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  1. Misconceptions of High School Students Related to the Conceptions of Absolutism and Constitutionalism in History Courses

    Bal, Mehmet Suat

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the 10th grade high school students' misconceptions related to the sense of ruling in the Ottoman State during the absolutist and constitutional periods and to investigate the causes of these misconceptions. The data were collected through eight open-ended questions related to the concepts of absolutism and…

  2. Student Misconceptions in Chemical Equilibrium as Related to Cognitive Level and Achievement.

    Wheeler, Alan E.; Kass, Heidi

    Reported is an investigation to determine the nature and extent of student misconceptions in chemical equilibrium and to ascertain the degree to which certain misconceptions are related to chemistry achievement and to performance on specific tasks involving cognitive transformations characteristic of the concrete and formal operational stages of…

  3. The effectiveness of a structured educational intervention on disease-related misconception and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Yu, Wen-Zhen; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kong-Ling; Chen, Ji-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of patients with irritable bowel syndrome hold misconceptions about their disease and experience more impaired quality of life compared with the general population and people suffering from other chronic diseases. This study was designed to explore the effectiveness of a structured educational intervention on disease-related misconceptions and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in Wuhan, China. A convenience sample of 23 patients with irritable bowel syndrome participated in an educational program that consisted of 4 weekly sessions in a group setting. Instruments, including an irritable bowel syndrome-related misconception scale and irritable bowel syndrome quality-of-life scale, were used for evaluation at baseline and 3 months after the sessions. Three months after the structured educational intervention, the score for irritable bowel syndrome-related misconception was significantly decreased (p quality of life was significantly improved (p educational intervention seems to be a proper method to reduce the disease-related misconceptions and improve the quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Planning and implementing such clinical education programs will be helpful in decreasing disease-related misconceptions and promoting quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  4. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  5. Perceptions About Sex Related Myths And Misconceptions: Difference In Male And Female

    Anupam Raizada

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research problem: Perceptions about sex-re- iated myths and misconceptions. Objectives: To identify the difference in percep­tions of mates and females over sex-reiated myths and misconceptions. Study Design - Community based cross sectional study. Setting - Self-administered questionnaire study was un­dertaken in an urban area of Jhansi. Participants - Married couples with reproductive age wife. Sample size - 417 couples of the area. Study Variables-Sex-related myths and misconceptions. Outcome Variables - Masturbation, Penis-size and sexual performance, STD transmission. Intercourse with virgin and cure of STDs, Initiation of sexual act, Bleeding on first night. Statistical analysis - By chi - square test. Results: Response rate 63.8%. Only 8.6% females and 33.7% males knew correctly about masturbation. Males also knew better about route of STD infection (73.5% and about the fact that intercouse with a virgin cannot cure STDs (47.4%. Females, however, outnumber males on the question of relation between man's penis size and his sexual performance (70%, initiation of sexual act (58.6% and bleeding in females on first night of marriage (70%. Conclusion: Males and females had significantly different perceptions on sex related myths and misconceptions. Recommendations: Sex education campaigns should be designed and implemented to eliminate these age old sex related myths and misconceptions.

  6. Perceptions About Sex Related Myths And Misconceptions: Difference In Male And Female

    Anupam Raizada

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research problem: Perceptions about sex-re- iated myths and misconceptions.Objectives: To identify the difference in percep­tions of mates and females over sex-reiated myths and misconceptions.Study Design - Community based cross sectional study.Setting - Self-administered questionnaire study was un­dertaken in an urban area of Jhansi.Participants - Married couples with reproductive age wife.Sample size - 417 couples of the area.Study Variables-Sex-related myths and misconceptionsOutcome Variables - Masturbation, Penis-size and sexual performance, STD transmission. Intercourse with virgin and cure of STDs, Initiation of sexual act, Bleeding on first night.Statistical analysis - By chi - square test.Results: Response rate 63.8%. Only 8.6% females and 33.7% males knew correctly about masturbation. Males also knew better about route of STD infection (73.5% and about the fact that intercouse with a virgin cannot cure STDs (47.4%. Females, however, outnumber males on the question of relation between man's penis size and his sexual performance (70%, initiation of sexual act (58.6% and bleeding in females on first night of marriage (70%.Conclusion: Males and females had significantly different perceptions on sex related myths and misconceptions.Recommendations: Sex education campaigns should be designed and implemented to eliminate these age old sex related myths and misconceptions.

  7. Relations between intuitive biological thinking and biological misconceptions in biology majors and nonmajors.

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-03-02

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems--teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking--that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. © 2015 J. D. Coley and K. Tanner. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking.

    Kummer, Tyler A; Whipple, Clinton J; Jensen, Jamie L

    2016-12-01

    Darwin described evolution as "descent with modification." Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as "tree thinking." We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic ( reading the tips and node counting ) were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory ( ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness ) proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses.

  9. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking†

    Kummer, Tyler A.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Jensen, Jamie L.

    2016-01-01

    Darwin described evolution as “descent with modification.” Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as “tree thinking.” We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic (reading the tips and node counting) were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory (ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness) proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses. PMID:28101265

  10. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking

    Tyler A. Kummer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Darwin described evolution as “descent with modification.” Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as “tree thinking.” We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic (reading the tips and node counting were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory (ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses.

  11. Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-05-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can

  12. Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories

    Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.

  13. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  14. Addressing Misconceptions

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  15. Astronomical Misconceptions

    Barrier, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.

  16. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  17. Misconceptions about the ether

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Several misconceptions concerning the ether concept and ether models are reviewed and clarified so that the relationship between modern ether theory and orthodox relativity may be better understood. The question of the ether's supposed superfluidity as a concept, and its status in modern physics remains to be answered. (author)

  18. Students’ misconceptions on solubility equilibrium

    Setiowati, H.; Utomo, S. B.; Ashadi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated the students’ misconceptions of the solubility equilibrium. The participants of the study consisted of 164 students who were in the science class of second year high school. Instrument used is two-tier diagnostic test consisting of 15 items. Responses were marked and coded into four categories: understanding, misconception, understand little without misconception, and not understanding. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 45 students according to their written responses which reflected different perspectives, to obtain a more elaborated source of data. Data collected from multiple methods were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the data analysis showed that the students misconceptions in all areas in solubility equilibrium. They had more misconceptions such as in the relation of solubility and solubility product, common-ion effect and pH in solubility, and precipitation concept.

  19. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1223-3 - Rules relating to the holding periods of partnership interests.

    2010-04-01

    ... publicly traded partnership (as defined under section 7704(b)) may use the actual holding period of the... partnership interests. 1.1223-3 Section 1.1223-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Losses § 1.1223-3 Rules relating to the holding periods of partnership interests. (a) In general. A...

  1. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  2. Detection of Misconceptions about Colour and an Experimentally Tested Proposal to Combat them

    Martinez-Borreguero, Guadalupe; Pérez-Rodríguez, Ángel Luis; Suero-López, María Isabel; José Pardo-Fernández, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    We study the misconceptions about colour that most people hold, determining the general phenomenological laws that govern them. Concept mapping was used to combat the misconceptions which were found in the application of a test specifically designed to determine these misconceptions, while avoiding the possible misleading inductions that could have arisen from the use of everyday language. In particular, care was taken to avoid the distorting effect that the use of the verb 'to be' applied to coloured objects could have on the responses. The misconceptions found were shown to have an internal consistency in the form of authentic mini-theories (implicit theories). We compared experimentally the results of two different teaching methods applied to combat these misconceptions. This study was conducted with 470 undergraduates of the University of Extremadura. We analysed the persistence over time of their learning made to overcome those misconceptions. The students were divided randomly into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). To combat their misconceptions, EG were taught following a method based on the use of concept maps, and CG were taught following traditional teaching methods. The results of a pre-test and a post-test were compared for the two groups, finding statistically significant differences. The results allowed the principal working hypothesis to be accepted-concept maps are learning tools which foster conceptual change and allow misconceptions to be eradicated via meaningful learning maintained over time, i.e. EG acquired a relative long-lasting gain in learning that was superior to that acquired by CG.

  3. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  4. "I Thought It Would Be More Glamorous": Preconceptions and Misconceptions among Students in the Public Relations Principles Course.

    Bowen, Shannon A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses public speaking students' preconceptions as they begin their study and the misconceptions to which they ascribe. Finds that students often enter the basic course unaware of a management focus, shocked by the level of strategic decision making required of practitioners, and surprised by the amount of research knowledge and activity…

  5. Common misconceptions about the dynamical theory of crystal lattices: Cauchy relations, lattice potentials and infinite crystals

    Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used solid-state textbooks. Frequently, pair interaction is even considered to be the most general situation. In addition, it is shown that the demand of rotational invariance in an infinite crystal leads to inconsistencies in the symmetry of the elastic tensor. However, for finite crystals, no problems arise, and the Huang conditions are deduced using exclusively a microscopic approach for the elasticity theory, without making any reference to macroscopic parameters. This work may be useful in both undergraduate and graduate level courses to point out the crudeness of the pair-potential interaction and to explore the limits of the infinite-crystal approximation.

  6. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  7. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  8. Private providers' knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions related to long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods: a case study in Bangladesh.

