbance-environment relationships in the Xiaomengyang Section of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve (XNR) using multivariate analysis to understand the impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on vegetation along the highway corridor. We found that native forests were the best ...

  19. A putative Type IIS restriction endonuclease GeoICI

    As opposed to the unstable prototype, which cleaves DNA at 30°C, GeoICI is highly active at elevated temperatures, up to 73°C and over a very wide salt concentration range. Recognition/cleavage sites were determined by: (i) digestion of plasmid and bacteriophage lambda DNA (λ); (ii) cleavage of custom PCR substrates, ...

  20. Perspectives for geo-neutrinos after KamLAND

    Fiorentini, Giovanni; Lissia, Marcello; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the implications of KamLAND result on geo-neutrinos for the radiogenic contribution of Uranium to terrestrial heat. We also discuss the potential of future experiments for assessing the amount of Uranium and Thorium in different reservoirs (crust, mantle and core) of the Earth

  1. Application of geo-electrical imaging to determine signatures of ...

    Results from the resistivity model reveals high resistivity values (> 998 ohm-m) which corresponds to the position of the buried sludge and a low resistivity values ranging from 33.5 - 88 ohm-m indicating the geo-electric signatures of the buried metal scraps. Both the resistivity and IP models could not resolve the position of ...

  2. Fukushima : The Geo-Trauma of a Futural Wave

    Dolphijn, R.; Cole, David; Bradley, Joff

    2016-01-01

    The enduring effects of the March 2011 tsunami and nuclear meltdown at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan are explored in this paper through the notions of “geo-trauma” in the authors’ work and geophilosophy in Deleuze and Guattari’s philosophy. At the fulcrum of the 2011 global

  3. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  4. Web catalog of oceanographic data using GeoNetwork

    Marinova, Veselka; Stefanov, Asen

    2017-04-01

    Most of the data collected, analyzed and used by Bulgarian oceanographic data center (BgODC) from scientific cruises, argo floats, ferry boxes and real time operating systems are spatially oriented and need to be displayed on the map. The challenge is to make spatial information more accessible to users, decision makers and scientists. In order to meet this challenge, BgODC concentrate its efforts on improving dynamic and standardized access to their geospatial data as well as those from various related organizations and institutions. BgODC currently is implementing a project to create a geospatial portal for distributing metadata and search, exchange and harvesting spatial data. There are many open source software solutions able to create such spatial data infrastructure (SDI). Finally, the GeoNetwork open source is chosen, as it is already widespread. This software is free, effective and "cheap" solution for implementing SDI at organization level. It is platform independent and runs under many operating systems. Filling of the catalog goes through these practical steps: • Managing and storing data reliably within MS SQL spatial data base; • Registration of maps and data of various formats and sources in GeoServer (most popular open source geospatial server embedded with GeoNetwork) ; • Filling added meta data and publishing geospatial data at the desktop of GeoNetwork. GeoServer and GeoNetwork are based on Java so they require installing of a servlet engine like Tomcat. The experience gained from the use of GeoNetwork Open Source confirms that the catalog meets the requirements for data management and is flexible enough to customize. Building the catalog facilitates sustainable data exchange between end users. The catalog is a big step towards implementation of the INSPIRE directive due to availability of many features necessary for producing "INSPIRE compliant" metadata records. The catalog now contains all available GIS data provided by BgODC for Internet

  5. When Supermassive Black Holes Wander

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    Are supermassive black holes found only at the centers of galaxies? Definitely not, according to a new study in fact, galaxies like the Milky Way may harbor several such monsters wandering through their midst.Collecting Black Holes Through MergersIts generally believed that galaxies are built up hierarchically, growing in size through repeated mergers over time. Each galaxy in a major merger likely hosts a supermassive black hole a black hole of millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun at its center. When a pair of galaxies merges, their supermassive black holes will often sink to the center of the merger via a process known as dynamical friction. There the supermassive black holes themselves will eventually merge in a burst of gravitational waves.Spatial distribution and velocities of wandering supermassive black holes in three of the authors simulated galaxies, shown in edge-on (left) and face-on (right) views of the galaxy disks. Click for a closer look. [Tremmel et al. 2018]But if a galaxy the size of the Milky Way was built through a history of many major galactic mergers, are we sure that all its accumulated supermassive black holes eventually merged at the galactic center? A new study suggests that some of these giants might have escaped such a fate and they now wander unseen on wide orbits through their galaxies.Black Holes in an Evolving UniverseLed by Michael Tremmel (Yale Center for Astronomy Astrophysics), a team of scientists has used data from a large-scale cosmological simulation, Romulus25, to explore the possibility of wandering supermassive black holes. The Romulus simulations are uniquely suited to track the formation and subsequent orbital motion of supermassive black holes as galactic halos are built up through mergers over the history of the universe.From these simulations, Tremmel and collaborators find an end total of 316 supermassive black holes residing within the bounds of 26 Milky-Way-mass halos. Of these, roughly a third are

  6. Black holes and quantum processes in them

    Frolov, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest achievements in the physics of black holes are reviewed. The problem of quantum production in a strong gravitational field of black holes is considered. Another parallel discovered during investigation of interactions between black holes and between black holes and surrounding media, is also drawn with thermodynamics. A gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. Some cosmological aspects of evaporation of small black holes are discussed as well as possibilities to observe them

  7. Black hole decay as geodesic motion

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2003-01-01

    We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes

  8. Research on geo-ontology construction based on spatial affairs

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Shi, Lihong

    2008-12-01

    Geo-ontology, a kind of domain ontology, is used to make the knowledge, information and data of concerned geographical science in the abstract to form a series of single object or entity with common cognition. These single object or entity can compose a specific system in some certain way and can be disposed on conception and given specific definition at the same time. Ultimately, these above-mentioned worked results can be expressed in some manners of formalization. The main aim of constructing geo-ontology is to get the knowledge of the domain of geography, and provide the commonly approbatory vocabularies in the domain, as well as give the definite definition about these geographical vocabularies and mutual relations between them in the mode of formalization at different hiberarchy. Consequently, the modeling tool of conception model of describing geographic Information System at the hiberarchy of semantic meaning and knowledge can be provided to solve the semantic conception of information exchange in geographical space and make them possess the comparatively possible characters of accuracy, maturity and universality, etc. In fact, some experiments have been made to validate geo-ontology. During the course of studying, Geo-ontology oriented to flood can be described and constructed by making the method based on geo-spatial affairs to serve the governmental departments at all levels to deal with flood. Thereinto, intelligent retrieve and service based on geoontology of disaster are main functions known from the traditional manner by using keywords. For instance, the function of dealing with disaster information based on geo-ontology can be provided when a supposed flood happened in a certain city. The correlative officers can input some words, such as "city name, flood", which have been realized semantic label, to get the information they needed when they browse different websites. The information, including basic geographical information and flood distributing

  9. Pulmonary function in patients with pandemic H1N1

    Soraia Koppe

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The influenza A (H1N1 was responsible for the 2009 pandemic, especially with severe pulmonary complications. Objective: To describe characteristics of patients in a university hospital in Curitiba - PR with laboratory diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1 and its post hospital discharge in the 2009 lung function pandemic. Methodology: A retrospective observational study. It was used as a data source the institution Epidemiology Service (SEPIH and spirometry tests of patients who were admitted in 2009, 18 years without lung disease associated and non-pregnant. Descriptive statistics were used and applied Fisher's exact test for relationship between comorbidity and spirometry tests. Results: There were 84 confirmed cases, of these 11 were eligible for the study with a mean age of 44.27 years (± 9.63 and 63.63% males. 54.54% of the 11 patients had comorbidities associated with systemic arterial hypertension (54.54%, diabetes (18.18% and late postoperative period of kidney transplantation (18.18% were the most frequent. Most patients (81.81% had BMI ≥ 25kg / m². The Spirometry test was performed approximately 40.09 (± 15.27 days after discharge, of these, 5 had restrictive pattern and all had abnormal chest radiograph results. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of Spirometry and comorbidities (p=0.24. Conclusions: The group evaluated in this research did not show a direct relationship between Spirometry and comorbidities, but changes in Spirometry in some patients after hospital discharge stood out, suggesting changes in lung function due to influenza A (H1N1.

  10. N + 1 redundancy on ATCA instrumentation for Nuclear Fusion

    Correia, Miguel, E-mail: miguelfc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Rodrigues, António P.; Batista, António J.N.; Combo, Álvaro; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Gonçalves, Bruno [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Varandas, Carlos A.F. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► In Nuclear Fusion, demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. ► ATCA standard features desirable redundancy features for Fusion instrumentation. ► The developed control and data acquisition hardware modules support additional redundancy schemes. ► Implementation of N + 1 redundancy of host processor and I/O data modules. -- Abstract: The role of redundancy on control and data acquisition systems has gained a significant importance in the case of Nuclear Fusion, as demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. IPFN's control and data acquisition system hardware is based on an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) set of I/O (DAC/ADC endpoints) and data/timing switch modules, which handle data and timing from all I/O endpoints. Modules communicate through Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe), established over the ATCA backplane and controlled by one or more external hosts. The developed hardware modules were designed to take advantage of ATCA specification's redundancy features, namely at the hardware management level, including support of: (i) multiple host operation with N + 1 redundancy – in which a designated failover host takes over data previously assigned to a suddenly malfunctioning host and (ii) N + 1 redundancy of I/O and data/timing switch modules. This paper briefly describes IPFN's control and data acquisition system, which is being developed for ITER fast plant system controller (FPSC), and analyses the hardware implementation of its supported redundancy features.

  11. N =1 Lagrangians for generalized Argyres-Douglas theories

    Agarwal, Prarit; Sciarappa, Antonio; Song, Jaewon

    2017-10-01

    We find N = 1 Lagrangian gauge theories that flow to generalized ArgyresDouglas theories with N = 2 supersymmetry. We find that certain SU quiver gauge theories flow to generalized Argyres-Douglas theories of type ( A k-1 , A mk-1) and ( I m,km , S). We also find quiver gauge theories of SO/Sp gauge groups flowing to the ( A 2 m-1 , D 2 mk+1), ( A 2 m , D 2 m( k-1)+ k ) and D m(2 k + 2) m(2 k + 2) [ m] theories.

  12. N=1 field theory duality from M theory

    Schmaltz, M.; Sundrum, R.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate Seiberg close-quote s N=1 field theory duality for four-dimensional supersymmetric QCD with the M-theory 5-brane. We find that the M-theory configuration for the magnetic dual theory arises via a smooth deformation of the M-theory configuration for the electric theory. The creation of Dirichlet 4-branes as Neveu-Schwarz 5-branes are passed through each other in type IIA string theory is given an elegant derivation from M theory. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  13. Supersymmetric couplings and trajectories in N = 1 supergravity

    Castagnino, M.; Umerez, N.; Domenech, G.; Levinas, M.

    1989-01-01

    The present work deals with the classical behaviour of matter represented by chiral multiplets in a background of N = 1 supergravity. The WKB method is used. It is shown that supersymmetric coupling leads, at the lowest order, to a non-geodesic motion law for spin-1/2 matter. This result permits us to establish physical differences with respect to gravitational theories with minimal coupled matter Lagrangians. Deviations from the Newton law are found, allowing us to speculate about low-energy effects for testing supergravity. (author)

  14. Of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories and localization

    Wens, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we study certain non-perturbative aspects of N=1 gauge theories. We show how to compute the expectation values of chiral operators (i.e. those that preserve the anti-chiral supercharges) exactly from a first-principle approach based on the path integral over the microscopic fields. The text is divided into two parts. The first one consists of an original introduction to the tools that underlie the researches and results obtained during this thesis. After a general introduction...

