Sample records for hold schools accountable

  1. Sexual Harassment and Bullying: A Guide to Keeping Kids Safe and Holding Schools Accountable (United States)

    Strauss, Susan


    Bullying in schools is often discussed, but sexual harassment in schools, and how it differs from bullying is often overlooked. In fact, though, sexual harassment (committed both by fellow students and school personnel) is more common and yet more easily and quickly dismissed by those involved, though its consequences for the victim can be…

  2. Racial Isolation, Poverty and the Limits of Local Control as a Means for Holding Public Schools Accountable


    Noguera, Pedro


    Drawing on research in Oakland, California over a twenty-year period, Noguera considers how poverty and racial isolation have contributed to the problems confronted by schools in that district and other inner-city communities around the state. He illuminates the factors that hinder the development of social capital in low-income communities, and, in doing so, demonstrates why local control does not make it easier for school systems to address the academic needs of poor students. The wide vari...

  3. Accounting for Independent Schools. (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  4. Complexity, Accountability, and School Improvement. (United States)

    O'Day, Jennifer A.


    Using complexity theory, examines standards-based accountability focused on improving school organization. Compares Chicago Public Schools' outcomes-based bureaucratic accountability approach with Baltimore City Schools' combined administrator-professional accountability. Concludes that the combined approach should result in more lasting change.…

  5. School accountability Incentives or sorting?


    Hege Marie Gjefsen; Trude Gunnes


    We exploit a nested school accountability reform to estimate the causal effect on teacher mobility, sorting, and student achievement. In 2003, lower-secondary schools in Oslo became accountable to the school district authority for student achievement. In 2005, information on school performance in lower secondary education also became public. Using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach, we find a significant increase in teacher mobility and that almost all non-stayers leave the tea...

  6. Green accounts & day high schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....

  7. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew


    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools…

  8. Taking control: how citizens can hold industry to account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma; Schwarte, Christoph; Cotula, Lorenzo; Garside, Ben; Siegele, Linda


    The oil, gas and mining industries look set to remain major players in global development, despite urgent efforts to end the world's fossil fuel dependency and diversify energy sources. The activities of the extractive industries often impinge directly, and sometimes harshly, on communities and the environment. But local people are rising to the challenge. From Azerbaijan to Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Mali and Mongolia, citizens are working to promote transparency, accountability and responsible practice in these industries. A lack of skills and resources can impede crucial progress – so knowing the tools that work to make industry accountable is key.

  9. Report: EPA Managers Did Not Hold Supervisors and Project Officers Accountable for Grants Management (United States)

    Report #2005-P-00027, September 27, 2005. Managers did not sufficiently hold supervisors and project officers accountable for grants management because there is no process to measure most grants management activity.

  10. Accountability and Sanctions in English Schools (United States)

    West, Anne; Mattei, Paola; Roberts, Jonathan


    This paper focuses on accountability in school-based education in England. It explores notions of accountability and proposes a new framework for its analysis. It then identifies a number of types of accountability which are present in school-based education, and discusses each in terms of who is accountable to whom and for what. It goes on to…

  11. California School Accounting Manual. 1984 Edition. (United States)

    Lundin, Janet, Ed.

    California's official school accounting procedures, amended in 1984 to clarify definitions and improve program cost accounting, are presented. Following an introduction that discusses general characteristics of school accounting, the manual explains the following areas of accounting practice: (1) financial reporting; (2) income; (3) expenditures;…

  12. Descriptors of Modular Formation of Accounting and Analytical Cluster in Innovation Development of Agricultural Holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Degaltseva


    Full Text Available In the context of the division of accounting into financial accounting, taxation accounting, management accounting and statistical accounting a problem of improving their relationship arises. The accounting and analytical cluster plays the role of the correlating factor of the relationship between the subdivisions of the agricultural holding property. To improve its work a modular principle of its building based on information technology was introduced. Practical implementation of modular accounting and analytical cluster revealed its shortcomings. They were as follows: each type of account and each production unit used its own natural and cost parameters. The number and nature of these parameters were different. To eliminate the shortcomings in the information security of managers and specialists of the agricultural holding, we attempt to develop a methodology for establishing a rational number of descriptors (binding parameters for each module. The proposed descriptors are designed on the basis of validity of the methodological approach to their calculations and legal support. The proposed method allowed to limit the asymmetric information in all kinds of records, to improve its quality and to bring a synergistic effect from the scale and structure of the use of the agricultural holdings property complex.

  13. 31 CFR 545.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... currency, bank deposits, or liquidated financial obligations, subject to § 545.201(a) shall hold or place... market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a rate is commercially... size and maturity. (3) Funds held or placed in a blocked account pursuant to this paragraph (b) may not...

  14. 31 CFR 547.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... the funds are invested in a money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... deposits or instruments of comparable size and maturity. (3) Funds held or placed in a blocked account...

  15. 31 CFR 586.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... the funds are invested in a money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... deposits or instruments of comparable size and maturity. (3) Funds held or placed in a blocked account...

  16. 31 CFR 588.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... are invested in a money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... instruments of comparable size and maturity. (3) Funds held or placed in a blocked account pursuant to this...

  17. 31 CFR 543.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... are invested in a money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... instruments of comparable size and maturity. (3) Funds held or placed in a blocked account pursuant to this...

  18. 31 CFR 540.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... funds are invested in a money market fund or U.S. Treasury Bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... instruments of comparable size and maturity. (3) Funds held or placed in a blocked account pursuant to this...

  19. 31 CFR 587.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ..., provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... deposits or instruments of comparable size and maturity. (3) Funds held or placed in a blocked account...

  20. 31 CFR 544.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ....), provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... deposits or instruments of comparable size and maturity. (3) Funds held or placed in a blocked account...

  1. Teacher Accountability at High Performing Charter Schools (United States)

    Aguirre, Moises G.


    This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…

  2. Revamping High School Accounting Courses. (United States)

    Bittner, Joseph


    Provides ideas for updating accounting courses: convert to semester length; focus on financial reporting/analysis, financial statements, the accounting cycle; turn textbook exercises into practice sets for the accounting cycle; teach about corporate accounting; and address individual line items on financial statements. (SK)

  3. Accountability and Control in American Schools (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; Collins, Gregory J.


    One of the most controversial and significant of contemporary education reforms has been the teacher accountability movement. From this perspective, low-quality teachers and teaching are a major factor behind inadequate school performance, and a lack of accountability and control in schools is a major factor behind the problem of low-quality…

  4. Accounting for Independent Schools. Second Edition. (United States)

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This is a thoroughly revised edition of the 1969 publication, "Accounting for Independent Schools," a guide that attempted to codify basic accounting principles and practices for specific application to independent schools. The focus of the second edition is more on refining practices than on initiating them, and more on extending the managerial…

  5. Senegal : School Autonomy and Accountability


    World Bank


    Senegal has accelerated the decentralization of education since 1996. Budgetary autonomy is latent. Autonomy over the management of operational budgets has been delegated to the communes, but salaries for teachers are managed at the central level. Autonomy in personnel management is latent. Both school directors and teachers are appointed at the central level. The role of the school counci...

  6. California School Accounting Manual, 1988 Edition. (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This report presents the procedure for the accounting methods employed by California school districts for income and expenditures in instructional and support programs. The report has seven parts: (1) an introduction to accounting in local educational agencies; (2) general and subsidiary ledger accounting; (3) revenues and other financing sources;…

  7. Media Accounts of School Performance: Reinforcing Dominant Practices of Accountability (United States)

    Baroutsis, Aspa


    Media reportage often act as interpretations of accountability policies thereby making the news media a part of the policy enactment process. Within such a process, their role is that of policy reinforcement rather than policy construction or contestation. This paper draws on the experiences of school leaders in regional Queensland, Australia, and…

  8. SMS texts on corruption help Ugandan voters hold elected councillors accountable at the polls. (United States)

    Buntaine, Mark T; Jablonski, Ryan; Nielson, Daniel L; Pickering, Paula M


    Many politicians manipulate information to prevent voters from holding them accountable; however, mobile text messages may make it easier for nongovernmental organizations to credibly share information on official corruption that is difficult for politicians to counter directly. We test the potential for texts on budget management to improve democratic accountability by conducting a large ( n = 16,083) randomized controlled trial during the 2016 Ugandan district elections. In cooperation with a local partner, we compiled, simplified, and text-messaged official information on irregularities in local government budgets. Verified recipients of messages that described more irregularities than expected reported voting for incumbent councillors 6% less often; verified recipients of messages conveying fewer irregularities than expected reported voting for incumbent councillors 5% more often. The messages had no observable effect on votes for incumbent council chairs, potentially due to voters' greater reliance on other sources of information for higher profile elections. These mixed results suggest that text messages on budget corruption help voters hold some politicians accountable in settings where elections are not free and fair. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. 31 CFR 595.203 - Holding of certain types of blocked property in interest-bearing accounts. (United States)


    ... property in interest-bearing accounts. 595.203 Section 595.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... interest-bearing accounts. (a)(1) Any person, including a U.S. financial institution, currently holding... effective date, is not being held in an interest-bearing account, or otherwise invested in a manner...

  10. 31 CFR 575.203 - Holding of certain types of blocked property in interest-bearing accounts. (United States)


    ... property in interest-bearing accounts. 575.203 Section 575.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... interest-bearing accounts. (a) Any person, including a U.S. financial institution, currently holding... effective date, is not being held in an interest-bearing account, or otherwise invested in a manner...

  11. The apotheosis of holding company accounting: Unilever's financial reporting innovations from the 1920s tot the 1940s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camfferman, C.; Zeff, S.A.


    The annual reports of Unilever were widely hailed in the 1940s as outstanding examples of holding company accounting. The accounts did indeed contain many new and innovative features, including segment reporting of sales turnover. This contrasts with the frequently negative assessments of the

  12. A Real-Time Holding Decision Rule Accounting for Passenger Travel Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskaris,; Cats, O.; Jenelius, E; Viti, F


    Holding has been extensively investigated as a strategy to mitigate the inherently stochastic nature of public transport operations. Holding focuses on either regulating vehicle headways using a rule-based approach or minimizing passenger travel cost by employing optimization models. This paper

  13. Scientifically supported mental health intervention in schools: meeting accountability demands with an online resource. (United States)

    Powers, Joelle D


    Legislation has been passed that holds schools increasingly accountable for the proficiency of all students, including those with mental health problems. A critical obstacle impeding the ability of schools to effectively support students is the lack of access to quick, pre-screened, and organized information about scientifically-supported interventions that effectively address youth mental health problems. A new mental health best practices database was developed and made available online that provides access to free and user-friendly information about evidence-based interventions for use in schools. School staff will be better able to meet accountability demands of legislation and to effectively respond to student mental health problems.

  14. Can Failure Succeed? Using Racial Subgroup Rules to Analyze the Effect of School Accountability Failure on Student Performance (United States)

    Sims, David P.


    Many school accountability programs are built on the premise that the sanctions attached to failure will produce higher future student achievement. Furthermore, such programs often include subgroup achievement rules that attempt to hold schools accountable for the performance of all demographic classes of students. This paper looks at two issues:…

  15. Accountability Policies at Schools: A Study of Path Analysis (United States)

    Erdag, Coskun


    Turkey is now on its way to reforming compulsory education and having a more effective and efficient education system by creating more accountable schools. This research has been designed in a causative pattern to discover the effects of external academic performance pressures on school accountability policies and school accountability responses…

  16. Innovations in Arizona's Accountability Policies and Frameworks for Alternative Schools (United States)

    Schlessman, Amy


    This study presents Arizona's innovations in academic accountability policy and academic accountability frameworks for alternative schools. A timeline of statutes and regulations including the State Board of Education approved alternative school definition provides Arizona's context for alternative school accountability policy and frameworks.…

  17. 31 CFR 546.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a rate is commercially... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing...) Blocked funds held in instruments the maturity of which exceeds 180 days at the time the funds become...

  18. 31 CFR 598.206 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... a money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a rate is... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... same. (c) Blocked funds held in instruments the maturity of which exceeds 180 days at the time the...

  19. 31 CFR 551.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a rate is commercially... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing...) Blocked funds held in instruments the maturity of which exceeds 180 days at the time the funds become...

  20. 31 CFR 537.208 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... held in instruments the maturity of which exceeds 180 days at the time the funds become subject to...

  1. 31 CFR 542.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... held in instruments the maturity of which exceeds 180 days at the time the funds become subject to...

  2. 31 CFR 597.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing..., letters of credit, or instruments which cannot be negotiated for the purpose of placing the funds in a...

  3. 31 CFR 548.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a rate is commercially... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing...) Blocked funds held in instruments the maturity of which exceeds 180 days at the time the funds become...

  4. 31 CFR 541.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... money market fund or in U.S. Treasury bills. (2) For purposes of this section, a rate is commercially... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing...) Blocked funds held in instruments the maturity of which exceeds 180 days at the time the funds become...

  5. 31 CFR 538.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing... held in instruments the maturity of which exceeds 180 days at the time the funds become subject to...

  6. 31 CFR 594.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... tangible property, such as chattels or real estate, or of other blocked property, such as debt or equity... GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 594.203 Holding of funds in interest-bearing...). However, the Office of Foreign Assets Control may issue licenses permitting or directing such sales or...

  7. "Pluralistic Accountability" for the Psychological Therapies? Holding the Tension between Diversity's Virtues and the Need for Accountability (United States)

    House, Richard; Musgrave, Arthur


    This paper argues that the field of counselling and psychotherapy needs to find values-congruent ways of managing, and creatively engaging with, the challenging tension between accountability and diversity in therapy work. The authors strongly support the preservation of pluralism and diversity in therapy practice, in the face of the increasingly…

  8. Four Critical Domains of Accountability for School Counselors (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Willians, Joseph M.; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying


    Despite recognition of accountability for school counselors, no clear set of interrelated performance measures exists to guide school counselors in collecting and evaluating data that relates to student academic success. This article outlines four critical domains of accountability for school counselors (i.e., grades, attendance, disciplinary…

  9. Solomon Islands School Autonomy and Accountability : SABER Country Report 2013


    World Bank


    Education in the Solomon Islands is highly decentralized. While education policy is the sole responsibility of the Ministry of education, school boards are responsible for delivery. The entire organization of the school system is based on checks and balances to ensure accountability. Budgetary autonomy is established. The school board controls the school budget, with input from parents. Pe...

  10. Restorative justice for sexual violence: repairing victims, building community, and holding offenders accountable. (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince


    Problems in criminal justice system response to date and acquaintance rape, and the nonpenetration sexual offenses are identified: (1) these crimes are often markers of a career of sexual offense, yet they are widely viewed as minor; (2) perpetrators of these crimes are now held accountable in ways that reduce their future threat of sex offending; and (3) current criminal justice response to these crimes disappoints and traumatizes victims and families. In response to these identified problems, we are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, an innovative victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program. Restorative justice views crime as harm for which the person responsible must be held accountable in meaningful ways. RESTORE uses a community conference to involve the victim, offender, and both parties' family and friends in a face-to-face dialogue directed at identifying the harm, and developing a plan for repair, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community.

  11. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the... (United States)


    ... National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy... Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on June... sold in a school and purchased with funds from the nonprofit school food service account, other than...

  12. Washington Manual: A New Tool for Local School Accounting (United States)

    Federal Aid Planner, 1972


    An advance glimpse of the revised financial accounting methods for school districts recommended in a new manual from the U. S. Office of Education. The manual is designed to help school districts modernize their financial accounting procedures and their entire range of fiscal management practices. (Author/DN)

  13. Evaluating Accounting Software in Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Chalupa, Marilyn


    The secondary accounting curriculum must be modified to include computers and software. Educators must be aware of the computer skills needed on the job and of the accounting software that is available. Software selection must be tailored to fit the curriculum and the time available. (JOW)

  14. Performance Evaluation and Accountability for School Psychologists: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    Morrison, Julie Q.


    The call for school psychologists to demonstrate accountability in the evaluation of services at the individual, group, and system levels comes at a time when school districts nationally are pursuing personnel evaluation models that link teachers' instructional practices to student achievement. School psychologists have an opportunity to take a…

  15. School Autonomy, Accountability and Collaboration: A Critical Review (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda


    English education has recently experienced radical policy reform in the areas of school autonomy and accountability. The key focus of this paper is on how schools might best navigate through these policy moves. It highlights how these moves have constructed schools, teachers and students in problematic ways but also how they are offering…

  16. On school choice and test-based accountability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W. Betebenner


    Full Text Available Among the two most prominent school reform measures currently being implemented in The United States are school choice and test-based accountability. Until recently, the two policy initiatives remained relatively distinct from one another. With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, a mutualism between choice and accountability emerged whereby school choice complements test-based accountability. In the first portion of this study we present a conceptual overview of school choice and test-based accountability and explicate connections between the two that are explicit in reform implementations like NCLB or implicit within the market-based reform literature in which school choice and test-based accountability reside. In the second portion we scrutinize the connections, in particular, between school choice and test-based accountability using a large western school district with a popular choice system in place. Data from three sources are combined to explore the ways in which school choice and test-based accountability draw on each other: state assessment data of children in the district, school choice data for every participating student in the district choice program, and a parental survey of both participants and non-participants of choice asking their attitudes concerning the use of school report cards in the district. Results suggest that choice is of benefit academically to only the lowest achieving students, choice participation is not uniform across different ethnic groups in the district, and parents' primary motivations as reported on a survey for participation in choice are not due to test scores, though this is not consistent with choice preferences among parents in the district. As such, our results generally confirm the hypotheses of choice critics more so than advocates. Keywords: school choice; accountability; student testing.

  17. Accounting for the Danish Public School System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Marie Engstrøm

    Studying and thereby enhancing the understanding of the behavioral impact of the formula funding models used to allocate funds from the Danish municipalities to the local public school districts is the aim of this dissertation. A framework is proposed which, based on the theoretical understanding...

  18. Management Accounting in School Food Service. (United States)

    Bryan, E. Lewis; Friedlob, G. Thomas


    Describes a model for establishing control of school food services through analysis of the aggregate variances of quantity, collection, and price, and of their separate components. The separable component variances are identified, measured, and compared monthly to help supervisors identify exactly where plans and operations vary. (Author/MLF)

  19. Assessing the environmental performance of English arable and livestock holdings using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). (United States)

    Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R


    Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a

  20. School accountability and the black-white test score gap. (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee


    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Guidelines for School Property Accounting in Colorado, Part II--General Fixed Asset Accounts. (United States)

    Stiverson, Clare L.

    The second publication of a series of three issued by the Colorado Department of Education is designed as a guide for local school districts in the development of a property accounting system. It defines and classifies groups of accounts whereby financial information, taken from inventory records, may be transcribed into debit and credit entries…

  2. School District Program Cost Accounting: An Alternative Approach (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.


    Discusses the value for school districts of a program cost accounting system and examines different approaches to generating program cost data, with particular emphasis on the "cost allocation to program system" (CAPS) and the traditional "transaction-based system." (JG)

  3. Autonomy and Accountability in Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities (United States)

    Klein, Esther Dominique


    Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…

  4. Transparency and Opacity: Levinasian Reflections on Accountability in Australian Schooling (United States)

    Sellar, Sam


    This article draws on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to consider, from an ethical perspective, the current transparency and accountability agenda in Australian schooling. It focuses on the case of the "My School" website and the argument that transparent publication of comparative performance data via the website provides a basis for…

  5. Evaluating an Accountability Mentoring Approach for School Counselors (United States)

    Milsom, Amy; McCormick, Katlyn


    School counselors are encouraged to use accountability in order to advocate for their programs and students, but many school counselors lack confidence to work with data. This project examined the effectiveness of an individualized mentoring intervention targeting data attitudes, self-efficacy, and behaviors. After participating in the…

  6. The Performing School: The Effects of Market & Accountability Policies (United States)

    Falabella, Alejandra


    Market and accountability educational reforms have proliferated around the globe, along with high expectations of solving countries' school quality deficits and inequities. In this paper I develop an analytical framework from a critical sociology angle for analyzing the effects of these policies within schools. First I discuss conceptually the…

  7. Standards, Accountability, and School Reform: Perils and Pitfalls. (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M.; Biddle, Bruce J.


    Examines current debates about educational standards, accountability, and school reform from the perspective of Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory. Research reveals various perils associated with rigid standards, narrow accountability, and tangible sanctions that can debase student and teacher motivation and performance. Alternative…

  8. Public Accountability: The Perceived Usefulness of School Annual Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Tooley


    Full Text Available Annual reports are an important component of New Zealand schools’ public accountability. Through theannual report the governance body informs stakeholders about school aims, objectives, achievements, use ofresources, and financial performance. This paper identifies the perceived usefulness of the school annualreport to recipients and the extent to which it serves as an instrument of accountability and/or decisionusefulness.The study finds that the annual report is used for a variety of purposes, including: to determine ifthe school has conducted its activities effectively and achieved stated objectives and goals; to examine studentachievements; to assess financial accountability and performance; and to make decisions about the school as asuitable environment for their child/children. Nevertheless, the study also finds that other forms ofcommunication are more important sources of information about the school than the annual report which isseen to fall short of users’ required qualities of understandability, reliability and readability. It would appearimperative that policy makers review the functional role of the school annual report which is a costlydocument to prepare. Further, school managers need to engage in alternative means to communicatesufficient and meaningful information in the discharge of public accountability.

  9. Accountability (United States)

    Fielding, Michael; Inglis, Fred


    This contribution republishes extracts from two important articles published around 2000 concerning the punitive accountability system suffered by English primary and secondary schools. The first concerns the inspection agency Ofsted, and the second managerialism. Though they do not directly address assessment, they are highly relevant to this…

  10. Evaluation and assessment of social accountability in medical schools. (United States)

    Leinster, Sam


    Social accountability as an outcome must be measured at institutional (evaluation) and individual (assessment) level. The definitions used in the measurement will be dependent on the social setting of the medical school being scrutinised. A formal framework is needed so that comparisons can be made and progress measured. The World Health Organisation suggests that there are four principles that delineate social accountability--relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Medical schools are evaluated according to their planning, doing and impact in relation to these principles. Boelen and Woollard have clarified the ideas of planning, doing and impact into Conceptualisation, Production and Usability. THEnet group of medical schools use a shortened version of Boelen and Woollard's framework with 20 criteria to evaluate their programmes. At the individual level, there is considerable overlap between the concepts of 'social accountability' and 'professionalism'. Attempts are being made to define and measure professionalism, however, if the behaviour and attitudes of individual graduates is a significant component in defining social responsibility new methods of assessment need to be developed. Factors such as the available resources and the structure of the health services have a very large effect on doctors' attitudes and behaviour. As a result, the task of evaluating and assessing the extent to which medical schools are socially accountable is complex. Judgments on how well a school is meeting the standards will have to make allowance for the local political and economic environment.

  11. Redesigning Systems of School Accountability: A Multiple Measures Approach to Accountability and Support (United States)

    Bae, Soung


    The challenges facing our children in the 21st century are rapidly changing. As a result, schools bear a greater responsibility to prepare students for college, career, and life and must be held accountable for more than just testing and reporting on a narrow set of outcomes aimed at minimum levels of competency. Thus, scholars, educators, and…

  12. A Bargain Half Fulfilled: Teacher Autonomy and Accountability in Traditional Public Schools and Public Charter Schools (United States)

    Oberfield, Zachary W.


    Public charter schools (PCS) are thought to succeed because they have greater autonomy and are held more accountable than traditional public schools (TPS). Though teachers are central to this expectation, there is little evidence about whether teachers in PCS enjoy more autonomy and are held more accountable than teachers in TPS. Also, it is…

  13. Accountable Talk: "Real" Conversations in Baltimore City Schools (United States)

    Ahmann, Chloe


    This article examines the fundamental disconnect between discourses of accountability in education policy and their interpretation on the ground by parents. Based on data from two sites in Baltimore--district-led teacher training and a community facing school restructuring--I argue that both parents and education professionals consider…

  14. Legal Accountability for Public School Discipline--Fact or Fiction? (United States)

    de Waal, Elda


    Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining well-disciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to legal parameters in…

  15. Teacher and Administrator Views on School Principals' Accountability (United States)

    Argon, Turkan


    The current study aims to identify teacher and administrator views regarding primary school principals' accountability. The case study model, a qualitative research method, was adopted in the study using the holistic single-case design. The working group was composed of a total of 56 individuals, 42 teachers and 14 administrators (11 principals…

  16. Accounting for Heterogeneous Returns in Sequential Schooling Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamarro, G.