    Ugaz, Jorge; Banke, Kathryn; Rahaim, Stephen; Chowdhury, Wahiduzzaman; Williams, Julie

    2016-11-01

    In Bangladesh, use of long-acting and permanent methods of contraception (LAPMs) remains stagnant. Providers' limited knowledge and biases may be a factor. We assessed private providers' knowledge, misconceptions and general attitudes towards LAPM in two urban areas. The ultimate goal is to shape programs and interventions to overcome these obstacles and improve full method choice in Bangladesh. Trained data collectors interviewed a convenience sample of 235 female doctors (obstetricians-gynecologists and general practitioners) and 150 female nurses from 194 commercial (for-profit) health care facilities in Chittagong City Corporation and Dhaka district. Data were collected on the nature of the practice, training received, knowledge about modern contraceptives and attitudes towards LAPM [including intrauterine device (IUDs), implants, female and male sterilization]. All providers, and especially doctors, lacked adequate knowledge regarding side effects for all LAPMs, particularly female and male sterilization. Providers had misconceptions about the effectiveness and convenience of LAPMs compared to short-acting contraceptive methods. Implants and IUDs were generally perceived more negatively than other methods. The majority of providers believed that husbands favor short-acting methods rather than LAPMs and that women should not use a method that their husbands do not approve of. Our findings document knowledge and attitudinal barriers among private for-profit providers in urban areas affecting their provision of accurate information about LAPM choices. Practitioners should be offered the necessary tools to provide women full access to all modern methods, especially LAPMs, in order to contribute to decreasing unmet need and improving full method choice in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. AWARENESS REGARDING MODES OF TRANSMISSION AND RELATED MISCONCEPTION ABOUT HIV/AIDS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL GOING FEMALES OF PUBLIC AND GOVT SCHOOLS

    Chhabi Mohan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available .Research Question: What is the level of awareness about different modes of transmission and related misconception about HIV/AIDS among secondary school going females of public and Govt. Schools of Kanpur city. Study Area: Public and Govt. Schools of Kanpur city. Participatns: 120 Govt. and 120 Public secondary School females students. Results: 100% Public school female students knew about heterosexual mode of transmission of HI V/AIDS as compared to 80% of Govt. School students. Among Public School students knowledge about transmission of HIV/AIDS by contaminated needle and syringe intravenous drug abuse, blood transfusion and mother to child was known to almost 80% student. Among Govt. School students except for knowledge about transmission by contaminated needle and syringe (60% and mother to child transmission (55% the other modes were poorly known (<50%.

  10. Undergraduates’ Misconceptions Concerning Plagiarism

    Nermin Çakmak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In their education lives undergraduate students’ one of the most encountered difficulty is to provide citations for their research projects and term papers. This difficulty drives students to two kinds of plagiarism: intentional or unintentional plagiarism. In this context, plagiarism is a no ethical  scientific behaviour we encounter most frequently among undergraduate students. When plagiarism is investigated in national and international literature, which is considered as an important problem regarding scientific communication and ethics principles, it is seen that research focused on intentional plagiarism. In this context the present study aimed to focus on university students’ unintentional plagiarism, a nonethical academic behaviour, based on their misconceptions. Adding it is aimed to attract the attention of the researchers in librarianship and information sciences to the problem, increase their awareness and to encourage them to make in-depth research. Thus the present study includes issues of conceptions; learning concepts; misconceptions; plagiarism; misconceptions of university students regarding plagiarism and the reasoning; defining and preventing misconceptions; the roles of librarianships and teachers in correcting the misconceptions regarding plagiarism. Present study followed a comprehensive review utilizing descriptive approaches to reveal the situation. At the end of the study a short summary evaluating the situation depending on the literature analysed is also added. Adding ideas and suggestions in how to reveal probable misconceptions and how to prevent or decrease their formation are also presented.

  11. Earth Science Misconceptions.

    Philips, William C.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  12. The Origins of Force--Misconceptions and Classroom Controversy.

    Steinberg, Melvin S.

    Misconceptions associated with the origins of force and the effectiveness of a bridging strategy for developing correct conceptual models in mechanics are identified for high school physics teachers in this paper. The situation investigated was whether a table exerts an upward force on a book. Student misconceptions related to this phenomenon as…

  13. On the relation between water pools and water holding capacity in cod muscle

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Jørgensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxations were measured on muscle, minced muscle and centrifuged mince from cod that had been treated under various frozen and chill storage conditions. By using multi-way chemometrics, uni-exponential profiles were obtained, from which the transverse...... relaxation times (T2-values) and the water pool sizes (m- values) were determined. Three pools of water were identified with the different relaxation times and m-values in the centrifuged samples reflecting the removal of loosely bound water. The m-values and the full NMR-signal decays were correlated to two...... measures of water holding capacity (WHC) in a way that WHC related to the original water content could be predicted well for the whole and the minced muscle. The centrifuged samples gave optimal predictions of WHC related to the dry matter content, probably because the centrifuged samples are similar...

  14. Adolescence: myths and misconceptions.

    Dhall, A

    1995-01-01

    Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological growth between childhood and adulthood. The author is a practicing obstetrician and gynecologist in New Delhi. Over the course of her medical career, she has identified many myths and misconceptions about adolescents and adolescence. With regard to male adolescents, masturbation-related myths may be the most frequently harbored. Male adolescents have a hormone-driven need to have sexual intercourse, frequently. Masturbation is a healthy, no-cost way to relieve sexual tension. There is neither need to pay a prostitute nor fear of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. A young man can masturbate virtually whenever he wants. Despite the guilt and misinformation implanted by adults that masturbation causes weakness, boys masturbate rather frequently. Also contrary to popular myth, the nocturnal emissions which may result in growing boys as a result of sexual excitement during a dream are completely normal and no reason for concern. Further, boys should not worry about penis size, for, when erect, they all work just fine. People grow at different rates. Menstruation starts when 17% of a woman's body weight is fat. The onset of menstruation may therefore start earlier in well-fed girls compared to in girls who are more lean. The frequency and duration of menses are not constant. Menstrual irregularity therefore does not necessarily mean that a young woman is pregnant or that professional medical treatment is required. Breasts, like penises, serve their intended function irrespective of size. The hymen is a membrane at the opening of the vagina. It may have a hole in the center or the side for the escape of menstrual blood. There are myths that an intact hymen is indicative of virginity, the hymen should be intact until marriage, and the first sexual experience should be painful for a woman. The hymen is elastic and even some prostitutes have been found to have intact hymens. The hymen also may tear due to a

  15. Misconceptions and constraints

    Whitten, M.; Mahon, R.

    2005-01-01

    In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to the persistence of some common misconceptions, but it is mainly due to one constraint, or a combination of constraints, that are biological, financial, social or political in nature. This chapter's goal is to dispel some major misconceptions, and view the constraints as challenges to overcome, seeing them as opportunities to exploit. Some of the common misconceptions include: (1) released insects retain residual radiation, (2) females must be monogamous, (3) released males must be fully sterile, (4) eradication is the only goal, (5) the SIT is too sophisticated for developing countries, and (6) the SIT is not a component of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy. The more obvious constraints are the perceived high costs of the SIT, and the low competitiveness of released sterile males. The perceived high up-front costs of the SIT, their visibility, and the lack of private investment (compared with alternative suppression measures) emerge as serious constraints. Failure to appreciate the true nature of genetic approaches, such as the SIT, may pose a significant constraint to the wider adoption of the SIT and other genetically-based tactics, e.g. transgenic genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Lack of support for the necessary underpinning strategic research also appears to be an important constraint. Hence the case for extensive strategic research in ecology, population dynamics, genetics, and insect behaviour and nutrition is a compelling one. Raising the competitiveness of released sterile males remains the major research objective of the SIT. (author)

  16. Blockchain: properties and misconceptions

    Daniel Conte de Leon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this article is to clarify current and widespread misconceptions about the properties of blockchain technologies and to describe challenges and avenues for correct and trustworthy design and implementation of distributed ledger system (DLS or Technology (DLT. Design/methodology/approach - The authors contrast the properties of a blockchain with desired, however emergent, properties of a DLS, which is a complex and distributed system. They point out and justify, with facts and analysis, current misconceptions about the blockchain and DLSs. They describe challenges that these systems will need to address and possible solution avenues for achieving trustworthiness. Findings - Many of the statements that have appeared on the internet, news and academic articles, such as immutable ledger and exact copies, may be misleading. These are desired emergent properties of a complex system, not assured properties. It is well-known within the distributed systems and critical software community that it is extremely hard to prove that a complex system correctly and completely implements emergent properties. Further research and development for trustworthy DLS design and implementation is needed, both practical and theoretical. Research limitations/implications - This is the first known published attempt at describing current misconceptions about blockchain technologies. Further collaborative work, discussions, potential solutions, evaluations, resulting publications and verified reference implementations are needed to ensure DLTs are safe, secure, and trustworthy. Practical implications - Interdisciplinary teams with members from academia, business and industry, and from disciplines such as business, entrepreneurship, theoretical and practical computer science, cybersecurity, finance, mathematics and statistics, must be formed. Such teams must collaborate with the objective of developing strategies and techniques for ensuring the

  17. Student Misconceptions in Introductory Biology.

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph I.