  15. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    2009-12-08

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.  Created: 12/8/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2009.

  16. Exploring the minimal 4D N=1 SCFT

    Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Stergiou, Andreas [Department of Physics, Yale University,New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2015-12-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap constraints for 4D N=1 superconformal field theories containing a chiral operator ϕ and the chiral ring relation ϕ{sup 2}=0. Hints for a minimal interacting SCFT in this class have appeared in previous numerical bootstrap studies. We perform a detailed study of the properties of this conjectured theory, establishing that the corresponding solution to the bootstrap constraints contains a U(1){sub R} current multiplet and estimating the central charge and low-lying operator spectrum of this theory.

  17. Why new tools were developed for the 'GeoPortalNetwork : Liberty United" project

    Vanmeulebrouk, B.; Van Swol, R.; Kuyper, M.; Bulens, J.; Zevenbergen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the national innovation co-funding scheme “Space for Geo-information” the project “GeoPortal Network: Liberty United” ran from late 2005 till the end of 2008. Purpose of the project was to promote access to geo-spatial information via web services. To achieve this goal, a network of

  18. The Intention to Use GeoGebra in the Teaching of Mathematics among Malaysian Teachers

    Belgheis, Soheila; Kamalludeen, Rosemaliza

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative study examined Malaysian teachers' perception towards using GeoGebra in mathematics teaching. The relationship between teachers' Perceived Current Competencies (PCC) of GeoGebra, and Intention to Use (IU) it as well as the difference between male and female teachers and between users and non-users of GeoGebra were investigated.…

  19. Topologically Consistent Models for Efficient Big Geo-Spatio Data Distribution

    Jahn, M. W.; Bradley, P. E.; Doori, M. Al; Breunig, M.

    2017-10-01

    Geo-spatio-temporal topology models are likely to become a key concept to check the consistency of 3D (spatial space) and 4D (spatial + temporal space) models for emerging GIS applications such as subsurface reservoir modelling or the simulation of energy and water supply of mega or smart cities. Furthermore, the data management for complex models consisting of big geo-spatial data is a challenge for GIS and geo-database research. General challenges, concepts, and techniques of big geo-spatial data management are presented. In this paper we introduce a sound mathematical approach for a topologically consistent geo-spatio-temporal model based on the concept of the incidence graph. We redesign DB4GeO, our service-based geo-spatio-temporal database architecture, on the way to the parallel management of massive geo-spatial data. Approaches for a new geo-spatio-temporal and object model of DB4GeO meeting the requirements of big geo-spatial data are discussed in detail. Finally, a conclusion and outlook on our future research are given on the way to support the processing of geo-analytics and -simulations in a parallel and distributed system environment.

  20. CEOS Ocean Variables Enabling Research and Applications for Geo (COVERAGE)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Vazquez, J.; Zlotnicki, V.

    2017-12-01

    The CEOS Ocean Variables Enabling Research and Applications for GEO (COVERAGE) initiative seeks to facilitate joint utilization of different satellite data streams on ocean physics, better integrated with biological and in situ observations, including near real-time data streams in support of oceanographic and decision support applications for societal benefit. COVERAGE aligns with programmatic objectives of CEOS (the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) and the missions of GEO-MBON (Marine Biodiversity Observation Network) and GEO-Blue Planet, which are to advance and exploit synergies among the many observational programs devoted to ocean and coastal waters. COVERAGE is conceived of as 3 year pilot project involving international collaboration. It focuses on implementing technologies, including cloud based solutions, to provide a data rich, web-based platform for integrated ocean data delivery and access: multi-parameter observations, easily discoverable and usable, organized by disciplines, available in near real-time, collocated to a common grid and including climatologies. These will be complemented by a set of value-added data services available via the COVERAGE portal including an advanced Web-based visualization interface, subsetting/extraction, data collocation/matchup and other relevant on demand processing capabilities. COVERAGE development will be organized around priority use cases and applications identified by GEO and agency partners. The initial phase will be to develop co-located 25km products from the four Ocean Virtual Constellations (VCs), Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level, Ocean Color, and Sea Surface Winds. This aims to stimulate work among the ocean VCs while developing products and system functionality based on community recommendations. Such products as anomalies from a time mean, would build on the theme of applications with a relevance to CEOS/GEO mission and vision. Here we provide an overview of the COVERAGE initiative with an

  1. An integrated risk sensing system for geo-structural safety

    H.W. Huang; D.M. Zhang; B.M. Ayyub

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, geo-structures are experiencing a rapid development in China. The potential risks inherent in the huge amount of construction and asset operation projects in China were well managed in the major project, i.e. the project of Shanghai Yangtze tunnel in 2002. Since then, risk assessment of geo-structures has been gradually developed from a qualitative manner to a quantitative manner. However, the current practices of risk management have been paid considerable attention to the assessment, but little on risk control. As a result, the responses to risks occurrences after a comprehensive assessment are basically too late. In this paper, a smart system for risk sensing incorporating the wireless sensor network (WSN) on-site visualization techniques and the resilience-based repair strategy was proposed. The merit of this system is the real-time monitoring for geo-structural performance and dynamic pre-warning for safety of on-site workers. The sectional convergence, joint opening, and seepage of segmental lining of shield tunnel were monitored by the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based sensors. The light emitting diode (LED) coupling with the above WSN system was used to indicate different risk levels on site. By sensing the risks and telling the risks in real time, the geo-risks could be controlled and the safety of geo-structures could be assured to a certain degree. Finally, a resilience-based analysis model was proposed for designing the repair strategy by using the measured data from the WSN system. The application and efficiency of this system have been validated by two cases including Shanghai metro tunnel and underwater road tunnel.

  2. Thallium pollution in China: A geo-environmental perspective.

    Xiao, Tangfu; Yang, Fei; Li, Shehong; Zheng, Baoshan; Ning, Zengping

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic metal to human health, but less is known about the geo-environmentally-induced Tl pollution and its associated health impacts. High concentrations of Tl that are primarily associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals have the potential of producing Tl pollution in the environment, which has been recognized as an emerging pollutant in China. This paper aims to review the research progress in China on Tl pollution in terms of the source, mobility, transportation pathway, and health exposure of Tl and to address the environmental concerns on Tl pollution in a geo-environmental perspective. Tl associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals has been documented to disperse readily and accumulate through the geo-environmental processes of soil enrichment, water transportation and food crop growth beyond a mineralized zone. The enrichments of Tl in local soil, water, and crops may result in Tl pollution and consequent adverse health effects, e.g. chronic Tl poisoning. Investigation of the baseline Tl in the geo-environment, proper land use and health-related environmental planning and regulation are critical to prevent the Tl pollution. Examination of the human urinary Tl concentration is a quick approach to identify exposure of Tl pollution to humans. The experiences of Tl pollution in China can provide important lessons for many other regions in the world with similar geo-environmental contexts because of the high mobility and toxicity of Tl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectroscopic Characterization of GEO Satellites with Gunma LOW Resolution Spectrograph

    Endo, T.; Ono, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Ando, T.; Takanezawa, T.; Hashimoto, O.

    The spectroscopic observation is potentially a powerful tool for understanding the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) objects. We present here the results of an investigation of energy spectra of GEO satellites obtained from a groundbased optical telescope. The spectroscopic observations were made from April to June 2016 with the Gunma LOW resolution Spectrograph and imager (GLOWS) at the Gunma Astronomical Observatory (GAO) in JAPAN. The observation targets consist of eleven different satellites: two weather satellites, four communications satellites, and five broadcasting satellites. All the spectra of those GEO satellites are inferred to be solar-like. A number of well-known absorption features such as H-alpha, H-beta, Na-D,water vapor and oxygen molecules are clearly seen in thewavelength range of 4,000 - 8,000 Å. For comparison, we calculated the intensity ratio of the spectra of GEO satellites to that of the Moon which is the natural satellite of the earth. As a result, the following characteristics were obtained. 1) Some variations are seen in the strength of absorption features of water vapor and oxygen originated by the telluric atmosphere, but any other characteristic absorption features were not found. 2) For all observed satellites, the intensity ratio of the spectrum of GEO satellites decrease as a function of wavelength or to be flat. It means that the spectral reflectance of satellite materials is bluer than that of the Moon. 3) A characteristic dip at around 4,800 Å is found in all observed spectra of a weather satellite. Based on these observations, it is indicated that the characteristics of the spectrum are mainly derived from the solar panels because the apparent area of the solar cell is probably larger than that of the satellite body.

  4. Investigation of Spiral and Sweeping Holes

    Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip; Ameri, Ali; Culley, Dennis; Raghu, Surya; Shyam, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and Square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the non-diffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing rations of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ration of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS.

  5. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2015-01-01

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  6. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  7. Black Hole Grabs Starry Snack

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.

  8. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  9. Thermodynamic theory of black holes

    Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The thermodynamic theory underlying black hole processes is developed in detail and applied to model systems. It is found that Kerr-Newman black holes undergo a phase transition at a = 0.68M or Q = 0.86M, where the heat capacity has an infinite discontinuity. Above the transition values the specific heat is positive, permitting isothermal equilibrium with a surrounding heat bath. Simple processes and stability criteria for various black hole situations are investigated. The limits for entropically favoured black hole formation are found. The Nernst conditions for the third law of thermodynamics are not satisfied fully for black holes. There is no obvious thermodynamic reason why a black hole may not be cooled down below absolute zero and converted into a naked singularity. Quantum energy-momentum tensor calculations for uncharged black holes are extended to the Reissner-Nordstrom case, and found to be fully consistent with the thermodynamic picture for Q < M. For Q < M the model predicts that 'naked' collapse also produces radiation, with such intensity that the collapsing matter is entirely evaporated away before a naked singularity can form.

  10. Characterization of avian influenza H5N1 virosome

    Chatchai Sarachai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize virosome containing envelope proteins of the avian influenza (H5N1 virus. The virosome was prepared by the solubilization of virus with octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether (C12E8 followed by detergent removal with SM2 Bio-Beads. Biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, indicated that avian influenza H5N1 virosome had similar characteristics to the parent virus and contained both the hemagglutinin (HA, 60-75 kDa and neuraminidase (NA, 220 kDa protein, with preserved biological activity, such as hemagglutination activity. The virosome structure was analyzed by negative stained transmission electron microscope (TEM demonstrated that the spherical shapes of vesicles with surface glycoprotein spikes were harbored. In conclusion, the biophysical properties of the virosome were similar to the parent virus, and the use of octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether to solubilize viral membrane, followed by removal of detergent using polymer beads adsorption (Bio-Beads SM2 was the preferable method for obtaining avian influenza virosome. The outcome of this study might be useful for further development veterinary virus vaccines.

  11. N=1 supersymmetric yang-mills theory in Ito Calculus

    Nakazawa, Naohito

    2003-01-01

    The stochastic quantization method is applied to N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, in particular in 4 and 10 dimensions. In the 4 dimensional case, based on Ito calculus, the Langevin equation is formulated in terms of the superfield formalism. The stochastic process manifestly preserves both the global N = 1 supersymmetry and the local gauge symmetry. The expectation values of the local gauge invariant observables in SYM 4 are reproduced in the equilibrium limit. In the superfield formalism, it is impossible in SQM to choose the so-called Wess-Zumino gauge in such a way to gauge away the auxiliary component fields in the vector multiplet, while it is shown that the time development of the auxiliary component fields is determined by the Langevin equations for the physical component fields of the vector multiplet in an ''almost Wess-Zumino gauge''. The physical component expressions of the superfield Langevin equation are naturally extended to the 10 dimensional case, where the spinor field is Majorana-Weyl. By taking a naive zero volume limit of the SYM 10 , the IIB matrix model is studied in this context. (author)

  12. Unveiling the edge of time black holes, white holes, wormholes

    Gribbin, John

    1992-01-01

    Acclaimed science writer John Gribbin recounts dramatic stories that have led scientists to believe black holes and their more mysterious kin are not only real, but might actually provide a passage to other universes and travel through time.