    This paper presents a method for estimating returns to schooling that takes into account that returns may be heterogeneous among agents and that educational decisions are made sequentially.A sequential decision model is interesting because it explicitly considers that the level of education of each

  17. The social accountability of medical schools and its indicators. (United States)

    Boelen, Charles; Dharamsi, Shafik; Gibbs, Trevor


    There is growing interest worldwide in social accountability for medical and other health professional schools. Attempts have been made to apply the concept primarily to educational reform initiatives with limited concern towards transforming an entire institution to commit and assess its education, research and service delivery missions to better meet priority health needs in society for an efficient, equitable an sustainable health system. In this paper, we clarify the concept of social accountability in relation to responsibility and responsiveness by providing practical examples of its application; and we expand on a previously described conceptual model of social accountability (the CPU model), by further delineating the parameters composing the model and providing examples on how to translate them into meaningful indicators. The clarification of concepts of social responsibility, responsiveness and accountability and the examples provided in designing indicators may help medical schools and other health professional schools in crafting their own benchmarks to assess progress towards social accountability within the context of their particular environment.

  18. Financial and Managerial Accounting for School Administrators: Superintendents, School Business Administrators, and Principals. (United States)

    Everett, R. E.; And Others

    This book updates the classic text "Public School Fund Accounting Principles and Procedures" (Tidwell 1960). The book is designed to be used primarily as a textbook at the graduate level with students training to be school administrators, school business administrators, or principals. A list of topics covered include an overview of school…

  19. 31 CFR 593.203 - Holding of blocked funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. (United States)


    ... (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in U.S. Treasury... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of blocked funds in interest... offered to other depositors on deposits or instruments of comparable size and maturity. (3) Funds held or...

  20. 31 CFR 585.203 - Holding of certain types of blocked property in interest-bearing accounts. (United States)


    ... property in interest-bearing accounts. 585.203 Section 585.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... blocked property in interest-bearing accounts. (a)(1) Any person, including a U.S. financial institution... subsequent to July 15, 1992, is not being held in an interest-bearing account or otherwise invested in a...

  1. 31 CFR 536.203 - Holding of certain types of blocked property in interest-bearing accounts. (United States)


    ... property in interest-bearing accounts. 536.203 Section 536.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... property in interest-bearing accounts. (a)(1) Any person, including a U.S. financial institution, currently... to the effective date, is not being held in an interest-bearing account, or otherwise invested in a...

  2. 31 CFR 515.205 - Holding of certain types of blocked property in interest-bearing accounts. (United States)


    ... property in interest-bearing accounts. 515.205 Section 515.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... interest-bearing accounts. (a) Except as provided by paragraphs (d), (e) and (f) of this section, or as... to any such property, unless it is held in an interest-bearing account in a domestic bank. (b) Any...

  3. 31 CFR 500.205 - Holding of certain types of blocked property in interest-bearing accounts. (United States)


    ... property in interest-bearing accounts. 500.205 Section 500.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... interest-bearing accounts. (a) Except as provided by paragraphs (d), (e) and (f) of this section, or as... to any such property, unless it is held in an interest-bearing account in a domestic bank. (b) Any...

  4. Legal accountability for public school discipline: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda de Waal


    Full Text Available Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining well-disciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to legal parameters in making decisions and dealing with discipline. This article adds a third challenge: convincing educators, learners and parents/caregivers of their accountability concerning creating/maintaining safe learning environments. Five subordinate legislation documents relevant to legal accountability are scrutinized, as well as relevant case law. The article follows a documentary comparative perspective using a secondary analysis method: appraising legal guidelines and asking questions to draw conclusions and make pragmatic action-oriented suggestions.

  5. Players' perceptions of accountability factors in secondary school sports settings. (United States)

    Hastie, P A


    The purpose of this study was to gauge the extent to which students believed that the accountability strategies employed by their coaches had significant effects on their involvement in sports training sessions. Questionnaire data from 235 secondary school athletes were analyzed using linear structural relations to test a model of accountability hypothesized as operating in these coaching settings. The accountability strategy of active instruction was found to be a variable that significantly affected the students' valuing of their coaches as well as their task involvement. However, the rewards/consequences variable was not found to be a predictor of valuing or task involvement, suggesting that these athletes seemed more task oriented than reliant on external sanctions. The results of this study can only be generalized to team sport settings. Detailed examination needs to be made of the processes through which accountability factors operate for other contexts, including individual sports and competitive levels. Further research could also be undertaken into gender differences, especially in relation to the gender of coaches.

  6. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter? (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin


    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  7. Hold the Phone! High School Students' Perceptions of Mobile Phone Integration in the Classroom (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; Muñoz, Marco A.


    This study examined the survey responses of 628 high school students in a large urban school district to determine their perceptions of mobile phone use in the classroom. Findings indicated that the majority of students (90.7%) were using a variety of mobile phone features for school-related work. Student support for instructional uses of phones,…

  8. Financial accountability: the principal or the school governing body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Schools Act 84 of 1996 prescribes how a school should manage its funds. It also provides guidelines for the school governing body and the principal on their roles and responsibilities in managing the finances of the school. However, there are school governing bodies and principals that have little knowledge of the ...

  9. A Comparison between Value-Added School Estimates and Currently Used Metrics of School Accountability in California (United States)

    Fagioli, Loris P.


    This study compared a value-added approach to school accountability to the currently used metrics of accountability in California of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and Academic Performance Index (API). Five-year student panel data (N?=?53,733) from 29 elementary schools in a large California school district were used to address the research…

  10. The First-Year Urban High School Teacher: Holding the Torch, Lighting the Fire (United States)

    Weinberg, Paul J.; Weinberg, Carl


    The book tracks co-author Paul Weinberg during his first year of teaching as he is introduced to the daily tribulations of an urban Los Angeles high school. Paul's father Carl Weinberg, who fifty years earlier himself began his career in education an urban secondary school teacher, shares his experiences side-by-side with those of his son.…

  11. Empowerment and Accountability in Implementing a "No-Fee School" Policy: A Challenge for School Governing Bodies (United States)

    Marishane, R. N.


    Empowerment, accountability and redress are prime objectives of school funding in the new South Africa. This is facilitated through the National Norms and Standards for School Funding. The application of the norms has led to the development of a "no-fee school" policy aimed at exempting poor parents from payment of school fees. The…

  12. Un-"Chartered" Waters: Balancing Montessori Curriculum and Accountability Measures in a Charter School (United States)

    Scott, Catherine M.


    More than 6,000 charter schools exist in the United States, and of these 120 are Montessori charter schools. When studying charter school practices, researchers often examine issues such as performance accountability measures and effectiveness of charter school curricula. In doing so, the outcomes often overlook the challenges for teachers as they…

  13. Independent State of Samoa School Autonomy and Accountability : SABER Country Report 2013


    World Bank


    Education in the Samoa is highly decentralized. While education policy is the sole responsibility of the Ministry of education, school boards are responsible for delivery. The entire organization of the school system is based on checks and balances to ensure accountability. Budgetary autonomy is established. The school board controls the school budget, with input from parents. Personnel ma...

  14. An Examination of U.S. AACSB International Accounting-Accredited Schools to Determine Global Travel Experience Requirements in Accounting Masters Programs (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee; Finley, Jane B.


    The authors report on the extent to which U.S. graduate accounting programs accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business have included some type of global travel experience in their graduate accounting curriculum. The authors contacted 137 member schools offering accounting masters degrees. Only one school required an…

  15. The measures for training professional skills of accounting major in secondary vocational school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of economy, the importance of accounting is becoming more and more prominent, and the requirements of relevant industries for accountting have been gradually raised. so more and more people learn accounting, but the the effect of practical teaching in college is not ideal. Taking secondary vocational school as an example, although the accounting is one of the major with long history since secondary vocational colleges started to run, but due to various factors, accounting teaching in secondary vocational colleges is not up to the requirement of the society. Moreover, the teaching quality and teaching efficiency are relatively low, so the status of secondary vocational school is also low in the whole education circle. In order to improve the quality of cultivating professional skills for accounting in secondary vocational schools, and promote the development of accounting teaching in secondary vocational schools, this paper analyzes the current professional skills training for accounting in secondary vocational colleges.

  16. School Organizational Effectiveness and Chronic Absenteeism: Implications for Accountability (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben


    Chronic absenteeism in K-12 schools is strongly associated with critical educational outcomes such as student achievement and graduation. Yet, the causes of chronic absenteeism are complex, with environmental, family/individual, and school factors all affecting the likelihood of a student attending school regularly. This exploratory study examines…

  17. Towards a Comparative and International History of School Testing and Accountability (United States)

    Dorn, Sherman; Ydesen, Christian


    The speed and extent of modern school accountability have obscured the history of testing and accountability. This brief introduction identifies central themes of historical research into educational accountability and recurring traits associated with accountability practices. We hope our colleagues and this special issue will also help to…

  18. Reflections of Turkish accounting and financial reporting standards on vocational school students: A research on comparing perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates


    Seldüz Hakan; Seldüz Emine


    This research aims to compare the perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates on accounting and financial reporting standards. A significant part of accounting process is carried out by vocational school graduate intermediate and mid-level accounting professionals. However, it can be claimed that adequate education about accounting and financial reporting standards isn’t given in vocational schools although these standards structure the whole accounting proces...

  19. Assessing the Value of High School Accounting for the College Bound. (United States)

    Friedlob, George T.; Cosenza, Robert M.


    Reports results of a survey of first-quarter college accounting principles students. It was found that a typically difficult college course may be made easier and student performance improved by giving high school accounting instruction its proper importance in the curriculum of the business-oriented, college-bound high school student. (CT)

  20. Financial and Managerial Accounting for Elementary and Secondary School Systems. Third Edition. (United States)

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This book describes recent improvements in governmental accounting, auditing, and financial reporting for school business officials. Applications of financial accounting and reporting principles in typical transactions of school systems are illustrated by questions, cases, and problems at the end of each chapter. The first of the two sections,…

  1. The Relationship between Teachers' Attitude towards Professional Development and Schools' Accountability Performance (United States)

    Xu, Yuejin


    In this study, we examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes towards professional development and school performance in the state accountability system using the 2013 Kentucky Teaching, Empowering, Leading and Learning (TELL) survey data and the 2013 school accountability profile data from the Kentucky Department of Education. We were…

  2. Accountability for Alternative Schools in California. Continuous Improvement Series (United States)

    de Velasco, Jorge Ruiz; Gonzales, Daisy


    California's alternative education options for youth vulnerable to dropping out of school have been established at different historical points and for different student age and target populations. For purposes of this brief, "alternative school" is defined as belonging to one of six legislatively authorized types of public (non-charter)…

  3. Financial Accounting for Local and State School Systems, 1990. (United States)

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    The purpose of this guidebook is to reflect the changes that have occurred since 1973 in governmental accounting and education finance. This document serves as a vehicle for program cost accounting at the local and intermediate levels. Although not required by federal law, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) encourages state and…

  4. Building a School Leadership Programme: An American Paradox of Autonomy and Accountability (United States)

    Reyes-Guerra, Daniel; Russo, Marianne R.; Bogotch, Ira E.; Vásquez-Colina, Maria D.


    School districts within the USA face ever-decreasing autonomy in rendering decisions regarding instruction, curriculum and the leading and managing of schools at the local level due to the ever-increasing accountability measures implemented by district, state and federal governments. This study investigates a joint university-school district…

  5. High School Principals in the Vortex: Accountability, Autonomy, and Social Justice (United States)

    Batsell, Holly


    As schools across Arizona worked to meet NCLB's AYP requirement in 2010-2011, they were also labeled and sanctioned by AZ Learns. This phenomenological study focused on six effective high school principals in two Arizona school districts to ascertain how accountability policies impacted the principals' job responsibilities, autonomy, and ability…

  6. The Self-Reported Effectiveness of New Mexico School Social Workers: A Call for Accountability (United States)

    Whittlesey-Jerome, Wanda K.


    Recent proposed legislation to change the public school funding formula has not taken the social work profession into account. There has been a lack of participation from professional associations in creating this legislation--critical legislation that enables school districts to determine what ancillary school support staff they will or will not…

  7. Principles of Public School Accounting. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook II-B. (United States)

    Adams, Bert K.; And Others

    This handbook discusses the following primary aspects of school accounting: Definitions and principles; opening the general ledger; recording the approved budget; a sample month of transactions; the balance sheet, monthly, and annual reports; subsidiary journals; payroll procedures; cafeteria fund accounting; debt service accounting; construction…

  8. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School


    Steven M. Smith; Sonja Novkovic; John Maddocks


    This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of develop...

  9. Mission vs. Mandate: How Charter School Leaders Conceptualize and Address Market-Based and Performance-Based Accountability Demands (United States)

    Blitz, Mark H.


    Charter school research has examined the relationship between charter school mission and issues of school accountability. However, there is a lack of research focusing on how charter school leaders frame and solve problems regarding multiple accountability demands. Given this gap, I investigate the question: How do charter school leaders…

  10. Towards a Comparative and International History of School Testing and Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Sherman; Ydesen, Christian


    treated here are identified as a post- colonial perspective, differences and similarities between public and private sector accountability measures, the “engines” promoting the rise, proliferation and implementation of accountability measures, and finally the exploration of the travelling and movement......Abstract: The speed and extent of modern school accountability have obscured the history of testing and accountability. This brief introduction identifies central themes of historical research into educational accountability and recurring traits associated with accountability practices. We hope our...... colleagues and this special issue will also help to identify future research paths in this field. Some of the central themes found in the historical research on educational accountability contained in this special issue are the connections between accountability and the purposes of schooling in a specific...

  11. Waiving Away High School Graduation Rate Accountability? Policy Brief (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012


    In November 2011, eleven states submitted applications to the U.S. Department of Education (ED) for waivers from key provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act. Although the waiver process presents an opportunity to strengthen college and career readiness among the nation's high school students, this analysis by the Alliance for Excellent…

  12. Accountability for Public Expenditure under "Building Schools for the Future" (United States)

    Shaoul, Jean; Stafford, Anne; Stapleton, Pamela


    This paper examines the disclosure and reporting of expenditure under the UK government's "Building Schools for the Future" programme. The study finds that there is little detailed and useful financial reporting, and the public's right to know under Freedom of Information Act 2000 is very limited. The lack of such information makes it…

  13. Knowledge, Experts and Accountability in School Governing Bodies (United States)

    Young, Helen


    School governing bodies in England have considerable powers and responsibilities with regard to the education of pupils. This article explores how power relations operate, within governing bodies, through struggles over which types of knowledge are claimed and valued. The article draws on the analysis of policy and on ethnographic research in the…

  14. 'My journey to school': photovoice accounts of rural children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A photographic technique, where children were entrusted with disposable cameras to act as recorders of salient places and spaces of their school journey was employed. Based on children's photographs, individual and focus group interviews were conducted to engage children in dialogue and discussion about the ...

  15. Reflections of Turkish accounting and financial reporting standards on vocational school students: A research on comparing perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seldüz Hakan


    Full Text Available This research aims to compare the perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates on accounting and financial reporting standards. A significant part of accounting process is carried out by vocational school graduate intermediate and mid-level accounting professionals. However, it can be claimed that adequate education about accounting and financial reporting standards isn’t given in vocational schools although these standards structure the whole accounting process. A survey is conducted over students of the related vocational school in Aksaray University. The results indicate no significant difference on students’ perceptions in terms of their school year, high school type, job or internship experience and intention to perform the profession after graduation. These results can be traced to inadequacy of present curriculums and internship programs which can’t create a difference. Based on the results, the content of internship applications is rearranged and an optional subject named as “Accounting and Reporting Standards” is established.

  16. Redesigning School Accountability and Support: Progress in Pioneering States (United States)

    Cook-Harvey, Channa M.; Stosich, Elizabeth Leisy


    How might policymakers and educators utilize the work already being done as states redesign their accountability systems? The 2015 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), brought much needed attention to the performance of traditionally underserved subgroups of students. Supported by greater flexibility under ESEA…

  17. Response to "Redesigning Systems of School Accountability": Addressing Underlying Inequities (United States)

    Gil, Elizabeth; Kim, Taeyon


    As Bae (2018) suggests, one way to fill gaps between a holistic view of student learning and accountability policy implementation is to use multiple measures that reflect diverse perspectives of learning. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a discussion of issues, which need to be considered in order to achieve the desired outcomes of…

  18. Improving Science Education through Accountability Relationships in Schools. (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Wallace, John


    Presents a contrast between bureaucratic and professional models of accountability and their impact on the science education enterprise. Topics include improving performance, climate of trust, principles and consequences, demonstrating acceptance of responsibilities, and feedback. Concludes that it is necessary to develop the skills and processes…

  19. The Accountability Illusion: North Dakota (United States)

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009


    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  20. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability. (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  1. Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability in School-Based and Non-School-Based Management: Principals' Coping Strategies (United States)

    Grinshtain, Yael; Gibton, Dan


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how primary school principals in Israel cope with the gaps between authority and responsibility in their work, deriving from partially implemented decentralization processes, and how this relates to school-based management (SBM) and accountability principles. Design/methodology/approach: Using…

  2. Holding fast. (United States)

    Gourville, John T


    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital.

  3. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of... (United States)


    ... to prevent double taxation with respect to the undistributed foreign personal holding company income... stock is owned by B, a nonresident alien individual. For the calendar year 1954 the M Corporation has an...

  4. Accounting Department Chairpersons' Perceptions of Business School Performance Using a Market Orientation Model (United States)

    Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.; Rothwell, James C.


    This manuscript is part of a stream of continuing research examining market orientation within higher education and its potential impact on organizational performance. The organizations researched are business schools and the data collected came from chairpersons of accounting departments of AACSB member business schools. We use a reworded Narver…

  5. Parents' Experiences as Predictors of State Accountability Measures of Schools' Facilitation of Parent Involvement (United States)

    Elbaum, Batya; Blatz, Erin T.; Rodriguez, Raymond J.


    The aim of this study was to ascertain which dimensions of parents' experiences with schools are most strongly associated with parents' perceptions that schools are or are not facilitating parent involvement as mandated by the federal accountability system under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Participants were 92 parents…

  6. The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability (United States)

    Dorsey, Alexander C.


    The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

  7. Harnessing Technology for School Accountability: A Case Study of Implementing a Management Information System (United States)

    Enomoto, Ernestine K.; Conley, Sharon


    Schools employ educational technology to comply with pressures for greater accountability and efficiency in conducting operations. Specifically, schools use "management information systems" designed to automate data collection of student attendance, grades, test scores, and so on. These management information systems (MIS) employed…

  8. School Performance, Accountability and Waiver Reforms: Evidence from Louisiana. CEPA Working Paper No. 17-06 (United States)

    Dee, Thomas; Dizon-Ross, Elise


    States that received federal waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act were required to implement reforms in designated "Focus Schools" that contribute to achievement gaps. In this study, we examine the performance effects of such "differentiated accountability" reforms in the state of Louisiana. The Focus School reforms…

  9. Assessing the Effect of Cooperative Learning on Financial Accounting Achievement among Secondary School Students (United States)

    Inuwa, Umar; Abdullah, Zarifah; Hassan, Haslinda


    This study examined the effect of cooperative learning approach on financial accounting achievement among secondary school students in Gombe state, Nigeria. A pre-test-post-test-control group design was adopted. 120 students participated in the study were selected randomly from six schools. The students were divided into two equal groups, namely:…

  10. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy (United States)

    Mattei, Paola


    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…

  11. Coign of Vantage and Action: Considering California's Local Accountability and School Finance Plans for English Learners (United States)

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Romero, Lisa S.; Hopkins, Megan


    Local control has been a bedrock principle of public schooling in America since its inception. In 2013, the California Legislature codified a new local accountability approach for school finance. An important component of the new California Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) approach is a focus on English learners (ELs). The law mandates that…

  12. Accounting Procedures for Student Organizations. 1979 Edition. School Business Administration Publication No. 3. (United States)

    California Association of School Business Officials, Sacramento.

    This manual focuses attention on the problems involved in accounting for student body organization funds and offers information that may be used by school districts in establishing, reviewing, and revising fiscal policies and accounting procedures for student body organizations. It is intended that the application of the basic principles set forth…

  13. How Patronage Politics Undermines Parental Participation and Accountability: Community-Managed Schools in Honduras and Guatemala (United States)

    Altschuler, Daniel


    This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…

  14. School Accountability Systems and the Every Student Succeeds Act. Re:VISION (United States)

    Martin, Mike


    The "Every Student Succeeds Act" (ESSA) replaced the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB) in December 2015, substantially changing the federal role in education and how schools across the country will be held accountable. For state policymakers, designing new ESSA-compliant accountability systems is a significant…

  15. Paradigms, Power, and PR in New York City: Assessing Two School Accountability Implementation Efforts (United States)

    Peck, Craig


    This policy study critically compares two different efforts to implement an accountability system in the New York City public schools. In 1971, the New York City Board of Education contracted with the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which created a lengthy accountability plan for the district. Fitful maneuvers to execute the ETS plan fizzled…

  16. The Waive of the Future? School Accountability in the Waiver Era (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; McEachin, Andrew J.; Wrabel, Stephani L.; Duque, Matthew


    Forty-two states and the District of Columbia have recently received waivers to the school accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). As the prospects for reauthorizing the Act in the near term are dim, these new accountability systems will be law for at least several years. Drawing on a four-part framework from the…

  17. Inclusion in Public Administration: Developing the Concept of Inclusion within a School of Accounts and Administration (United States)

    dos Santos, Mônica Pereira; de Melo, Sandra Cordeiro; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; Nazareth, Paula


    This study originates from ongoing action research that aims to develop institutional opportunities to reflect on and take decisions about inclusion in the School of Accounts and Administration of Rio de Janeiro's State Accounts Office. The research was organized in three phases. The first phase was an inservice course to sensitize professionals…

  18. The politics of accountability for school curriculum: An Australian case study (United States)

    Smithson, Alan


    This normative-descriptive case study of accountability for state school curriculum in South Australia has the following objectives. First, to seek to draw a distinction between accountability and responsibility: terms which have been confused by two South Australian Directors-General of Education (position akin to C.E.O. in the U.K. and Superintendent in the U.S.A.) with important consequences. Second, to present a model of accountability for state school curriculum, by which accountability for such curriculum may be judged democratic or non-democratic, and against which accountability for curriculum in South Australian state schools will be gauged. Third, to show that whilst the South Australian school system exhibits a large measure of bureaucratic or technocratic accountability for curriculum, there is no effective democratic accountability for curriculum, and to indicate a remedy for this situation. Finally, to point out the wider significance of the South Australian case study, and suggest that democracies currently re-structuring their educational systems would do well to keep the need for democratic accountability foremost in mind.

  19. School Autonomy and Accountability: Are They Related to Student Performance? PISA in Focus. No. 9 (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011


    In recent years, many schools have grown into more autonomous organisations and have become more accountable to students, parents and the public at large for their outcomes. PISA results suggest that, when autonomy and accountability are intelligently combined, they tend to be associated with better student performance. In countries where schools…

  20. School Accountability and Youth Obesity: Can Physical Education Mandates Make a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Schneider


    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of accountability laws under No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB on obesity rates among school-aged children in the United States. Our results show that pressures due to school closures for poor performance, rewards for good performance, and assistance to schools that lag behind lead to lower levels of vigorous physical activity. This effect is significant for high school children only. We find no significant impact of school accountability laws on children in grades 3 through 8 after state characteristics such as state obesity rate are taken into account. We also find that state physical education mandates increase physical activity for children in grades 3 through 8 and mitigate the negative effect of accountability pressures on physical activity at the high school level where accountability pressures are most effective at decreasing physical activity and increasing obesity. The study shows that physical education mandates play an important role in promoting physical activity for all grades in our sample.

  1. School Climate and Dropping Out of School in the Era of Accountability (United States)

    Kotok, Stephen; Ikoma, Sakiko; Bodovski, Katerina


    Using data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09)--a large nationally representative sample of US high school students--we employed multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationship between school characteristics and the likelihood that a student will drop out of high school. We used a multifaceted…

  2. Relations between Accountability and School Improvement Strategies in New York City's Children First Networks (United States)

    McMahon, Kelly A.


    Federal school accountability policies like No Child Left Behind were based on a logic that measuring school performance and making the results public through tools like school report cards would incentivize educators to create strategies for improving school quality. Yet, most schools needed more than incentives to be able to design improvement…

  3. Social Control Disclosure and Accountability of Direct Money Program in Rio de Janeiro’s Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Oliveira Medeiros


    Full Text Available Education in Brazil have expanded the debate concerning the quality offered, as well as being a constitutional guarantee, there are the State's efforts in the allocation of financial resources annually. In the case of Basic Education was created in 2007 the Direct Money in School Program (DMSP that the Union transfers financial assistance to state and local public schools, and encourage widespread participation in resource management. Thus, the study’s objective was to investigate how civil society involved in the management of public resources of TSA, in a descriptive research with a quantitative and qualitative approach. The data collection was a documentary research: 29 accounts rendered digitized Direct Money in School Program (DMSP from schools and day care centers located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro for the year 2012. Consolidating research, we sought to understand the perception of the Director of School / Day Care and President of the Community Council-School on the subject employing a questionnaire. In addition to the Audit Services scanned the TSA was checked for evidence of compliance with the principle of accountability and encouraging the social control in the electronic media. The results show the need to improve the participation of civil society, given that this study found that schools/nurseries do not provide the program information on official websites, minimizing transparency, and there is the existence of oversight failures in the assessment of benefits accounts and composition of the Councils.