    Defining a "misconception" as an error of translation (transformation, correspondence, interpolation, interpretation) between two different kinds of information which causes students to have incorrect expectations, a Taxonomy of Errors has been developed to examine student misconceptions in an introductory biology course for science…

  18. Asymptote Misconception on Graphing Functions: Does Graphing Software Resolve It?

    Mehmet Fatih Öçal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphing function is an important issue in mathematics education due to its use in various areas of mathematics and its potential roles for students to enhance learning mathematics. The use of some graphing software assists students’ learning during graphing functions. However, the display of graphs of functions that students sketched by hand may be relatively different when compared to the correct forms sketched using graphing software. The possible misleading effects of this situation brought a discussion of a misconception (asymptote misconception on graphing functions. The purpose of this study is two- fold. First of all, this study investigated whether using graphing software (GeoGebra in this case helps students to determine and resolve this misconception in calculus classrooms. Second, the reasons for this misconception are sought. The multiple case study was utilized in this study. University students in two calculus classrooms who received instructions with (35 students or without GeoGebra assisted instructions (32 students were compared according to whether they fell into this misconception on graphing basic functions (1/x, lnx, ex. In addition, students were interviewed to reveal the reasons behind this misconception. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive and content analysis methods. The findings indicated that those who received GeoGebra assisted instruction were better in resolving it. In addition, the reasons behind this misconception were found to be teacher-based, exam-based and some other factors.

  19. Slipping and holding minds: A psychosocial analysis of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability

    Lisa Saville Young

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed. Objectives: The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities. Method: Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange (‘here and how’ of the interview and the particular socio-historical context (‘there and then’ in which the mother, child and researcher are located. Findings: The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions. Conclusion: This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic, while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities.

  20. Rethinking Therapeutic Misconception in Biobanking

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Some authors have noted that in biobank research participants may be guided by what is called therapeutic misconception, whereby participants attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures.This article argues that the notion of therapeutic misconception is increasingly less justified when...... underpinnings for the need to separate research and treatment, and thus the notion of therapeutic misconception in the fi rst place. We call this tension between research and treatment ambivalent research advancement to highlight the difficulties that various actors have in managing such shifts within...

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF MISCONCEPTIONS IN SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS: EARTH SCIENCE IN ENGLAND AND WALES

    King , Chris John Henry

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/ misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error/ misconception per page. Science syllabuses and examinations surveyed also showed errors/ misconceptions. ...

  2. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching

    King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics"…

  3. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  4. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students’ Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  5. STUDENT MISCONCEPTION ON REDOX TITRATION (A CHALLENGE ON THE COURSE IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH COGNITIVE DISSONANCE BASED ON THE MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS

    H. R. Widarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The misconception is one of the obstacles in the concept mastery that needed to be minimalized. This descriptive study was conducted to find the patterns of misconceptions which have occurred on college students who participating in the redox titration course subject. Efforts to minimize misconceptions have been conducted through lectures using the multiple representations with the cognitive dissonance strategies on the 30 students who joined the Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry course. The research instrument used in this study was 6 multiple-choice tests with reasons. In order to detect the misconception, Certainty of Response Index technique was performed. The preliminary study results showed that 34.30% of students experiencing the misconceptions on redox titration. After treatments, the misconceptions reduced to 28.17%. A misconception that cannot be eliminated was related to the concepts involving in the microscopic and symbolic appearances.

  6. Prevalence of Misconceptions, Dogmas, and Popular Views about Giftedness and Intelligence: A Case from Turkey

    Sak, Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misconceptions, dogmas and popular views about giftedness and intelligence among Turkish lay people. A survey questionnaire consisting of 12 forced-choice items about global misconceptions, dogmatic beliefs and popular views related to giftedness and intelligence was used to collect…

  7. Remediating Misconception on Climate Change among Secondary School Students in Malaysia

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Chandrakesan, Kasturi

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies report on secondary school students' misconceptions related to climate change; they also report on the methods of teaching as reinforcing misconceptions. This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a curriculum based on constructivist principles does not lead to greater understanding and fewer…

  8. Analysis of statistical misconception in terms of statistical reasoning

    Maryati, I.; Priatna, N.

    2018-05-01

    Reasoning skill is needed for everyone to face globalization era, because every person have to be able to manage and use information from all over the world which can be obtained easily. Statistical reasoning skill is the ability to collect, group, process, interpret, and draw conclusion of information. Developing this skill can be done through various levels of education. However, the skill is low because many people assume that statistics is just the ability to count and using formulas and so do students. Students still have negative attitude toward course which is related to research. The purpose of this research is analyzing students’ misconception in descriptive statistic course toward the statistical reasoning skill. The observation was done by analyzing the misconception test result and statistical reasoning skill test; observing the students’ misconception effect toward statistical reasoning skill. The sample of this research was 32 students of math education department who had taken descriptive statistic course. The mean value of misconception test was 49,7 and standard deviation was 10,6 whereas the mean value of statistical reasoning skill test was 51,8 and standard deviation was 8,5. If the minimal value is 65 to state the standard achievement of a course competence, students’ mean value is lower than the standard competence. The result of students’ misconception study emphasized on which sub discussion that should be considered. Based on the assessment result, it was found that students’ misconception happen on this: 1) writing mathematical sentence and symbol well, 2) understanding basic definitions, 3) determining concept that will be used in solving problem. In statistical reasoning skill, the assessment was done to measure reasoning from: 1) data, 2) representation, 3) statistic format, 4) probability, 5) sample, and 6) association.

  9. Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure

    Canpolat, Nurtac

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

  10. A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions

    Francek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

  11. Knowledge of and misconceptions about the spread and prevention ...

    2009-05-27

    May 27, 2009 ... and misconceptions regarding the spread and prevention of HIV in ... personal items, air-borne infection, mosquito bites, HIV testing and AIDS prevention or cure by traditional medicines or .... related stigmatisation, discrimination, isolation and the ... services to the patients living in the central and eastern.

  12. Five misconceptions in cancer diagnosis

    Hamilton, William

    2009-01-01

    Much investment has been put into facilities for early cancer diagnosis. It is difficult to know how successful this investment has been. New facilities for rapid investigation in the UK have not reduced mortality, and may cause delays in diagnosis of patients with low-risk, or atypical, symptoms. In part, the failure of new facilities to translate into mortality benefits can be explained by five misconceptions. These are described, along with suggested research and organisational remedies. The first misconception is that cancer is diagnosed in hospitals. Consequently, secondary care data have been used to drive primary care decisions. Second, GPs are thought to be poor at cancer diagnosis, yet the type of education on offer to improve this may not be what is needed. Third, symptomatic cancer diagnosis has been downgraded in importance with the introduction of screening, yet screening identifies only a small minority of cancers. Fourth, pressure is put on GPs to make referrals for those with an individual high risk of cancer — disenfranchising those with ‘low-risk but not no-risk’ symptoms. Finally, considerable nihilism exists about the value of early diagnosis, despite considerable observational evidence that earlier diagnosis of symptomatic cancer is beneficial. PMID:19520027

  13. Misconceptions Surrounding Climate Change: A Review of the Literature

    Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to

  14. Moving Beyond Misconceptions: A New Model for Learning Challenges in Cognition

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    For over 40 years, the science education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about science, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research to put forth model that will allow us to operate on students' learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in the Earth & Space Sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

  15. The Students’ misconceptions profile on chapter gas kinetic theory

    Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.

    2018-03-01

    Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.

  16. Holding fast.

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital.

  17. diagnosing the diagnostics: misconceptions of twelfth grade ...

    Preferred Customer

    In the area of chemical research, a significant number of studies involving ... be introduced as similar concepts in early high school (3). Second, the ..... misconceptions about physics concepts in Yasin, K. (2004), a M.Sc. dissertation thesis.

  18. Challenging pre-galilean misconceptions through alternative visualizations

    Blanquet, Estelle; Picholle, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International audience; While duly Copernican, a significant part of primary school teachers-in-training fail to see the point of the (Galilean) principle of relativity. Two inquiry based teaching sequences involving the notion of reference frame were designed to challenge the students' robust pre-Galilean misconceptions, without mathematical requirements. The first sequence makes use of an artist view ("Framed Earth", by Manchu, 1989) and literary representations of the Earth as seen from a ...

  19. Concept cartoons for diagnosing student’s misconceptions in the topic of buffers

    Kusumaningrum, I. A.; Ashadi; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Student’s misconceptions have been concerned over twenty years in the chemistry education research. It influences students to learn new knowledge and gain a correct concept. The buffer solution is found as a difficult topic due to student’s misconception. However, the research related this subject are still rare. Concept cartoon has been used as one of the effective tools to diagnose misconceptions. This study aims to identify the effectiveness of concept cartoon to diagnose them. The concept cartoon consists of three concept questions. 98 students of grade 11 as respondents of this research and followed by interview for selected students. The data obtain of the study are analyzed by using a scoring key. The detected misconceptions are about what buffers do, what buffers are, and how buffers are able to do what they do. Concept cartoon is potential as a basic tool for remedial teaching.