  13. Foliation and the first law of black hole thermodynamics

    Siddiqui, Azad A.; Riaz, Syed Muhammad Jawwad; Akbar, M.

    2011-01-01

    There has been lots of interest in exploring the thermodynamic properties at the horizon of a black hole spacetime. It has been shown earlier that for different spacetimes, the Einstein field equations at the horizon can be expressed as the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Using the idea of foliation, we develop a simpler procedure to obtain such results. We consider r = constant slices, for the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom black hole spacetimes. The Einstein field equations for the induced 3-dimensional metrics of the hypersurfaces are expressed in thermodynamic quantities under the virtual displacements of the hypersurfaces. As expected, it is found that the field equations of the induced metric corresponding to the horizon can be written as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. It is to be mentioned here that our procedure is much easier, to obtain such results, as here one has to essentially deal with (n - 1)-dimensional induced metric for an n-dimensional spacetime. (authors)

  14. Black holes and Higgs stability

    Tetradis, Nikolaos

    2016-09-20

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  15. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  16. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  17. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  18. Tunnelling from Goedel black holes

    Kerner, Ryan; Mann, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the spacetime structure of Kerr-Goedel black holes, analyzing their parameter space in detail. We apply the tunnelling method to compute their temperature and compare the results to previous calculations obtained via other methods. We claim that it is not possible to have the closed timelike curve (CTC) horizon in between the two black hole horizons and include a discussion of issues that occur when the radius of the CTC horizon is smaller than the radius of both black hole horizons

  19. Quantum mechanics of black holes.

    Witten, Edward

    2012-08-03

    The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.

  20. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  1. Implicit Three-Dimensional Geo-Modelling Based on HRBF Surface

    Gou, J.; Zhou, W.; Wu, L.

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D) geological elements remains difficult and time-consuming. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF) to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata) were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. For extended applications in 3D modelling of other kinds of geo-objects, mining ore body models and urban geotechnical engineering stratum models were constructed by this method from drill-hole data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data.

  2. Interaction of a brane with a moving bulk black hole

    Frolov, Valeri; Snajdr, Martin; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    We study the interaction of an n-dimensional topological defect (n-brane) described by the Nambu-Goto action with a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole moving in the bulk spacetime. We derive the general form of the perturbation equations for an n-brane in the weak field approximation and solve them analytically in the most interesting cases. We especially analyze applications to brane world models. We calculate the induced geometry on the brane generated by a moving black hole. From the point of view of a brane observer, this geometry can be obtained by solving (n+1)-dimensional Einstein's equations with a nonvanishing right-hand side. We calculate the effective stress-energy tensor corresponding to this 'shadow matter'. We explicitly show that there exist regions on the brane where a brane observer sees an apparent violation of energy conditions. We also study the deflection of light propagating in the region of influence of this shadow matter

  3. Graviton emission from a higher-dimensional black hole

    Cornell, Alan S.; Naylor, Wade; Sasaki, Misao

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the graviton absorption probability (greybody factor) and the cross-section of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole (BH). We are motivated by the suggestion that a great many BHs may be produced at the LHC and bearing this fact in mind, for simplicity, we shall investigate the intermediate energy regime for a static Schwarzschild BH. That is, for (2M) 1/(n-1) ω ∼ 1, where M is the mass of the black hole and ω is the energy of the emitted gravitons in (2+n)-dimensions. To find easily tractable solutions we work in the limit l >> 1, where l is the angular momentum quantum number of the graviton

  4. Generalized mirror symmetry and quantum black hole entropy

    Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    We find general relations between the on-shell gravitational trace anomaly A N , and the logarithmic correction ΔS N to the entropy of “large” BPS extremal black holes in N⩾2 supergravity theories in D=4 space-time dimensions (recently computed by Sen, 2011 ). For (generalized) self-mirror theories (all having A N =0), we obtain the result ΔS N =-ΔS 8-N =2-N/2, whereas for generic theories the trace anomaly A-tilde N of the fully dualized theory turns out to coincide with 2ΔS N , up to a model-independent shift: A-tilde N =2ΔS N −1. We also speculate on N=1 theories displaying “large” extremal black hole solutions.

  5. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP (Forward Processing)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    The GEOS-5 FP Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 ADAS) uses an analysis developed jointly with NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which allows the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to take advantage of the developments at NCEP and the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA). The GEOS-5 AGCM uses the finite-volume dynamics (Lin, 2004) integrated with various physics packages (e.g, Bacmeister et al., 2006), under the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) including the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) (e.g., Koster et al., 2000). The GSI analysis is a three-dimensional variational (3DVar) analysis applied in grid-point space to facilitate the implementation of anisotropic, inhomogeneous covariances (e.g., Wu et al., 2002; Derber et al., 2003). The GSI implementation for GEOS-5 FP incorporates a set of recursive filters that produce approximately Gaussian smoothing kernels and isotropic correlation functions. The GEOS-5 ADAS is documented in Rienecker et al. (2008). More recent updates to the model are presented in Molod et al. (2011). The GEOS-5 system actively assimilates roughly 2 × 10(exp 6) observations for each analysis, including about 7.5 × 10(exp 5) AIRS radiance data. The input stream is roughly twice this volume, but because of the large volume, the data are thinned commensurate with the analysis grid to reduce the computational burden. Data are also rejected from the analysis through quality control procedures designed to detect, for example, the presence of cloud. To minimize the spurious periodic perturbations of the analysis, GEOS-5 FP uses the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) technique developed by Bloom et al. (1996). More details of this procedure are given in Appendix A. The assimilation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 0.3125-degree longitude by 0.25- degree latitude and at 72 levels, extending to 0.01 hPa. All products are generated at the native resolution of the

  6. Black hole meiosis

    van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.

  7. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  8. Oxygen transport and GeO2 stability during thermal oxidation of Ge

    da Silva, S. R. M.; Rolim, G. K.; Soares, G. V.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Krug, C.; Miotti, L.; Freire, F. L.; da Costa, M. E. H. M.; Radtke, C.

    2012-05-01

    Oxygen transport during thermal oxidation of Ge and desorption of the formed Ge oxide are investigated. Higher oxidation temperatures and lower oxygen pressures promote GeO desorption. An appreciable fraction of oxidized Ge desorbs during the growth of a GeO2 layer. The interplay between oxygen desorption and incorporation results in the exchange of O originally present in GeO2 by O from the gas phase throughout the oxide layer. This process is mediated by O vacancies generated at the GeO2/Ge interface. The formation of a substoichiometric oxide is shown to have direct relation with the GeO desorption.

  9. SOIL Geo-Wiki: A tool for improving soil information

    Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly being used as a way of collecting data for scientific research, e.g. species identification, classification of galaxies and unravelling of protein structures. The WorldSoilProfiles.org database at ISRIC is a global collection of soil profiles, which have been 'crowdsourced' from experts. This system, however, requires contributors to have a priori knowledge about soils. Yet many soil parameters can be observed in the field without specific knowledge or equipment such as stone content, soil depth or color. By crowdsourcing this information over thousands of locations, the uncertainty in current soil datasets could be radically reduced, particularly in areas currently without information or where multiple interpretations are possible from different existing soil maps. Improved information on soils could benefit many research fields and applications. Better soil data could enhance assessments of soil ecosystem services (e.g. soil carbon storage) and facilitate improved process-based ecosystem modeling from local to global scales. Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool that was developed at IIASA for land cover validation using satellite imagery. Several branches are now available focused on specific aspects of land cover validation, e.g. validating cropland extent or urbanized areas. Geo-Wiki Pictures is a smart phone application for collecting land cover related information on the ground. The extension of Geo-Wiki to a mobile environment provides a tool for experts in land cover validation but is also a way of reaching the general public in the validation of land cover. Here we propose a Soil Geo-Wiki tool that builds on the existing functionality of the Geo-Wiki application, which will be largely designed for the collection and sharing of soil information. Two distinct applications are envisaged: an expert-oriented application mainly for scientific purposes, which will use soil science related language (e.g. WRB or any other global reference

  10. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  11. Axion-dilation black holes

    Kallosh, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this talk some essential features of stringy black holes are described. The author considers charged U(1) and U(1) x U(1) four-dimensional axion-dilaton black holes. The Hawking temperature and the entropy of all solutions are shown to be simple functions of the squares of supercharges, defining the positivity bounds. Spherically symmetric and multi black hole solutions are presented. The extreme solutions with zero entropy (holons) represent a ground state of the theory and are characterized by elementary dilaton, axion, electric, and magnetic charges. The attractive gravitational and axion-dilaton force is balanced by the repulsive electromagnetic force. The author discusses the possibility of splitting of nearly extreme black holes. 11 refs

  12. Holes in magneto electrostatic traps

    Jones, R.

    1996-01-01

    We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)

  13. Black holes by analytic continuation

    Amati, Daniele

    1997-01-01

    In the context of a two-dimensional exactly solvable model, the dynamics of quantum black holes is obtained by analytically continuing the description of the regime where no black hole is formed. The resulting spectrum of outgoing radiation departs from the one predicted by the Hawking model in the region where the outgoing modes arise from the horizon with Planck-order frequencies. This occurs early in the evaporation process, and the resulting physical picture is unconventional. The theory predicts that black holes will only radiate out an energy of Planck mass order, stabilizing after a transitory period. The continuation from a regime without black hole formation --accessible in the 1+1 gravity theory considered-- is implicit in an S matrix approach and provides in this way a possible solution to the problem of information loss.

  14. Expression of Two N1 Clones with Single Amino Acid Dissimilarity of Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus

    RISZA HARTAWAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two clones of N1 gene derived from isolate A/Dk/Tangerang/Bbalitvet-ACIAR-TE11/2007 (H5N1 exhibit single mismatch of amino acid sequence at position 242 that is threonine and methionine for the clone #3 and #5, respectively. In order to evaluate the effect of the amino acid substitution, these clones were inserted into two different expression vectors that are pEGFP-C1 and pcDNA-3.3 TOPO® TA cloning. Subsequently, the respective recombinant clones were transfected into eukaryotic cells, including CEF, RK13 and VERO using Lipofectamine ‘plus’ reagent. As a result, the clone #3 retaining atypical sequence showed lower expression level rather than the clone #15 in both vectors and all type of cells. The 3D conformational modelling revealed that the mutation occurs in the inner part of glycoprotein embedded within envelope or matrix. Therefore, the missense mutation seems has no effect on the antigenic properties of neuraminidase but this substitution by any means causes lethal mutagenesis in the individual gene expression by reducing level of protein transcript.

  15. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hole dephasing caused by hole-hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus.

    Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2017-11-01

    We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole-hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.