  4. Supporting Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: A Descriptive Account From Schools Implementing Inclusive Practices (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…

  5. 76 FR 35301 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the... (United States)


    ...,557 $3,629 $17,108 Number of breakfasts 2,091 2,187 2,253 2,298 2,332 11,160 * Equals less than $500... 356 schools within those SFAs. Financial statements, meal production records, recipes, invoices, and... Foods, school recipe records, and school menus. With this information, the study estimated the share of...

  6. Queer(y)ing New Schooling Accountabilities through "My School": Using Butlerian Tools to Think Differently about Policy Performativity (United States)

    Gowlett, Christina


    This article takes the role of provocateur to "queer(y)" the rules of intelligibility surrounding new schooling accountabilities. Butler's work is seldom used outside the arena of gender and sexualities research. A "queer(y)ing" methodology is subsequently applied in a context very different to where it is frequently…

  7. Why School Matters to Pupils: The Culture of Schooling as Actions and Accounts during Lockout Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette

    and educators were locked out of the schools. This meant that all teaching by teachers, organized in the Danish Union of Teachers was cancelled. Only unorganized teachers (temporary replacements) or public servants (teachers above a certain age) were allowed to give lessons that had been planned beforehand, i...... at the two schools, informal talks with the school directors, informal talks and interviews with 45 pupils (during the lockout), and interviews with their form teachers (after the lockout). Theoretically the study is informed by Bourdieu’s reflexive sociology (1992). The purpose of the paper is to present......The paper reports from a study of schooling in an unusual situation. The situation was the school conflict in the spring of 2013 (April 1-25), when there was a general lockout of teachers employed at the municipal schools in Denmark. The background for this conflict was that the negotiations...

  8. Financial statements and the discharging of financial accountability of ordinary public schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doussy


    Full Text Available The Schools Act, 84 of 1996 (section 42(b, requires that all public schools in South Africa, “as soon as practical, but not later than three months after the end of each financial year, draw up annual financial statements”. These schools must further submit audited financial statements to the Department of Education within six months after the school’s year end (section 43 and according to section 43(6, “at the request of an interested person, the governing body must make the records referred to in section 42, and the audited or examined financial statements referred to in this section, available for inspection”. The compilation, auditing and submission of these statements are therefore legally required and are compulsory for all schools. The study aims firstly to establish whether schools in South Africa comply with the current legislative prescripts and accounting and auditing practices, and secondly to identify possible problem areas in this regard.

  9. Assessing the Effect of Cooperative Learning on Financial Accounting Achievement among Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Inuwa


    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cooperative learning approach on financial accounting achievement among secondary school students in Gombe state, Nigeria. A pre-test-post-test-control group design was adopted. 120 students participated in the study were selected randomly from six schools. The students were divided into two equal groups, namely: experimental (i.e., cooperative learning approach and control group (i.e., conventional approach, both at random. A Financial Accounting Achievement Test (FAAT was used as an instrument for data collection. The study found that at the pre-test stage, there was no statistically significant difference between the achievement of cooperative learning students and conventional approach students, the results suggested that the students were initially equal in terms of their achievements. Nevertheless, at the post-test stage, the achievement of students who were exposed to the cooperative learning was found to be significantly better than the achievement of students who were exposed to the conventional approach. The findings further suggested that cooperative learning approach effectively enhanced the financial accounting achievement of the secondary school students. It is, therefore, recommended that government should encourage both curriculum planners and secondary schools’ teachers to adopt cooperative learning approach as an instructional approach for teaching financial accounting in secondary schools to improve students’ achievement in the subject.

  10. Introducing a Collaborative E2 (Evaluation & Enhancement) Social Accountability Framework for Medical Schools (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey; O'Hearn, Shawna; Latham, Lesley; Harris, Bessie; Davis-Murdoch, Sharon; Paul, Kara


    Medical schools recognize that they have an important social mandate beyond their primary role to educate future physicians. The instantiation of social accountability (SA) within faculties of medicine requires intentional, effective partnering with diverse internal and external stakeholders. Despite early, promising academic work in the field of…

  11. Adequacy, Accountability, Autonomy and Equity in a Middle Eastern School Reform: The Case of Qatar (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.


    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and…

  12. States Moving from Accreditation to Accountability. Accreditation: State School Accreditation Policies (United States)

    Wixom, Micah Ann


    Accreditation policies vary widely among the states. Since Education Commission of the States last reviewed public school accreditation policies in 1998, a number of states have seen their legislatures take a stronger role in accountability--resulting in a move from state-administered accreditation systems to outcomes-focused state accountability…

  13. School Board Improvement Plans in Relation to the AIP Model of Educational Accountability: A Content Analysis (United States)

    van Barneveld, Christina; Stienstra, Wendy; Stewart, Sandra


    For this study we analyzed the content of school board improvement plans in relation to the Achievement-Indicators-Policy (AIP) model of educational accountability (Nagy, Demeris, & van Barneveld, 2000). We identified areas of congruence and incongruence between the plans and the model. Results suggested that the content of the improvement…

  14. Increasing Charter School Accountability through Interventions and Closures: A Guide For State Policymakers (United States)

    Gustafson, Joey; Keller, Eric; LaVallee, Robert E.; Stewart, Nichole H.


    A basic premise of charter school reform in public education is offering more autonomy in the use of funds and the design of curriculum in exchange for greater accountability in academic and financial outcomes. This premise poses a significant policy challenge for state policymakers to establish an appropriate level of regulation; charter schools…

  15. Financial Accounting for Local and State School Systems: 2014 Edition. NCES 2015-347 (United States)

    Allison, Gregory S.


    The 2014 edition of "Financial Accounting for Local and State School Systems" updates the 2009 (see ED505993) and 2003 editions of the handbook. The 2003 edition was the work of the NCES National Forum on Education Statistics, Core Finance Data Task Force. That task force systematically rewrote nearly the entire text, incorporating new…

  16. High School Exit Exams and Dropout in an Era of Increased Accountability (United States)

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Marcotte, Dave E.


    A key form of student-level accountability is the requirement for students to pass high school exit exams (HSEEs) in order to receive a diploma. In this paper, we examine the impact of HSEEs on dropout during a period when these exams became more common and rigorous. Further, we study whether offering alternate pathways to graduation for students…

  17. New Zealand High School Students' Perception of Accounting: How and Why Those Perceptions Were Formed (United States)

    Wells, Paul K.


    Attempts to change the negative perceptions high school students have of accounting appear to have been unsuccessful. Using the social psychology theory of stereotyping, this study explains why such attempts have been unsuccessful and proposes intervention strategies. Individual perception data were collected through questionnaires and focus…

  18. Should Accountancy Schools and Departments Adopt Theory Z for Their Faculties? (United States)

    Rayburn, L. Gayle


    A study to determine if there are features within Japanese organizations that could be adapted to improve organization and working relations of schools of accountancy found university departments could not function with the job rotation found in Japanese organizations. However, there are other aspects of Theory Z management that could be adopted…

  19. The Disproportionate Erosion of Local Control: Urban School Boards, High-Stakes Accountability, and Democracy (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina M.


    This case study of an urban school board's experiences under high-stakes accountability demonstrates how the district leaders eschewed democratic governance processes in favor of autocratic behaviors. They possessed narrowly defined goals for teaching and learning that emphasized competitive, individualized means of achievement. Their decision…

  20. A Common Framework in Accounting Curricula: AACSB vs. Non-AACSB Accredited Business Schools. (United States)

    Nix, David E.; And Others


    Reports on a survey of 140 postsecondary accounting departments to determine significant differences between programs accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and those that are not. Significant variables included the offering of a graduate degree and size of the college. (CH)

  1. Examining a Public Montessori School's Response to the Pressures of High-Stakes Accountability (United States)

    Block, Corrie Rebecca


    A public Montessori school is expected to demonstrate high student scores on standardized assessments to succeed in the current school accountability era. A problem for a public Montessori elementary school is how to make sense of the school's high-stakes assessment scores in terms of Montessori's unique educational approach. This case study…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Demyanov


    Full Text Available The system of the automated accounting of energy resources allows to quickly obtain the data on energy consumption, to analyze consumption of energy carriers, and to find possible ways of energy economy is presented in this article.

  3. The Impact of Attending Religious Schools on the Moral Competencies of Accounting Students

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    Umaru Mustapha Zubairu


    Full Text Available For over a century, scholars have argued that religious education is crucial for the developed of students' moral competencies. This study sought to empirically test this assertion by comparing the moral competencies of two sets of Muslim accounting students: those who had attended a religious secondary school and those who attended a public (secular secondary school in Malaysia. The focus on accounting students is quite important in an era where the moral competencies of accountants has been in the public eye due to their complicity in the rash of financial scandals that have plagued the business world over the last two decades. The Muslim Accountant Moral Competency Test (MAMOC was developed by a collaboration with Islamic accounting scholars and was used to measure the students' moral competencies. Although the results revealed that there was no difference in the moral competencies of both sets of students, they both displayed satisfactory levels of moral competency which vindicates the Malaysian government's policy of mandating Islamic education in all secondary schools, whether religious or secular. 

  4. Determinants of Social Accountability in Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Salehmoghaddam


    Full Text Available Background: Revising the medical education programs to meet the needs of society has become both a necessity and an important priority due to the considerable increase of population, changing patterns of diseases, and new health priorities. While this necessity has been highlighted in Iran’s Fifth Development Plan as well as its National 2025 Vision Plan, the determinants of social accountability have not been explained yet. This study aimed to develop determinants of social accountability in the Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools. Methods: This classic Delphi study included thirty experts in Nursing and Midwifery Education, Research and Services selected based on purposive sampling and three rounds of Delphi technique and conducted in Nursing and Midwifery School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The primary data were collected using an initial structured questionnaire prepared through extensive review of literature. SPSS 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. The interquartile deviation and percentage of agreement were also used to study the consensus of opinion by experts. Results: Finding obtained from the rounds of Delphi resulted in selecting 69 determinants out of the initial pool of 128 primary determinants of social accountability. The items were selected based on experts’ consensus and categorized under three main activities of Nursing and Midwifery School, namely education, research, and service. Conclusion: Social accountability determinants were explained by 69 items for Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Iran. The proposed determinants can be used by managers and authorities of Nursing and Midwifery School, policy makers, and evaluating institutions associated with them to ensure realizing social accountability goals.

  5. Middle school science teachers' reaction and pedagogical response to high stakes accountability: A multiple case study (United States)

    Tse, Kenneth

    The purpose of this study was to understand how science teachers reacted to the high stakes accountability and standardized testing in California. In a multiple case study of middle and intermediate schools in Southern California, four research questions focused on the perceptions of secondary science teachers and how they responded to the changes in the accountability specifically geared towards science as a content area, the pedagogical skills teachers were using both outside and inside of the classroom that impact instruction, the pedagogical training received that related specifically to the content standards, the tools or impediments that existed for teachers to successfully utilize these pedagogical methods and types of support and assistance the school site administration and/or school district offered in learning about the California Science Standards and the STAR test. Interviews were conducted with multiple middle/intermediate school teachers, science department chairpersons and school site administrators to gather information about what the classroom teachers were doing pedagogically to improve student performance on the STAR tests. Moreover, the study described the issues that supported the professional development of the teacher and what schools and districts were doing to support them.

  6. Computerized Attendance Accounting and Emergency Assistance Communications: Viable Tools in Secondary School Administration (United States)

    Roberts, Vasel W.


    In the late 1968, the Space Technology Application Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a pilot study to determine whether technological aids could be developed that would help secondary school administrators cope with the volatile and chaotic situations that often accompany student activism, disorders, and riots. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD) and at the John F. Kennedy Senior High School (JFK) in Sacramento, California. The problems at JFK and in the SCUSD were identified and described to the JPL team by members of the Kennedy staff and personnel at various levels and departments within the school district. The JPL team of engineers restricted their scope to problems that appeared solvable, or at least partially solvable, through the use of technological systems. Thus far, two hardware systems have been developed for use in the school. The first, a personal emergency assistance communication system, has already been tested operationally at JFK and has met the objectives established for it. The second technological aid developed was a computerized attendance accounting system. This system has been fabricated, tested, and installed at JFK. Full-scale operational testing began in April 1971. While studies and hardware tests were in progress at JFK, contacts were made with several other schools in order that, insofar as practicable, hardware designs could allow for possible adaptation to schools other than JFK.

  7. The Efficacy of Choice Threats within School Accountability Systems: Results from Legislatively Induced Experiments. PEPG 05-01 (United States)

    West, Martin R.; Peterson, Paul E.


    Stigma and school voucher threats under a revised 2002 Florida accountability law have positive impacts on student performance. Stigma and public school choice threats under the U.S. federal accountability law, No Child Left Behind, do not have similar effects in Florida. Significant impacts of stigma, when combined with the voucher threat, are…

  8. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael


    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  9. Is our medical school socially accountable? The case of Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University. (United States)

    Hosny, Somaya; Ghaly, Mona; Boelen, Charles


    Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University (FOM/SCU) was established as community oriented school with innovative educational strategies. Social accountability represents the commitment of the medical school towards the community it serves. To assess FOM/SCU compliance to social accountability using the "Conceptualization, Production, Usability" (CPU) model. FOM/SCU's practice was reviewed against CPU model parameters. CPU consists of three domains, 11 sections and 31 parameters. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with the main stakeholders and documents review since 2005 to 2013. FOM/SCU shows general compliance to the three domains of the CPU. Very good compliance was shown to the "P" domain of the model through FOM/SCU's innovative educational system, students and faculty members. More work is needed on the "C" and "U" domains. FOM/SCU complies with many parameters of the CPU model; however, more work should be accomplished to comply with some items in the C and U domains so that FOM/SCU can be recognized as a proactive socially accountable school.

  10. Avoiding the "Inexorable Push toward Homogenization" in School Choice: Education Savings Accounts as Hedges against Institutional Isomorphism (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.


    The assumption that rational choice dynamics will lead to diversity of school supply is at the heart of K-12 school choice arrangements. Yet as the field of school choice becomes more established, there will be the "inexorable push toward homogenization." If vouchers, tuition tax credit scholarships, and education savings accounts become…

  11. The Development of School Autonomy and Accountability in Hong Kong: Multiple Changes in Governance, Work, Curriculum, and Learning (United States)

    Ko, James; Cheng, Yin Cheong; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to trace the development of school autonomy and accountability and related multiple changes and impacts in key areas of school education in Hong Kong since implementing school-based management (SBM) from 1990s. Design/methodology/approach: To explore the evolution and the uniqueness of autonomy and…

  12. Accountability Synopticism: How a Think Tank and the Media Developed a Quasimarket for School Choice in British Columbia (United States)

    Simmonds, Michael; Webb, P. Taylor


    This paper describes how a locally developed school ranking system affected student enrolment patterns in British Columbia over time. In developing an annual school "report card" that was published in newspapers and online, the Vancouver-based Fraser Institute created a marketplace for school choice by devising an accountability scheme…

  13. Interrelations between Policymakers' Intentions and School Agents' Interpretation of Accountability Policy in Israel (United States)

    Amdur, Lisa; Mero-Jaffe, Irit


    The study examined the interrelations between policymakers' intentions for test-based accountability policy and school agents' perceptions and actions with regard to this policy. Mixed methods were used and encompassed 24 policymakers, 80 school principals, 168 teachers and case studies of four schools. New institutional theory, including the…

  14. The Impact of School Accountability Laws on Measures of Trust between Indiana Public School Superintendents and Teacher Union Leaders within the Forum of Mandatory Discussion (United States)

    Downs, Philip G.


    This study examines the impact of the school accountability laws "No Child Left Behind" and Indiana's Public Law 221 on Superintendents' perception of their relationship with the Teachers' Union Leader in their mandatory discussion meetings. Both school accountability laws contain provisions for the Indiana's Department of Education to…

  15. At-Risk Student Averse: Risk Management and Accountability (United States)

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Young, Michelle; Williams, Amy


    Purpose: The prevailing theory of action underlying accountability is that holding schools and students accountable will increase educational output. While accountability's theory of action intuitively seemed plausible, at the point of No Child Left Behind's national implementation, little empirical research was available to either support or…

  16. Adequacy, accountability, autonomy and equity in a Middle Eastern school reform: The case of Qatar (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.


    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and its sustainability in light of concerns that movements in these directions might be politically unfeasible. To some degree, these concerns are substantiated by the developments we trace. However, it is important to note that the reform has changed the landscape of primary and secondary education in Qatar and that many reform principles, though diluted, have been retained. This paper highlights lessons learned - both hopeful and cautionary - in the first few years of reform and presents a methodology for evaluating progress along key dimensions that can be applied to school systems in many nations.

  17. Concept of accounting high-school course book for the specialization "Public Administration"


    Baranová, Petra


    This thesis deals with a proposal of high-school course book for the specialization "Public Administration". The aim of the thesis is to offer the textbook of accounting for public sector which covers the needs of both teachers and students. For this purpose, the survey was performed firstly. The respective survey showed that no suitable textbook had been available on the market. The teachers usually use the course book of P. Štohl. Both students and teachers agree on the requirements for thi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska


    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  19. A Note on Accounting Education in Vocational Schools and Its Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi Karasioğlu


    Full Text Available Accounting is a way to shows the right ways that relates to the past in a healthy, complete and giving the right information and at the same time is a true thing to plan for the future and give effective decision. In other words while giving the information related to accounting it is also to get the reel decisions, to take the risk and confirm the opportunities which will show the ways in the future. To fulfill all these functions successfully those who assimilate “accounting business” are the ones who get a good education on accounting. It is true that the quality of education is related to many factors. To increase the quality in education, these factors should be confirmed, the reel economy demand should be considered and educational, students and the surrounding should be developed by technical learning. The development of a model in the accounting education during the four semesters that the students will get; moreover, the instructors should have the required information, skills and responsibilities on this issue. The educational model which has been established on computer environment by a program should be followed by a business or working on issues will lead. The education model / teaching and learning the model, the assessment of the exercise being open all the time and the performances of the teachers and the students should be estimated by the authorities. Additionally, the model being open on “company based on practice” and to make it compatible in the market it should include “work simulation”. Finally, the students who will study accounting, business administration ect. in the departments at vocational school and the ones who accept it as a job should have a “career consultant” system to be settled and it should be operated actively. By this way the students will be able to reach to success by being guided and to keep the motivation alive in their future goals

  20. School Lunch Program: Role and Impacts of Private Food Service Companies. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees. (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    In the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994, Congress directed the Government Accounting Office (GAO) to examine the use of private food establishments and caterers by schools participating in federal programs for school meals. In conducting its review, the GAO relied primarily on questionnaires returned by food authorities that had…

  1. To Market, to Market: An Historic Account of How Schools Have Marketed Themselves over the Past 150 Years (United States)

    Hooper, Carole


    This article provides an historical account of how fee-charging Victorian schools have marketed themselves over the past 150 years (via the use of advertisements, brochures, and prospectuses) in order to promote those aspects of schooling believed to be of most importance to potential customers (parents). While some of the features--most notably…

  2. 34 CFR 685.309 - Administrative and fiscal control and fund accounting requirements for schools participating in... (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative and fiscal control and fund accounting... Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.309 Administrative and fiscal control and fund accounting requirements... may provide the student status confirmation report in either paper or electronic format. (c) Record...

  3. Electric Holding Company Areas (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Holding companies are electric power utilities that have a holding company structure. This vector polygon layer represents the area served by electric power holding...

  4. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Smith


    Full Text Available This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of development of survey-based measures for the particular organization. The direction of the tool development and subsequent organizational changes were carried out in a participatory process between the school's staff, the parents, and the board. We identify the limitations and challenges of this process, and outline its successes to draw lessons for other similar democratic organizations. / Cet article est le produit d'un projet conjoint de recherche sur l'économie sociale entre un partenaire communautaire-une école privée-et des partenaires académiques. L'école est une organisation démocratique dirigée par des enseignants et des parents. Le but de ce projet était de trouver des façons d'améliorer la communication et la reddition de compte en ce qui a trait au rendement général de l'école comme faisant partie de la responsabilité de l'école envers ses membres. En commençant par des leçons sur l'approche de tableau de bord équilibré pour les organismes sans but lucratif, nous abordons le processus de l'élaboration de mesures fondées sur des enquêtes pour l'organisation particulière. L'orientation du développement d'outils et des changements organisationnels subséquents ont été déterminés lors d'un processus participatif entre le personnel de l'école, les parents et la direction. Nous établissons les limites et les défis de cette façon de procéder et en soulignons les réussites pour tirer des leçons qui serviront à d

  5. A nursing student's reflective account of decision-making in a school nursing setting. (United States)

    Squirrell, Bethaney; Hunt, Jane


    Reflection is integral to professional revalidation and enhancing nursing practice; it is an art and a science to be learned. Learning the art of reflection begins as a student in clinical placement settings. Drawing on a reflective model, this article presents an account of one second-year children's nursing student's experiences in a community-based placement with a school nursing team. A school nurse appointment was reflected on where advice was offered to a 13-year-old student with sleep difficulties, low affect and lethargy, which included avoiding caffeinated drinks, reducing use of a laptop and mobile phone before going to sleep, and establishing a regular bedtime routine. Providing nursing care to this young person enabled the nursing student to improve their decision-making skills, become more self-aware, increase their confidence when communicating with a patient and reinforce the importance of applying theory to practice. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  6. Education Savings Accounts: A Promising Way Forward on School Choice. WebMemo. No. 3382 (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.


    Across the country, states are enacting and expanding school choice options for families. This year alone, 12 states and the District of Columbia have implemented new school choice options for children or expanded existing options, leading The Wall Street Journal to label 2011 "The Year of School Choice." Among the many school choice…

  7. Apples to Apples: Common School Performance Frameworks as a Tool for Choice and Accountability (United States)

    Yatsko, Sarah; Opalka, Alice; Sutter, Jessica; Weeldreyer, Laura; Stewart, David


    Many districts are expanding and diversifying the school options available to parents--a trend that shows no signs of reversing. While all public schools are required to test and publically report results, it remains nearly impossible for families and education and civic leaders to make school-to-school comparisons, especially across district-run…

  8. Doing the Basics Better in Africa: How School Support, Autonomy, and Accountability Improved Outcomes for Girls in PEAS Schools (United States)

    Hills, Libby


    Promoting Equality in African Schools (PEAS) seeks to expand access to sustainably delivered, quality secondary education in Africa. PEAS builds and runs chains of not-for-profit, low-cost private schools in public-private partnership with governments. External evaluation data show that PEAS schools in Uganda are delivering higher quality…

  9. The Influence of Test-Based Accountability Policies on Early Elementary Teachers: School Climate, Environmental Stress, and Teacher Stress (United States)

    Saeki, Elina; Segool, Natasha; Pendergast, Laura; von der Embse, Nathaniel


    This study examined the potential influence of test-based accountability policies on school environment and teacher stress among early elementary teachers. Structural equation modeling of data from 541 kindergarten through second grade teachers across three states found that use of student performance on high-stakes tests to evaluate teachers…

  10. Enhancing the Learning Achievements and Attitudes of Taiwan Vocational School Students in Accounting with the Dynamic Assessment System (United States)

    Shih, Ju-Ling; Ku, David Tawei; Hung, Su-Huan


    We investigate how the computerized dynamic assessment system improves the learning achievements of vocational high school students studying accounting. Our experiment was conducted under the one-group pretest-posttest design of 34 junior students. The questionnaire results were analyzed to determine student-learning attitudes and reactions toward…

  11. Federal Policy and the Teacher Labor Market: Exploring the Effects of NCB School Accountability on Teacher Turnover (United States)

    Sun, Min; Saultz, Andrew; Ye, Yincheng


    The media suggest that accountability pressure increases teacher stress and drives teachers away from teaching, resulting in teachers leaving disadvantaged schools that serve larger proportions of poor and minority students. However, no prior work has systematically examined the changes in the national trends of teacher turnover in response to No…

  12. Left ventricular function assessment using a fast 3D gradient echo pulse sequence: comparison to standard multi-breath hold 2D steady state free precession imaging and accounting for papillary muscles and trabeculations. (United States)

    Sievers, Burkhard; Schrader, Sebastian; Rehwald, Wolfgang; Hunold, Peter; Barkhausen, Joerg; Erbel, Raimund


    Papillary muscles and trabeculae for ventricular function analysis are known to significantly contribute to accurate volume and mass measurements. Fast imaging techniques such as three-dimensional steady-state free precession (3D SSFP) are increasingly being used to speed up imaging time, but sacrifice spatial resolution. It is unknown whether 3D SSFP, despite its reduced spatial resolution, allows for exact delineation of papillary muscles and trabeculations. We therefore compared 3D SSFP ventricular function measurements to those measured from standard multi-breath hold two-dimensional steady-state free precession cine images (standard 2D SSFP). 14 healthy subjects and 14 patients with impaired left ventricularfunction underwent 1.5 Tesla cine imaging. A stack of short axis images covering the left ventricle was acquired with 2D SSFP and 3D SSFP. Left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and mass were determined. Analysis was performed by substracting papillary muscles and trabeculae from left ventricular volumes. In addition, reproducibility was assessed. EDV, ESV, EF, and mass were not significantly different between 2D SSFP and 3D SSFP (mean difference healthy subjects: -0.06 +/- 3.2 ml, 0.54 +/- 2.2 ml, -0.45 +/- 1.8%, and 1.13 +/- 0.8 g, respectively; patients: 1.36 +/- 2.8 ml, -0.15 3.5 ml, 0.86 +/- 2.5%, and 0.91 +/- 0.9 g, respectively; P > or = 0.095). Intra- and interobserver variability was not different for 2D SSFP (P > or = 0.64 and P > or = 0.397) and 3D SSFP (P > or = 0.53 and P > or = 0.47). Differences in volumes, EF, and mass measurements between 3D SSFP and standard 2D SSFP are very small, and not statistically significant. 3D SSFP may be used for accurate ventricular function assessment when papillary muscles and trabeculations are to be taken into account.