  20. Unweaving Misconceptions: Guided Learning, Simulations, and Misconceptions in Learning Principles of Natural Selection

    Weeks, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and…

  1. Misconceptions About Sound Among Engineering Students

    Pejuan, Arcadi; Bohigas, Xavier; Jaén, Xavier; Periago, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Our first objective was to detect misconceptions about the microscopic nature of sound among senior university students enrolled in different engineering programmes (from chemistry to telecommunications). We sought to determine how these misconceptions are expressed (qualitative aspect) and, only very secondarily, to gain a general idea of the extent to which they are held (quantitative aspect). Our second objective was to explore other misconceptions about wave aspects of sound. We have also considered the degree of consistency in the model of sound used by each student. Forty students answered a questionnaire including open-ended questions. Based on their free, spontaneous answers, the main results were as follows: a large majority of students answered most of the questions regarding the microscopic model of sound according to the scientifically accepted model; however, only a small number answered consistently. The main model misconception found was the notion that sound is propagated through the travelling of air particles, even in solids. Misconceptions and mental-model inconsistencies tended to depend on the engineering programme in which the student was enrolled. However, students in general were inconsistent also in applying their model of sound to individual sound properties. The main conclusion is that our students have not truly internalised the scientifically accepted model that they have allegedly learnt. This implies a need to design learning activities that take these findings into account in order to be truly efficient.

  2. Analysis of acid-base misconceptions using modified certainty of response index (CRI and diagnostic interview for different student levels cognitive

    Satya Sadhu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors in this paper draw attention to the importance of an instrument that can analyze student’s misconception.This study described the kind of the misconception in acid-base theory, and the percentage students’ misconception occur in every subconcept of acid-base theory. The design of this study is a descriptive method, involved 148 of 11th grade science students from Senior High School, which divided into two classes are high cognitive and low cognitive. Further analysis of using Modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI as a diagnostic instrument is used to explore misconception which in that test included evaluating only content knowledge with considering the reason behind the students' choice of response and their certainty of response in every question. The result of data analysis has shown that misconception occurred in high cognitive class, gained 43,86% and misconception occurred in low cognitive class, gained 24,63%. Based on the diagnostic interview has shown that misconception occurred in students due to students does not understand the concept well and they related the one concept to the other concepts with partial understanding, the result students make the failed conclusions. The type of misconception occurred is a conceptual misunderstanding.  According to the data analysis showed that Modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI is effective used to analyze students’ misconceptions and the diagnostic interview is effective used to know the reasons that caused students which having misconceptions.

  3. 31 CFR 800.217 - Hold.

    2010-07-01

    ... and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.217 Hold. The terms hold(s) and holding mean legal or beneficial ownership, whether direct or indirect, whether through fiduciaries, agents, or other means. ...

  4. Unconscious emotional reasoning and the therapeutic misconception.

    Charuvastra, A; Marder, S R

    2008-03-01

    The "therapeutic misconception" describes a process whereby research volunteers misinterpret the intentions of researchers and the nature of clinical research. This misinterpretation leads research volunteers to falsely attribute a therapeutic potential to clinical research, and compromises informed decision making, therefore compromising the ethical integrity of a clinical experiment. We review recent evidence from the neurobiology of social cognition to provide a novel framework for thinking about the therapeutic misconception. We argue that the neurobiology of social cognition should be considered in any ethical analysis of how people make decisions about participating in clinical trials. The neurobiology of social cognition also suggests how the complicated dynamics of the doctor-patient relationship may unavoidably interfere with the process of obtaining informed consent. Following this argument we suggest new ways to prevent or at least mitigate the therapeutic misconception.

  5. Electric Holding Company Areas

    Department of Homeland Security — Holding companies are electric power utilities that have a holding company structure. This vector polygon layer represents the area served by electric power holding...

  6. What Is a Psychological Misconception? Moving toward an Empirical Answer

    Bensley, D. Alan; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of psychological misconceptions have often used tests with methodological shortcomings, unknown psychometric properties, and ad hoc methods for identifying misconceptions, creating problems for estimating frequencies of specific misconceptions. To address these problems, we developed a new test, the Test of Psychological Knowledge and…

  7. Misconceptions in the Earth Sciences: A Cross-Age Study.

    Schoon, Kenneth J.

    Misconceptions interfere with the formation of new insights and provide a faulty foundation. This causes difficulty in the learning of new materials. Therefore, effective teachers strive to know which misconceptions students have, and then develop a plan by which these suspected misconceptions can be corrected or averted. This paper reports on an…

  8. Defying ideological misconceptions through information and ...

    Abstract. This article seeks to provide a critique on various ideological misconceptions regarding the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) and African languages in higher education. It further seeks to provide insight into various ICT localisation opportunities within the higher education domain.

  9. Reply to ‘Misconceptions indeed’

    Fotou, N.; Abrahams, I.

    2016-11-01

    In a recent letter to the editor (2016 Phys. Educ. 51 066503), Schumayer and Scott raised concerns about one of the novel situations presented in our article titled 'Students’ analogical reasoning in novel situations: theory-like misconceptions or p-prims?' (2016 Phys. Educ. 51 044003). We greatly appreciate their interest in our study and in this reply we address the concerns raised.

  10. Misconceptions in global reactions and formula writing

    Stig R. Johansson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequently used concept of “global reaction” is discussed and the reason for the confusion behind explained. The misconception is cleared by formula writing based on the donor–acceptor (donac reaction concept and by applying the Grand Rule of Formula Writing that is based on it.

  11. Palaeomagnetism or Palaeomagic? Misconceptions about Rock Magnetism

    Murphy, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The study and understanding of paleomagnetism has been pivotal in the development of the theory of plate tectonics. When it is taught in schools there are a number possible misconceptions that need to be addressed. This article attempts to provide an explanation of rock magnetism as well as strategies to avoid reinforcing some commonly identified…

  12. Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

  13. Misconceptions about Seasonal Flu and Flu Vaccines

    ... Vaccine (LAIV) Misconceptions about Flu Vaccines Vaccine Supply & Distribution Vaccine Supply for 2017-2018 Season Frequently Asked ... conditions. Flu vaccination has been associated with lower rates of some cardiac ... a baby after birth from flu. (Mom passes antibodies onto the developing ...

  14. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Its prevalence is on the increase, being as high as 23.7% among adult citizens. Misconceptions and wrong beliefs regarding DM and its management among those attending primary health care centres (PHCCs) can result in poor control, ...

  15. Breath-Hold Diving.

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Student Misconceptions about Plants – A First Step in Building a Teaching Resource

    April N. Wynn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants are ubiquitous and found in virtually every ecosystem on Earth, but their biology is often poorly understood, and inaccurate ideas about how plants grow and function abound. Many articles have been published documenting student misconceptions about photosynthesis and respiration, but there are substantially fewer on such topics as plant cell structure and growth; plant genetics, evolution, and classification; plant physiology (beyond energy relations; and plant ecology. The available studies of misconceptions held on those topics show that many are formed at a very young age and persist throughout all educational levels. Our goal is to begin building a central resource of plant biology misconceptions that addresses these underrepresented topics, and here we provide a table of published misconceptions organized by topic. For greater utility, we report the age group(s in which the misconceptions were found and then map them to the ASPB – BSA Core Concepts and Learning Objectives in Plant Biology for Undergraduates, developed jointly by the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Botanical Society of America.

  17. Student Misconceptions about Plants – A First Step in Building a Teaching Resource†

    Wynn, April N.; Pan, Irvin L.; Rueschhoff, Elizabeth E.; Herman, Maryann A. B.; Archer, E. Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants are ubiquitous and found in virtually every ecosystem on Earth, but their biology is often poorly understood, and inaccurate ideas about how plants grow and function abound. Many articles have been published documenting student misconceptions about photosynthesis and respiration, but there are substantially fewer on such topics as plant cell structure and growth; plant genetics, evolution, and classification; plant physiology (beyond energy relations); and plant ecology. The available studies of misconceptions held on those topics show that many are formed at a very young age and persist throughout all educational levels. Our goal is to begin building a central resource of plant biology misconceptions that addresses these underrepresented topics, and here we provide a table of published misconceptions organized by topic. For greater utility, we report the age group(s) in which the misconceptions were found and then map them to the ASPB – BSA Core Concepts and Learning Objectives in Plant Biology for Undergraduates, developed jointly by the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Botanical Society of America. PMID:28912929

  18. Student Misconceptions about Plants - A First Step in Building a Teaching Resource.

    Wynn, April N; Pan, Irvin L; Rueschhoff, Elizabeth E; Herman, Maryann A B; Archer, E Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants are ubiquitous and found in virtually every ecosystem on Earth, but their biology is often poorly understood, and inaccurate ideas about how plants grow and function abound. Many articles have been published documenting student misconceptions about photosynthesis and respiration, but there are substantially fewer on such topics as plant cell structure and growth; plant genetics, evolution, and classification; plant physiology (beyond energy relations); and plant ecology. The available studies of misconceptions held on those topics show that many are formed at a very young age and persist throughout all educational levels. Our goal is to begin building a central resource of plant biology misconceptions that addresses these underrepresented topics, and here we provide a table of published misconceptions organized by topic. For greater utility, we report the age group(s) in which the misconceptions were found and then map them to the ASPB - BSA Core Concepts and Learning Objectives in Plant Biology for Undergraduates, developed jointly by the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Botanical Society of America.

  19. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Study of the Prevalence and Nature of Misconceptions in Physics amongst English and Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many…

  20. Distance Education in the Digital Age: Common Misconceptions and Challenging Tasks

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses in its first part three common misconceptions related to the operation of distance education providers in the digital age: The tendency to relate to e-learning as the new generation of distance education; the confusion between ends and means of distance education; and the absence of the teachers' crucial role in the…

  1. Misconceptions about children`s pain

    Miloseva, Lence; Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, Tanja; Milosev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Managing hospitalized children's pain is challenging for health care professionals. The ethical principles of the duty to benefit another and the duty to do no harm oblige health care professionals to provide pain management to all patients, including children, who are vulnerable because of their constant developmental changes, being ill, and being hospitalized. During the last 20 years, researchers started to show an interest in misconceptions about children`s pain. Literature review showed...