  17. XAFS study of GeO sub 2 glass under pressure

    Ohtaka, O; Fukui, H; Murai, K; Okube, M; Takebe, H; Katayama, Y; Utsumi, W

    2002-01-01

    Using a large-volume high-pressure apparatus, Li sub 2 O-4GeO sub 2 glass and pure GeO sub 2 gel have been compressed to 14 GPa at room temperature and their local structural changes have been investigated by an in situ XAFS (x-ray absorption fine-structure) method. On compression of Li sub 2 O-4GeO sub 2 glass, the Ge-O distance gradually becomes short below 7 GPa, showing the conventional compression of the GeO sub 4 tetrahedron. Abrupt increase in the Ge-O distance occurs between 8 and 10 GPa, which corresponds to the coordination number (CN) changing from 4 to 6. The CN change is completed at 10 GPa. On decompression, the reverse transition occurs gradually below 10 GPa. In contrast to the case for Li sub 2 O-4GeO sub 2 glass, the Ge-O distance in GeO sub 2 gel gradually increases over a pressure range from 2 to 12 GPa, indicating that continuous change in CN occurs. The Ge-O distance at 12 GPa is shorter than that of Li-4GeO sub 2 indicating that the change in CN is not completed even at this pressure. O...

  18. User Experience Design in Professional Map-Based Geo-Portals

    Bastian Zimmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have recently been witnessing the growing establishment of map-centered web-based geo-portals on national, regional and local levels. However, a particular issue with these geo-portals is that each instance has been implemented in different ways in terms of design, usability, functionality, interaction possibilities, map size and symbologies. In this paper, we try to tackle these shortcomings by analyzing and formalizing the requirements for map-based geo-portals in a user experience based approach. First, we propose a holistic definition the term of a “geo-portal”. Then, we present our approach to user experience design for map-based geo-portals by defining the functional requirements of a geo-portal, by analyzing previous geo-portal developments, by distilling the results of our empirical user study to perform practically-oriented user requirements, and finally by establishing a set of user experience design guidelines for the creation of map-based geo-portals. These design guidelines have been extracted for each of the main components of a geo-portal, i.e., the map, the search dialogue, the presentation of the search results, symbologies, and other aspects. These guidelines shall constitute the basis for future geo-portal developments to achieve standardization in the user-experience design of map-based geo-portals.

  19. N=1 superstring in 2+2 dimensions

    Khviengia, Z.; Lu, H.; Pope, C.N.; Sezgin, E.; Wang, X.J.; Xu, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we construct a (2,2) dimensional string theory with manifest N=1 spacetime supersymmetry. We use Berkovits' approach of augmenting the spacetime supercoordinates by the conjugate momenta for the fermionic variables. The worldsheet symmetry algebra is a twisted and truncated ''small'' N=4 superconformal algebra. The realisation of the symmetry algebra is reducible with an infinite order of reducibility. We study the physical states of the theory by two different methods. In one of them, we identify a subset of irreducible constraints, which is by itself critical. We construct the BRST operator for the irreducible constraints, and study the cohomology and interactions. This method breaks the SO(2,2) spacetime symmetry of the original reducible theory. In another approach, we study the theory in a fully covariant manner, which involves the introduction of infinitely many ghosts for ghosts. ((orig.))

  20. The soviet manned lunar program N1-L3

    Lardier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The conquest of space was marked by the Moon race in which the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were engaged in the 1960s. On the American side, the Apollo program culminated with the Man on the Moon in July 1969, 50 years ago. At the same time, the Soviet Union carried out a similar program which was kept secret for 20 years. This N1-L3 program was unveiled in August 1989. Its goal was to arrive on the Moon before the Americans. It included an original super-rocket, development of which began in June 1960. But this program became a national priority only in August 1964 and the super-rocket failed four times between 1969 and 1972. This article analyses the reasons for these failures, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1974.

  1. H1N1 pandemic preparedness and business continuity plan

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    SaskPower's H1N1 pandemic preparedness and business continuity plan was designed to prepare SaskPower employees for elevated levels of absenteeism during a potential pandemic. Emergency management and business continuity will be facilitated if critical duties and essential services are maintained without interruption. A layered approach was used to develop a range of response measures designed to meet a range of possible pandemic threats. The plan identified essential activities, tasks and functions and outlined methods of mitigating supply disruptions and possible shortages. Methods of minimizing illness in employees were discussed, as well as methods of maintaining a safe and secure work environment. The measures were developed in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) 6 phases of pandemic alert. The plan was also designed to be read by SaskPower's key suppliers in order to ensure their pandemic readiness. 5 tabs.

  2. Generalized N=1 orientifold compactifications and the Hitchin functionals

    Benmachiche, I.; Hamburg Univ.; Grimm, T.W.

    2006-02-01

    The four-dimensional N=1 supergravity theories arising in compactifications of type IIA and type IIB on generalized orientifold backgrounds with background fluxes are discussed. The Kaehler potentials are derived for reductions on SU(3) structure orientifolds and shown to consist of the logarithm of the two Hitchin functionals. These are functions of even and odd forms parameterizing the geometry of the internal manifold, the B-field and the dilaton. The superpotentials induced by background fluxes and the non-Calabi-Yau geometry are determined by a reduction of the type IIA and type IIB fermionic actions on SU(3) and generalized SU(3) x SU(3) manifolds. Mirror spaces of Calabi-Yau orientifolds with electric and part of the magnetic NS-NS fluxes are conjectured to be certain SU(3) x SU(3) structure manifolds. Evidence for this identification is provided by comparing the generalized type IIA and type IIB superpotentials. (orig.)

  3. Generalized N=1 orientifold compactifications and the Hitchin functionals

    Benmachiche, Iman; Grimm, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    The four-dimensional N=1 supergravity theories arising in compactifications of type IIA and type IIB on generalized orientifold backgrounds with background fluxes are discussed. The Kahler potentials are derived for reductions on SU(3) structure orientifolds and shown to consist of the logarithm of the two Hitchin functionals. These are functions of even and odd forms parameterizing the geometry of the internal manifold, the B-field and the dilaton. The superpotentials induced by background fluxes and the non-Calabi-Yau geometry are determined by a reduction of the type IIA and type IIB fermionic actions on SU(3) and generalized SU(3)xSU(3) manifolds. Mirror spaces of Calabi-Yau orientifolds with electric and part of the magnetic NS-NS fluxes are conjectured to be certain SU(3)xSU(3) structure manifolds. Evidence for this identification is provided by comparing the generalized type IIA and type IIB superpotentials

  4. Quantum moduli spaces of N=1 string theories

    Banks, T.; Dine, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generically, string models with N=1 supersymmetry are not expected to have moduli beyond perturbation theory; stringy nonperturbative effects as well as low energy field-theoretic phenomena such as gluino condensation will lift any flat directions. In this work, we describe models where some subspace of the moduli space survives nonperturbatively. Discrete R symmetries forbid any inherently stringy effects, and dynamical considerations control the field-theoretic effects. The surviving subspace is a space of high symmetry; the system is attracted to this subspace by a potential which we compute. Models of this type may be useful for considerations of duality and raise troubling cosmological questions about string theory. Our considerations also suggest a mechanism for fixing the expectation value of the dilaton. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. New regular black hole solutions

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  6. Black holes from extended inflation

    Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)

  7. Black holes and cosmic censorship

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M 2 greater than or equal to Q 2 + P 2 , where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M 2 = a 2 + Q 2 + P 2 ) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse

  8. Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.

  9. Viking telecommunication effects of GEOS satellite interference based on testing at the Madrid deep space station

    Stuhr, F. V.; Kent, S. S.; Galvez, J. L.; Luaces, B. G.; Pasero, G. R.; Urech, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    In support of the ongoing NASA-European Space Agency (ESA) effort to understand and control possible interference between missions, testing was conducted at the Madrid Deep Space Station from July 1975 to February 1976 to characterize the effect on Viking 1975 telecommunication link performance of Geodetic Earth-Orbiting Satellite (GEOS) downlink signals. The prime use of the data was to develop a capability to predict GEOS interference effects for evaluation of Viking 1975 mission impacts and possible temporary GEOS shutdown. Also, the data would serve as a basis for assessment of the GEOS impact on missions other than Viking as well as for more general interference applications. Performances of the reference receiver, telemetry, and planetary ranging were measured in the presence of various types of GEOS-related interference, including an unmodulated GEOS carrier and simulation of the actual spectrum by an ESA-supplied GEOS suitcase model.

  10. Black holes in the universe

    Camenzind, M.

    2005-01-01

    While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)

  11. Stationary black holes as holographs

    Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2007-11-21

    Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.

  12. Atomic structure in black hole

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2006-01-01

    We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)

  13. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  14. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  15. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Corda, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei, Prato (Italy); Istituto Universitario di Ricerca ' ' Santa Rita' ' , Prato (Italy); International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences (IIAMIS), Hyderabad (India)

    2013-12-15

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)

  16. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Corda, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.

  17. Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane

    Wei Ren

    2006-01-01

    In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.

  18. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a 40-inch...

  19. Formation and Coalescence of Electron Solitary Holes

    Saeki, K.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Electron solitary holes were observed in a magnetized collisionless plasma. These holes were identified as Bernstein-Green-Kruskal equilibria, thus being purely kinetic phenomena. The electron hole does not damp even though its velocity is close to the electron thermal velocity. Two holes attract...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with hand-held drills. (b) Men shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or...

  1. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...

  2. Value Assessment in Managing Cartography and Geo-communication

    Brodersen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    dramatic changes particularly within the following areas: technology, availability of geo-information, professional skills and mobility of labour, conventions as well as resources. It was recognized at the KMS that the existing professional skills and methods were no longer sufficient for the design...... and the management in modern cartography and in modern geo-spatial communication projects. It was recognized that there was a lack of adequate theories, models, methods and tech-niques. This forced the cartographers and the project managers to lock several parameters to well known values. One example...... is that the prevalent processes for design revision, if any, were based on historical conditions. Previously it was common praxis to make changes in each separate step of the whole process without recognizing the overall aspects of the entire process or the entire project. The aim of the project was to create...

  3. Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej

    Dimitrievski, Ljupcho; Ilievska, Frosina; Ilievski, Darko

    2004-01-01

    In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

  4. GeoChips for Analysis of Microbial Functional Communities

    Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-09-30

    Functional gene arrays (FGA) are microarrays that contain probes for genes encoding proteins or enzymes involved in functions of interest and allow for the study of thousands of genes at one time. The most comprehensive FGA to date is the GeoChip, which contains ~;;24,000 probes for ~;;10,000 genes involved in the geochemical cycling of C, N, P, and S, as well as genes involved in metal resistance and reduction and contaminant degradation. This chapter details the methods necessary for GeoChip analysis. Methods covered include preparation of DNA (whole community genome amplification and labeling), array setup (prehybridization steps), hybridization (sample and hybridization buffers), and post hybridization steps (slide washing and array scanning).

  5. The modecleaner system and suspension aspects of GEO 600

    Gossler, S; Freise, A; Grote, H; Lück, H B; McNamara, P; Plissi, M V; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Skeldon, K D; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willke, B; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2002-01-01

    GEO 600 uses two 8 m triangular ring cavities as a modecleaner system for the stabilization of the laser. To isolate the cavities with respect to the seismic noise the optical components are suspended as double pendulums. The resonances of these pendulums are damped by a local-control loop via magnet-coil actuators acting on the intermediate masses. The suspension scheme and the measured key data (i.e. finesse, linewidth, visibility, throughput and in-lock durations of the cavities, as well as the isolation performance and the resulting frequency stability) of the modecleaner system will be given in this paper. Furthermore an overview of the GEO 600 interferometer suspension will be given.

  6. The proto-Earth geo-reactor: Reassessing the hypotheses

    Claude Degueldre

    2016-09-01

    The present paper focuses on the geo-reactor hypothetical conditions including history, spatial extension and regimes. The discussion based on recent calculations involves investigations on the limits in term of fissile inventory, size and power, based on coupling of geochemical reactions and stratification through the gravitational field considering behavior through the inner mantle, the boundary with the core and the core. The reconstruction allows to formulating that from the history point of view it would have been possible that the geo-reactor reached criticality in a proto-Earth period as a reactor triggered by 235-uranium and that thorium may have worked as an absorber if the actinide concentration was locally large enough. Without actinide separation the initiation of the criticality is unlikely. However did the segregation of actinides occur in any Earth layer?