  13. Ethics education in management accounting studies:\\ud evidence from business schools in Ghana


    Nsor-Ambala, Randolph; Onumah, Joseph M.


    Management accounting in recent times, and perhaps rightly so, has begun to gain recognition as a profession separate and complimentary to financial accounting. Evidence exists to suggest that management accountants are exposed to a unique set of ethical challenges within industry and that a significant high number of management accountants have engaged in unethical practices in performing their jobs. For the accounting profession as a whole, the growing number of corporate failures has creat...

  14. High School Equivalency Assessment and Recognition in the United States: An Eyewitness Account (United States)

    McLendon, Lennox


    This chapter on high school equivalency describes recent events involved in updating the adult education high school equivalency assessment services and the entrance of additional assessments into the field.

  15. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events (United States)


    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  16. Here to Stay: A Teacher's 46-Year Journey with Accountability in One School Context (United States)

    Stefanski, Angela J.


    This narrative study explores accountability and care in the stories of an exceptional teacher, Marsha Ethridge, who taught more than 46 years in one low-socioeconomic community. While there has been an abundance of research related to teachers' stories of accountability conducted in the last 20 years, much of it reflects accountability imposed on…

  17. Teacher Leadership Capacity-Building: Developing Democratically Accountable Leaders in Schools (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Jones, Rahim J.


    Using a qualitative case study approach, the authors explore social justice implications of inservice principals' practices that affect attitudes and empower teachers. If a primary educational goal of progressive schooling is to create and sustain more democratic schools by enabling the growth of teachers as leaders who are responsible for their…



    Tiron Tudor Adriana; Crisan Teodora Viorica


    Our paper is about the history of accountancy in Romania, in Transylvania. We develop this subject because we consider that is very important to know about the history of your own country, and from our point of view about the history of accounting, which is a very important component of nowadays life. This work paper presents the history of the accountancy trought the study of biography. So by describing the work of professor I.N. Evian, who was an important personality for the accounting his...

  19. The Relationship Between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports and Performance on State Accountability Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Marin


    Full Text Available This study examined data from 96 schools in a Southeastern U.S. state participating in training and/or coaching on School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS provided by the State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG in their state. Schools studied either received training only (“non-intensive” sites or training and on-site coaching (“intensive” sites. Fidelity of implementation was self-evaluated by both types of schools using the Benchmarks of Quality (BOQ. Some schools were also externally evaluated using the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET, with those scoring 80% or higher determined “model sites.” Using an independent sample t-test, analyses revealed statistically significant differences between intensive and nonintensive schools’ Quality of Distribution Index (QDI scores and between model sites and nonmodel sites on QDI scores. Correlations were performed to determine whether the fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS as measured by the BOQ was related to any of the state’s accountability measures: performance classification, QDI, or growth.

  20. Performance Information and Retrospective Voting: Evidence from a School Accountability Regime. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series. PEPG 15-03 (United States)

    Barrows, Samuel


    Governments are increasingly publishing information about the performance of the services they provide, in part to help citizens hold their elected representatives accountable for government service outcomes. Yet there is little evidence concerning the influence of information about government service performance on voter behavior. This paper…

  1. Accountability Policy Outcomes Related to No Child Left Behind and Educational Equity for Big5 City Schools in New York State (United States)

    Shin, Hyejin


    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of NCLB/accountability with educational output and input for New York State, collectively. Focusing on ELA and Math achievement in 4th and 8th grades, this study demonstrated the association of accountability outcomes in three ways: "accountability design, school proficiency level, and…

  2. Financial Accounting: Classifications and Standard Terminology for Local and State School Systems. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook II, Revised. (United States)

    Roberts, Charles T., Comp.; Lichtenberger, Allan R., Comp.

    This handbook has been prepared as a vehicle or mechanism for program cost accounting and as a guide to standard school accounting terminology for use in all types of local and intermediate education agencies. In addition to classification descriptions, program accounting definitions, and proration of cost procedures, some units of measure and…

  3. Infantile Accountability: When Big Data Meet Small Children (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry; Wormwell, Louise


    This article examines a government attempt to impose testing of 4-year-olds as a baseline against which to "hold primary schools accountable" for children's subsequent progress. It examines the various forms of baseline testing in this experiment and analyses the misleading claims made for the "predictive validity" of baseline…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiron Tudor Adriana


    Full Text Available Our paper is about the history of accountancy in Romania, in Transylvania. We develop this subject because we consider that is very important to know about the history of your own country, and from our point of view about the history of accounting, which is a very important component of nowadays life. This work paper presents the history of the accountancy trought the study of biography. So by describing the work of professor I.N. Evian, who was an important personality for the accounting history in Romania, we want to found historical elements that are not so able to see otherwise. The article wants to highlight the impact that the work of professor Evian had in the history of accounting in Romania. Also, by presenting the work of professor I.N. Evian in the context of the Academy of High Commercial and Industrial Studies from Cluj, we want to prove that this institution was the first form of higher education in Transylvania in the accountancy field.

  5. Local Control in the Era of Accountability: A Case Study of Wisconsin PreK (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Wilinski, Bethany; Nocera, Amato


    The opposing principles of local control and increased standardization are a prominent tension in the United States' education system. Since at least the early 1990s, this tension has taken shape around the accountability movement, defined by educational reforms that hold schools, teachers, and students accountable for performance on new…

  6. "Seeing the Whole Elephant": Changing Mindsets and Empowering Stakeholders to Meaningfully Manage Accountability and Improvement (United States)

    Bush-Mecenas, Susan; Marsh, Julie A.; Montes de Oca, David; Hough, Heather


    School accountability and improvement policy are on the precipice of a paradigm shift. While the multiple-measure dashboard accountability approach holds great promise for promoting more meaningful learning opportunities for all students, our research indicates that this can come with substantial challenges in practice. We reflect upon the lessons…

  7. A Study in Public School Accountability Through the Application of Multiple Regression to Selected Variables. (United States)

    Burke, Harold Reesor

    The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a method of determining the effectiveness of individual schools in promoting student achievement in reading and arithmetic, and to investigate the relationship of sibling order and of residence in intact or broken homes on student achievement. Five hundred sixty-three sixth graders from 16…

  8. Neoliberalism as Nihilism? A Commentary on Educational Accountability, Teacher Education, and School Reform (United States)

    Tuck, Eve


    In this article, the author discusses neoliberalism as an extension of settler colonialism. The article provides commentary on five recent articles on teacher education and the neoliberal agenda. The article presents an analysis of neoliberalism as despair, and as a form of nihilism. The author discusses an indigenous model of school reform and…

  9. Accountability in Education: An Imperative for Service Delivery in Nigerian School Systems (United States)

    Usman, Yunusa Dangara


    Schools and other educational institutions are established, maintained and sustained essentially to achieve certain assured objectives. The goals of such establishment cannot be easily achieved without putting in place certain mechanisms towards ensuring the success of implementation of its policies and programmes. In the education system, one of…

  10. Trickle-Down Accountability: How Middle School Teachers Engage Students in Data Use (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Farrell, Caitlin C.; Bertrand, Melanie


    Despite a growing body of research on data use in education, there has been relatively little focus on the role of students. This article begins to fill this gap by exploring teacher and administrator reports on engaging students in data use at six middle schools. Even though teachers expressed a belief that involving students in data use would…

  11. Financial Accounting for Local and State School Systems: 2009 Edition. NCES 2009-325 (United States)

    Allison, Gregory S.; Honegger, Steven D.; Johnson, Frank


    This handbook has been designed as the national standard for state and local education agencies to use in tracking and reporting financial data for school districts to use in preparing their comprehensive annual financial reports (CAFRs). The purpose of the handbook is to ensure that education fiscal data can be reported in a comprehensive manner.…

  12. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  13. Breath-Holding Spells (United States)

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  14. Empirical Validation of Indices for Consideration in the Revision of Recommended Senior School Financial Accounting Textbooks in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebode Stephen Oyetoro


    Full Text Available The study determined a significant difference in teachers’ overall evaluations of six recommended Financial Accounting Textbooks in Southwestern Nigeria. It also assessed the specific evaluation parameters that account for the difference. It adopted the survey research design. The multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 80 teachers from 64 schools from the six states in Southwestern Nigeria. Results of data collected which were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis (H test depicted a significant difference in teachers’ overall evaluations of the textbooks. Also, results revealed that the textbooks differ significantly on the parameters of mechanics, assessment, lesson design and instructional strategy and incorporation of technology into students’ learning. The implications of these findings were discussed and the study concluded that financial accounting textbook writers and ministry of education officials at both national and state levels should give adequate consideration for these parameters in the revision of recommended financial accounting textbooks for improved effectiveness in the realization of curricular objectives in the subject.

  15. Accounting Education Area Student Evaluation of Motivation and Expectations Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Vocational School Due to an Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin ATMACA


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to considering these issues Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University accounting and tax applications, depending on what part of higher vocational schools of higher education students to measure expectations and motivations. Population of the study consists of 807 students in accounting and tax application departments of 7 vocational schools of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. In our study, 723studentswere reached, as a means of data collection questionnaire. In the first part of the survey questions related to demographic variables found to the accounting section of the second part, students’ reasons for choosing, there are judgments to measure their expectations and motivations. According to the results, the motivation to adopt means of accounting education, accounting, education, expectations, reasons for choosing accounting and accounting education is part of the point of view of the factors is a linear correlation.

  16. Intelligent Accountability in Education (United States)

    O'Neill, Onora


    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  17. The Rise of Networks: How Decentralized Management Is Improving Schools (United States)

    Kelleher, Maureen


    School districts across the country are shifting away from their traditional management paradigm--a central office that directs its schools through uniform mandates and policies--toward a new vision where district leaders support autonomous schools while holding them accountable for student performance. The advent of new governance mechanisms…

  18. Leadership of Schools as Research-Led Organisations in the English Educational Environment: Cultivating a Research-Engaged School Culture (United States)

    Godfrey, David


    This article examines the conditions for the growth and expansion of research-engaged schools in England. The current policy climate is seeing a rapid growth of autonomous schools coupled with the continuing tendency to hold schools to account for overall student educational attainment indicators. Within this context, the article begins by…

  19. Accountability Strain, College Readiness Drain: Sociopolitical Tensions Involved in Maintaining a College-Going Culture in a High "Minority", High Poverty, Texas High School (United States)

    Welton, Anjale; Williams, Montrischa


    Currently school reform discourse encourages states to adopt college readiness standards. Meanwhile, federal and state accountability and related mandated reforms remain a policy concern. As such, it is important to examine the interplay between accountability and the establishment of a college-going culture in high "minority", high…

  20. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.


    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  1. Portrait of a Teacher-Led School (United States)

    Nazareno, Lori


    Imagine a school with no principal and with a leadership structure that holds teachers accountable for the learning of all students. About 50 such teacher-led schools currently operate across the United States, and this article tells the story of one of them. The Mathematics and Science Leadership Academy (MSLA) in Denver, Colorado, serves about…

  2. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite


    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  3. Do Children's Executive Functions Account for Associations Between Early Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Achievement Through High School? (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W; Pomerantz, Eva M; Roisman, Glenn I


    This study evaluated whether the positive association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement is mediated by children's executive functions. Using observations of mothers' parenting from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development ( N = 1,306), analyses revealed that mothers' autonomy support over the first 3 years of life predicted enhanced executive functions (i.e., inhibition, delay of gratification, and sustained attention) during the year prior to kindergarten and academic achievement in elementary and high school even when mothers' warmth and cognitive stimulation, as well as other factors (e.g., children's early general cognitive skills and mothers' educational attainment) were covaried. Mediation analyses demonstrated that over and above other attributes (e.g., temperament), children's executive functions partially accounted for the association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement.

  4. Making Collaborative Innovation Accountable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    The public sector is increasingly expected to be innovative, but the prize for a more innovative public sector might be that it becomes difficult to hold public authorities to account for their actions. The article explores the tensions between innovative and accountable governance, describes...... the foundation for these tensions in different accountability models, and suggest directions to take in analyzing the accountability of collaborative innovation processes....

  5. Breath-Hold Diving. (United States)

    Fitz-Clarke, John R


    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting (United States)


    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  7. Intangible Capital and Corporate Cash Holdings: Theory and Evidence


    Dalida Kadyrzhanova; Antonio Falato; Jae Sim


    The rise in intangible capital is a fundamental driver of the secular trend in US corporate cash holdings over the last decades. We construct a new measure of intangible capital and show that intangible capital is the most important firm-level determinant of corporate cash holdings. Our measure accounts for almost as much of the secular increase in cash since the 1980s as all other standard determinants together. We then develop a new model of corporate cash holdings that introduces intangibl...

  8. "Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, Where Have You Been?" An Account of Intensive Psychotherapy with a Seven-Year-Old Boy in a Special School (United States)

    Robertson, Kate


    This paper gives an account of the developments in the intensive psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy with global development delay. It also describes the adaptations to technique and the changes in the setting that were required to support the work, which was undertaken in a special school. The importance of the regularity of sessions in helping…

  9. Rebels against the System: Leadership Agency and Curriculum Innovation in the Context of School Autonomy and Accountability in England (United States)

    Greany, Toby; Waterhouse, Joanne


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the development of school autonomy, school leadership and curriculum innovation in England over the past 40 years. It provides a baseline picture for the wider international study on school autonomy and curriculum innovation. Design/methodology/approach: An initial literature review was…

  10. A Case Study of a Highly Effective, Inclusive Elementary School (United States)

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.; Redd, Lacy


    Current federal legislation holds schools accountable for ensuring that all students, including those with disabilities, make adequate yearly progress on academic achievement measures, while also including students with disabilities in general education settings whenever possible. Schools are thus expected to be both excellent and equitable in…

  11. Milestones on the social accountability journey: Family medicine practice locations of Northern Ontario School of Medicine graduates. (United States)

    Hogenbirk, John C; Timony, Patrick E; French, Margaret G; Strasser, Roger; Pong, Raymond W; Cervin, Catherine; Graves, Lisa


    To assess the effect of different levels of exposure to the Northern Ontario School of Medicine's (NOSM's) distributed medical education programs in northern Ontario on FPs' practice locations. Cross-sectional design using longitudinal survey and administrative data. Canada. All 131 Canadian medical graduates who completed FP training in 2011 to 2013 and who completed their undergraduate (UG) medical degree or postgraduate (PG) residency training or both at NOSM. Exposure to NOSM's medical education program at the UG (n = 49) or PG (n = 31) level or both (n = 51). Primary practice location in September of 2014. Approximately 16% (21 of 129) of FPs were practising in rural northern Ontario, 45% (58 of 129) in urban northern Ontario, and 5% (7 of 129) in rural southern Ontario. Logistic regression found that more rural Canadian background years predicted rural practice in northern Ontario or Ontario, with odds ratios of 1.16 and 1.12, respectively. Northern Canadian background, sex, marital status, and having children did not predict practice location. Completing both UG and PG training at NOSM predicted practising in rural and northern Ontario locations with odds ratios of 4.06 to 48.62. Approximately 61% (79 of 129) of Canadian medical graduate FPs who complete at least some of their training at NOSM practise in northern Ontario. Slightly more than a quarter (21 of 79) of these FPs practise in rural northern Ontario. The FPs with more years of rural background or those with greater exposure to NOSM's medical education programs had higher odds of practising in rural northern Ontario. This study shows that NOSM is on the road to reaching one of its social accountability milestones.

  12. A qualitative study of enablers and barriers influencing the incorporation of social accountability values into organisational culture: a perspective from two medical schools. (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, Nicholas; Stroud, Laura; Murdoch Eaton, Deborah; Rudolf, Mary


    Definitions of social accountability describe the obligation of medical schools to direct education, research and service activities towards addressing the priority health concerns of the population they serve. While such statements give some direction as to how the goal might be reached, it does not identify what factors might facilitate or hinder its achievement. This study set out to identify and explore enablers and barriers influencing the incorporation of social accountability values into medical schools. Semi structured interviews of fourteen senior staff in Bar Ilan and Leeds medical schools were undertaken following a literature review. Participants were recruited by purposive sampling in order to identify factors perceived to play a part in the workings of each institution. Academic prestige was seen as a key barrier that was dependent on research priorities and student selection. The role of champions was considered to be vital to tackle staff perceptions and facilitate progress. Including practical community experience for students was felt to be a relevant way in which the curriculum could be designed through engagement with local partners. Successful adoption of social accountability values requires addressing concerns around potential negative impacts on academic prestige and standards. Identifying and supporting credible social accountability champions to disseminate the values throughout research and education departments in medical and other faculties is also necessary, including mapping onto existing work streams and research agendas. Demonstrating the contribution the institution can make to local health improvement and regional development by a consideration of its economic footprint may also be valuable.

  13. School Improvement Grants: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Enhance Accountability for Schools and Contractors. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-12-373 (United States)

    Scott, George A.


    The School Improvement Grant (SIG) program funds reforms in low performing schools. Congress provided $3.5 billion for SIG in fiscal year 2009, and a total of about $1.6 billion was appropriated in fiscal years 2010-2012. SIG requirements changed significantly in 2010. Many schools receiving SIG funds must now use the funding for specific…

  14. Educational Accounting Procedures. (United States)

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  15. The School Store...Making It Work. Second Edition. Selling, Buying, Promotion, Operation, Store Security, Management, Accounting. (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Michigan Vocational Education Resource Center.

    This handbook is intended as a resource for individuals involved in the development, operation, and expansion of school store laboratories. The first of three sections covers facility/laboratory planning. It includes detailed guidelines for establishing a new school store operation and remodeling or relocating an existing operation. Section II…

  16. Towards engagement, compliance and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annyssa Bellal


    Full Text Available The UN and other international and regional organisations are increasingly trying to hold armed non-state actors (ANSAs accountable at the international level for violations of international norms....

  17. Design of accounting curriculum: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alver Lehte


    Full Text Available The process of globalization sets new requirements for the professional qualification of accountants and auditors. In the business world globalized investment market demands consistent high quality financial information across borders; investors are looking for a global accounting profession to provide it. There is more pressure on accounting professionals to expand and enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities beyond what they are currently likely to possess. Providers of accounting education must take into account the changed world and create contemporary curricula. In Estonia the change from a command to a market economy has inevitably influenced not only the accounting framework but also the entire system of accounting education. It is clear that without a design of accounting curricula it is practically impossible to fulfill requirements of nowadays high quality financial information. Tallinn University of Technology (TUT holds on the advanced level of accounting education the leading position in Estonia. The accounting curriculum (on the graduate level as well as undergraduate level is the most popular among all curricula at the Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration of TUT. It is a joint system, which consists of undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Small sub specializations: for example in financial accounting, managerial cost accounting, taxation and auditing become evident while interpreting the graduate and undergraduate programs as one united system. The paper explains a new model of accounting curriculum developed at TUT as well as its educational philosophy and principles of designing. It also describes conditions required for development and continuous improvement of competitive curriculum.

  18. Empirical Validation of Indices for Consideration in the Revision of Recommended Senior School Financial Accounting Textbooks in Southwestern Nigeria (United States)

    Oyetoro, Oyebode Stephen; Ojo, Oloyede Ezekiel


    The study determined a significant difference in teachers' overall evaluations of six recommended Financial Accounting Textbooks in Southwestern Nigeria. It also assessed the specific evaluation parameters that account for the difference. It adopted the survey research design. The multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 80…

  19. Mure skal holde zombierne ude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Leila


    Vi bygger som besatte mure og barrierer for at holde flygtninge ude og tæmme de negative konsekvenser af den neoliberale globalisering.......Vi bygger som besatte mure og barrierer for at holde flygtninge ude og tæmme de negative konsekvenser af den neoliberale globalisering....

  20. Effect of supervised brushing with fluoride gel during primary school, taking into account the group prevention schedule in kindergarten. (United States)

    Winter, Julia; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Ladda, Annett; Pieper, Klaus


    In one region of Germany, a group of children took part in regular fluoride gel applications during primary school following intensified prevention in kindergarten. This observational study aimed to ascertain whether the dental health of primary school children can be improved by introducing a group prevention program based on applications of fluoride gel. The subjects were distributed among six groups with varying preventive measures in kindergarten and at school. The basis for determining caries experience and calculating the caries increment consisted of dental findings gathered in the second and fourth grade. While second graders without professionally supported daily toothbrushing in kindergarten exhibited an average d 3 -6 mft of 2.17, in those who had enjoyed intensive dental prevention, the corresponding value was 19% lower (d 3-6 mft = 1.74). The caries increment was significantly lower mainly among children who had received the maximum of group prevention (intensive prevention in kindergarten and gel program at school). The results show that intensified preventive programs in kindergartens and schools, based mainly on supervised toothbrushing, have a positive effect on the dental health of primary school children. Such programs are efficient in reducing caries experience especially in socially deprived areas.

  1. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John


    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  2. Social accountability of medical schools and academic primary care training in Latin America: principles but not practice. (United States)

    Puschel, Klaus; Rojas, Paulina; Erazo, Alvaro; Thompson, Beti; Lopez, Jorge; Barros, Jorge


    Latin America has one of the highest rates of health disparities in the world and is experiencing a steep increase in its number of medical schools. It is not clear if medical school authorities consider social responsibility, defined as the institutional commitment to contribute to the improvement of community well-being, as a priority and if there are any organizational strategies that could reduce health disparities. To study the significance and relevance of social responsibility in the academic training of medical schools in Latin America. The study combined a qualitative thematic literature review of three databases with a quantitative design based on a sample of nine Latin American and non-Latin American countries. The thematic analysis showed high agreement among academic groups on considering medical schools as 'moral agents', part of a 'social contract' and with an institutional responsibility to reduce health disparities mainly through the implementation of strong academic primary care programs. The quantitative analysis showed a significant association between higher development of academic primary care programs and lower level of health disparities by country (P = 0.028). However, the data showed that most Latin American medical schools did not prioritize graduate primary care training. The study shows a discrepancy between the importance given to social responsibility and academic primary care training in Latin America and the practices implemented by medical schools. It highlights the need to refocus medical education policies in the region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. The Return to Final Paper Examining in English National Curriculum Assessment and School Examinations: Issues of Validity, Accountability and Politics (United States)

    Torrance, Harry


    There are sound educational and examining reasons for the use of coursework assessment and practical assessment of student work by teachers in schools for purposes of reporting examination grades. Coursework and practical work test a range of different curriculum goals to final papers and increase the validity and reliability of the result.…

  4. Former Teachers' and Pupils' Autobiographical Accounts of Punishment in Italian Rural Primary Schools during Fascism (United States)

    Loparco, Fabiana


    Despite the prohibition on punishment in the form of emotional, psychological and physical abuse under the Fascist school regulations, it was common--particularly in Italian rural classrooms--for the purpose of managing and disciplining students. Sticks, "chickpeas" or "donkey desks" represent just a few examples of the methods…

  5. Blue breath holding is benign.


    Stephenson, J B


    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  6. Process Accounting


    Gilbertson, Keith


    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  7. MIM Holdings Limited 1984 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    M.I.M. Holdings Limited is a major mining and mineral processing company formed in 1970. The group traces its origins to 1924 following the discovery of silver lead zinc started in 1931 and parallel production of silver lead zinc ore at Mount Isa the previous year. Today the MIM group is a diversified mineral, coal and metal producing and marketing organisation. Details of the company's principal activities over the last year, and accounts and management information for the last year are presented.