  2. Unweaving misconceptions: Guided learning, simulations, and misconceptions in learning principles of natural selection

    Weeks, Brian E.

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and promoted model within the epistemology of science instruction. However, constructivism is not without its skeptics who see some problems of its application in lacking necessary guidance for novice learners. This study within a quantitative, quasi-experimental format tested whether guided online instruction in a video format of common misconceptions in evolutionary biology produced higher performance on a survey of knowledge of natural selection versus more constructivist style learning in the form of student exploration of computer simulations of the evolutionary process. Performances on surveys were also explored for a combination of constructivist and guided techniques to determine if a consolidation of approaches produced higher test scores. Out of the 94 participants 95% displayed at least one misconception of natural selection in the pre-test while the study treatments produced no statistically significant improvements in post-test scores except within the video (guided learning treatment). These overall results demonstrated the stubbornness of misconceptions involving natural selection for adult learners and the difficulty of helping them overcome them. It also bolsters the idea that some misconceptions of natural selection and evolution may be hardwired in a neurological sense and that new, more long-term teaching techniques may be warranted. Such long-term strategies may not be best implemented with constructivist techniques alone, and it is likely that some level of guidance may be necessary for novice adult learners. A more substantial, nuanced approach for undergraduates is needed that consolidates successful

  3. Therapeutic misconception in early phase gene transfer trials.

    Henderson, Gail E; Easter, Michele M; Zimmer, Catherine; King, Nancy M P; Davis, Arlene M; Rothschild, Barbra Bluestone; Churchill, Larry R; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Nelson, Daniel K

    2006-01-01

    Many subjects in early phase clinical trials expect to benefit in some way from the research intervention. It is understandable that people hope for improvement in their condition, no matter what the evidence. Yet unreasonable expectation of medical benefit may reflect problems with informed consent: Investigators may not disclose clearly that direct medical benefit from an early phase experimental intervention is unlikely or impossible, or subjects may not appreciate the differences between treatment and research. This paper presents findings from recent interviews with researchers and subjects and analysis of consent forms in early phase gene transfer research, a cutting-edge technology often called 'gene therapy'. We use three variables to construct a composite measure of therapeutic misconception TM, tapping misconceptions about the purposes of early phase research and the potential for direct medical benefit in these trials. Our multivariate model demonstrates the importance of both subject- and study-level factors as predictors of this TM index: education, disease type, and communication by study personnel about the likelihood of benefit. We hope that this work will deepen the discussion of how to define and measure TM, and refine the specification of factors that are related to subjects' TM.

  4. A comparative qualitative study of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use in southern and northern Ghana

    Philip Baba Adongo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs with married community members were carried out. Community Health Officers, Community Health Volunteers, and Health Care Managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions.

  5. A Study on Primary and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Greenhouse Effect (Erzurum Sampling)

    Gul, Seyda; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what level of primary and secondary school students' misconceptions related to greenhouse effect is. Study group consists of totally 280 students attended to totally 8 primary and secondary schools (4 primary school, 4 secondary school) which were determined with convenient sampling method from center of…

  6. An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth Science in England and Wales

    King, Chris John Henry

    2010-01-01

    Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one…

  7. Diagnosing students' misconceptions in algebra: results from an experimental pilot study.

    Russell, Michael; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Miranda, Helena

    2009-05-01

    Computer-based diagnostic assessment systems hold potential to help teachers identify sources of poor performance and to connect teachers and students to learning activities designed to help advance students' conceptual understandings. The present article presents findings from a study that examined how students' performance in algebra and their overcoming of common algebraic misconceptions were affected by the use of a diagnostic assessment system that focused on important algebra concepts. This study used a four-group randomized cluster trial design in which teachers were assigned randomly to one of four groups: a "business as usual" control group, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to diagnostic tests results, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to the learning activities, and a full intervention group that was given access to the test results and learning activities. Data were collected from 905 students (6th-12th grade) nested within 44 teachers. We used hierarchical linear modeling techniques to compare the effects of full, partial, and no (control) intervention on students' algebraic ability and misconceptions. The analyses indicate that full intervention had a net positive effect on ability and misconception measures.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF THE MISCONCEPTION IN NEWTON II LAW

    Yudi Kurniawan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a comprehensive description of the level of the number of students who have misconceptions about Newton's II Law. This research is located at one State Junior High School in Kab. Pandeglang. The purposive sampling was considering used in this study because it is important to distinguish students who do not know the concept of students who experience misconception. Data were collected using a three tier-test diagnostic test and analyzed descriptively quantitatively. The results showed that the level of misconception was in the two categories of high and medium levels. It needs an innovative teaching technique for subsequent research to treat Newton's Newton misconception.

  9. Misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries among South African university students

    Chrisma Pretorius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the incidence and type of misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs harboured by university students.  Method. A convenience sample of 705 university students were recruited and data were collected using an electronic survey. The link to the survey was sent via e-mail to all registered students at Stellenbosch University. The participants had to complete the Common Misconceptions about Traumatic Brain Injury (CM-TBI questionnaire.  Results. The findings of this study suggest that the students subscribe to misconceptions from each of the 7 categories of misconceptions about TBIs. The mean percentages of misconceptions about TBIs were calculated and the amnesia (mean 49.7% and unconsciousness (mean 46.1% categories were identified as the categories about which the respondents had the most misconceptions, while the mean percentages of misconceptions were lower for the categories of recovery (mean 27.6%, rehabilitation (mean 26.56%, prevention (mean 20.8%, brain injury sequelae (mean 18.7% and brain damage (mean 8.4%.  Conclusion. Generally, these findings appear to be in keeping with previous literature, which suggests that misconceptions about TBIs are common among the general population. This study’s identification of these misconceptions could help create awareness, provide a focus for information provision, and contribute to the development of educational intervention programmes tailored for the South African context.

  10. Inferential misconceptions and replication crisis

    Norbert Hirschauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Misinterpretations of the p value and the introduction of bias through arbitrary analytical choices have been discussed in the literature for decades. Nonetheless, they seem to have persisted in empirical research, and criticisms of p value misuses have increased in the recent past due to the non-replicability of many studies. Unfortunately, the critical concerns that have been raised in the literature are scattered over many disciplines, often linguistically confusing, and differing in their main reasons for criticisms. Misuses and misinterpretations of the p value are currently being discussed intensely under the label “replication crisis” in many academic disciplines and journals, ranging from specialized scientific journals to Nature and Science. In a drastic response to the crisis, the editors of the journal Basic and Applied Social Psychology even decided to ban the use of p values from future publications at the beginning of 2015, a fact that has certainly added fuel to the discussions in the relevant scientific forums. Finally, in early March, the American Statistical Association released a brief formal statement on p values that explicitly addresses misuses and misinterpretations. In this context, we systematize the most serious flaws related to the p value and discuss suggestions of how to prevent them and reduce the rate of false discoveries in the future.

  11. An inventory of student recollections of their past misconceptions as a tool for improved classroom astronomy instruction

    Favia, Andrej

    My Ph.D. research is about examining the persistence of 215 common misconceptions in astronomy. Each misconception is based on an often commonly-held incorrect belief by college students taking introductory astronomy. At the University of Maine, the course is taught in alternating semesters by Prof. Neil F. Comins and Prof. David J. Batuski. In this dissertation, I examine the persistence of common astronomy misconceptions by the administration of a retrospective survey. The survey is a new instrument in that it permits the student to indicate either endorsement or rejection of each misconception at various stages in the student's life. I analyze data from a total of 639 students over six semesters. I compare the survey data to the results of exams taken by the students and additional instruments that assess students' misconceptions prior to instruction. I show that the consistency of the students' recollection of their own misconceptions is on par with the consistency of responses between prelims and the final exam. I also find that students who report higher increased childhood interest in astronomy are more likely to have accurate recalls of their own past recollections. I then discuss the use of principal components analysis as a technique for describing the extent to which misconceptions are correlated with each other. The analysis yields logical groupings of subtopics from which to teach. I then present a brief overview of item response theory, the methodology of which calculates relative difficulties of the items. My analysis reveals orders to teach the associated topics in ways that are most effective at dispelling misconceptions during instruction. I also find that the best order to teach the associated concepts is often different for high school and college level courses.

  12. A Reply to ''Reinterpretation of Students' Ideas When Reasoning about Particle Model Illustrations. A Response to ''Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes'' by Smith and Villarreal (2015)''

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    In this reply to Elon Langbeheim's response to an article recently published in this journal, authors Smith and Villarreal identify several types of general chemistry students' misconceptions concerning the concept of particle position during physical change. They focus their response on one of the misconceptions identified as such: Given a solid…

  13. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence and nature of misconceptions in physics amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might be possible to reduce the prevalence of misconceptions in both countries if a better understanding could be developed of how, and why, undergraduates use certain erroneous analogies, and why some teaching approaches seem more effective in reducing the prevalence of misconceptions than others.

  14. Relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute pulmonary thromboembolism: assessment with breath-hold SPECT-CT pulmonary angiography fusion images.