  7. The GEOS Chemistry Climate Model: Comparisons to Satellite Data

    Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.

    2008-05-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) has been developed by combining the atmospheric chemistry and transport modules developed over the years at Goddard and the GEOS general circulation model, also developed at Goddard. We will compare model simulations of ozone, and the minor constituents that affect ozone, for the period around 1980 with newly released revised data from the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) instrument on Nimbus 4. We will also compare model simulations for the period of the early 2000s with the data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the High Resolution Dynamic Limb Sounder (HRDLS) on the Aura satellite. We will use these comparisons to examine the performance of the model for the present atmosphere and for the change that has occurred during the last 2 decades of ozone loss due to chlorine and bromine compounds released from chlorofluorocarbons and halons.

  8. Progress in Geo-Electrical Methods for Hydrogeological Mapping?

    Schrøder, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In most of the 20th century the geo-electrical methods were primarily used for groundwater exploration and the application of the methods were normally followed by a borehole, and a moment of truth. In this process the use of DC (direct current) soundings have been developed to a high grade...... of excellence. In the last 25 years the geo-electrical methods are more used in connection with groundwater protection and planning, and new methods, as transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings, have been developed that provide more measurements per hour. In Denmark this change is very explicit, and a paper....... The test area was earlier mapped by DC-soundings, so it is possible to test the methods against each other. It is concluded that well performed DC-soundings with a Schlumberger configuration still provide the best base for hydrogeological mapping...

  9. Programmers' manual for the SYVAC geosphere program GEO3

    Oldfield, S.G.; Broyd, T.W.

    1983-11-01

    A Programmers' Manual for the computer model GEO3, of radionuclide migration through a saturated or unsaturated, multi-layered rock strata. GEO3 uses either a numerical (unsaturated) or an analytical (saturated) solution to equations of the one dimensional flow and three dimensional transport of radionuclides in the groundwater, including the effects of linear equilibrium sorption (for porous or fractured media), longitudinal and transverse dispersion, and chain decay for arbitrary chain lengths. The model is designed to be incorporated into the SYVAC (SYstems Variability Analysis Code) computer program, the function of which is to perform generic uncertainty assessments on hypothetical vault-geosphere-biosphere combinations, taking into account parameter variability and uncertainty. (author)

  10. Utilizing the International GeoSample Number Concept during ICDP Expedition COSC

    Conze, Ronald; Lorenz, Henning; Ulbricht, Damian; Gorgas, Thomas; Elger, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the International GeoSample Number (IGSN) was introduced to uniquely identify and register geo-related sample material, and make it retrievable via electronic media (e.g., SESAR - http://www.geosamples.org/igsnabout). The general aim of the IGSN concept is to improve accessing stored sample material worldwide, enable the exact identification, its origin and provenance, and also the exact and complete citation of acquired samples throughout the literature. The ICDP expedition COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides, http://cosc.icdp-online.org) prompted for the first time in ICDP's history to assign and register IGSNs during an ongoing drilling campaign. ICDP drilling expeditions are using commonly the Drilling Information System DIS (http://doi.org/10.2204/iodp.sd.4.07.2007) for the inventory of recovered sample material. During COSC IGSNs were assigned to every drill hole, core run, core section, and sample taken from core material. The original IGSN specification has been extended to achieve the required uniqueness of IGSNs with our offline-procedure. The ICDP name space indicator and the Expedition ID (5054) are forming an extended prefix (ICDP5054). For every type of sample material, an encoded sequence of characters follows. This sequence is derived from the DIS naming convention which is unique from the beginning. Thereby every ICDP expedition has an unlimited name space for IGSN assignments. This direct derivation of IGSNs from the DIS database context ensures the distinct parent-child hierarchy of the IGSNs among each other. In the case of COSC this method of inventory-keeping of all drill cores was done routinely using the ExpeditionDIS during field work and subsequent sampling party. After completing the field campaign, all sample material was transferred to the "Nationales Bohrkernlager" in Berlin-Spandau, Germany. Corresponding data was subsequently imported into the CurationDIS used at the aforementioned core storage

  11. Cn(1), Dn(1) and A2n-1(2) reflection K-matrices

    Lima-Santos, A.; Malara, R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possible regular solutions of the boundary Yang-Baxter equation for the vertex models associated with the C n (1) , D n (1) and A 2n-1 (2) affine Lie algebras. We find three types of solutions with n, n-1 and 1 free parameters, respectively. Special cases and all diagonal solutions are presented separately

  12. The GEOSS Clearinghouse based on the GeoNetwork opensource

    Liu, K.; Yang, C.; Wu, H.; Huang, Q.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is established to support the study of the Earth system in a global community. It provides services for social management, quick response, academic research, and education. The purpose of GEOSS is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behavior of the Earth system. In 2009, GEO called for a competition for an official GEOSS clearinghouse to be selected as a source to consolidating catalogs for Earth observations. The Joint Center for Intelligent Spatial Computing at George Mason University worked with USGS to submit a solution based on the open-source platform - GeoNetwork. In the spring of 2010, the solution is selected as the product for GEOSS clearinghouse. The GEOSS Clearinghouse is a common search facility for the Intergovernmental Group on Ea rth Observation (GEO). By providing a list of harvesting functions in Business Logic, GEOSS clearinghouse can collect metadata from distributed catalogs including other GeoNetwork native nodes, webDAV/sitemap/WAF, catalog services for the web (CSW)2.0, GEOSS Component and Service Registry (http://geossregistries.info/), OGC Web Services (WCS, WFS, WMS and WPS), OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting 2.0, ArcSDE Server and Local File System. Metadata in GEOSS clearinghouse are managed in a database (MySQL, Postgresql, Oracle, or MckoiDB) and an index of the metadata is maintained through Lucene engine. Thus, EO data, services, and related resources can be discovered and accessed. It supports a variety of geospatial standards including CSW and SRU for search, FGDC and ISO metadata, and WMS related OGC standards for data access and visualization, as linked from the metadata.

  13. Data acquisition and detector characterization of GEO600

    Koetter, K; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Berukoff, S; Bose, S; Churches, D; Colacino, C N; Cutler, C; Danzmann, K; Davies, R; Dupuis, R; Freise, A; Grote, H; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Hough, J; Lueck, H; Malec, M; Mohanty, S D; Mukherjee, S; Nagano, S; Papa, M A; Robertson, D; Sathyaprakash, B S; Schutz, B F; Sintes, A M; Strain, K A; Taylor, I J; Vecchio, A; Ward, H; Weiland, U; Willke, B; Woan, G

    2002-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the gravitational wave detector GEO600 is recording the first data now. Data from detector subsystems and environmental channels are being acquired. The data acquisition system is described and first results from the detector characterization work are being presented. We analysed environmental influences on the detector to determine noise propagation through the detector. Long-term monitoring allowed us to see long-timescale drifts in subsystems

  14. Air Quality Forecasts Using the NASA GEOS Model

    Keller, Christoph A.; Knowland, K. Emma; Nielsen, Jon E.; Orbe, Clara; Ott, Lesley; Pawson, Steven; Saunders, Emily; Duncan, Bryan; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Liu, Junhua; hide

    2018-01-01

    We provide an introduction to a new high-resolution (0.25 degree) global composition forecast produced by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation office. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model has been expanded to provide global near-real-time forecasts of atmospheric composition at a horizontal resolution of 0.25 degrees (25 km). Previously, this combination of detailed chemistry and resolution was only provided by regional models. This system combines the operational GEOS-5 weather forecasting model with the state-of-the-science GEOS-Chem chemistry module (version 11) to provide detailed chemical analysis of a wide range of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The resolution of the forecasts is the highest resolution compared to current, publically-available global composition forecasts. Evaluation and validation of modeled trace gases and aerosols compared to surface and satellite observations will be presented for constituents relative to health air quality standards. Comparisons of modeled trace gases and aerosols against satellite observations show that the model produces realistic concentrations of atmospheric constituents in the free troposphere. Model comparisons against surface observations highlight the model's capability to capture the diurnal variability of air pollutants under a variety of meteorological conditions. The GEOS-5 composition forecasting system offers a new tool for scientists and the public health community, and is being developed jointly with several government and non-profit partners. Potential applications include air quality warnings, flight campaign planning and exposure studies using the archived analysis fields.

  15. Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus H5N1 Protected Mice against Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge

    Li, Zhuo; Mooney, Alaina J.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Gao, Xiudan; Xu, Pei; Place, Ryan J.; Hogan, Robert J.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in the human population. The current FDA-approved H5N1 vaccine has serious limitations. A more efficacious H5N1 vaccine is urgently needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a paramyxovirus, is not known to cause any illness in humans. PIV5 is an attractive vaccine vector. In our studies, a single dose of a live recombinant PIV5 expressing a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1 (rPIV5-H5) from the H5N1 subtype provided sterilizing immunity against lethal doses of HPAI H5N1 infection in mice. Furthermore, we have examined the effect of insertion of H5N1 HA at different locations within the PIV5 genome on the efficacy of a PIV5-based vaccine. Interestingly, insertion of H5N1 HA between the leader sequence, the de facto promoter of PIV5, and the first viral gene, nucleoprotein (NP), did not lead to a viable virus. Insertion of H5N1 HA between NP and the next gene, V/phosphorprotein (V/P), led to a virus that was defective in growth. We have found that insertion of H5N1 HA at the junction between the small hydrophobic (SH) gene and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene gave the best immunity against HPAI H5N1 challenge: a dose as low as 1,000 PFU was sufficient to protect against lethal HPAI H5N1 challenge in mice. The work suggests that recombinant PIV5 expressing H5N1 HA has great potential as an HPAI H5N1 vaccine. PMID:23077314

  16. Alternate Explosions: Collapse and Accretion Events with Red Holes instead of Black Holes

    Graber, James S.

    1999-01-01

    A red hole is "just like a black hole" except it lacks an event horizon and a singularity. As a result, a red hole emits much more energy than a black hole during a collapse or accretion event. We consider how a red hole solution can solve the "energy crisis" and power extremely energetic gamma ray bursts and hypernovae.

  17. GEO Debris and Interplanetary Dust: Fluxes and Charging Behavior

    Graps, A. L.; Green, S. F.; McBride, N. M.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Drolshagen, G.; Svedhem, H.; Bunte, K. D.

    2005-08-01

    A population of cosmic dust mixed with a population of man-made debris exists within the Earth's magnetosphere. Measurements of these provide the data samples for studies of the interplanetary dust particles that travel through our magnetosphere from the outside and for studies of the local byproducts of our space endeavours. Even though instruments to detect natural meteoroids and space debris particles have been flown in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and on interplanetary missions, very little information on the particle environment for Earth orbits above about 600 km altitude have been available. In particular, knowledge about particles smaller than 1 m in the geostationary (GEO) region was largely unknown before GORID. In September 1996, a dust/debris detector: GORID was launched into GEO as a piggyback instrument on the Russian Express-2 telecommunications spacecraft. The instrument began its normal operation in April 1997 and ended its mission in July 2002. The goal of this work was to use GORID's particle data to identify and separate the space debris from the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in GEO, to more finely determine the instrument's measurement characteristics and to derive impact fluxes. Here we present some results of that study. We give GORID flux distributions for debris and IDPs and then present intriguing debris clustering features that might be the result of electrostatic fragmentation of the rocket slag particles.

  18. A Technical Survey on Optimization of Processing Geo Distributed Data

    Naga Malleswari, T. Y. J.; Ushasukhanya, S.; Nithyakalyani, A.; Girija, S.