  8. Differentiated Accountability Policy and School Improvement Plans: A Look at Professional Development and Inclusive Practices for Exceptional Students (United States)

    Simon, Marsha; Black, William R.


    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 (NCLB) require that students with disabilities have equal access to general education curricula and contexts. Florida's Differentiated Accountability Program (DAP) is designed to support educators in meeting IDEA and NCLB…

  9. Empowering School of Accounting Websites through Quality Assurance: Development and Implementation of a User-Perceived Instrument (United States)

    Djajadikerta, Hadrian G.; Trireksani, Terri; Djajadikerta, Hamfri


    Today's institutions of higher education are facing an increased number of significant challenges taking place in the political, economic, social and technological environment. Accordingly, the issues of performance, accountability, and marketing strategies have become ever more important. It has been suggested that universities that are more…

  10. Conflicting demands of No Child Left Behind and state systems: Mixed messages about school performance.


    Robert L. Linn


    An ever-increasing reliance on student performance on tests holds schools and educators accountable both to state accountability systems and also to the accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. While each state has constructed its own definition of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) requirements within the confines of NCLB, substantial differences between the accountability requirements of many state systems and NCLB still have resulted in mixed messages regardi...

  11. Taking account of what young women want from school sex education: two groups from Scotland and Uganda. (United States)

    Cook, Sinead


    This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being taught by an outside female facilitator, single-sex classes and access to a female teacher. Furthermore, they proposed that discussion between small groups of friends is very useful. The Scottish group said that having a young teacher, teaching about emotions and relationships and being guided through their own decision making is also important. The Ugandan group emphasized the importance of being taught by female family members and having written materials provided on sex education. The study showed that young women from different backgrounds have strong opinions about sex education, and are an important resource for policy makers.

  12. The Holding Power of Anchors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The efficiency of an anchor may be expressed as the ratio (holding force + weight of anchor). In dry sand .... the market at the beginning of the coming season in three sizes, namely 20, 35 and. 60 lb. These are ... Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis.

  13. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger


    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  14. Internet accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Sprenkels, Ron; Parhonyi, R.


    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like

  15. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold. (United States)


    ... and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and holding mean legal or beneficial ownership, whether direct or indirect, whether through fiduciaries, agents, or other means. ...

  16. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Igoe Walsh


    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  17. Management Accounting


    John Burns; Martin Quinn; Liz Warren; João Oliveira


    Overview of the BookThe textbook comprises six sections which together represent a comprehensive insight into management accounting - its technical attributes, changeable wider context, and the multiple roles of management accountants. The sections cover: (1) an introduction to management accounting, (2) how organizations account for their costs, (3) the importance of tools and techniques which assist organizational planning and control, (4) the various dimensions of making business decisions...

  18. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.


    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  19. Accounting outsourcing


    Linhartová, Lucie


    This thesis gives a complex view on accounting outsourcing, deals with the outsourcing process from its beginning (condition of collaboration, making of contract), through collaboration to its possible ending. This work defines outsourcing, indicates the main advatages, disadvatages and arguments for its using. The main object of thesis is mainly practical side of accounting outsourcing and providing of first quality accounting services.

  20. Do Accountability Policies Push Teachers Out? (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard; Merrill, Lisa; May, Henry


    The impact of accountability on U.S. schools, for good or ill, is a subject of debate and research. The authors recently studied an aspect of accountability that had previously received little attention. They asked, do accountability reforms affect public schools' ability to retain their teachers? By analyzing data from the Schools and Staffing…

  1. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education......, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  2. Accountability: A New Disneyland Fantasy (United States)

    Bundy, Robert F.


    Parents, professional educators, boards of education, legislators, and the general public are justifiably questioning the monies spent on education, school efficiency, what schools are actually accomplishing, and who controls the results of schooling. However, accountability, as envisioned by its major supporters, will address none of these…

  3. Trend Definition or Holding Strategy: What Determines the Profitability of Candlestick Technical Trading Strategies?


    Tsung-Hsun Lu; Yi-Chi Chen; Yu-Chin Hsu


    We ask what determines the profitability of candlestick patterns. Is it the definition of trend and/or the holding strategy that one uses in candlestick charting analysis? To answer this, we conduct a systematic investigation by considering three definitions of trend and four holding strategies. Based on the DJIA components data, we find that eight three-day reversal patterns with a Caginalp-Laurent holding strategy are profitable after we account for data-snooping bias. We also find that our...

  4. Adjunct Accounting (United States)

    Lesesne, Cherise


    With colleges and universities recruiting more adjunct professors, schools have been able to reduce the costly expenses of large salary and benefit packages that are typically associated with full-time employees. Yet, schools have started to re-evaluate their use of adjunct professors in order to comply with the Affordable Care Act (ACA), dubbed…

  5. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  6. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  7. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.


    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  8. Information and Exit: Do Accountability Ratings Help Families Choose Schools? Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 09-06 (United States)

    Henderson, Michael


    Does public information about school quality lead parents to sort their children out of schools with relatively poor performance? Use of this exit option in response to information about school quality has the potential to indirectly foster school responsiveness to quality concerns. To determine whether this information affects student exit, I…

  9. Activity Fund Accounting. (United States)

    Cool, David W.


    Addresses the need of school districts in many states to decide on an appropriate mingling of centralization and decentralization in the operation of activity funds. Argues for analysis of activity fund operation through a breakdown into such major components as policy, the accounting system, and reporting and auditing. (JBM)

  10. Who Holds the Purse Strings? (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.


    Explains how state and federal court decisions dealing with educational equity and adequacy have increased state involvement in school finance. Describes five state education system models: Single system, single system with capacity for charters, district operating system with multiple state categorical aid programs, district operating system with…

  11. Does Parental Educational Level Predict Drop-Out from Upper Secondary School for 16- to 24-Year-Olds when Basic Skills Are Accounted For? A Cross Country Comparison (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti


    Drop-out from upper secondary school is considered a widespread problem, closely connected with youth unemployment. The aim of the current study was to examine whether parents' level of education predicted drop-out for 16-24-year-olds when accounting for basic skills. For this purpose, data from the Norwegian (n = 996) and American (n = 641)…

  12. Tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Spannagel, G.


    Conventional accountancy means that for a given material balance area and a given interval of time the tritium balance is established so that at the end of that interval of time the book inventory is compared with the measured inventory. In this way, an optimal effectiveness of accountancy is achieved. However, there are still further objectives of accountancy, namely the timely detection of anomalies as well as the localization of anomalies in a major system. It can be shown that each of these objectives can be optimized only at the expense of the others. Recently, Near-Real-Time Accountancy procedures have been studied; their methodological background as well as their merits will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. Accounting assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafka S.М.


    Full Text Available The proper evaluation of accounting objects influences essentially upon the reliability of assessing the financial situation of a company. Thus, the problem in accounting estimate is quite relevant. The works of home and foreign scholars on the issues of assessment of accounting objects, regulatory and legal acts of Ukraine controlling the accounting and compiling financial reporting are a methodological basis for the research. The author uses the theoretical methods of cognition (abstraction and generalization, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and other methods producing conceptual knowledge for the synthesis of theoretical and methodological principles in the evaluation of assets accounting, liabilities and equity. The tabular presentation and information comparison methods are used for analytical researches. The article considers the modern approaches to the issue of evaluation of accounting objects and financial statements items. The expedience to keep records under historical value is proved and the articles of financial statements are to be presented according to the evaluation on the reporting date. In connection with the evaluation the depreciation of fixed assets is considered as a process of systematic return into circulation of the before advanced funds on the purchase (production, improvement of fixed assets and intangible assets by means of including the amount of wear in production costs. Therefore it is proposed to amortize only the actual costs incurred, i.e. not to depreciate the fixed assets received free of charge and surplus valuation of different kinds.

  14. 78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding... (United States)


    ... bank holding company's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) forms; \\3... Balance Sheet of the BHC's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) (OMB No... holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets, and nonbank financial companies...

  15. Corporate cash holdings: Determinants and implications from Vietnamese market


    Cap, Kim Hoang


    2014 dissertation for MSc in International Accounting and Finance. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. This paper investigates the determination of corporate cash holdings in Vietnam. The sample includes Vietnamese publicly-traded firms for the period 2010-2013. Determinants include financial indicators as firm-specific characteristics and state ownership as an institutional factor for the purpose of exploring the existence of agency costs for this em...

  16. The Accounting Practices of Heritage Assets


    Hassan, Nor Laili; Saad, Natrah; Ahmad, Halimah Nasibah; Salleh, Md. Suhaimi Md.; Ismail, Mohamad Sharofi


    Accrual-based accounting is introduced to the government agencies with the intention to hold prudent fiscal management and improve the efficiency of financial management and accounting of the Malaysian Government. For that purpose, Malaysian Public Sector Accounting Standards (MPSAS) was introduced as a main reference in applying the accrual-based accounting. MPSAS 17 which deals with heritage assets, will take effect in 2017. The study intended to discover how do overseas’ museums report the...

  17. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia


    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  18. Excess cash holdings and shareholder value


    Lee, Edward; Powell, Ronan


    We examine the determinants of corporate cash holdings in Australia and the impact on shareholder wealth of holding excess cash. Our results show that a trade-off model best explains the level of a firm’s cash holdings in Australia. We find that 'transitory' excess cash firms earn significantly higher risk-adjusted returns compared to 'persistent' excess cash firms, suggesting that the market penalises firms that hoard cash. The marginal value of cash also declines with larger cash balances, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Onica


    Full Text Available The international Accounting Standards already contribute to the generation of better and more easily comparable financial information on an international level, supporting thus a more effective allocationof the investments resources in the world. Under the circumstances, there occurs the necessity of a consistent application of the standards on a global level. The financial statements are part of thefinancial reporting process. A set of complete financial statements usually includes a balance sheet,a profit and loss account, a report of the financial item change (which can be presented in various ways, for example as a status of the treasury flows and of the funds flows and those notes, as well as those explanatory situations and materials which are part of the financial statements.

  20. Payroll accounting


    Hodžová, Markéta


    Abstract Main topic of my thesis is the Payroll Accounting. The work summarizes most of the areas that are related to this topic and the knowledge necessary in calculating the final determination of wages. Beginning the thesis mentions specific chapters from the Labor code which explain the facts about the start, changes and the termination of the employment contract then more detailed description of the arrangements performed outside of the employment contract and then working hours and mini...

  1. Machine Accounting. An Instructor's Guide. (United States)

    Gould, E. Noah, Ed.

    Designed to prepare students to operate the types of accounting machines used in many medium-sized businesses, this instructor's guide presents a full-year high school course in machine accounting covering 120 hours of instruction. An introduction for the instructor suggests how to adapt the guide to present a 60-hour module which would be…

  2. Inflation, operating cycle, and cash holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchao Wang


    Full Text Available A corporate cash-holding strategy is a trade-off between the costs and benefits of holding cash. At the macrolevel, firms are inclined to adjust and optimize their cash-holding strategies in response to changes in purchasing power due to inflation. At the microlevel, the operating cycle, which indicates the speed and turnover of corporate cash flow, also influences the corporate cash-holding strategy. Firms flexibly adjust their cash-holding strategies in response to changes in the internal and external environment, which is referred to as the cash adjustment strategy. We examine these predicted relationships using a sample of listed firms in China’s stock market over the 1998–2009 period. Consistent with our predictions, the empirical results indicate a significant negative association between cash holdings and the CPI, but the relationship is reversed when the CPI reaches a certain level. There is also a U-shaped relationship between operating cycle and cash holdings, and this relationship is similarly influenced by changes in the inflation level. In examining the macroeconomic environment and microlevel firm-specific characteristics simultaneously, our findings supplement the literature on firms’ cash-holding strategies and provide theoretical and practical implications.

  3. "I Have a Feeling We're Not in Kansas Anymore": A British Gay Educator's Reconstructed Life-History Account of School (United States)

    Vicars, Mark


    In this paper, I reflect on how the culture of schooling that I experienced throughout the 1970s and early 1980s scaffolded a formative awareness of sexual difference. Quinlivan and Town have pointed out that "School communities seldom have to move beyond the personal deficit model in attempting to meet the needs of Lesbian and Gay…

  4. The Effects of Health Insurance Coverage on the Math Achievement Trajectories of School Children in Yuma County, Arizona: Implications for Education Accountability Policy (United States)

    Garcy, Anthony M.


    U.S. Federal and state education policies place considerable emphasis on assessing the effects that schools and teachers have on student test score performance. It is important for education policy makers to also consider other factors that can affect student achievement. This study finds that an exogenous school factor, discontinuous health…

  5. Infrastrukturel Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    Hvordan redegør man troværdigt for noget så diffust som en hel nations udledning af drivhusgasser? Det undersøger denne afhandling i et etnografisk studie af hvordan Danmarks drivhusgasregnskab udarbejdes, rapporteres og kontrolleres. Studiet trækker på begreber og forståelser fra 'Science & Tech...... & Technology Studies', og bidrager med begrebet 'infrastrukturel accountability' til nye måder at forstå og tænke om det arbejde, hvormed højt specialiserede praksisser dokumenterer og redegør for kvaliteten af deres arbejde....

  6. 17 CFR 250.26 - Financial statement and recordkeeping requirements for registered holding companies and... (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statement and..., PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms, Procedure and Accounts § 250.26 Financial statement and... to form and content of financial statements; and (2) Shall make and keep current accounts, books and...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement (United States)


    ... Financial and Managerial Factors In acting on applications filed under the Bank Holding Company Act, the... defined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In determining the total amount of... subsidiaries by the equity method of accounting. Ordinarily the Board does not view redeemable preferred stock...

  8. Accounting Principles 30G. Interim Guide. (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide was developed for a senior-level introductory accounting course for students in high schools in Manitoba. The course introduces Canadian accounting principles and practices; it applies Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to introductory financial accounting. The guide includes the following components: (1) an…

  9. Collective behaviors of book holding durations (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo


    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  10. Energy accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, G.A. de.


    G.A. de Boer reacts to recently published criticism of his contribution to a report entitled 'Commentaar op het boek 'Tussen Kernenergie en Kolen. Een Analyse' van ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen' (Commentary on the book 'Nuclear Energy versus Coal. An Analysis by ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen), published by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. The contribution (Appendix B) deals with energy analyses. He justifies his arguments for using energy accountancy for assessing different methods of producing electricity, and explains that it is simply an alternative to purely economic methods. The energy conversion yield (ratio of energy produced to energy required) is tabulated for different sources. De Boer emphasises that his article purposely discusses among other things, definitions, forms of energy, the limits of the systems, the conversion of money into energy and the definition of the energy yield at length, in order to prevent misunderstandings. (C.F.)

  11. Design Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Ilpo; Krogh, Peter


    When design research builds on design practice, it may contribute to both theory and practice of design in ways richer than research that treats design as a topic. Such research, however, faces several tensions that it has to negotiate successfully in order not to lose its character as research....... This paper looks at constructive design research which takes the entanglement of theory and practice as its hallmark, and uses it as a test case in exploring how design researchers can work with theory, methodology, and practice without losing their identity as design researchers. The crux of practice based...... design research is that where classical research is interested in singling out a particular aspect and exploring it in depth, design practice is characterized by balancing numerous concerns in a heterogenous and occasionally paradoxical product. It is on this basis the notion of design accountability...

  12. Ethical Decision-Making Accounting Competencies: Practitioners' Perspectives (United States)

    Meador, Gwendolyn Parrish


    Recent accounting and corporate scandals call into question the ethicality of accounting practice, likewise accounting graduates. Advances in ethical accounting education are not emphasized in today's business schools leaving accounting graduates lacking necessary ethical accounting competencies to make ethical accounting decisions (Abend, 2013;…

  13. Accounting engineering for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidornya A.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the sustainable development of industrial enterprises in Russia, accounting for sustainable industrial growth of the national economy, tools of accounting engineering aimed at creating an information basis of transformation the Russian economic model to knowledge based economy. The proposed mechanism of ownership control of industrial enterprises in the context of long-term planning of the national economy. Theoretical bases of accounting engineering, its tools are defined. A brief review of the literature on the problem of accounting engineering is provided. A practical example of the application of the accounting engineering logic for the industrial enterprise is reviewed. It describes the research results obtained during the last 25 years of Russian scientific school of accounting engineering. Conclusions and recommendations on the use of accounting engineering to sustainable development of the Russian economy are formulated.

  14. NCGA Statement No. 1: Government Accounting and Financial Reporting Principles. (United States)

    Miller, John R.


    The background and purpose of a publication by the National Council on Governmental Accounting (NCGA) is important to school administrators because the accounting principles are being incorporated in a publication for school systems. (Author/MLF)

  15. Saving Time with Automated Account Management (United States)

    School Business Affairs, 2013


    Thanks to intelligent solutions, schools, colleges, and universities no longer need to manage user account life cycles by using scripts or tedious manual procedures. The solutions house the scripts and manual procedures. Accounts can be automatically created, modified, or deleted in all applications within the school. This article describes how an…

  16. Special Education in New Orleans: Juggling Flexibility, Reinvention, and Accountability in the Nation's Most Decentralized School System. Portfolio Strategy (United States)

    Lake, Robin


    While many charter school leaders across the country grapple with how to best provide and pay for special education, New Orleans recently became the first city in the nation to tackle special education on the fiscal, human capital, and program fronts in the context of a full-choice public education landscape. Over time, it may offer scalable…

  17. Accounting for Resource Use at the School-Level and Below: The Missing Link in Education Administration and Policy Making. Working Paper #09-06 (United States)

    Denison, Dwight V.; Stiefel, Leanna; Hartman, William; Deegan, Michele Moser


    A long standing debate among policymakers as well as researchers is whether and how funding affects the quality of education. Often missing from the discussion is information about the costs of providing education at the school level and below, yet such information could impart a better indication of the linkages between outcomes and resources…

  18. Creating a Statewide Educational Data System for Accountability and Improvement: A Comprehensive Information and Assessment System for Making Evidence-Based Change at School, District, and Policy Levels (United States)

    Felner, Robert D.; Bolton, Natalie; Seitsinger, Anne M.; Brand, Stephen; Burns, Amy


    This article reports on one ongoing statewide effort to create a high-quality data reporting and utilization system (i.e., High-Performance Learning Community [HiPlaces] Assessment) to inform educational accountability and improvement efforts system. This effort has undergoing refinement for more than a decade. The article describes the features…

  19. 26 CFR 1.6035-1 - Returns of U.S. officers, directors and 10-percent shareholders of foreign personal holding... (United States)


    ... corporate, shareholder, and income information for the foreign personal holding company's annual accounting... 898), the taxable year of such corporation shall be treated as its annual accounting period. (2) General corporate information. The general foreign personal holding company information required by this...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2040 - Account 204, Preferred stock issued. (United States)



  1. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued. (United States)



  2. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention? (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan


    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  3. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure (United States)


    ... ReasonReason for the hold. Possible values are: Character (2). • LN = Loan Collateral Hold • LG = Court... structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on a...

  4. Accounting for social accountability: developing critiques of social accountability within medical education. (United States)

    Ritz, Stacey A; Beatty, Kathleen; Ellaway, Rachel H


    The concept of the social accountability of medical schools has garnered many followers, in response to a broad desire for greater social justice in health care. As its use has spread, the term 'social accountability' has become a meta-narrative for social justice and an inevitable and unquestionable good, while at the same time becoming increasingly ambiguous in its meaning and intent. In this article, we use the lenses of postmodernism and critical reflexivity to unpack the multiple meanings of social accountability. In our view, subjecting the concept of 'social accountability' to critique will enhance the ability to appraise the ways in which it is understood and enacted. We contend that critical reflexivity is necessary for social accountability to achieve its aspirations, and hence we must be prepared to become accountable not only for our actions, but also for the ideologies and discourses underlying them.

  5. Cash Holdings and Mutual Fund Performance


    Mikhail Simutin


    Cash holdings of equity mutual funds impose a drag on fund performance but also allow managers to make quick investments in attractive stocks and satisfy outflows without costly fire sales. This article shows that actively managed equity funds with high abnormal cash—that is, with cash holdings in excess of the level predicted by fund attributes—outperform their low abnormal cash peers by over 2% per year. Managers carrying high abnormal cash compensate for the low return on cash by making su...

  6. User-Oriented Project Accounting System. (United States)

    Hess, Larry G.; Alcorn, Lisa S.


    The project accounting system used by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign School of Chemical Sciences exchanges financial data with the campus' central accounting system and allows integration of this information with user-entered data to produce an easily read, fully obligated project accounting statement for the budget and period…

  7. Specifics of financial management of holdings when managing cash-flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ficbauer


    Full Text Available Concentration and cooperation belong to the main attributes of the modern business life. Business competition makes the start of a new business more difficult. Just the moment of concentration and cooperation can make the break to the new business easier. This can be achieved by including new businesses into holding companies. Basically there are two ways how to do a business. These depend on whether company carries out many lines of business or on the amount of asset. The first way is to cover everything with one enterprise and thus to create one accounting unit. The second way is based on a foundation of a holding structure with subsidiaries and the holder on the top. In fact holding is a specific way how to cover business by many subsidiaries.The goal of this article is to describe specifics of a financial management of holdings when managing cash-flow. The focus is on reasons of holding structure and usage of both theoretical and other models of managing cash such as Baumol model, Miller-Orr model and Beránek model. As transfers within the holding organization belong to the main advantageous of holding, the way how to transfer finance from one subsidiary to other or from subsidiary to holder or reversely is handled here.

  8. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that due to informational advantages economists are more likely to hold stocks than otherwise identical investors. Weconfirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stockmarket than investors with any other...

  9. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold. (United States)


    ... Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For... Enterprise or OFHEO that the Enterprise is to retain records relating to a particular issue in connection...

  10. Venezuela and Chavez: What the Future Holds... (United States)


    government made public 26 presidential decrees that had been enacted. These acts: ...covered such areas as tourism , railways, social security, and...great prosperity or a harbinger of doom to the region, and for this reason the United States must prepare for the many paths that the future holds

  11. Biosketch Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner Professorship of Cancer Research at the University of Cambridge, and is the Director of the Medical Research Council. (MRC) Cancer Cell Unit there. He learnt and practiced medicine at the Christian. Medical College, Vellore, before completing his Ph.D. at University College ...

  12. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (United States)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.


    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  13. Effects of holding time and measurement error on culturing Legionella in environmental water samples. (United States)

    Flanders, W Dana; Kirkland, Kimberly H; Shelton, Brian G


    Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease require environmental testing of water samples from potentially implicated building water systems to identify the source of exposure. A previous study reports a large impact on Legionella sample results due to shipping and delays in sample processing. Specifically, this same study, without accounting for measurement error, reports more than half of shipped samples tested had Legionella levels that arbitrarily changed up or down by one or more logs, and the authors attribute this result to shipping time. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the effects of sample holding/shipping time on Legionella sample results while taking into account measurement error, which has previously not been addressed. We analyzed 159 samples, each split into 16 aliquots, of which one-half (8) were processed promptly after collection. The remaining half (8) were processed the following day to assess impact of holding/shipping time. A total of 2544 samples were analyzed including replicates. After accounting for inherent measurement error, we found that the effect of holding time on observed Legionella counts was small and should have no practical impact on interpretation of results. Holding samples increased the root mean squared error by only about 3-8%. Notably, for only one of 159 samples, did the average of the 8 replicate counts change by 1 log. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis of frequent, significant (≥= 1 log10 unit) Legionella colony count changes due to holding. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. From Transactional to Transformational Accounting. (United States)

    Cooper, Bruce S.; Randall, E. Vance


    Accurate transactional financial data are necessary for governmental compliance; transformational information is crucial for measuring and improving school performance. Some districts are shifting from a systems to a service, focus, from partial to full-cost accounting, from centralized to decentralized reporting procedures and facilities, and…

  15. New Federal Cost Accounting Regulations (United States)

    Wolff, George J.; Handzo, Joseph J.