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2008-09-01

    The relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) was comprehensively assessed on deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion SPECT-computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) fusion images. Subjects were 34 acute PTE patients, who had successfully performed DIBrH perfusion SPECT using a dual-headed SPECT and a respiratory tracking system. Automated DIBrH SPECT-CTPA fusion images were used to assess the relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots detected by CTPA. DIBrH SPECT visualized 175 lobar/segmental or subsegmental defects in 34 patients, and CTPA visualized 61 intravascular clots at variable locations in 30 (88%) patients, but no clots in four (12%) patients. In 30 patients with clots, the fusion images confirmed that 69 (41%) perfusion defects (20 segmental, 45 subsegmental and 4 lobar defects) of total 166 defects were located in lung territories without clots, although the remaining 97 (58%) defects were located in lung territories with clots. Perfusion defect was absent in lung territories with clots (one lobar branch and three segmental branches) in four (12%) of these patients. In four patients without clots, nine perfusion defects including four segmental ones were present. Because of unexpected dissociation between intravascular clots and lung perfusion defects, the present fusion images will be a useful adjunct to CTPA in the diagnosis of acute PTE.

  15. Students' Misconceptions about Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Elementary Kinetic Theory

    Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…

  16. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  17. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin; Kocakülah, Sabri

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal secondary school students' misconceptions about simple electric circuits and to define whether specific misconceptions peculiar to Turkish students exist within those identified. Data were obtained with a conceptual understanding test for simple electric circuits and semi-structured interviews. Conceptual…

  18. More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants

    Hershey, David R.

    2005-01-01

    As follow-up to a previous article "Avoid Misconceptions When Teaching about Plants," the author identifies fifty additional misconceptions. Undergeneralizations are added to the list of oversimplifications, obsolete concepts, terms, misidentifications, and flawed research. A glossary at the end of the article compares words used in botany with…

  19. On Misconceptions about Behavior Analysis among University Students and Teachers

    Arntzen, Erik; Lokke, Jon; Lokke, Gunn; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Students frequently show misconceptions regarding scientific psychology in general and basic concepts in behavior analysis in particular. We wanted to replicate the study by Lamal (1995) and to expand the study by including some additional statements. In the current study, the focus was on misconceptions about behavior analysis held by…

  20. Misconceptions Regarding the Brain: The Neuromyths of Preservice Teachers

    Dündar, Sefa; Gündüz, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding preservice teachers' misconceptions regarding the brain and neuroscience (neuromyths) can provide information that helps teachers to apply neuroscience knowledge in an educational context. The objective of this study was to investigate these misconceptions. Following preliminary research, a questionnaire comprising 59 challenging…

  1. Clarifying the Misconception about the Principle of Floatation

    Yadav, Manoj K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of "displaced fluid" by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

  2. Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry

    Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

  3. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  4. STUDENTS’ MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE NATURE OF MATTER AND HOW IT IMPAIRS BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING

    E. Montagna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is widely known that misconceptions impairs student’s learning. IUBMB proposed a concept inventory which defines biochemistry’s teaching scope. Even though it is known that many of them are subject of misconceptions by students, we collected informal data suggesting a deeper and most pervasive misconception related to the students’ perceptions about what is and is not a molecule through their classroom statements and tests. We hypothesize that students’ impairments on biochemistry learning possibly come from failure to assume that names are related to well defined molecules indicating lack of matter’s representative levels of integration. Objectives The present work aims to detect in freshmen students’ misconceptions about the chemical nature of main small and macromolecules which potentialy impairs biochemistry learning. Materials and methods: A list of assertions about real life situations involving and citing main biomolecules – ATP, DNA, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, enzyme, hormon, vitamin – were mixed with other containing vague common terms – toxin, transgenic, healthy, unwanted elements, chemical compound – not suggesting hazardous situations in order to capture students’ impressions. More than 150 students from five courses in three different higher education institutions answered true or false on 35 assertions. Results and discussion: More than 70% of students had more than 80% error in this task designed to be not tricky, misleading or with unpreviously studied concepts. Results suggests students do not understand compounds as molecules but as entities unrelated to real life situations; on the other hand vague terms triggers a negative perception not necessarily related to harm or hazardous situations. We suggest that it is originated by poor scientific literacy from previous scholarity as well as lack of criteria on media vehicles about the topics here cited. Conclusion: We conclude that many

  5. Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

  6. Reduction of cognitive conflict and learning style impact towards student-teacher's misconception load

    A'yun, Kurroti; Suyono, Poedjiastoeti, Sri; Bin-Tahir, Saidna Zulfiqar

    2017-08-01

    The most crucial issue in education is a misconception that is caused by the misconception of the students themselves. Therefore, this study provided the solution to improve the quality of teaching chemistry in the schools through the remediation of misconceptions to the chemistry teacher candidates. This study employed a mixed method approach using concurrent embedded designs where it tended more to the qualitative research, but it still relied on the quantitative research in the assessment of the learning impact. The results of this study were the students with higher levels of cognitive conflict still have high loads of misconceptions (MC), it possibly due to the type of students' learning styles that is the sequential-global balanced. To facilitate the cognitive conflict character and the learning style of sequential-global balanced, the researchers created an integrated worksheet conceptual change with peer learning (WCCPL). The peer learning undertaken in the last stages of conceptual change of WCCPL can increase the resistance of students' concept in a category of knowing the concept significantly, but it should be examined in an in-depth study related to the long-term memory.

  7. Patient misconceptions concerning lumbar spondylosis diagnosis and treatment.

    Franz, Eric W; Bentley, J Nicole; Yee, Patricia P S; Chang, Kate W C; Kendall-Thomas, Jennifer; Park, Paul; Yang, Lynda J S

    2015-05-01

    results show that a surprisingly high percentage of patients have misconceptions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spondylosis, and that these misconceptions persist in patients with a history of spine surgery. Specifically, patients overemphasize the value of radiological studies and have mixed perceptions of the relative risk and effectiveness of surgical intervention compared with more conservative management. These misconceptions have the potential to alter patient expectations and decrease satisfaction, which could negatively impact patient outcomes and subjective valuations of physician performance. While these results are preliminary, they highlight a need for improved communication and patient education during surgical consultation for lumbar spondylosis.

  8. Analysis misconception of integers in microteaching activities

    Setyawati, R. D.; Indiati, I.

    2018-05-01

    This study view to analyse student misconceptions on integers in microteaching activities. This research used qualitative research design. An integers test contained questions from eight main areas of integers. The Integers material test includes (a) converting the image into fractions, (b) examples of positive numbers including rational numbers, (c) operations in fractions, (d) sorting fractions from the largest to the smallest, and vice versa; e) equate denominator, (f) concept of ratio mark, (g) definition of fraction, and (h) difference between fractions and parts. The results indicated an integers concepts: (1) the students have not been able to define concepts well based on the classification of facts in organized part; (2) The correlational concept: students have not been able to combine interrelated events in the form of general principles; and (3) theoretical concepts: students have not been able to use concepts that facilitate in learning the facts or events in an organized system.

  9. Revealing physical education students’ misconception in sport biomechanics

    Kartiko, D. C.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research is reveal Physical Education students’ misconception in several concepts of Sport Biomechanics. The Data of misconception collected by standard question of Diagnostic Test that given to 30 students of Physical Education, Faculty of Sport, State University of Surabaya in academic year 2017/2018. Diagnostic Test completed with CRI (Certainty of Response Index) in order to collect data of students’ certain in answered test. The data result of diagnostic test analysed through compilation graph of CRI right, CRI wrong and right fraction in every single question. Furthermore, students’ answer result of diagnostic test categorized in to 4 quadrants, these: correct concepts, lucky guess, misconceptions, and lack of knowledge. Its categorizing data to know percentage of misconceptions that arise in every concept tested. These sport biomechanics concepts tested are limited on frictional force, deference of distance and displacement, deference of velocity and acceleration, and free fall motion. The result obtained arise misconception in frictional force 52,78%; deference of distance and displacement 36,67%; deference of velocity and acceleration 56,67%; and free fall motion 53,33%. Result of t-test in diagnostic test misconception percentage showed that percentage of misconception arises in every student above 50%.

  10. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  11. Breath-Holding Spells

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  12. DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE

    Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

    2003-02-27

    Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on

  13. Assessment of anatomic relation between pulmonary perfusion and morphology in pulmonary emphysema with breath-hold SPECT-CT fusion images

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Noriko; Seto, Akiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2008-01-01

    Anatomic relation between pulmonary perfusion and morphology in pulmonary emphysema was assessed on deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images. Subjects were 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 11 non-smoker controls, who successfully underwent DIBrH and non-BrH perfusion SPECT using a dual-headed SPECT system during the period between January 2004 and June 2006. DIBrH SPECT was three-dimensionally co-registered with DIBrH CT to comprehend the relationship between lung perfusion defects and CT low attenuation areas (LAA). By comparing the appearance of lung perfusion on DIBrH with non-BrH SPECT, the correlation with the rate constant for the alveolar-capillary transfer of carbon monoxide (DLCO/VA) was compared between perfusion abnormalities on these SPECTs and LAA on CT. DIBrH SPECT provided fairly uniform perfusion in controls, but significantly enhanced perfusion heterogeneity when compared with non-BrH SPECT in pulmonary emphysema patients (P<0.001). The reliable DIBrH SPECT-CT fusion images confirmed more extended perfusion defects than LAA on CT in majority (73%) of patients. Perfusion abnormalities on DIBrH SPECT were more closely correlated with DLCO/VA than LAA on CT (P<0.05). DIBrH SPECT identifies affected lungs with perfusion abnormality better than does non-BrH SPECT in pulmonary emphysema. DIBrH SPECT-CT fusion images are useful for more accurately localizing affected lungs than morphologic CT alone in this disease. (author)

  14. HIV/AIDS misconceptions may be associated with condom use ...

    HIV/AIDS misconceptions may be associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory analysis. Laura M Bogart, Donald Skinner, Lance S Weinhardt, Laura Glasman, Cheryl Sitzler, Yoesrie Toefy, Seth C Kalichman ...