    2018-04-01

    With growing cloud services and technology, there is growth in some geographically distributed data centers to store large amounts of data. Analysis of geo-distributed data is required in various services for data processing, storage of essential information, etc., processing this geo-distributed data and performing analytics on this data is a challenging task. The distributed data processing is accompanied by issues in storage, computation and communication. The key issues to be dealt with are time efficiency, cost minimization, utility maximization. This paper describes various optimization methods like end-to-end multiphase, G-MR, etc., using the techniques like Map-Reduce, CDS (Community Detection based Scheduling), ROUT, Workload-Aware Scheduling, SAGE, AMP (Ant Colony Optimization) to handle these issues. In this paper various optimization methods and techniques used are analyzed. It has been observed that end-to end multiphase achieves time efficiency; Cost minimization concentrates to achieve Quality of Service, Computation and reduction of Communication cost. SAGE achieves performance improvisation in processing geo-distributed data sets.

  19. TASK ALLOCATION IN GEO-DISTRIBUTATED CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

    Aggarwal, Rachel; Smidts, Carol

    2017-03-01

    This paper studies the task allocation algorithm for a distributed test facility (DTF), which aims to assemble geo-distributed cyber (software) and physical (hardware in the loop components into a prototype cyber-physical system (CPS). This allows low cost testing on an early conceptual prototype (ECP) of the ultimate CPS (UCPS) to be developed. The DTF provides an instrumentation interface for carrying out reliability experiments remotely such as fault propagation analysis and in-situ testing of hardware and software components in a simulated environment. Unfortunately, the geo-distribution introduces an overhead that is not inherent to the UCPS, i.e. a significant time delay in communication that threatens the stability of the ECP and is not an appropriate representation of the behavior of the UCPS. This can be mitigated by implementing a task allocation algorithm to find a suitable configuration and assign the software components to appropriate computational locations, dynamically. This would allow the ECP to operate more efficiently with less probability of being unstable due to the delays introduced by geo-distribution. The task allocation algorithm proposed in this work uses a Monte Carlo approach along with Dynamic Programming to identify the optimal network configuration to keep the time delays to a minimum.

  20. Geo-environmental mapping tool applied to pipeline design

    Andrade, Karina de S.; Calle, Jose A.; Gil, Euzebio J. [Geomecanica S/A Tecnologia de Solo Rochas e Materiais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sare, Alexandre R. [Geomechanics International Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Soares, Ana Cecilia [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Geo-Environmental Mapping is an improvement of the Geological-Geotechnical Mapping used for basic pipeline designs. The main purpose is to assembly the environmental, geotechnical and geological concepts in a methodological tool capable to predict constrains and reduce the pipeline impact to the environment. The Geo-Environmental mapping was built to stress the influence of soil/structure interaction, related to the physical effect that comes from the contact between structures and soil or rock. A Geological-Geotechnical-Environmental strip (chart) was presented to emphasize the pipeline operational constrains and its influence to the environment. The mapping was developed to clearly show the occurrence and properties of geological materials divided into geotechnical domain units (zones). The strips present construction natural properties, such as: excavability, stability of the excavation and soil re-use capability. Also, the environmental constrains were added to the geological-geotechnical mapping. The Geo-Environmental Mapping model helps the planning of the geotechnical and environmental inquiries to be carried out during executive design, the discussion on the types of equipment to be employed during construction and the analysis of the geological risks and environmental impacts to be faced during the built of the pipeline. (author)

  1. Trace Gas Retrievals from the GeoTASO Aircraft Instrument

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Liu, C.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Cole, J.; Delker, T.; Good, W. S.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Soo, D.; Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Pickering, K. E.; Zoogman, P.; Al-Saadi, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a passive remote sensing instrument capable of making 2-D measurements of trace gases and aerosols from aircraft. The instrument measures backscattered UV and visible radiation, allowing the retrieval of trace gas amounts below the aircraft at horizontal resolutions on the order of 250 m x 250 m. GeoTASO was originally developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program as a test-bed instrument for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) decadal survey mission, and is now also part of risk reduction for the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) geostationary satellite missions. We present spatially resolved observations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide over urban areas and power plants from flights during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns in Texas and Colorado, as well as comparisons with observations made by ground-based Pandora spectrometers, in situ monitoring instruments and other aircraft instruments deployed during these campaigns. These measurements at various times of day are providing a very useful data set for testing and improving TEMPO and GEMS retrieval algorithms, as well as demonstrating prototype validation strategies.

  2. La influenza A (H1N1: estado actual del conocimiento Influenza A (H1N1 virus: current information

    Laura Margarita González Valdés

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó la bibliografía actualizada sobre el tema a partir de los principales buscadores, y reuniones internacionales realizadas sobre la pandemia de la influenza A (H1N1. Se tratan los aspectos relacionados con la historia, la aparición de la pandemia, la biología de la enfermedad, la epidemiología, el cuadro clínico, el tratamiento y el pronóstico y la prevención. La gripe A (H1N1 es una pandemia causada por una variante nueva del virus de la Influenza A que ha sufrido cambios antigénicos en la hemaglutinina y la neuraminidasa. Esto hace que la población sea altamente vulnerable a la infección y produce una sobrecarga temporal enorme a los servicios de salud. El virus se trasmite como otros virus Influenza. Su letalidad es similar a la de la influenza estacional, pero puede incrementarse en personas con factores de riesgo y en adultos jóvenes sanos. El asma y el embarazo parecen ser condiciones de base importantes para incrementar la severidad de la infección. Puede existir cierta protección por inmunidad cruzada con cepas que circularon en el pasado. El espectro clínico va desde personas asintomáticas hasta las formas graves que requieren internación en cuidados intensivos, con rápido deterioro hasta llegar a la insuficiencia respiratoria en un plazo de 24 horas. La vacunación durante la pandemia no parece ser suficientemente efectiva. Son necesarios antivirales (oseltamivir y zanamivir, y las medidas preventivas higiénico-sanitarias son muy eficaces.An updated review using the main search motors and international meetings already celebrated related to Influenza A H1N1 pandemics. Items related to the history, the appearance of the pandemics, the biology of the disease, its epidemiology, clinics, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Grippe A H1N1 is a pandemic caused by a new variant of the Influenza A virus that has suffered antigenic changes in haemaglutinin and neuraminidase. This turns populations more susceptible to

  3. Protection against H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Monkeys by an Inactivated H5N1 Whole Particle Vaccine

    Nakayama, Misako; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Itoh, Yasushi; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Arikata, Masahiko; Pham, Van Loi; Ishida, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Naoko; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Takaya; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Le, Quynh Mai; Ito, Mutsumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3), in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3. PMID:24376571

  4. Protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian and pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection in cynomolgus monkeys by an inactivated H5N1 whole particle vaccine.

    Misako Nakayama

    Full Text Available H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV infection has been reported in poultry and humans with expanding clade designations. Therefore, a vaccine that induces immunity against a broad spectrum of H5N1 viruses is preferable for pandemic preparedness. We established a second H5N1 vaccine candidate, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (Vac-3, in our virus library and examined the efficacy of inactivated whole particles of this strain against two clades of H5N1 HPAIV strains that caused severe morbidity in cynomolgus macaques. Virus propagation in vaccinated macaques infected with either of the H5N1 HPAIV strains was prevented compared with that in unvaccinated macaques. This vaccine also prevented propagation of a pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus in macaques. In the vaccinated macaques, neutralization activity, which was mainly shown by anti-hemagglutinin antibody, against H5N1 HPAIVs in plasma was detected, but that against H1N1 virus was not detected. However, neuraminidase inhibition activity in plasma and T-lymphocyte responses in lymph nodes against H1N1 virus were detected. Therefore, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protective immunity in macaques consisted of humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination with Vac-3.

  5. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  6. Merger transitions in brane-black-hole systems: Criticality, scaling, and self-similarity

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a toy model for studying merger transitions in a curved spacetime with an arbitrary number of dimensions. This model includes a bulk N-dimensional static spherically symmetric black hole and a test D-dimensional brane (D≤N-1) interacting with the black hole. The brane is asymptotically flat and allows a O(D-1) group of symmetry. Such a brane-black-hole (BBH) system has two different phases. The first one is formed by solutions describing a brane crossing the horizon of the bulk black hole. In this case the internal induced geometry of the brane describes a D-dimensional black hole. The other phase consists of solutions for branes which do not intersect the horizon, and the induced geometry does not have a horizon. We study a critical solution at the threshold of the brane-black-hole formation, and the solutions which are close to it. In particular, we demonstrate that there exists a striking similarity of the merger transition, during which the phase of the BBH system is changed, both with the Choptuik critical collapse and with the merger transitions in the higher dimensional caged black-hole-black-string system

  7. Evaporation of microscopic black holes in string theory and the bound on species

    Dvali, G.; Luest, D.

    2010-01-01

    We address the question how string compactifications with D-branes are consistent with the black hole bound, which arises in any theory with number of particle species to which the black holes can evaporate. For the Kaluza-Klein particles, both longitudinal and transversal to the D-branes, it is relatively easy to see that the black hole bound is saturated, and the geometric relations can be understood in the language of species-counting. We next address the question of the black hole evaporation into the higher string states and discover, that contrary to the naive intuition, the exponentially growing number of Regge states does not preclude the existence of semi-classical black holes of sub-stringy size. Our analysis indicates that the effective number of string resonances to which such micro black holes evaporate is not exponentially large but is bounded by N = 1/g s 2 , which suggests the interpretation of the well-known relation between the Planck and string scales as the saturation of the black hole bound on the species number. In addition, we also discuss some other issues in D-brane compactifications with a low string scale of order TeV, such as the masses of light moduli fields. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Avian influenza H5N1 transmission in households, Indonesia.

    Tjandra Y Aditama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease transmission patterns are needed to inform public health interventions, but remain largely unknown for avian influenza H5N1 virus infections. A recent study on the 139 outbreaks detected in Indonesia between 2005 and 2009 found that the type of exposure to sources of H5N1 virus for both the index case and their household members impacted the risk of additional cases in the household. This study describes the disease transmission patterns in those outbreak households. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared cases (n = 177 and contacts (n = 496 in the 113 sporadic and 26 cluster outbreaks detected between July 2005 and July 2009 to estimate attack rates and disease intervals. We used final size household models to fit transmission parameters to data on household size, cases and blood-related household contacts to assess the relative contribution of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission of the virus, as well as the reproduction number for human virus transmission. The overall household attack rate was 18.3% and secondary attack rate was 5.5%. Secondary attack rate remained stable as household size increased. The mean interval between onset of subsequent cases in outbreaks was 5.6 days. The transmission model found that human transmission was very rare, with a reproduction number between 0.1 and 0.25, and the upper confidence bounds below 0.4. Transmission model fit was best when the denominator population was restricted to blood-related household contacts of index cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study only found strong support for human transmission of the virus when a single large cluster was included in the transmission model. The reproduction number was well below the threshold for sustained transmission. This study provides baseline information on the transmission dynamics for the current zoonotic virus and can be used to detect and define signatures of a virus with increasing capacity for human

  9. Geoscience data visualization and analysis using GeoMapApp

    Ferrini, Vicki; Carbotte, Suzanne; Ryan, William; Chan, Samantha

    2013-04-01

    Increased availability of geoscience data resources has resulted in new opportunities for developing visualization and analysis tools that not only promote data integration and synthesis, but also facilitate quantitative cross-disciplinary access to data. Interdisciplinary investigations, in particular, frequently require visualizations and quantitative access to specialized data resources across disciplines, which has historically required specialist knowledge of data formats and software tools. GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org) is a free online data visualization and analysis tool that provides direct quantitative access to a wide variety of geoscience data for a broad international interdisciplinary user community. While GeoMapApp provides access to online data resources, it can also be packaged to work offline through the deployment of a small portable hard drive. This mode of operation can be particularly useful during field programs to provide functionality and direct access to data when a network connection is not possible. Hundreds of data sets from a variety of repositories are directly accessible in GeoMapApp, without the need for the user to understand the specifics of file formats or data reduction procedures. Available data include global and regional gridded data, images, as well as tabular and vector datasets. In addition to basic visualization and data discovery functionality, users are provided with simple tools for creating customized maps and visualizations and to quantitatively interrogate data. Specialized data portals with advanced functionality are also provided for power users to further analyze data resources and access underlying component datasets. Users may import and analyze their own geospatial datasets by loading local versions of geospatial data and can access content made available through Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Map Services (WMS). Once data are loaded in GeoMapApp, a variety options are provided to export data and/or 2D/3D

  10. The German-Chinese research collaboration YANGTZE-GEO: Assessing the geo-risks in the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Schönbrodt, S.; Behrens, T.; Bieger, K.; Ehret, D.; Frei, M.; Hörmann, G.; Seeber, C.; Schleier, M.; Schmalz, B.; Fohrer, N.; Kaufmann, H.; King, L.; Rohn, J.; Subklew, G.; Xiang, W.