    Discusses a new set of indirect cost accounting procedures which must be followed by school districts wishing to recover any indirect costs of administering federal grants and contracts. Also discusses the amount of indirect costs that may be recovered, computing indirect costs, classifying project costs, and restricted grants. (Author/DN)

  16. Escola Politécnica: possivelmente o primeiro curso formal de contabilidade do estado de São Paulo The Polytechnic School: possibly the first formal accountancy course in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Martins


    Full Text Available Este trabalho demonstra que, diferentemente do que se tem tanto falado, a primeira instituição formal de ensino contábil do Estado de São Paulo foi a Escola Politécnica, fundada em 1894, que ministrava no Curso Preliminar, equivalente ao primeiro ano do curso de engenharia, aulas de Escrituração Mercantil, conferindo aos alunos que fossem aprovados nas disciplinas que integravam esse primeiro módulo, o diploma de Contador. Em 08.12.1900, o Decreto Federal no 727 reconhecia oficialmente os diplomas expedidos pela instituição, desde a sua fundação, independentemente do exercício da profissão. A Fundação Escola de Comércio Álvares Penteado, fundada em 1902, foi a segunda instituição voltada ao ensino contábil nesse Estado. Considerando-se um hiato de oito anos entre a fundação de ambas as instituições, não restam dúvidas de que a Escola Politécnica é a primeira instituição formal de ensino contábil do Estado de São Paulo. Não obstante, um nome surge ligado exponencialmente às duas instituições: Horácio Berlinck.This study demonstrates that, as opposed to what is commonly told, the first accounting teaching institution in São Paulo state was the Polytechnic School, which was founded in 1894 and offered, as part of its Preliminary Course, equivalent to the first year of the engineering course, Mercantile bookkeeping classes, granting to students who graduated in the subjects of this first module the degree of Accountant. On 12/08/1900, Federal Decree no 727 officially recognized the degrees issued by the institutions since the time of its foundation, independently from whether the profession was exercised. The Álvares Penteado School of Commerce Foundation, which was founded in 1902, was the second institution oriented towards accounting teaching in that State. In view of an eight-year gap between the founding of the two institutions, it is beyond doubt that the Polytechnic School is the first accounting


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblyanska Olena


    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to theoretical, methodical and practical issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account. The purpose of the study is to deepen and consolidate the theoretical and practical knowledge of the issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account, identify practical problems with the implementation of the methodology and organization of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account and develop recommendations for the elimination of deficiencies and improve the accounting and auditing. Results. The issue of the relevance of proper accounting and audit of transactions on the current account in the bank is considered. The research of typical operations on the current account was carried out with using of the method of their reflection in the account on practical examples. Features of the audit of transactions on the current account are examined, the procedure for its implementation is presented, and types of abuses and violations that occur while performing operations on the current account are identified. The legal regulation of accounting, analysis and control of operations with cash on current accounts is considered. The problem issues related to the organization and conducting of the audit of funds in the accounts of the bank are analyzed, as well as the directions of their solution are determined. The proposals for determining the sequence of actions of the auditor during the check of cash flow on accounts in the bank are provided. Conclusions. The questions about theoretical, methodological and practical issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account in the bank. A study of typical operations with cash on the current account was carried out with the use of the method of their reflection in the accounts and the features of the auditing of cash on the account.

  18. Conflicting demands of No Child Left Behind and state systems: Mixed messages about school performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Linn


    Full Text Available An ever-increasing reliance on student performance on tests holds schools and educators accountable both to state accountability systems and also to the accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB Act of 2001. While each state has constructed its own definition of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP requirements within the confines of NCLB, substantial differences between the accountability requirements of many state systems and NCLB still have resulted in mixed messages regarding the performance of schools. Several features of NCLB accountability and state accountability systems contribute to the identification of a school as meeting goals according to NCLB but failing to do so according to the state accountability system, or vise versa. These include the multiple hurdles of NCLB, the comparison of performance against a fixed target rather than changes in achievement, and the definition of performance goals. The result of these features is a set of AYP measures that is inconsistent both with existing state accountability systems and also with state NAEP performance. Using existing achievement to set the cut-score measured by AYP and using the highest-performing schools to set the year-to-year improvement standards would improve the NCLB accountability system.

  19. Reliable quantification of BOLD fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity despite poor breath-hold performance. (United States)

    Bright, Molly G; Murphy, Kevin


    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) can be mapped using BOLD fMRI to provide a clinical insight into vascular health that can be used to diagnose cerebrovascular disease. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges. This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges (10, 15, or 20 s duration) interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data. Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability (ICC0.4). Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain (ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation) supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance. We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable measurement of CVR that makes breath-hold challenges suitable for routine clinical practice. © 2013.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA


    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  1. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio holdings...

  2. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a savings...

  3. 76 FR 20459 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Savings and Loan Holding Company... officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual who owns, controls, or holds with power...

  4. Regulation of Cross-holdings between European Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig


    Cross-holdings can be a barrier to takeovers, and they may have other disadvantages. This article analyses how cross-holdings may be regulated to avoid these negative effects.......Cross-holdings can be a barrier to takeovers, and they may have other disadvantages. This article analyses how cross-holdings may be regulated to avoid these negative effects....

  5. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies. (United States)


    ... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971, the... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section...

  6. Single-Sex Schools, the Law, and School Reform. (United States)

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.


    Discusses the history of single-sex schools and analyzes the legal status of these schools, reviewing constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination and the leading cases that have been litigated on these issues. Offers reflections on why single-sex schools are not likely to hold a major place in the future of urban U.S. public schools.…

  7. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988.

  8. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  9. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (United States)


    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this part...

  10. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? (United States)


    ... holding company to become a financial holding company shall not be effective if, during the period...) Effective date of election—(1) In general. An election filed by a bank holding company under paragraph (a... financial holding company is effective prior to the 31st day after the date that a complete declaration was...

  11. Business and production performance of different types of agricultural holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Rosić


    Full Text Available Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN was established in the EU in 1965 and now it is obligated for all member states of the EU. The system is based on an annual collection of production, economic and financial data from a representative sample of comercial farms, classified into groups according to the criteria of economic farm size, type of agricultural production and regional affiliation. Research made by FADN system represent the European Commission instrument for evaluating the income of agricultural producers and determining the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU on their business. In this paper the comparison is made between production and economic indicators of different types of agricultural holdings (field crops; horticulture crops; permanent crops, orchards and olive yards; dairy farms; grazing livestock; pig and poultry farms and mixed farms. On the basis of Standard Results for the year 2014 it is possible to conclude that in Croatia field crops and grazing livestock farms lead by their utilized agricultural area. Pig and poultry farming have the most livestock units, while the most working hours is spent in the cultivation of vegetables and flowers. The highest values of labor productivity have holdings that are engaged in the production of vegetables and flowers, while the lowest labor productivity have grazing livestock farms. Cost-effectiveness of all types of farms exceeding a value of 1. The highest value of the gross income is achieved at pig and poultry farms, while the smallest has a mixed type of farms. The average farm direct payments account for a high 44% in the net income, and the largest share of direct payments in the net income has field crop type of farms.

  12. Conservationism is not Conservatism: Do Interest Group Endorsements Help Voters Hold Representatives Accountable?


    Kaufman, Aaron


    Much research assumes that voters know or can learn the positions their representatives take on key issue. Arthur Lupia found that voters could learn such information through advertisements and interest group endorsements. We examine whether these cues improve voters’ ability to infer their representative’s voting behavior and find that most interest groups fail to do so. In a follow-up study, we find that voters are ignorant of which positions the interest groups take on issues. Finally, we ...

  13. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.


    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  14. Holding Government Accountable: Tobacco Policy Making in California, 1995-1997


    Balbach, Edith D. Ph.D.; Monardi, Fred M. Ph.D.; Fox, Brion J. J.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.


    January 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997 was an active period for tobacco policy making in California. The fight in Spring, 1996, over the allocation of Proposition 99 revenues was more public and aggressive than it had been in the past, an increased level of public scrutiny was brought to bear on the implementation of the media campaign, the state of California’s failure to sue the tobacco industry for recovery of medical costs became a political issue, and the tobacco industry continued to give...

  15. Holding Colleges and Universities Accountable for Meeting State Needs. Challenge to Lead Series (United States)

    Diaz, Alicia A.; Lord, Joan; Marks, Joseph L.


    Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Tennessee have given all the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states a new tool to help focus their colleges and universities on state needs. These three states have created plans for their higher education institutions by drawing on leadership from a broad range of state agencies. They identified state needs and…

  16. Social Responsibility of Accounting


    JINNAI, Yoshiaki


    Historical and theoretical inquiries into the function of accounting have provided fruitful insights into social responsibility of accounting, which is, and should be, based on accounts kept through everyday accounting activities. However, at the current stage of capitalist accounting, keeping accounts is often regarded as merely a preparatory process for creating financial statements at the end of an accounting period. Thus, discussions on the social responsibility of accounting tend to conc...

  17. 24 CFR 984.305 - FSS account. (United States)


    ..., graduate school), or job training, or to meet start-up expenses involved in creation of a small business... is receiving any welfare assistance, and contacting welfare agencies. (d) Succession to FSS account...

  18. Integrated Facilities Management and Fixed Asset Accounting. (United States)

    Golz, W. C., Jr.


    A record of a school district's assets--land, buildings, machinery, and equipment--can be a useful management tool that meets accounting requirements and provides appropriate information for budgeting, forecasting, and facilities management. (MLF)

  19. Multiple Measures Accountability Systems: A Perspective from Vermont (United States)

    Fowler, Amy


    In response to Bae's (2018) "Redesigning systems of school accountability: A multiple measures approach to accountability and support," this commentary expands on some key considerations for states and school districts as they seek different ways to support school improvement while also addressing the competing demands of educators,…

  20. Risk-Based Educational Accountability in Dutch Primary Education (United States)

    Timmermans, A. C.; de Wolf, I. F.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.


    A recent development in educational accountability is a risk-based approach, in which intensity and frequency of school inspections vary across schools to make educational accountability more efficient and effective by enabling inspectorates to focus on organizations at risk. Characteristics relevant in predicting which schools are "at risk…

  1. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants (United States)

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.





    This paper reports the results of a survey designed to explore if accounting practitioners are using as a reference point in their daily activities the opinions of academia. Since accounting research comprises various trends of research the earnings management research field is used as illustrative case. Among our respondents were accounting professional, members of professional bodies as the Chamber of Financial Auditors or Romania and also Body of Expert and Licensed Accountants...





    The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain thr...

  4. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè


    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  5. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E


    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London...

  6. The Economics of an Admissions Holding Unit. (United States)

    Schreyer, Kraftin E; Martin, Richard


    With increasing attention to the actual cost of delivering care, return-on-investment calculations take on new significance. Boarded patients in the emergency department (ED) are harmful to clinical care and have significant financial opportunity costs. We hypothesize that investment in an admissions holding unit for admitted ED patients not only captures opportunity cost but also significantly lowers direct cost of care. This was a three-phase study at a busy urban teaching center with significant walkout rate. We first determined the true cost of maintaining a staffed ED bed for one patient-hour and compared it to alternative settings. The opportunity cost for patients leaving without being seen was then conservatively estimated. Lastly, a convenience sample of admitted patients boarding in the ED was observed continuously from one hour after decision-to-admit until physical departure from the ED to capture a record of every interaction with a nurse or physician. Personnel costs per patient bed-hour were $58.20 for the ED, $24.80 for an inpatient floor, $19.20 for the inpatient observation unit, and $10.40 for an admissions holding area. An eight-bed holding unit operating at practical capacity would free 57.4 hours of bed space in the ED and allow treatment of 20 additional patients. This could yield increased revenues of $27,796 per day and capture opportunity cost of $6.09 million over 219 days, in return for extra staffing costs of $218,650. Analysis of resources used for boarded patients was determined by continuous observation of a convenience sample of ED-boarded patients, which found near-zero interactions with both nursing and physicians during the boarding interval. Resource expense per ED bed-hour is more than twice that in non-critical care inpatient units. Despite the high cost of available resources, boarded non-critical patients receive virtually no nursing or physician attention. An admissions holding unit is remarkably effective in avoiding the

  7. Hold-down device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.; Bonnamour, M.


    The present device can be used in nuclear reactors and more particularly in pressurized water reactors consisting of coupled fuel assemblies, certain of which are equipped with non-displaceable elements carried by an unsertable member. The device comprises the unsertable member provided with at least two sets of springs which transmit the load of an upper structure common to the fuel assemblies ajacent that which supports the unsertable member. The device is used to hold-down fuel assemblies which are subjected to the forces of circulating coolant [fr

  8. The Economics of an Admissions Holding Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraftin E. Schreyer


    Full Text Available Introduction: With increasing attention to the actual cost of delivering care, return-on-investment calculations take on new significance. Boarded patients in the emergency department (ED are harmful to clinical care and have significant financial opportunity costs. We hypothesize that investment in an admissions holding unit for admitted ED patients not only captures opportunity cost but also significantly lowers direct cost of care. Methods: This was a three-phase study at a busy urban teaching center with significant walkout rate. We first determined the true cost of maintaining a staffed ED bed for one patient-hour and compared it to alternative settings. The opportunity cost for patients leaving without being seen was then conservatively estimated. Lastly, a convenience sample of admitted patients boarding in the ED was observed continuously from one hour after decision-to-admit until physical departure from the ED to capture a record of every interaction with a nurse or physician. Results: Personnel costs per patient bed-hour were $58.20 for the ED, $24.80 for an inpatient floor, $19.20 for the inpatient observation unit, and $10.40 for an admissions holding area. An eight-bed holding unit operating at practical capacity would free 57.4 hours of bed space in the ED and allow treatment of 20 additional patients. This could yield increased revenues of $27,796 per day and capture opportunity cost of $6.09 million over 219 days, in return for extra staffing costs of $218,650. Analysis of resources used for boarded patients was determined by continuous observation of a convenience sample of ED-boarded patients, which found near-zero interactions with both nursing and physicians during the boarding interval. Conclusion: Resource expense per ED bed-hour is more than twice that in non-critical care inpatient units. Despite the high cost of available resources, boarded non-critical patients receive virtually no nursing or physician attention. An

  9. Incorporating Sustainability Issues into the Financial Accounting Curriculum (United States)

    Haskin, Daniel L.; Burke, Megan M.


    Changes in the views that society holds of capital allocation suggest that sustainability reporting needs to be incorporated into the financial accounting curriculum. This paper reviews the background and history of corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting and discusses formation of the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board…

  10. Safeguards Accountability Network accountability and materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnival, G.J.; Meredith, E.M.


    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is a computerized on-line accountability system for the safeguards accountability control of nuclear materials inventories at Rocky Flats Plant. SAN is a dedicated accountability system utilizing source documents filled out on the shop floor as its base. The system incorporates double entry accounting and is developed around the Material Balance Area (MBA) concept. MBA custodians enter transaction information from source documents prepared by personnel in the process areas directly into the SAN system. This provides a somewhat near-real time perpetual inventory system which has limited interaction with MBA custodians. MBA custodians are permitted to inquire into the system and status items on inventory. They are also responsible for the accuracy of the accountability information used as input to the system for their MBA. Monthly audits by the Nuclear Materials Control group assure the timeliness and accuracy of SAN accountability information

  11. Reconceptualizing Environmental Education: Taking Account of Reality. (United States)

    Dillon, Justin; Teamey, Kelly


    Investigates the pros and cons of integrating environmental education into the school curriculum. Focusing solely on environmental education's role in the school curriculum ignores a range of factors that affect its efficacy in the majority of the world. Suggests a conceptualization of environmental education that takes into account a range of…

  12. Accountability in Education -- the Michigan Experience (United States)

    Murphy, Jerome T.; Cohen, David K.


    One view of accountability focuses on schemes that assume that if government can get more rational information and use it in more scientific ways, the schools' performance can be improved; the other assumes that the schools' problems are less scientific than political and that clients and constituents should influence educational decisions more…

  13. Accounting Standards: What Do They Mean? (United States)

    Farley, Jerry B.


    Four recent and proposed changes in national school accounting standards have significant policy implications for colleges and universities. These changes address (1) standards regarding postemployment benefits other than pensions, (2) depreciation, (3) financial report format, and (4) contributions and pledges made to the school. Governing boards…

  14. Should Reformers Support Education Savings Accounts? (United States)

    Ladner, Matthew; Smith, Nelson


    In this article, "Education Next" talks with Matthew Ladner and Nelson Smith on the topic of Education Savings Accounts (ESAs). ESAs apply the logic of school choice to the ever-expanding realm of education offerings. Rather than simply empowering families to select the school of their choice, ESAs provide families with most or all of…

  15. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions (United States)

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir


    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  17. Forum: Is Test-Based Accountability Dead? (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Greene, Jay P.; Huffman, Kevin


    Since the 2001 passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), test-based accountability has been an organizing principle--perhaps "the" organizing principle--of efforts to improve American schools. But lately, accountability has been under fire from many critics, including Common Core opponents and those calling for more multifaceted…

  18. Small forest holdings could be combined for hunting leases (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Lowell K. Halls


    Most forest land acreage in the South is in small holdings. Much-needed hunting land, and income for rural landowners, could be provided by combining small forest holdings into large units and teasing the hunting rights.

  19. Corporate Governance, Cash Holdings, and Firm Value: Evidence from Japan


    Qi Luo; Toyohiko Hachiya


    This paper presents evidence on cash holdings for Japanese firms listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, focusing on the impact of corporate governance factors in cash holdings and the implication of cash holdings to firm value. We find that insider ownership and bank relations of firms play a significant role in determining cash holdings. Our results indicate that foreign stockholders select profitable firms to invest, and these firms have higher levels of cash. We document evidence that cash ho...

  20. Governance mechanisms, investment opportunity set and SMEs cash holdings


    Belghitar, Yacine; Khan, James


    This study analyses the effect of firm characteristics and governance mechanisms on cash holdings for a sample of UK SMEs. The results show that UK SMEs with greater cash flow volatility and institutional investors hold more cash; whereas levered and dividend paying SMEs with non-executive ownership hold less cash. We also find that ownership structure is significant only in explaining the cash holdings for firms with high growth investment opportunities, and leverage is only significant in e...

  1. Traditional Market Accounting: Management or Financial Accounting?


    Wiyarni, Wiyarni


    The purpose of this study is to explore the area of accounting in traditional market. There are two areas of accounting: management and financial accounting. Some of traditional market traders have prepared financial notes, whereas some of them do not. Their financial notes usually consist of receivables, payables, customer orders, inventories, sales and cost price, and salary expenses. The purpose of these financial notes is usually for decision making. It is very rare for the traditional ma...

  2. Multi-professional holding: A new way of connecting liberal profession in the French legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežić-Popović Dragana


    Full Text Available In recent decades, significant changes occur in the exercise of the liberal professions. In particular, the French legislator made a big step forward, after almost fifty years of searching for the optimal solution, anticipating the holding of the liberal professions that establishes the principle of multi-professional connections on the basis of equity investments. The companies for the financial participation of the liberal professions can have a share in the capital assets of companies for performing the liberal professions as well as in business entities of General Corporate Law, and which have as their subject the performance of two or more professions including: attorney-at-law, notaries, bailiffs, court appraisers, accountants, auditors and advisers for industrial property. In other words, this is to allow the establishment of a holding company whose branches conduct their regulated profession in these domains. The aim was to create a network of companies from different professions in law, accounting and industrial property, whose connective tissue is the capital, and thereby strengthen their global competitive ability in domestic and foreign markets services. Also the possibility is prescribed that the companies for financial participation take part in each group of foreign law which has as its subject in performance of one or more of the mentioned professions, in order to create international, primarily European network of companies for performing liberal professions. Multi-professional holding has certain specific characteristics in relation to the holding of general law, among which are of particular importance two protective measures: more than half of the capital and voting rights of the holding company should hold the professionals who exercise their profession in the branches; the management board shall be elected among the members who perform their professions in the branches. Holding of the liberal professions has its own

  3. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment (United States)


    1 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL M terey, California 0 DTIC II ELECTE R AD%$° NO 0,19880 -- THESIS COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO NO ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) E COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...GROUP ’" Cost Accounting ; Product Costing ; Automated Manufacturing; CAD/CAM- CIM 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by blo

  4. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.


    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  5. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents...

  6. 76 FR 35085 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company... Proposal: Savings Loan Holding Company Application. OMB Number: 1550-0015. Form Numbers: H-(e). Description... that no company, or any director or officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual...

  7. Creditor rights, country governance, and corporate cash holdings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Bruce; Gonenc, Halit


    This study examines the impact of creditor rights and country governance on cash holdings using a sample of firms from 47 countries. We hypothesize that cash holdings are smaller when both creditor rights and country governance are high. In these circumstances firms will not need to hold as much

  8. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies. (United States)


    ... follows: Federal MHC Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate... subsidiary holding company available for distribution, in cash or in kind. Each share of common stock shall... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidiary holding companies. 575.14 Section...

  9. "Hold Harmless" Option for Staff Babysitting and Employee References (United States)

    Bruno, Holly Elissa


    Help for educators and administrators may be on the way in the form of "hold harmless" documents that allow for flexibility in enforcing program policies. Having a "No Babysitting policy," and "Hold Harmless" documentation will not stop one's program from being sued. However, with the "No Babysitting policy" and "Hold Harmless" documentation…

  10. 78 FR 31590 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates... (United States)


    ... (``My position at Sears had nothing to do with Analytics or space Management. I worked in Marketing... firm clarified that one petitioner supplied print marketing management services, another petitioner... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,253] Sears Holdings Management...

  11. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  12. Holding back, intimacy, and psychological and relationship outcomes among couples coping with prostate cancer. (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Kissane, David; Zaider, Talia; Kashy, Deborah; Lee, David; Heckman, Carolyn; Virtue, Shannon Myers


    The present study evaluated intimacy as a mechanism for the effects of holding back sharing concerns about cancer on couples' psychological distress, well-being, and marital satisfaction using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), and evaluated 2 possible moderators of these associations: the number of patient and spouse cancer concerns. We had 139 men treated for localized prostate cancer in the past year and their spouses complete surveys about holding back sharing cancer concerns, intimacy, distress, and relationship satisfaction, as well as patient and spouse cancer concerns. APIM-indicated that the association between holding back sharing concerns, and patient and spouse distress, well-being, and relationship satisfaction could be partially accounted for by their influence on patient and spouse perceptions of relationship intimacy. The number of cancer concerns did not moderate the mediational model. Holding back has strong associations with both partners' well-being and distress. Holding back sharing concerns was particularly detrimental for couples' intimacy and relationship satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Multiple job holding, local labor markets, and the business cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry T. Hirsch


    Full Text Available Abstract About 5 % of US workers hold multiple jobs, which can exacerbate or mitigate employment changes over the business cycle. Theory is ambiguous and prior literature is not fully conclusive. We examine the relationship between multiple job holding and local unemployment rates using a large Current Population Survey data set of workers in urban labor markets during 1998–2013. Labor markets with high unemployment have moderately lower rates of multiple job holding. Yet no relationship between multiple job holding and unemployment is found within markets over time, with near-zero estimates being precisely estimated. Multiple job holding is largely acyclic. JEL Classification: J21

  14. How "accountable" are accountable care organizations? (United States)

    Addicott, Rachael; Shortell, Stephen M


    The establishment of accountable care organizations (ACOs) in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was intended to support both cost savings and high-quality care. However, a key challenge will be to ensure that governance and accountability mechanisms are sufficient to support those twin ambitions. This exploratory study considers how recently developed ACOs have established governance structures and accountability mechanisms, particularly focusing on attempts at collaborative accountability and shared governance arrangements. Four case studies of ACOs across the United States were undertaken, with data collected throughout 2012. These involved 34 semistructured interviews with ACO administrative and clinical leaders, observation of nine meetings, and a review of documentary materials from each ACO. We identified very few examples of physicians being held to account as a collective and therefore only limited evidence of collaborative accountability impacting on behavior change. However, ACO leaders do have many mechanisms available to stimulate change across physicians. The challenge is to determine governance structure(s) and accountability mechanisms that facilitate the most effective combination of approaches, measures, incentives, and sanctions to achieve the goals of more accountable care. Accountability structures and processes will need to be tailored to local membership composition, historical evolution, and current stage of development. There are also some common lessons to be drawn. Shared goals and incentives should be reflected through performance criteria. It is important to align measures and thresholds across payers to ensure ACOs are not unnecessarily burdened or compromised by reporting on different and potentially disjointed measures. Finally, emphasis needs to be placed on the importance of credible, transparent data. This exploratory study provides early evidence regarding how ACOs are establishing their governance and accountability arrangements and

  15. History and meaning of the Accounting Olympics. First Accounting Olympics held by the Accounting department of the University of Economics - Varna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamena Nedyalkova


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show the significance of the accounting Olympics for high school students. They can be use not only to test the level in which the students have mastered the accounting knowledge but as well to ensure they’re much more smooth transition from the high school to the university.

  16. 18 CFR 367.106 - Accounts 426.1, 426.2, 426.3, 426.4, and 426.5, Miscellaneous expense accounts. (United States)



  17. A Harmonious Accounting Duo? (United States)

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.


    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  18. Tritium accounting for PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.; Duraisamy, S.


    Tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear reactions in the nuclear power plants. In a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) tritium activity is produced in the Heat Transport and Moderator systems due to neutron activation of deuterium in heavy water used in these systems. Tritium activity build up occurs in some of the water systems in the PHWR plants through pick up from the plant atmosphere, inadvertent D 2 O ingress from other systems or transfer during processes. The tritium, produced by the neutron induced reactions in different systems in the reactor undergoes multiple processes such as escape through leaks, storage, transfer to external locations, decay, evaporation and diffusion and discharge though waste streams. Change of location of tritium inventory takes place during intentional transfer of heavy water, both reactor grade and downgraded, from one system to another. Tritium accounting is the application of accounting techniques to maintain knowledge of the tritium inventory present in different systems of a facility and to construct activity balances to detect any discrepancy in the physical inventories. It involves identification of all the tritium hold ups, transfers and storages as well as measurement of tritium inventories in various compartments, decay corrections, environmental release estimations and evaluation of activity generation during the accounting period. This paper describes a methodology for creating tritium inventory balance based on periodic physical inventory taking, tritium build up, decay and release estimations. Tritium accounting in the PHWR plants can prove to be an effective regulatory tool to monitor its loss as well as unaccounted release to the environment. (author)

  19. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen


    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  20. School Climate and Leadership: Levers for School Improvement Efforts (United States)

    Costa, Lois


    This qualitative study considers which aspects of school climate support or inhibit student achievement as each aspect relates to school leadership and school reform efforts. Due to the increased responsibility and accountability which schools face during these challenging times, school climate and the role of the school principal formed the basis…

  1. Methodology of Segment Management Reporting on the Profitability of Agricultural Holding Interaction with Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vasilyevna Glushchenko


    Full Text Available The state program of agricultural development and regulation of agricultural products, raw materials and food in a food embargo on the West European suppliers is aimed at the revitalization of the holding structures. The main purpose of agricultural holdings is to ensure food safety and to maximize the consolidated profit in resource-limited settings. The heterogeneous nature of the needs of customers, leading to different performance of agricultural holding interaction with them has an impact on the formulation and conduct of accounting and requires the formation of an aggregated and relevant information about the profitability of relationships with groups of customers and the long-term development strategy of agroformation interaction with them, so there is a need for research and development methodical bases of formation of the administrative reporting segment that meets the needs of modern practice. The purpose of this study is to develop a method of forming the segment management reporting on the profitability of agricultural holding interaction with customers. As part of the problem research, the authors used different scientific methods, such as analysis, synthesis, observation, group data and logic synthesis. The article discusses the necessity of segmentation agricultural holding customers by the criterion of “cooperation profitability”. The basic problem of generating information about the cost of trading in the accounting information system of agricultural holdings is dealt with; a method of forming the segment management reporting based on the results of the ABC analysis including calculation algorithm functional trade costs (Activity-Based Costing, is developed; rank order of agroholding customers is suggested in accordance with the calculated interval limits for them: Segment A - “highly profitable customers,” B - “problem customers” and C - “low-profit customers”; a set of registers and management accounting

  2. Safeguards Accountability Network accountability and materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnival, G.J.; Meredith, E.M.


    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is an on-line accountability system used by Rocky Flats Plant to provide accountability control of its nuclear material inventory. The system is also used to monitor and evaluate the use of the nuclear material inventory against programmatic objectives for materials management. The SAN system utilizes two Harris 800 Computers as central processing units. Enhancement plans are currently being formulated to provide automated data collection from process operations on the shop floor and from non-destructive analysis safeguards instrumentation. SAN, discussed in this paper, is an excellent system for basic accountability control of nuclear materials inventories and is a quite useful tool in evaluating the efficient use of nuclear materials inventories at Rocky Flats Plant

  3. New Horizons For Accounting: Social Accounting


    Ertuna, Özer


    Currently financial accounting function is going through an accelerated transformation. In this transformation the area of interest of the accounting function is expanding to serve the information needs of a greater number of interest groups’ wider spectrum of interests with financial, economic, social and environmental data related to the performance of companies. This transformation is initiated by the developments in stakeholder, corporate social responsibility, sustainability and environm...

  4. Accounting as Myth Maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Rudkin


    Full Text Available Accounting is not only a technical apparatus, but also manifests a societal dimension. Thispaper proposes that accounting is a protean and complex form of myth making, and as suchforms a cohesive tenet in societies. It is argued that there are intrinsic parallels between thetheoretical attributes of myth and accounting practice, and that these mythicalcharacteristics sustain the existence and acceptance of accounting and its consequences insocieties over time. A theoretical exploration of accounting as a form of myth revealsaccounting as pluralistic and culturally sensitive. Such an analysis challenges theoreticalexplanations of accounting that are presented as a “grand narrative” universalunderstanding of accounting. Manifestations of the attributes of myth are described in thecalculus and artefacts of accounting practice to demonstrate how accounting stories andbeliefs are used as a form of myth by individuals to inform and construe their worldpicture.

  5. Accountability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten; Byrkjeflot, Haldor


    The debate on accountability within the public sector has been lively in the past decade. Significant progress has been made in developing conceptual frameworks and typologies for characterizing different features and functions of accountability. However, there is a lack of sector specific...... adjustment of such frameworks. In this article we present a framework for analyzing accountability within health care. The paper makes use of the concept of "accountability regime" to signify the combination of different accountability forms, directions and functions at any given point in time. We show...... that reforms can introduce new forms of accountability, change existing accountability relations or change the relative importance of different accountability forms. They may also change the dominant direction and shift the balance between different functions of accountability. We further suggest...

  6. What ever happened to accountability? (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas E


    When leaders don't fire underperforming executives, they send a bad message to the whole organization. A case in point is the U.S. Army. "To study the change in the army across the two decades between World War II and Vietnam," Ricks writes, "is to learn how a culture of high standards and accountability can deteriorate." In this essay, adapted from his new book, The Generals: American Military Command from World War II to Today, Ricks illuminates the contrast between General George C. Marshall, an unlikely figure of quiet resolve who became a classic transformational Leader, and the disastrous generals of the Vietnam era. In Vietnam, he writes, the honesty and accountability of Marshall's system were replaced by deceit and command indiscipline. If inadequate leaders are allowed to remain in command of an enterprise, their superiors must look for other ways to accomplish its goals. In Vietnam commanders turned to micromanagement, hovering overhead in helicopters to direct (and interfere with) squad leaders and platoon leaders on the ground. This both undercut combat effectiveness and denied small-unit leaders the opportunity to grow by making decisions under extreme pressure. In Iraq and Afghanistan, Ricks writes, though U.S. troops fought their battles magnificently, their generals often seemed ill equipped for the tasks at hand-especially the difficult but essential job of turning victories on the ground into strategic progress. This brief but powerful history of the army since World War II holds stark lessons for business leaders.

  7. Harmonisation of agricultural accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sedláček


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the accounting of the biological assets. There are described two approaches: Czech and international. The International Accounting Standards are emulative of more authentic presentment of economic processes in agricultural activities than Czech accounting legislation. From the comparison the both approaches accrued some differences, which can influent the financial statements of enterprises. The causation of main difference appears an application of fair value, which is prescribed for biological assets in international accounting standards. In international accounting standards is preferred principle of fair and true view, while in Czech accounting is preferred prudence principle.

  8. Dead space variability of face masks for valved holding chambers. (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Newhouse, Michael T


    Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC will be inhaled with each breath, thus speeding VHC emptying and improving overall aerosol delivery efficiency and dose. Masks may have different DSV and thus different performance. To compare both physical dead space and functional dead space of different face masks under various applied pressures. The DSV of three commonly used face masks of VHCs was measured by water displacement both under various pressures (to simulate real-life application, dynamic DSV) and under no pressure (static DSV). There was a great variability of both static and dynamic dead space among various face mask for VHCs, which is probably related to their flexibility. Different masks have different DSV characteristics. This variability should be taken into account when comparing the clinical efficacy of various VHCs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available What is computer-assisted accounting? Where is the place and what is the role of the computer in the financial-accounting activity? What is the position and importance of the computer in the accountant’s activity? All these are questions that require scientific research in order to find the answers. The paper approaches the issue of the support granted to the accountant to organize and manage the accounting activity by the computer. Starting from the notions of accounting and computer, the concept of computer-assisted accounting is introduced, it has a general character and it refers to the accounting performed with the help of the computer or using the computer to automate the procedures performed by the person who is doing the accounting activity; this is a concept used to define the computer applications of the accounting activity. The arguments regarding the use of the computer to assist accounting targets the accounting informatization, the automating of the financial-accounting activities and the endowment with modern technology of the contemporary accounting.

  10. The water holding capacity of bark in Danish angiosperm trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hanne Marie Ellegård; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    The water holding capacity of bark in seven Danish angiosperm trees was examined. The aim of the study was (1) to examine height trends and (2) bark thickness trends in relation to the water holding capacity and (3) to determine interspecific differences. The wet-weight and dry-weight of a total...... number of 427 bark samples were measured. The water holding capacity was calculated as the difference between wet-weight and dry-weight per wet-weight. The water holding capacity increased with elevation in most tree species and contrary to the expectation, thinner bark generally had a higher water...... holding capacity. Differences in the water holding capacity of bark may influence the occurrence and distribution of a wide range of bark-living organisms including the distribution of corticolous lichens....

  11. Passing It On: Parent-to-Adult Child Financial Transfers for School and Socioeconomic Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Rauscher


    Full Text Available As wealth inequality increases, the importance of parental financial transfers for socioeconomic attainment may also rise. Using data from the 2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics Rosters and Transfers Module, this study investigates two questions: how parental financial transfers for education have changed over time, and what the relationship is between these transfers and adult socioeconomic outcomes. Results suggest that transfers for education have increased, have become more commonplace, and have become more dependent on parental wealth over time. Holding constant several individual and parental measures, the relationship between parental transfers for school and adult socioeconomic attainment is positive. This relationship holds when using three-stage least squares models to account for potential endogeneity of financial transfers for school. Overall, results support arguments that parental financial transfers for education facilitate the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic standing.

  12. Social Security Individual Accounts in China: Toward Sustainability in Individual Account Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Chen


    Full Text Available China has both mandatory and voluntary individual account pensions that are provided through the government. The experience of China makes a particularly interesting case study concerning the functioning of individual accounts in that its mandatory individual accounts have been defunded to pay for benefits in the associated pay-as-you-go system, while its voluntary individual accounts are fully funded. This paper examines three questions. First, it analyses why the mandatory individual accounts have become defunded and converted largely to notional accounts generally holding little in financial assets, while the voluntary accounts have been fully funded. Second, it examines the merits of funding versus pay-as-you-go financing of pensions in the context of China’s economic and demographic situation. Third, it discusses a policy change to insure the sustainability of financing for the defunded individual accounts. The experience of China, with its two types of individual accounts, and with different outcomes for those accounts, may provide lessons for other countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  14. Accountability: A Mosaic Image (United States)

    Turner, Teri


    The problems involved in definition, implementation and control of accountability processes are discussed. It is stated that "...emotional involvement in accountability is one of the most difficult aspects to deal with, the chief emotion being fear". (Author/RW)

  15. Keeping Books of Account



    Books of account are a record of a company’s income and spending. These records may be kept in paper or electronic form. The books of account contain the information for preparing the company’s annual financial statements.

  16. Culture and Accounting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina


    Besides the financial statements, rules, and calculations, the accounting also impliesprofessional reasoning, and the organizational culture promoted within the firm influences theaccounting decisions. We analyzed and identified several of accounting policies determined by thecorporate governance and organizational culture influence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena BIGIOI


    Full Text Available Time is money. Every accountant knows that. In our country, the taxes are changing frequently. The accountants have to update their fiscal knowledge. The purpose of the article is to find how the accountants manage their time, taking into consideration the number of fiscal declarations and the fiscal changes. In this article we present some ways to improve time management for accountants.

  18. Accounting Applications---Introduction


    Joshua Ronen


    Introduction to special issue on accounting applications. By publishing these papers together in one issue of Management Science we wish to accomplish the dual purpose of exposing management scientists to the application of their discipline to important accounting problems and of allowing management scientists and accountants to interact in areas of research and problem-solving, thus stimulating the interest of readers who are concerned with the problems of accounting.

  19. Cash Advance Accounting: Accounting Regulations and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila


    Full Text Available It is known the fact that often the entities offer to staff or third parties certain amounts of money, in order to make payments for the entities, such sums being registered differently in the accounting as cash advances. In the case in which the advances are offered in a foreign currency, there is the problem of the exchange rate used when justifying the advance, for the conversion in lei of payments that were carried out. In this article we wanted to signal the effect that the exchange rate, used in the assessment for reflecting in the accounting operations concerning cash advance reimbursements in a foreign currency, has on the information presented in the financial statement. Therewith, we signal some aspects from the content of the accounting regulations, with reference at defining the cash advances, meaning, and the presentation in the balance sheet of cash advances, which, in our opinion, impose clarifications.

  20. The Determinants and Implications of Corporate Cash Holdings


    Tim Opler; Lee Pinkowitz; Rene Stulz; Rohan Williamson


    We examine the determinants and implications of holdings of cash and marketable" securities by publicly traded U.S. firms in the 1971-1994 period. Firms with strong growth" opportunities and riskier cash flows hold relatively high ratios of cash to total assets. Firms" that have the greatest access to the capital markets (e.g. large firms and those with credit" ratings) tend to hold lower ratios of cash to total assets. These results are consistent with the" view that firms hold liquid assets...

  1. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika


    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  2. Designing account management organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, van der H.W.C.; Kempeners, M.A.


    Organizational structures of account management systems are one of the most interesting and controversial parts of account management systems, because of the variety of organizational options that are available. The main focus is on the organization of account management systems and particularly on

  3. Lo Strategic Management Accounting




    Il saggio indaga gli aggregati informativi e gli elementi che compongono lo strategic management accounting. Sono quindi analizzate le funzioni svolte nei diversi stadi del processo di gestione strategica osservando il suo ruolo all’interno del management accounting. Infine sono approfonditi i rapporti fra i livelli della gestione strategica e lo strategic management accounting.

  4. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide. (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  5. The Accounting Capstone Problem (United States)

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.


    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  6. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide. (United States)

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  7. Accountability in district nursing practice: key concepts. (United States)

    Griffith, Richard


    Public trust and confidence in district nurses is essential to the nurse-patient relationship that underpins effective care and treatment. That trust and confidence has even greater focus for district nurses who care for patients in their own homes. Those patients need to be able to count on the professionalism and probity of their district nurses. The professionalism and probity of district nurses is based on their accountability, which protects the public by imposing standards on district nurses and holds them answerable for their acts and omissions. This is the first of a series of articles on accountability in district nursing practice to mark the introduction of the revised Nursing and Midwifery Code on the 31 March 2015. This month's article considers the key concepts of accountability.

  8. The Responsibilities of Accountants


    Ronald F Duska


    An accountant is a good accountant if in practicing his craft he is superb in handling the numbers. But a good accountant in handling the numbers can use that skill to misstate earnings to cover a multitude of problems with a company's books while staying within the law. So, the notion of a moral or ethical accountant is not the same as the notion of a good accountant. Our general principle would be that to be ethical a person has a responsibility to fulfil one's role or roles, as long as tha...

  9. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, A.H.


    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  10. 18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. (United States)


    ... service company can furnish complete information as to the nature and the purpose of the survey, plans, or... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005...

  11. 18 CFR 367.2420 - Account 242, Miscellaneous current and accrued liabilities. (United States)



  12. 18 CFR 367.1110 - Account 111, Accumulated provision for amortization of service company property. (United States)



  13. 12 CFR 575.9 - Charters and bylaws for mutual holding companies and their savings association subsidiaries. (United States)


    ...' Loan Act, 12 U.S.C. 1467a(o), and to exercise all of the express, implied, and incidental powers... account holders of the Association on such basis and in accordance with such terms and conditions as may... corporate title of each mutual holding company shall include the term “mutual” or the abbreviation “M.H.C...

  14. 17 CFR 250.53 - Certain registered holding company financings in connection with the acquisition of one or more... (United States)


    ... Financial Transactions 2 § 250.53 Certain registered holding company financings in connection with the acquisition of one or more exempt wholesale generators. (a) In determining whether to approve the issue or... shall be kept in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). (B...

  15. Influence of pressure on the properties of chromatographic columns. II. The column hold-up volume. (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Martin, Michel; Guiochon, Georges


    The effect of the local pressure and of the average column pressure on the hold-up column volume was investigated between 1 and 400 bar, from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. Calculations based upon the elasticity of the solids involved (column wall and packing material) and the compressibility of the liquid phase show that the increase of the column hold-up volume with increasing pressure that is observed is correlated with (in order of decreasing importance): (1) the compressibility of the mobile phase (+1 to 5%); (2) in RPLC, the compressibility of the C18-bonded layer on the surface of the silica (+0.5 to 1%); and (3) the expansion of the column tube (columns packed with the pure Resolve silica (0% carbon), the derivatized Resolve-C18 (10% carbon) and the Symmetry-C18 (20% carbon) adsorbents, using water, methanol, or n-pentane as the mobile phase. These solvents have different compressibilities. However, 1% of the relative increase of the column hold-up volume that was observed when the pressure was raised is not accounted for by the compressibilities of either the solvent or the C18-bonded phase. It is due to the influence of the pressure on the retention behavior of thiourea, the compound used as tracer to measure the hold-up volume.

  16. Accurate step-hold tracking of smoothly varying periodic and aperiodic probability. (United States)

    Ricci, Matthew; Gallistel, Randy


    Subjects observing many samples from a Bernoulli distribution are able to perceive an estimate of the generating parameter. A question of fundamental importance is how the current percept-what we think the probability now is-depends on the sequence of observed samples. Answers to this question are strongly constrained by the manner in which the current percept changes in response to changes in the hidden parameter. Subjects do not update their percept trial-by-trial when the hidden probability undergoes unpredictable and unsignaled step changes; instead, they update it only intermittently in a step-hold pattern. It could be that the step-hold pattern is not essential to the perception of probability and is only an artifact of step changes in the hidden parameter. However, we now report that the step-hold pattern obtains even when the parameter varies slowly and smoothly. It obtains even when the smooth variation is periodic (sinusoidal) and perceived as such. We elaborate on a previously published theory that accounts for: (i) the quantitative properties of the step-hold update pattern; (ii) subjects' quick and accurate reporting of changes; (iii) subjects' second thoughts about previously reported changes; (iv) subjects' detection of higher-order structure in patterns of change. We also call attention to the challenges these results pose for trial-by-trial updating theories.

  17. The image of accountants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsdottir, Gudrun; Burns, John; Nørreklit, Hanne


    Purpose - The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which a profound change in the image of accountants can be seen in the discourse used in accounting software adverts that have appeared in the professional publications of the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants over the last...... four decades. Design/methodology/approach - Methodologically, the paper draws from Barthes' work on the rhetoric of images and Giddens' work on modernity. By looking at accounting software adverts, an attempt is made to investigate the image of the accountant produced by the discourse of the adverts......, and whether the image produced reflects a wide social change in society. Findings - It was found that in the 1970s and the 1980s the accountant was constructed as a responsible and rational person. In the 1990s, the accountant was presented as an instructed action man. However, in a recent advert...

  18. Cost accounting at GKSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, R.


    The GKSS has a cost accounting system comprising cost type, cost centre and cost unit accounting which permits of a comprehensive and detailed supervision of the accural of costs and use of funds, makes price setting for outside orders possible and provides the necessary data for decision-making and planning. It fulfills the requirement for an ordered accounting system; it is therefore guaranteed that there exists between financial accounts department and cost accounting a proper demarcation and transition, that costs are accounted fully only on the basis of vouchers and only once, evaluation and distribution are unified and the principle of causation is observed. Two employees are engaged in costs and services accounting. Although we strive to effect adaptations as swiftly as possible, and constantly to adapt refinements and supplementary processes for the improvement of the system, this can only occur within the scope of, and with the exactitude necessary for the required information. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob


    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  20. Does urban sprawl hold down upward mobility? (United States)

    Ewing, R.; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.; Wei, Y.


    Contrary to the general perception, the United States has a much more class-bound society than other wealthy countries. The chance of upward mobility for Americans is just half that of the citizens of the Denmark and many other European countries. In addition to other influences, the built environment may contribute to the low rate of upward mobility in the U.S. This study tests the relationship between urban sprawl and upward mobility for commuting zones in the U.S. We examine potential pathways through which sprawl may have an effect on mobility. We use structural equation modeling to account for both direct and indirect effects of sprawl on upward mobility. We find that upward mobility is significantly higher in compact areas than sprawling areas. The direct effect, which we attribute to better job accessibility in more compact commuting zones, is stronger than the indirect effects. Of the indirect effects, only one, through the mediating variable income segregation, is significant.

  1. 18 CFR 367.2190 - Account 219, Accumulated other comprehensive income. (United States)



  2. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl


    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  3. Building In Accountability Mechanisms for Democracies & Bureaucracies: From Governmental & Educational Special Interest Operations to High-Quality Performance Systems. An Added Perspective to "What Price Democracy? Politics, Markets and America's Schools" by Dr. Terry Moe and Dr. John Chubb. (United States)

    Packard, Richard D.

    To assure accountability to educational policy developed by elected and appointed leaders, agencies and organizations must adopt high quality evaluation designs tailored to meet three basic tenets: (1) different processes for policy formation and demonstration of accountability; (2) clear accountability expectations built into policies; (3)…

  4. 34 CFR 200.73 - Applicable hold-harmless provisions. (United States)


    ... meet the eligibility requirements for a basic grant, targeted grant, or education finance incentive... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Allocations to Leas § 200.73 Applicable hold... provided in § 200.100(d), an SEA must apply the hold-harmless requirement separately for basic grants...

  5. PBL og de sammensatte hold på kandidatuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engen, Mie; Fallov, Mia Arp; Jensen, Rune Hagel Skaarup

    Denne rapport omhandler pædagogiske udfordringer og muligheder i Aalborgs Problembaserede Læringstilgang (PBL), når den omsættes til pædagogisk og didaktisk handling på kandidatuddannelser med sammensatte hold. Sammensatte hold betyder i denne sammenhæng kandidatuddannelser, hvor de optagne stude...

  6. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  7. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration (United States)


    ... other financial statements submitted to the securities holding company's current consolidated supervisor... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... Companies (FR Y-6), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial...

  8. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Bong Lee


    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  9. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2013 ... Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) currently holds in excess of millions in spare parts inventory ... equipment/utilities at all times in view of stochastic item ... line contingency and small conductor sizing lines which are ...

  10. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... delivery. Each handler shall, at all times, hold in his possession or under his control, in proper storage...

  11. Accounting organizing development tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Lyakhovich


    Full Text Available The development of accounting takes place under the influence of many factors. The study pays special attention to the impact of technological determinants on the process of organizing accountin. The carried-out analysis of scientists’ works allowed to determine the principal tendencies in the development of accounting organizing; these tendencies were expanded taking into account the development of technologies and innovations. It was found out the particular element, which undergo changes in the organization of accounting and the factors that prevent their further development for every tendency (the use of cloud technologies; a wide use of expert systems; a social media strategy in accounting; mobility among accounting personnel; outsourcing of accounting services, Internet things. The paper substantiates the shifts in functional duties of an accountant (the exclusion of data recording and intensification of analytical functions as a result of application of modern information and computer technologies. It was established that the amounts of accountants’ work with primary instruments will be reduced taking into account the possibilities of automatic preparation of such documents. The author substantiates the importance of the good knowledge in the field of information technologies while training accountants.

  12. Cash Holdings Policy: a Dynamic Analysis of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Muhieddine Dahrouge


    Full Text Available This paper investigates how corporate cash holdings were adjusted over time for Brazilian companies during the crisis of 2008-2009. We adopt a dynamic model of corporate cash holdings to evaluate the main determinants for the speed of adjustment of cash holdings at the optimum level. We find evidence that: a the adjustment costs of Brazilian companies are high implying a delay in reaching the optimum level of cash; b the low speed adjustment to the optimum level is due to the limited availability of credit and the high cost of bank debt; c during crisis, the changes in working capital are positively related to the level of cash holdings providing evidence that companies prefer finance to growth with liquidity; d companies have looked for long-term financing to secure liquidity rather than investing on fixed assets, implying a negative relationship between investment and cash holding.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggita Langgeng Wijaya


    Full Text Available This research tests the effect of accrual quality and leverage on corporate cash holding for a sample of manufacturing company listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2007. This research also tests the role of asymmetric information as a mediating variable on the relation between accrual quality and cash holding. Population of this research is 197 manufacturing companies at the Indonesian Stock Exchange. This research uses the purposive sampling method. Hypothesis test of this research em­ploys multiple regression analysis and path analysis. The results show that: accrual quality does not affect asymmetric information; asymmetric information positively affects corporate cash holdings; asymmetric information is not a mediating variable on the relation between accrual quality and cash holding; leverage negatively affects corporate cash holding.