  15. Unraveling Students' Misconceptions about the Earth's Shape and Gravity.

    Sneider, Cary I.; Ohadi, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a study designed to test the effectiveness of a constructivist-historical teaching strategy in changing students' misconceptions about the earth's shape and gravity at the upper elementary and middle school levels. Contains 27 references. (DDR)

  16. Trade Issues in the Doha Round; Dispelling Some Misconceptions

    Stephen Tokarick

    2006-01-01

    The current round of multilateral trade negotiations-the Doha Round-presents an opportunity for countries to reap the benefits of trade liberalization. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions about the likely impact of trade reforms has, in part, impeded more rapid progress toward completion of the Round. This paper addresses some of the most egregious of these misconceptions and presents results from IMF research that sheds light on these issues. In particular, this paper argues that: (i) ...

  17. Student Misconceptions about Plants ? A First Step in Building a Teaching Resource?

    Wynn, April N.; Pan, Irvin L.; Rueschhoff, Elizabeth E.; Herman, Maryann A. B.; Archer, E. Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants are ubiquitous and found in virtually every ecosystem on Earth, but their biology is often poorly understood, and inaccurate ideas about how plants grow and function abound. Many articles have been published documenting student misconceptions about photosynthesis and respiration, but there are substantially fewer on such topics as plant cell structure and growth; plant genetics, evolution, and classification; plant physiology (beyond energy relations); and plant ecology. The available ...

  18. Investigation to reduce students’ misconception in energy material

    Wijayanti, M. D.; Raharjo, S. B.; Saputro, S.; Mulyani, S.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the misconception of Teacher Candidate of Elementary School (PGSD) on energy materials. This research is expected to be a common misconception in teaching and learning activities. One solution to overcome misconceptions is by investigation. This study uses qualitative research. The subject of this research needs 35 students. Data analysis is done by comparing the observation and test results. The results of this study is the result of students learning outcomes through cycle I and cycle II. The first cycle is due to overweight misconceptions of 18.57% and cycle II of 35.71%. Misconception can be caused by a procedural negligence. Students of PGSD Are examined to show if they understood in a simple movement problem which needs a neverse proportionality concept, to find out a way to prevent misunderstanding. The examination may consist of the question of energy materials by different representation for each student. The conceptual knowledge of the students show incorrectness because they feel confused of existing knowledge they got in their daily lives. It can cause scientific misunderstanding. The declining in student misconceptions is caused by investigation process. Search and data collection are helpful in improving their thinking skills.

  19. Tube holding system

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  20. Most common misconceptions about informational communication technologies in education

    Pešikan Ana Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss analytically the use of informational communication technologies (ICT in education so that education system could have greater benefits from its carefully planned use. In this paper we tried to show the specificity of the relations between education and ICT. Many things in that relation are accepted for granted, often without much analyzing. We selected some of typical misconceptions which contribute to erroneous ideas about education and ICT relation resulting in limited opportunities for using up new technologies in education. When analyzing ICT in education there is no room for the question whether to use new technologies in the teaching/ learning process or not, but when, why and how to use them. In order to bring these decisions and use ICT potentials for educational purposes, thorough understanding of the nature of teaching and learning is necessary. Education should not be just a buyer or a prudent user of numerous ICT possibilities but it should carefully and thoughtfully transform the teaching/learning process in order equip future and nowadays citizens with skills necessary for living and working in the environment with significantly changed technology. Much more researching and theoretical work is needed in order to fully understand how ICT really influences the learning process and how to use that influence in order to enhance the quality of education.

  1. An inventory on rotational kinematics of a particle: unravelling misconceptions and pitfalls in reasoning

    Mashood, K K; Singh, Vijay A

    2012-01-01

    Student difficulties regarding the angular velocity and angular acceleration of a particle have remained relatively unexplored in contrast to their linear counterparts. We present an inventory comprising multiple choice questions aimed at probing misconceptions and eliciting ill-suited reasoning patterns. The development of the inventory was based on interactions with students, teachers and experts. We report misconceptions, some of which are parallel to those found earlier in linear kinematics. Fixations with inappropriate prototypes were uncovered. Many students and even teachers mistakenly assume that all rotational motion is necessarily circular. A persistent notion that the direction of angular velocity and angular acceleration should be ‘along’ the motion exists. Instances of indiscriminate usage of equations were identified. (paper)

  2. A Two-Tier Multiple Choice Questions to Diagnose Thermodynamic Misconception of Thai and Laos Students

    Kamcharean, Chanwit; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat

    The objective of this study was to diagnose misconceptions of Thai and Lao students in thermodynamics by using a two-tier multiple-choice test. Two-tier multiple choice questions consist of the first tier, a content-based question and the second tier, a reasoning-based question. Data of student understanding was collected by using 10 two-tier multiple-choice questions. Thai participants were the first-year students (N = 57) taking a fundamental physics course at Chiang Mai University in 2012. Lao participants were high school students in Grade 11 (N = 57) and Grade 12 (N = 83) at Muengnern high school in Xayaboury province, Lao PDR. As results, most students answered content-tier questions correctly but chose incorrect answers for reason-tier questions. When further investigating their incorrect reasons, we found similar misconceptions as reported in previous studies such as incorrectly relating pressure with temperature when presenting with multiple variables.

  3. Misconceptions and biases in German students' perception of multiple energy sources: implications for science education

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-04-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way for informed decision-making. This study examined German students' knowledge of the contribution of diverse energy sources to their nation's energy mix as well as their affective energy responses so as to identify implications for science education. Specifically, the study investigated whether and to what extent students hold mistaken beliefs about the role of multiple energy sources in their nation's energy mix, and assessed how misconceptions could act as self-generated reference points to underpin support/resistance of proposed developments. An in-depth analysis of spontaneous affective associations with five key energy sources also enabled the identification of underlying concerns driving people's energy responses and facilitated an examination of how affective perception, in acting as a heuristic, could lead to biases in energy judgment and decision-making. Finally, subgroup analysis differentiated by education and gender supported insights into a 'two culture' effect on energy perception and the challenge it poses to science education.

  4. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

    Briggs, Amy G; Morgan, Stephanie K; Sanderson, Seth K; Schulting, Molly C; Wieseman, Laramie J

    2016-12-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

  5. Misconception of pre-service chemistry teachers about the concept of resonances in organic chemistry course

    Widarti, Hayuni Retno; Retnosari, Rini; Marfu'ah, Siti

    2017-08-01

    A descriptive quantitative research has been done to identify the level of understanding and misconceptions of the pre-service chemistry teachers related to the concept of resonance in the organic chemistry course. The subjects of the research were 51 students of State University of Malang, majoring Chemistry Education, currently in their fourth semester, 2015-2016 academic year who have taken the course of Organic Chemistry I. The instruments used in this research is a combination of 8 numbers of multiple choice tests with open answer questions and certainty of response index (CRI). The research findings revealed that there are still misconceptions found in the organic chemistry course, especially about the concept of resonance. There were several misconceptions of the pre-service chemistry teachers, such as resonance structures are in equilibrium with each other; resonance structures are two or more Lewis structures with different in arrangement of both atom and electron; resonance structures are only structures containing charged atoms; formal charge and resonance structures are not related; and the stability of resonance structures are only determined by location of charges in atoms found in such structures. There is also a lack of understanding of curved arrows notation to show electron pair movement.

  6. [Blind alleys and misconceptions in public health].

    Müller, H E

    1995-07-01

    The concept of hygiene was created in the 19th century although Hippocrates had already conceived an influence of atmosphere, soil and water on human health. The concept of a public health organisation, however, is a fairly recent one. Environmental and social hygiene were the two poles of the new discipline that focussed on public health. However, the ideologies of capitalism, communism and socialism as well as of social darwinism and "survival of the elite" discredited social hygiene. The decline of totalitarianism was associated with a "loss of face" of state-controlled medicine, including social hygiene. Both the post-World War II German constitution and the previous German statutory health insurance ordinance had blocked it, and hence, no Federal bill on public health was carried. The consequences of this disregard of public health are poor protection by vaccination, a gap in compulsory notification and in epidemics control and high rates of nosocomial infections. Absolutely no development of the science of epidemiology was possible whereas that of medical microbiology is choked by the system now in existence. There is a great misconception within individual hygiene by identifying it merely with cleanliness. Hygiene became a synonym for cleanliness, although that had evolved during a long cultural sociological process centuries before hygiene was established. The modern evolution of the science of hygiene shows the danger that emphasis on healthy lifestyles or on environmental protection may result in regulations and finally in a tyranny that may threaten the liberty of human rights. The so-called "principle of concern" is an example of such irrationality because there is no sensible proportion between risk and expense.