    2012-04-01

    The river impoundment by The Three Gorges Dam leads to resettlement and land reclamation on steep slopes. As a consequence, ecosystem changes such as soil erosion, mass movements, and diffuse sediment and matter fluxes are widely expected to increase rapidly. In order to assess and analyse those ecosystem changes, the German-Chinese joint research project YANGTZE-GEO was set up in 2008. Within the framework of YANGTZE-GEO five German universities (Tuebingen, Erlangen, Giessen, Kiel, Potsdam) conducted studies on soil erosion, mass movements, diffuse matter inputs, and land use change and vulnerability in close collaboration with Chinese scientists. The Chinese partners and institutions are according to their alphabetic order of hometown the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES; Beijing), the Standing Office of the State Council Three Gorges Project Construction Committee (Beijing), the National Climate Centre (NCC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA; Beijing), the Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing for Land and Resources (AES; Beijing), the Nanjing University, the CAS Institute of Soil Science (Nanjing), the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology at CAS (NIGLAS; Nanjing), the China University of Geosciences (CUG; Wuhan), the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology (Wuhan), and the China Three Gorges University (Yichang). The overall aim of YANGTZE-GEO is the development of a risk assessment and forecasting system to locate high risk areas using GIS-based erosion modelling, data mining tools for terrace condition analysis and landslide recognition, eco-hydrological modelling for diffuse matter inputs, and state-of-the-art remote sensing to assess the landscape's vulnerability. Furthermore, the project aims at the recommendation of sustainable land management systems. YANGTZE-GEO showed the relevance of such research and crucially contributes to the understanding of the dimension and dynamics of the ecological consequences of

  11. H5N1-SeroDetect EIA and rapid test: a novel differential diagnostic assay for serodiagnosis of H5N1 infections and surveillance.

    Khurana, Surender; Sasono, Pretty; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Le, Quynh Mai; Pham, Quang Thai; Nguyen, Tran Hien; Nguyen, Thanh Liem; Horby, Peter; Golding, Hana

    2011-12-01

    Continuing evolution of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza viruses in wild birds with transmission to domestic poultry and humans poses a pandemic threat. There is an urgent need for a simple and rapid serological diagnostic assay which can differentiate between antibodies to seasonal and H5N1 strains and that could provide surveillance tools not dependent on virus isolation and nucleic acid technologies. Here we describe the establishment of H5N1 SeroDetect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid test assays based on three peptides in HA2 (488-516), PB1-F2 (2-75), and M2e (2-24) that are highly conserved within H5N1 strains. These peptides were identified by antibody repertoire analyses of H5N1 influenza survivors in Vietnam using whole-genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs). To date, both platforms have demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and specificity in detecting H5N1 infections (clade 1 and clade 2.3.4) in Vietnamese patients as early as 7 days and up to several years postinfection. H5N1 virus-uninfected individuals in Vietnam and the United States, including subjects vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines or with confirmed seasonal virus infections, did not react in the H5N1-SeroDetect assays. Moreover, sera from individuals vaccinated with H5N1 subunit vaccine with moderate anti-H5N1 neutralizing antibody titers did not react positively in the H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA or rapid test assays. The simple H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA and rapid tests could provide an important tool for large-scale surveillance for potential exposure to HP H5N1 strains in both humans and birds.

  12. The master space of N = 1 gauge theories

    Forcella, Davide; Hanany, Amihay; He Yanghui; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The full moduli space M of a class of N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories is studied. For gauge theories living on a stack of D3-branes at Calabi-Yau singularities X, M is a combination of the mesonic and baryonic branches. In consonance with the mathematical literature, the single brane moduli space is called the master space F b . Illustrating with a host of explicit examples, we exhibit many algebro-geometric properties of the master space such as when F b is toric Calabi-Yau, behaviour of its Hilbert series, its irreducible components and its symmetries. In conjunction with the plethystic programme, we investigate the counting of BPS gauge invariants, baryonic and mesonic, using the geometry of F b and show how its refined Hilbert series not only engenders the generating functions for the counting but also beautifully encode 'hidden' global symmetries of the gauge theory which manifest themselves as symmetries of the complete moduli space M for N number of branes.

  13. Off shell N=1 supergravity theory in six dimensions

    Smith, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The off shell N=1 supergravity theory in six dimensions shows beneath the extreme simplicity of theories in higher dimensions useful properties for the study of a unification of normal gauge theories with the supergravity theory via dimensional reduction and yields a geometrical interpretation for the quantum numbers of internal symmtries of the reduced theory. Furthermore this theory permits a better understanding of ultraviolet divergences than a theory in four dimensions. This six-dimensional supergravity theory is constructed here in the corresponding superspace the importance of which was clained otherwise because a precisely defined mathematical formalism for this exists: Differential geometry in the superspace. We establish constraining conditions for the torsion components and give a complete solution of the Bianchi identities. In the formulation of the conditions for the torsions exists a certain freedom, because different conditions lead to the same solution. Therefore only the analysis of the Bianchi identities will show wether the conditions are too restrictive or not. Furthermore the dimensional reduction of D=6 to the four-dimensional space-time is performed. We show here that the reduced theory yields the conformal N=2 supergravity theory. In the last part of this thesis a Langrangian is presented by which the supergravity is coupled to a matter multiplet. In the analysis of the supersymmetry transformations of the component fields we see that the matter multiplet cannot be consistently brought to vanish. That means that a pure supergravity theory cannot be written manifestly Lorentz covariant. (orig.) [de

  14. On the formation of m = 1, n = 1 density snakes

    Sugiyama, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    The m/n = 1/1 helical ion density “snake” located near the q = 1 magnetic surface in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma arises naturally in resistive MHD, when the plasma density evolves separately from pressure. Nonlinear numerical simulations show that a helical density perturbation applied around q = 1 can form a quasi-steady state over q≳1 with T(tilde sign) of opposite average sign to ñ. Two principal outcomes depend on the magnitude of ñ/n and the underlying stability of the 1/1 internal kink mode. For a small q<1 central region, a moderate helical density drives a new, slowly growing type of nonlinear 1/1 internal kink inside q<1, with small ñ and ∇p(tilde sign)≃∇(nT(tilde sign)). The hot kink core moves away from, or perpendicular to, the high density region near q≃1, preserving the snake density during a sawtooth crash. The mode resembles the early stage of heavy-impurity-ion snakes in ohmic discharges, including recent observations in Alcator C-Mod. For a larger, more unstable q<1 region, the helical density perturbation drives a conventional 1/1 kink where ñ aligns with T(tilde sign), leading to a rapid sawtooth crash. The crash redistributes the density to a localized helical concentration inside q≲1, similar to experimentally observed snakes that are initiated by a sawtooth crash.

  15. Holomorphic D7-branes and flavored N=1 gauge theories

    Ouyang, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We consider D7-branes in the gauge theory/string theory correspondence, using a probe approximation. The D7-branes have four directions embedded holomorphically in a non-compact Calabi-Yau 3-fold (which for specificity we take to be the conifold) and their remaining four directions are parallel to a stack of D3-branes transverse to the Calabi-Yau space. The dual gauge theory, which has N=1 supersymmetry, contains quarks which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, and we identify the interactions of these quarks in terms of a superpotential. By activating three-form fluxes in the gravity background, we obtain a dual gauge theory with a cascade of Seiberg dualities. We find a supersymmetric supergravity solution for the leading backreaction effects of the D7-branes, valid for large radius. The cascading theory with flavors exhibits the interesting phenomenon that the rate of the cascade slows and can stop as the theory flows to the infrared

  16. Well-posedness of (N = 1) classical supergravity

    Bao, D.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.; Isenberg, J.; Yasskin, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether classical (N = 1) supergravity has a well-posed locally causal Cauchy problem. We define well-posedness to mean that any choice of initial data (from an appropriate function space) which satisfies the supergravity constraint equations and a set of gauge conditions can be continuously developed into a space-time solution of the supergravity field equations around the initial surface. Local causality means that the domains of dependence of the evolution equations coincide with those determined by the light cones. We show that when the fields of classical supergravity are treated as formal objects, the field equations are (under certain gauge conditions) equivalent to a coupled system of quasilinear nondiagonal second-order partial differential equations which is formally nonstrictly hyperbolic (in the sense of Leray--Ohya). Hence, if the fields were numerical valued, there would be an applicable existence theorem leading to well-posedness. We shall observe that well-posedness is assured if the fields are taken to be Grassmann (i.e., exterior algebra) valued, for then the second-order system decouples into the vacuum Einstein equation and a sequence of numerical valued linear diagonal strictly hyperbolic partial differential equations which can be solved successively

  17. The N=1 effective action of F-theory compactifications

    Grimm, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    The four-dimensional N=1 effective action of F-theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau fourfold is studied by lifting a three-dimensional M-theory compactification. The lift is performed by using T-duality realized via a Legendre transform on the level of the effective action, and the application of vector-scalar duality in three dimensions. The leading order Kaehler potential and gauge-kinetic coupling functions are determined. In these compactifications two sources of gauge theories are present. Space-time filling non-Abelian seven-branes arise at the singularities of the elliptic fibration of the fourfold. Their couplings are included by resolving the singular fourfold. Generically a U(1) r gauge theory arises from the R-R bulk sector if the base of the elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold supports 2r harmonic three-forms. The gauge coupling functions depend holomorphically on the complex structure moduli of the fourfold, comprising closed and open string degrees of freedom. The four-dimensional electro-magnetic duality is studied in the three-dimensional effective theory obtained after M-theory compactification. A discussion of matter couplings transforming in the adjoint of the seven-brane gauge group is included.

  18. Scalar potential from higher derivative N=1 superspace

    Ciupke, David

    2016-05-01

    The supersymmetric completion of higher-derivative operators often requires introducing corrections to the scalar potential. In this paper we study these corrections systematically in the context of theories with N=1 global and local supersymmetry in D=4 focusing on ungauged chiral multiplets. In globally supersymmetric theories the most general off-shell effective scalar potential can be captured by a dependence of the Kaehler potential on additional chiral superfields. For supergravity we find a much richer structure of possible corrections. In this context we classify the leading order and next-to-leading order superspace derivative operators and determine the component forms of a subclass thereof. Moreover, we present an algorithm that simplifies the computation of the respective on-shell action. As particular applications we study the structure of the supersymmetric vacua for these theories and comment on the form of the corrections to shift-symmetric no-scale models. These results are relevant for the computation of effective actions for string compactifications and, in turn, for moduli stabilization and string inflation.