  14. The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding (United States)

    Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter


    The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

  15. A general approach to welfare measurement through national income accounting


    Asheim, Geir B.; Buchholz, Wolfgang


    We develop a framework for analyzing national income accounting using a revealed welfare approach that is sufficiently general to cover, e.g., both the standard discounted utilitarian and maximin criteria as special cases. We show that the basic welfare properties of comprehensive national income accounting, which were previously ascribed only to the discounted utilitarian case, in fact extend to this more general framework. In particular, it holds under a wide range of circumstances that rea...

  16. Pediatric rheumatology: what does the future hold? (United States)

    Emery, Helen


    Effectiveness of the traditional rehabilitation approaches used in pediatric rheumatology has been difficult to prove and, in times of cost containment, this lack of evidence may lead to undertreatment with physical and occupational therapies. Quantitative methods such as those described in this issue by Broström and colleagues can be used to validate those approaches and to reinforce the need for careful attention to the effects of even minor loss of range and strength in children with juvenile arthritis. Historically, up to half of the children affected by polyarticular juvenile arthritis became disabled. Some factors that have led to improved outcomes for childhood rheumatic diseases are discussed, including medications (use of weekly low-dose methotrexate, intra-articular steroid injections, new biologic agents that specifically block mediators of inflammation, for example, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1), surgery (joint replacements), and psychosocial interventions (with schools and families). The importance of maintaining range of movement, strength, weight bearing, and ambulation, in an effort to prevent sequelae such as osteoporosis and wheelchair dependence, is emphasized. Early identification of children with rheumatic diseases and aggressive intervention, with a combined medical, rehabilitation, psychosocial, and, rarely, surgical approach, should now allow most affected children to reach adulthood with little or no disability.

  17. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases. (United States)

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian


    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  18. Autonomy and Accountability in Standards-Based Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Watson


    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the effects of one urban school district's efforts to increase the autonomy and accountability of schools and teams of teachers through a standards-based reform known as team- based schooling. Team-based schooling is designed to devolve decision-making authority down to the school level by increasing teachers' autonomy to make decisions. Increased accountability is enacted in the form of a state-level standards-based initiative. Based on our evaluation over a two-year period involving extensive fieldwork and quantitative analysis, we describe the ways that teachers, teams and school administrators responded to the implementation of team-based schooling. What are the effects of increasing school-level autonomy and accountability in the context of standards- based reform? Our analysis highlights several issues: the "lived reality" of teaming as it interacts with the existing culture within schools, the ways that teachers respond to the pressures created by increased internal and external accountability, and the effects of resource constraints on the effectiveness of implementation. We conclude by using our findings to consider more broadly the trade-off between increased autonomy and accountability on which standards-based reforms like team-based schooling are based.

  19. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  20. Accounting for Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pflueger, Dane


    Background Accounting-that is, standardized measurement, public reporting, performance evaluation and managerial control-is commonly seen to provide the core infrastructure for quality improvement in healthcare. Yet, accounting successfully for quality has been a problematic endeavor, often......, but that it would need to be understood and operationalized in new ways in order to contribute to this end. Proposals for this new way of advancing accounting are discussed. They include the cultivation of overlapping and even conflicting measures of quality, the evaluation of accounting regimes in terms of what...... producing dysfunctional effects. This has raised questions about the appropriate role for accounting in achieving quality improvement. This paper contributes to this debate by contrasting the specific way in which accounting is understood and operationalized for quality improvement in the UK National Health...

  1. The Harmonization of Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal Noémi


    Full Text Available The development and configuration of the regulatory framework of the accounting systems in Romania and Hungary took place in different ways. Among the reasons for the diversities in these countries’ accounting systems, the following can be certainly mentioned: different purposes of taxation, legal structure, the accountancy’s connection with the corporate law and family law, diversification on corporate financing policy, and cultural heterogeneity. Both countries quickly caught up with the international accounting harmonization standards. The adaptation of the international accounting standards has many advantages and disadvantages; these have been discussed in several previous researches. This paper aims at comparing the Romanian and Hungarian states’ accounting regulations from the early 1990s, which were implemented in order to harmonize the states’ accountancy regulations with the international standards, and their impact on the economy, based on secondary analysis.

  2. 13 CFR 120.961 - Construction escrow accounts. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction escrow accounts. 120.961 Section 120.961 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS..., CDC attorney, or bank may hold Debenture proceeds in escrow to complete Project components such as...

  3. 18 CFR 367.4340 - Account 434, Extraordinary income. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 434, Extraordinary income. 367.4340 Section 367.4340 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFOR...

  4. 18 CFR 367.4350 - Account 435, Extraordinary deductions. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 435, Extraordinary deductions. 367.4350 Section 367.4350 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT...

  5. Juta's Concise Dictionary of Accounting Terms with their Afri- kaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice, a large part of the terms in the dictionary is outdated. Because .... word: "The amount for which an asset could be exchanged or a ... Holding company Houermaatskappy. ... Source and application of funds statement Staat van bron en aanwending .... Short-term, highly liquid invest-.

  6. The Accountability of Armed Groups under Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.


    The starting point for this NWOI funded Ph.D. research is the observation that although UN accountability mechanisms are increasingly holding armed groups ‘accountable’ under human rights law, the legal basis for the responsibility of armed groups under human rights law remains controversial

  7. Harmonisation of agricultural accounting


    Jaroslav Sedláček


    This paper deals with the accounting of the biological assets. There are described two approaches: Czech and international. The International Accounting Standards are emulative of more authentic presentment of economic processes in agricultural activities than Czech accounting legislation. From the comparison the both approaches accrued some differences, which can influent the financial statements of enterprises. The causation of main difference appears an application of fair value, which is ...

  8. Accounting for carbon


    Lovell, Heather; Sales de Aguiar, Thereza; Bebbington, Jan; Larrinaga-Gonzalez, Carlos; International Emissions Trading Association


    ACCA working in partnership with IETA This report reveals how large emitters in the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) are accounting for emission allowances. The diversity of emission-allowance accounting practices being used in Europe shows carbon financial accounting to be in its formative stages - rules and practices are still unsettled. With this report, ACCA, in partnership with IETA, is opening up the debate to a wider international audience. Publisher PDF

  9. Analysis of 2014's Thirty Best Undergraduate Accounting Programs (United States)

    Adkins, Darlene A.; Geddie, Mary F.; Moore, Paula Hearn; Griffin, Richard B.


    This paper examines primarily the courses in the accounting major and a portion of the business core of the best thirty accounting programs in the United States as identified by the Accounting Degree Review. A thorough examination of each school's web site has been conducted to gather current (2014) information concerning the requirements for a…

  10. Teaching Business Ethics: A Quandary for Accounting Educators (United States)

    Frank, Gary; Ofobike, Emeka; Gradisher, Suzanne


    The authors discuss the pressures that accounting educators face in meeting expectations to include ethics in the accounting curriculum. Most schools still do not require discrete ethics courses for accounting students; ethics coverage is on a course-by-course basis. However, not all professors are equally comfortable or knowledgeable of models of…

  11. Changes in Accounting Education Include Increased Use of Writing Tasks. (United States)

    McCleary, Bill


    The future of accounting education has already arrived at the Department of Accountancy at the University of Illinois-Champaign, United States' top accounting school. "Project Discovery" is a 5-year-old program that incorporates many current trends in educational innovation, such as writing across the curriculum, collaborative learning,…

  12. Millennium Challenge Account

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnoff, Curt


    .... foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) provides assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas...

  13. Cash Advance Accounting: Accounting Regulations and Practices


    Aristita Rotila


    It is known the fact that often the entities offer to staff or third parties certain amounts of money, in order to make payments for the entities, such sums being registered differently in the accounting as cash advances. In the case in which the advances are offered in a foreign currency, there is the problem of the exchange rate used when justifying the advance, for the conversion in lei of payments that were carried out. In this article we wanted to signal the effect that the exchange rate...

  14. Accounting as an Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revellino, Silvana; Mouritsen, Jan


    This paper explores the relationships between calculative practices and innovative activities. It investigates how calculative practices such as accounting develop knowledge that functions as an engine (MacKenzie, 2006) for innovation. This is an attempt at exploring the role of accounting through...

  15. Accounting Faculty Internships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Christopher


    Full Text Available Accounting professionals, business college accrediting bodies, and even accounting academics themselves acknowledge that there is a disconnect between academe and the rigors and requirements of the accounting profession. Among the suggestions proposed in the literature to reduce this gap is the faculty internship, where accounting faculty members work within the field as accountants. Heretofore, individual case studies report benefits of such internships that accrue to a variety of stakeholder groups beyond just the faculty intern and include the academic institution, students, and accounting profession through faculty internships. This research seeks wider support for these benefits. This descriptive study involved surveying a sample of accounting faculty members to get their opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of faculty internships, and to determine the level of use of faculty internships in accounting. In all, 128 usable responses were obtained, representing a 14.6% response rate. The results of this study reveal that although most faculty members acknowledge the benefits cited in the literature, too few take advantage of faculty internships.

  16. Computerizing the Accounting Curriculum. (United States)

    Nash, John F.; England, Thomas G.


    Discusses the use of computers in college accounting courses. Argues that the success of new efforts in using computers in teaching accounting is dependent upon increasing instructors' computer skills, and choosing appropriate hardware and software, including commercially available business software packages. (TW)

  17. Ghana : Accounting and Auditing


    World Bank


    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the context of the Ghana institutional framework to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting. The accounting and auditing practices in Ghana suffer from institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules. Various weaknesses were identified in the laws and regula...

  18. Basis of accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The first part of this presentation describes in an introductory manner the accountability design approach which is used for the Model Plant in order to meet US safeguards requirements. The general requirements for the US national system are first presented. Next, the approach taken to meet each general requirement is described. The general concepts and principles of the accountability system are introduced. The second part of this presentation describes some basic concepts and techniques used in the model plant accounting system and relates them to US safeguards requirements. The specifics and mechanics of the model plant accounting system are presented in the third part. The purpose of this session is to enable participants to: (1) understand how the accounting system is designed to meet safeguards criteria for both IAEA and State Systems; (2) understand the principles of materials accounting used to account for element and isotope in the model plant; (3) understand how the computer-based accounting system operates to meet the above objectives

  19. Georgia : Accounting and Auditing


    World Bank


    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Georgia. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA) and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation, including in ...

  20. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.


    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  1. Accountability: Brand L. (United States)

    Lessinger, Leon M.

    Effective accountability always involves four essential elements: Knowledge of what is required, knowledge of who is responsible to whom, knowledge of how to be successful, and knowledge of the consequences of not being successful. The movement in education now called accountability has added the additional requirement that educators stipulate the…

  2. Internet accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise


    An examination of existing accounting dictionaries on the Internet reveals a general need for a new type of dictionary. In contrast to the dictionaries now accessible, the future accounting dictionaries should be designed as proper Internet dictionaries based on a functional approach so they can...

  3. Peru : Accounting and Auditing


    World Bank


    The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...

  4. Deterrents to Accountability. (United States)

    Hencley, Stephen P.

    This speech assesses potential deterrents to the implementation of accountability in education. The author divides these deterrents into (1) philosophical-ideological; humanist-behaviorist conflicts, individuality versus "techno-urban fascism," and accountability systems tied to the achievement of cognitive objectives at the lower end of Bloom's…

  5. Public Accountancy Handbook. (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern public accountancy practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for certified public accountants, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct, and…

  6. PLATO IV Accountancy Index. (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  7. Integrating Career Development into the Accounting Curriculum (United States)

    Wessels, Susan B.; Sumner, Dana F.


    This paper describes a series of integrated career development activities offered in several required courses which are designed to help accounting majors gain a competitive edge in the job market. Supported by a partnership between the School of Business and the Academic and Career Planning Office, the Career Tool Kit program consists of…

  8. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian


    analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based accountability measures applying both top-down and bottom-up perspectives. These historical perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a fuller understanding of this contemporary accountability concept and its potential, appeal, and implications...... for continued use in contemporary educational settings. Accountability measures and practices serve as a way to govern schools; by analysing the history of accountability as the concept has been practised in the education sphere, the article will discuss both pros and cons of such a methodology, particularly......This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical...

  9. Accounting and strategising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Brian; Messner, Martin


    This paper explores the relationship between accounting and strategy in a context that is characterised by pluralistic demands and high uncertainty about outcomes. By way of an ethnographic field study in an R&D intensive company, we analyse new product development (NPD) projects and the way...... in which decisions and practices concerning these projects are accounted for. Building upon a practice theory perspective, we find that actors account for the appropriateness of NPD practices not only or primarily on the basis of accounting information, but also by "strategising", i.e. by mobilising...... different strategic objectives to which these practices are supposed to contribute. We argue that this has to do with the ambiguous demands on NPD and the limits of calculability inherent in NPD design decisions. At the same time, accounting information is not necessarily irrelevant in such a case; it can...

  10. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.


    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  11. Central Accountability System (CLAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, L.A.


    The Central Accountability System (CLAS) is a high level accountability system that consolidates data from the site's 39 material balance areas (MBA) for reporting to Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) management, Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) in Oak Ridge, TN. Development of the system began in 1989 and became operational in April, 1991. The CLAS system enhances data accuracy and accountability records, resulting in increased productivity and time and cost savings. This paper reports that the system is in compliance with DOE Orders and meets NMMSS reporting requirements. WSRC management is provided with the overall status of the site's nuclear material inventory. CLAS gives WSRC a leading edge in accounting technology and enhances good accounting practices

  12. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards... (United States)


    ... rule that revised Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost... Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of...

  13. When accounting was economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dobija


    Full Text Available The presented considerations and reflections aim to search for the beginning of accounting in terms of both ideas and procedures that make up a system that is operative in practice. The thesis that the economic calculus and procedures forming an accounting system have existed since the beginnings of civilization seems to be sufficiently justified. It should, however, be recognized that there was an initial activation period of civilization processes. Research has led to the conclusion that it was accounting for labor, not capital, that served communities from their beginnings. However, on the basis of theory, labor and capital are two related categories and both lead to double-entry, which is a characteristic feature of accounting. In the days before the creation of writing, tokens were used for thousands of years for recording and accounting purposes, being a useful tool in maintaining balance in the socio-economic system. The development of city-states and the emergence of writing techniques have improved the system by replacing token records on clay tablets. The dominance of labor accounting continued until the eleventh century BC, to the dark ages. Contemporary accounting, although geared more to the measurement of capital and its changes in the economic processes, still continues to operate according to the old paradigm and is focused on inputs in their historical cost perspective.

  14. Methodology of sustainability accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Sokil


    Full Text Available Modern challenges of the theory and methodology of accounting are realized through the formation and implementation of new concepts, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of users in standard and unique information. The development of a methodology for sustainability accounting is a key aspect of the management of an economic entity. The purpose of the article is to form the methodological bases of accounting for sustainable development and determine its goals, objectives, object, subject, methods, functions and key aspects. The author analyzes the theoretical bases of the definition and considers the components of the traditional accounting methodology. Generalized structural diagram of the methodology for accounting for sustainable development is offered in the article. The complex of methods and principles of sustainable development accounting for systematized and non-standard provisions has been systematized. The new system of theoretical and methodological provisions of accounting for sustainable development is justified in the context of determining its purpose, objective, subject, object, methods, functions and key aspects.

  15. Accounting for productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars


    The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view...... that factors of production are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor productivity. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of tests for the validity of the CD assumption. We find that the CD specification performs reasonably...... well for the purposes of cross-country productivity accounting....

  16. Integrated material accountancy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabozo, M.; Buiza, A.


    In this paper we present the system that we are actually using for Nuclear Material Accounting and Manufacturing Management in our UO 2 Fuel Fabrication Plant located at Juzbado, Salamanca, Spain. The system is based mainly on a real time data base which gather data for all the operations performed in our factory from UO 2 powder reception to fuel assemblies shipment to the customers. The accountancy is just an important part of the whole integrated system covering all the aspects related to manufacturing: planning, traceability, Q.C. analysis, production control and accounting data

  17. Management and cost accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Colin


    This third edition of a textbook on management and cost accounting features coverage of activity-based costing (ABC), advance manufacturing technologies (AMTs), JIT, MRP, target costing, life-cycle costing, strategic management accounting, total quality management and customer profitability analysis. Also included are revised and new end-of-chapter problems taken from past examination papers of CIMA, ACCA and ICAEW. There is increased reference to management accounting in practice, including many of the results of the author's CIMA sponsored survey, and greater emphasis on operational control and performance measurement.

  18. Environmental accounting and statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelmus, P.L.P.


    The objective of sustainable development is to integrate environmental concerns with mainstream socio-economic policies. Integrated policies need to be supported by integrated data. Environmental accounting achieves this integration by incorporating environmental costs and benefits into conventional national accounts. Modified accounting aggregates can thus be used in defining and measuring environmentally sound and sustainable economic growth. Further development objectives need to be assessed by more comprehensive, though necessarily less integrative, systems of environmental statistics and indicators. Integrative frameworks for the different statistical systems in the fields of economy, environment and population would facilitate the provision of comparable data for the analysis of integrated development. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Beyond safety accountability

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, E Scott


    Written in an easy-to-read conversational tone, Beyond Safety Accountability explains how to develop an organizational culture that encourages people to be accountable for their work practices and to embrace a higher sense of personal responsibility. The author begins by thoroughly explaining the difference between safety accountability and safety responsibility. He then examines the need of organizations to improve safety performance, discusses why such performance improvement can be achieved through a continuous safety process, as distinguished from a safety program, and provides the practic

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  1. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding. (United States)


    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postgraduate, assistant Sergii Ivanovich TODORIUK


    Full Text Available One of the organizational forms of the agricultural management which is gaining popularity in the world is agricultural holdings. The essence of agricultural holdings is considered in the article. Also the peculiarities of their functioning in Ukraine and determination of the strengths and weaknesses of their activities is defined, as well as perspectives of their further functioning. Agrarian holding, as a relatively new organizational legal form of managing in Ukraine has its advantages and disadvantages. As the experience shows the advantages of agrarian holdings over the subjects of management are revealed mainly in the economic sphere. While their disadvantages over the subjects of management are revealed in social and ecological spheres. This is a negative moment considering the implementation in Ukraine of the concept of the sustainable development, which means the combination of these main components (economic component, environmental component, social component.

  3. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C.; McCubbins, Mathew D.; Seim, Brigitte


    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges—whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth—require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians’ behavior. PMID:27856736

  4. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  5. Patent holdings of US biotherapeutic companies in major markets. (United States)

    Sebastian, Teena E; Yerram, Chandra Bindu; Saberwal, Gayatri


    In previous studies we examined the (United States, US) patent holdings of 109 largely North American biotech companies developing therapeutics that, in particular, have an interest in discovery stage science. There appears little correlation between the number of patents and the number of products of individual companies. Here we quantified and compared the 103 US-headquartered companies' patent holdings in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the US. The companies demonstrate variable and surprising patterns of patent holdings across these countries or regions. For most companies, patent holdings are not in proportion to the importance of the country as a biotech or pharma market. These results have implications for the patenting strategies of small biotech companies involved in drug discovery.

  6. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians. (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C; McCubbins, Mathew D; Seim, Brigitte


    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians' behavior.

  7. IRBA SERIES : Accounting In Japan


    Arai, Kiyomitsu


    Preface / Legal and Conceptual Framework of Accounting in Japan / Setting Accounting Standards in Japan - The American Influence and The Present Status / Accounting Education and Profession in Japan / The International Harmonization of Accounting Standards / The Accounting Standard Setting in Japan and Its Responses to International Accounting Standards / Selected Bibliography for Accounting in Japan


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya T. Uspenskaja


    Full Text Available The trend towards production consolidation and integration processes taking place both in the Russian and global economies leads to development of business associations, with a holding company being the most common form inRussiaand around the globe. The evidence in favor of the formation of holding companies is that they can benefit from the scale (bulk purchasing, centralized stuff training; in the global capital and exports markets they can be more effective than smaller businesses and, if non-profitable, a loss-making structure is easier to liquidate than the entire company; holding companies and associations can be an effective defender from political interference. As the importance of the well-functioning and harmonized procedure for the companies’ integration will increase (especially in the context of Russian business, where specific features of many areas of the production system imply the use of holding oligopolies as the most effective form of market structures, there is a need in their more profound study and, in particular, in the analysis of the most important technologies of the general integration procedure. The article outlines the relevance of innovative development management of vertically integrated holding systems, lists principles of innovative activity management and considers the features of innovation management of a vertically integrated holding company. The objective of the research is to study theoretical and practical aspects of innovative development management in vertically integrated holding systems. The object of research is management structures in innovative holding companies. While working on the article, the following methods of economic research were used: abstract and logical method, empirical method, method of expert evaluations, as well as methods of structural and functional and statistical analysis. 

  9. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health. (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni


    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  10. Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.


    This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing.......This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing....

  11. The performance and risk of Hartalega Holdings Berhad


    Wong, Kah Wai


    The purpose of the study is to investigate the overall performance of Hartalega Holdings Berhad and specific risk factors and macroeconomic factors are influence on profitability performance. The data obtained from annual report of Hartalega Holdings Berhad during the years 2011 to 2015. The measurement of financial ratios and regression analysis used to see the overall performance and risk of the company. The study found that performance of the company is unfavourable due to the decreasing m...

  12. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types. (United States)

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno


    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  13. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests


    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco


    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  14. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  15. Individuals Account Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Donald


    .... This report was commissioned by Navy Personnel Command (NPC) to: (1) review and analyze the IA to determine if current accounting methods accurately capture the number of personnel included in the IA; (2...

  16. Nuclear material accounting handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The handbook documents existing best practices and methods used to account for nuclear material and to prepare the required nuclear material accounting reports for submission to the IAEA. It provides a description of the processes and steps necessary for the establishment, implementation and maintenance of nuclear material accounting and control at the material balance area, facility and State levels, and defines the relevant terms. This handbook serves the needs of State personnel at various levels, including State authorities, facility operators and participants in training programmes. It can assist in developing and maintaining accounting systems which will support a State's ability to account for its nuclear material such that the IAEA can verify State declarations, and at the same time support the State's ability to ensure its nuclear security. In addition, the handbook is useful for IAEA staff, who is closely involved with nuclear material accounting. The handbook includes the steps and procedures a State needs to set up and maintain to provide assurance that it can account for its nuclear material and submit the prescribed nuclear material accounting reports defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4 in terms of the relevant agreement(s), thereby enabling the IAEA to discharge its verification function as defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4. The contents of the handbook are based on the model safeguards agreement and, where applicable, there will also be reference to the model additional protocol. As a State using The handbook consists of five sections. In Section 1, definitions or descriptions of terms used are provided in relation to where the IAEA applies safeguards or, for that matter, accounting for and control of nuclear material in a State. The IAEA's approach in applying safeguards in a State is also defined and briefly described, with special emphasis on verification. In Section 2, the obligations of the State

  17. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald

    In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...... for influence. We highlight three arenas where such contests are being played out: 1. Statistical versus GAAP notions of accounting value, which features in all accounting debates over the merits and costs of ex-ante versus ex-post notions of value (i.e., the relevance versus reliability debate); 2. Private...

  18. Valuation and creative accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalina VOINEA


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the economic and financial valuation, that is the only type of valuation, based on a diagnosis and expertise, which has as objective to establish the market value of elements, whether goods or businesses, being a "orientation tool" for the economic operators on the market. There are specific means to measure value but there are also some mechanisms that can influence the value obtained, from the category of creative accounting. Creative accounting occurs due to human intervention and even the most advanced accounting systems are not able to do this due to the lack of reasoning. There must be also assumed that it is possible that these creative accounting techniques may be caused by a simple mistake and not necessarily with the intention of manipulating the financial results and reports. The aim of the paper is to see how specific element valuation can influence the general one, namely the value of a company.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju


    Full Text Available Framing accounting as a science has been carried out in close connection with the development of knowledge in this field and with the meaning given to this concept of “science”. Recognizing accounting as scientific field by specialists is due to the fact that it features a combination of accounting theory and methods for the development and application of these theories. Accounting is a scientific discipline in the social sciences because: it is a creation of the human being in response to practical needs; it reflects phenomena, activities and social facts; it addresses various groups of users (managers, bankers, shareholders, employees, tax bodies, etc. which are an integral part of society; it offers information necessary to decision-making, most of the times with impact on the behaviour of individuals; it is influenced by the economic, social, legal and political environment, that is by social phenomena.

  20. Species accounts. Chapter 4 (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman


    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.