  19. Non-Abelian vortices in N=1* gauge theory

    Markov, V.; Marshakov, A.; Yung, A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the N=1* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory and demonstrate that the Z2 vortices in this theory acquire orientational zero modes, associated with the rotation of magnetic flux inside SU(2) group, and turn into the non-Abelian strings, when the masses of all chiral fields become equal. These non-Abelian strings are not BPS-saturated. We study the effective theory on the string world sheet and show that it is given by two-dimensional non-supersymmetric O(3) sigma model. The confined 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole is seen as a junction of the Z2-string and anti-string, and as a kink in the effective world sheet sigma model. We calculate its mass and show that besides the four-dimensional confinement of monopoles, they are also confined in the two-dimensional theory: the monopoles stick to anti-monopoles to form the meson-like configurations on the strings they are attached to

  20. Black holes, qubits and octonions

    Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems

  1. Cosmology with primordial black holes

    Lindley, D.

    1981-09-01

    Cosmologies containing a substantial amount of matter in the form of evaporating primordial black holes are investigated. A review of constraints on the numbers of such black holes, including an analysis of a new limit found by looking at the destruction of deuterium by high energy photons, shows that there must be a negligible population of small black holes from the era of cosmological nucleosynthesis onwards, but that there are no strong constraints before this time. The major part of the work is based on the construction of detailed, self-consistent cosmological models in which black holes are continually forming and evaporating The interest in these models centres on the question of baryon generation, which occurs via the asymmetric decay of a new type of particle which appears as a consequence of the recently developed Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles. Unfortunately, there is so much uncertainty in the models that firm conclusions are difficult to reach; however, it seems feasible in principle that primordial black holes could be responsible for a significant part of the present matter density of the Universe. (author)

  2. Black holes: a slanted overview

    Vishveshwara, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    The black hole saga spanning some seventy years may be broadly divided into four phases, namely, (a) the dark ages when little was known about black holes even though they had come into existence quite early through the Schwarzschild solution, (b) the age of enlightenment bringing in deep and prolific discoveries, (c) the age of fantasy that cast black holes in all sorts of extraordinary roles, and (d) the golden age of relativistic astrophysics - to some extent similar to Dirac's characterisation of the development of quantum theory - in which black holes have been extensively used to elucidate a number of astrophysical phenomena. It is impossible to give here even the briefest outline of the major developments in this vast area. We shall only attempt to present a few aspects of black hole physics which have been actively pursued in the recent past. Some details are given in the case of those topics that have not found their way into text books or review articles. (author)

  3. Lee–Wick black holes

    Cosimo Bambi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee–Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M>Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M=Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.

  4. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  5. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Ramit Dey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  6. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  7. Nonrotating and slowly rotating holes

    Macdonald, D.A.; Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.; Suen, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The 3+1 formalism is applied to model Schwarzschild spacetime around a black hole. Particular note is taken of the 3+1 split of the laws of electrodynamics, and of the tendency of the approach to freeze motion at the event horizon. The null horizon is replaced with a timelike physical membrane which exhibits mechanical, thermodynamic and electrical properties, and which stretches the horizon. The usefulness of the stretching approach is illustrated by considering a black hole penetrated by vibrating magnetic field lines anchored in a perfectly conducting surrounding sphere. The necessity of modeling the field structure near the actual horizon is avoided by having the field end at the membrane. The surface charge, current, resistivity and ohmic heating of the stretched horizon are also considered, and the Lorentz force imparted to the stretched horizon surface by the field lines is investigated by examining a nearly Schwarzschild hole behaving as the rotor of an electric motor

  8. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  9. On the formation of m = 1, n = 1 density snakes

    Sugiyama, Linda E. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The m/n = 1/1 helical ion density 'snake' located near the q = 1 magnetic surface in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma arises naturally in resistive MHD, when the plasma density evolves separately from pressure. Nonlinear numerical simulations show that a helical density perturbation applied around q = 1 can form a quasi-steady state over q Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1 with T(tilde sign) of opposite average sign to n. Two principal outcomes depend on the magnitude of n/n and the underlying stability of the 1/1 internal kink mode. For a small q<1 central region, a moderate helical density drives a new, slowly growing type of nonlinear 1/1 internal kink inside q<1, with small n and {nabla}p(tilde sign) Asymptotically-Equal-To {nabla}(nT(tilde sign)). The hot kink core moves away from, or perpendicular to, the high density region near q Asymptotically-Equal-To 1, preserving the snake density during a sawtooth crash. The mode resembles the early stage of heavy-impurity-ion snakes in ohmic discharges, including recent observations in Alcator C-Mod. For a larger, more unstable q<1 region, the helical density perturbation drives a conventional 1/1 kink where n aligns with T(tilde sign), leading to a rapid sawtooth crash. The crash redistributes the density to a localized helical concentration inside q Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1, similar to experimentally observed snakes that are initiated by a sawtooth crash.

  10. Editorial L&E, v.7, n.1, 2013.

    Rede Conpadre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Editorial L&E, v.7, n.1, 2013 L’architettura, in quanto bene d’uso, è da considerarsi come un’opera aperta, destinata a venire, nel corso della sua esistenza, modificata, trasformata, integrata per poter continuare ad essere utilizzata e fruita. Le architetture che sono state oggetto di dismissione, a seguito del venir meno delle motivazioni (funzioni per le quali esse erano state realizzate, sono, più di altre, destinate a subire tali trasformazioni. Sono, infatti, architetture ormai deboli e fragili, nella maggior parte dei casi considerate prive di valore o quasi, che proprio in virtù di queste considerazioni vengono abbandonate e/o distrutte, decretandone irrimediabilmente la scomparsa. Il patrimonio industriale dismesso rientra a pieno titolo in tale categoria di manufatti architettonici e, purtroppo, nel corso del tempo, è stato sottoposto a qualsivoglia tipo di manomissione, ivi compresa la demolizione. Si tratta però di un patrimonio che, a ben guardare, risulta ancora ricco di qualità e di potenzialità che potrebbe/dovrebbe essere adeguatamente valorizzato attraverso lo studio e la messa a punto di soluzioni che consentano di massimizzare la permanenza, pur prestando attenzione al problema della sostenibilità degli interventi sia in fase di realizzazione degli stessi, sia in fase di utilizzo dei beni sottoposti ai necessari e appropriati interventi di rifunzionalizzazione. Solo in questo modo tale patrimonio può cessare di rappresentare un “problema” per i proprietari, pubblici o privati che siano, per divenire una risorsa – architettonica, culturale e, perché no, anche materiale – garantendone la permanenza nel tempo – magari trasformata, sicuramente arricchita da nuove tracce – e la trasmissione alle future generazioni. Manuela Mattone

  11. Killing symmetries and Smarr formula for black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Modak, Sujoy Kumar; Samanta, Saurav

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the effective Komar conserved quantities for the N+1 dimensional charged Myers-Perry spacetime. At the event horizon we derive a new identity K χ μ =2ST where the left hand side is the Komar conserved quantity corresponding to the null Killing vector χ μ while in the right hand side S, T are the black hole entropy and Hawking temperature. From this identity we also derive the generalized Smarr formula connecting the macroscopic parameters M, J, Q of the black hole with its surface gravity and horizon area. The consistency of this new formula is established by an independent algebraic approach.

  12. Towards the creation of a European Network of Earth Observation Networks within GEO. The ConnectinGEO project.

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; Menard, Lionel; Wald, Lucien; Nativi, Stefano; Plag, Hans-Peter; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Nüst, Daniel; Jirka, Simon; Pearlman, Jay; De Maziere, Martine

    2015-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is a new H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. ConnectinGEO aims to facilitate a broader and more accessible knowledge base to support the needs of GEO, its Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) and the users of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). A broad range of subjects from climate, natural resources and raw materials, to the emerging UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be addressed. The project will generate a prioritized list of critical gaps within available observation data and models to translate observations into practice-relevant knowledge, based on stakeholder consultation and systematic analysis. Ultimately, it will increase coherency of European observation networks, increase the use of Earth observations for assessments and forecasts and inform the planning for future observation systems. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed by project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the space-based, airborne and in-situ observations European networks (e.g. EPOS, EMSO and GROOM, etc), representatives of the industry sector and European and national funding agencies, in particular those participating in the future ERA-PlaNET. At the beginning, the ENEON will be created and managed by the project. Then the management will be transferred to the network itself to ensure

  13. Synthesis and characterization of [3H]-5'azido-N-1-naphthylphthlamic acid, a photolabile N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid analog

    Voet, J.G.; Dodge, B.; Harris, K.; Jacobs, M.; Larkin, L.; Bader, S.; Schnitzler, G.; Sutherland, J.

    1990-01-01

    The NPA (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) receptor is an important protein involved in the regulation of transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In our attempt to isolate and characterize this protein we have previously synthesized and characterized a photolabile analog of NPA, 5'-azido-NPA (Az-NPA) and shown it to be a competitor of NPA for binding sites on the NPA receptor as well as an inhibitor of auxin transport. We have now synthesized and characterized [ 3 H]-Az-NPA. The precursor, 2,3,4,5-Br-5'-amino-NPA was dehydrohalogenated with tritium gas by Research Products International. The amino group was converted to an azido group and the product purified by HPLC. [ 3 H]-Az-NPA was found to be photolabile and to co-chromatograph with our synthetic unlabeled Az-NPA. Furthermore, the tritiated material was found to bind to zucchini hypocotyl cell membranes in a manner competitive with NPA as well as unlabeled Az-NPA. Photolysis of zucchini phase-partitioned plasma membranes in the presence of [ 3 H]-Az-NPA resulted in covalent association of tritium with the membranes. Much of this covalent association could be prevented by prior treatment of the membranes with excess NPA

  14. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus

    Kang, Xiao-ping; Jiang, Tao; Li, Yong-qiang; Lin, Fang; Liu, Hong; Chang, Guo-hui; Zhu, Qing-yu; Qin, E-de; Qin, Cheng-feng; Yang, Yin-hui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was improved for simultaneous detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza virus, which is suitable for early diagnosis of influenza-like patients and for epidemiological surveillance. The sensitivity of this duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was 0.02 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) for H5N1 and 0.2 TCID50 for the pandemic H1N1, which was the same a...

  15. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  16. Falling into a black hole

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2007-01-01

    String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...

  17. Control of black hole evaporation?

    Ahn, Doyeol

    2007-01-01

    Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and the string theory on the evaporation of a black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena to resolve this contradiction. We point out that the original Hawking effect can also be regarded as a separate boundary condition at the event horizon for this scenario. Here, we found that the change of the Hawking boundary condition may affect the information transfer from the initial collapsing matter to the outgoing Hawking radiation during the evaporation process and as a result the evaporation process itself, significantly

  18. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  19. Time dependent black holes and scalar hair

    Chadburn, Sarah; Gregory, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We show how to correctly account for scalar accretion onto black holes in scalar field models of dark energy by a consistent expansion in terms of a slow roll parameter. At leading order, we find an analytic solution for the scalar field within our Hubble volume, which is regular on both black hole and cosmological event horizons, and compute the back reaction of the scalar on the black hole, calculating the resulting expansion of the black hole. Our results are independent of the relative size of black hole and cosmological event horizons. We comment on the implications for more general black hole accretion, and the no hair theorems. (paper)

  20. Black holes a very short introduction

    Blundell, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.