  7. Rugby headgear and concussion prevention: misconceptions could increase aggressive play.

    Menger, Richard; Menger, Austin; Nanda, Anil

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams. Initial information given was related to club, age, experience, use of headgear, playing time, whether the rugger played football or wrestling in high school, and whether the player believed headgear prevented concussion. Data were then constructed as to whether wearing headgear would increase aggressive playing style secondary to a false sense of protection. RESULTS A total of 122 players responded. All players were male. The average player was 19.5 years old and had 2.7 years of experience. Twenty-three of 122 players (18.9%) wore protective headgear; 55.4% of players listed forward as their primary position. Overall, 45.8% (55/120) of players played 70-80 minutes per game, 44.6% (54/121) played football or wrestled in high school, 38.1% (45/118) believed headgear prevented concussions, and 42.2% (51/121) stated that if they were using headgear they would be more aggressive with their play in terms of running or tackling. Regression analysis illustrated that those who believed headgear prevented concussions were or would be more likely to engage in aggressive play (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 40% of collegiate rugby players surveyed believed headgear helped to prevent concussions despite no scientific evidence that it does. This misconception about rugby headgear could increase aggressive play. Those who believed headgear prevented concussion were, on average, 4 times more likely to play with increased aggressive form than those who believed

  8. The Empathic Process and Misconceptions that Lead to Burnout in Healthcare Professionals.

    Villacieros, Marta; Olmos, Ricardo; Bermejo, José Carlos

    2017-12-04

    Empathy has been identified as a relevant variable in order to predict burnout in healthcare professionals. In addition, assertiveness and self-esteem have been considered relevant variables to develop empathic capacity. In the other hand, misconceptions surrounding empathy constitute a risk factor for burnout. Two adult samples (N = 252 and N = 275) were used to explore and confirm the underlying structure of two questionnaires. The Exercise of Process of Empathy (EPE) scale (18 items) confirmatory factor analysis including 5 dimensions (cognitive and emotional comprehension, attention, clarity and assertiveness), showed reasonable goodness- of-fit indices χ2(130) = 269.63, p empathy scale (16 items) confirmatory factor analysis, including 3 dimensions (feeling, confluence and character misconceptions) also obtained reasonable goodness-of-fit indices χ 2 (101) = 250.59, p empathy process) a protection factor (b* = -.183). The model partially explains how misconceptions empathy process and self-esteem (b* = -.334) relate to burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals; what is more, it heralds a potential means to prevent it.

  9. Development of the kinetic molecular theory of gases concept inventory: Preliminary results on university students’ misconceptions

    Nataša Erceg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated students’ understanding of concepts related to the microscopic model of gas. We thoroughly reviewed the relevant literature and conducted think alouds with students by asking them to answer open-ended questions about the kinetic molecular theory of gases. Thereafter, we transformed the open-ended questions into multiple-choice questions, whereby distractors were based on the results of the think alouds. Thus, we obtained a set of 22 questions, which constitutes our current version of the kinetic molecular theory of gases concept inventory. The inventory has been administered to 250 students from different universities in Croatia, and its content validity has been investigated trough physics teacher surveys. The results of our study not only corroborate the existence of some already known student misconceptions, but also reveal new insights about a great spectrum of students’ misconceptions that had not been reported in earlier research (e.g., misconceptions about intermolecular potential energy and molecular velocity distribution. Moreover, we identified similar distribution of students’ responses across the surveyed student groups, despite the fact that they had been enrolled in different curricular environments.

  10. The effect of education type on common misconceptions of traumatic brain injury.

    De Iorio, Monica L; Nolan, Susan A; Teague, Susan

    2017-11-01

    In the current study, we investigated the effects of existing education materials-either a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) factsheet or personal stories of people with TBI-on undergraduate students' misconceptions and attributions about the causes of TBI-related behavior. Undergraduate students (N = 164) were recruited through the university participant pool. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either a factsheet about TBI, personal stories of people with TBI, or a control reading. Groups were compared on the number of TBI misconceptions endorsed, scores on an attribution measure, and their willingness to interact with people who have TBIs. Both the TBI factsheet group and the personal stories group endorsed fewer misconceptions, on average, than the control group (p = .02). Additionally, those who read either the personal stories or the factsheet had significantly lower attribution scores, on average, than the control group (p = .001; p = .03). That is, those who read either of the educational materials were more likely to endorse a TBI explanation over an adolescent explanation, compared to those who read a control reading. The groups did not significantly differ on their willingness for social interaction. Results suggest that, on average, factsheets and personal stories are effective for increasing knowledge about moderate-to-severe TBI as compared to a control group. Personal stories and factsheets may also be useful, on average, for addressing tendencies to discount TBIs as explanations for behavioral change, as compared to a control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high

  12. Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression

    Leslie K. Wright

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA and gene expression (mRNA/protein and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression.

  13. Misconceptions regarding the pathogenicity of silicas and silicates.

    Feigin, D S

    1989-01-01

    Several inhaled substances, from occupational or other environmental exposure, produce significant pulmonary disease and abnormalities demonstrated by pulmonary imaging. Areas of controversy and misconception relate principally to the extent and nature of both the clinical disease and the imaging abnormalities specific to each substance. The size and shape of the inhaled particles is an important determinant of the nature and severity of the disease produced, with fibrous shapes usually being the most pathogenetic. Fibrogenicity is another important pathogenetic characteristic of talc and kaolin, as well as asbestos. Talc produces four distinct forms of pulmonary disease, depending not only on the other substances with which it is inhaled, but also whether it is inhaled or injected intravenously. When inhaled alone, talc does not appear to produce significant pulmonary fibrosis or malignancy. Kaolin, mica, fuller's earth, zeolite, and fiberglass all vary in disease production according to their shape and fibrogenicity. Silica, diatomaceous earth, and other forms of silica are all highly fibrogenic and thus produce clinically obvious disease with sufficient inhalation. The largest particles usually produce nodular patterns in the upper pulmonary fields, as is typical of silicosis. The fibrous particles are more likely to manifest themselves as interstitial patterns in the lower pulmonary fields.

  14. Myths and misconceptions about abortion among marginalized underserved community.

    Thapa, K; Karki, Y; Bista, K P

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe abortion remains a huge problem in Nepal even after legalization of abortion. Various myths and misconceptions persist which prompt women towards unsafe abortive practices. A qualitative study was conducted among different groups of women using focus group discussions and in depth interviews. Perception and understanding of the participants on abortion, methods and place of abortion were evaluated. A number of misconceptions were prevalent like drinking vegetable and herbal juices, and applying hot pot over the abdomen could abort pregnancy. However, many participants also believed that health care providers should be consulted for abortion. Although majority of the women knew that they should seek medical aid for abortion, they were still possessed with various misconceptions. Merely legalizing abortion services is not enough to reduce the burden of unsafe abortion. Focus has to be given on creating awareness and proper advocacy in this issue.

  15. MISCONCEPTIONS AND NON-SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS ON FREE RADICALS

    Rosiris Sindeaux de Alencar Pires de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Misconceptions or alternative conceptions are defined as conceptions that are somewhat different from the scientifically accepted ones and are known to be highly resistant to changes. Free radicals are a widely publicized subject in the media due to their putative importance in human aging and health. Free radicals are a subject susceptible to misconceptions widely spread by the media supporting prejudicial advertising inducing antioxidant consumption. OBJECTIVES: Identify and categorized different free radicals misconceptions published in printed media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Revista Veja (Digital Archive, the weekly magazine with the largest circulation in Brazil, was selected for this investigation. Period analyzed: from 01/01/2000 to 31/07/2014 with search terms Free radicals and antioxidants. Passages selected were classified as: Right Concept (RC, Wrong Concept (WC, Misconception (MC, Inadequate generalization (IG, Inductive [to misconceptions] Concept (IC, Inductive [to misconceptions] Information (II, and Not fit the inclusion criteria (NFIC. Each one of these categories were further subdivided. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: 79 magazine articles, advertisements and information materials were found which led to 293 text passages. 56.3% were MC, 21.4% II, 8.8% IC, 5.4% IG, 3.4% RC, 2.7% WR, 2.0% NFIC. The most frequently subcategory in each category was: MC: x [something] combats free radicals (22.6%; II: x [substance] is antioxidant (54.0%; IC: x [something] increases free radicals production (34.6%; IG: antioxidant x [substance] combats cancer (56.3%; RC: too much vitamins and minerals is harmful to health (30.0%; WR: free radicals are formed during oxygen conversion to energy process (25.0%. CONCLUSION: Magazine analysis reveal non-scientific concepts (MC, II, IC and IG to be highly frequent, notably misconceptions. Moreover, non-scientific concepts together reach 91.8% of all concepts while right concepts respond for only 2

  16. Teachers' Misconceptions about the Effects of Addition of More Reactants or Products on Chemical Equilibrium

    Cheung, Derek; Ma, Hong-jia; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The importance of research on misconceptions about chemical equilibrium is well recognized by educators, but in the past, researchers' interest has centered on student misconceptions and has neglected teacher misconceptions. Focusing on the effects of adding more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium, this article discusses the various…

  17. Eliminate with Created Argument Environment after Evaluated and Categorized Misconceptions in an Ontological Sense

    Kinik Topalsan, Aysegul; Bayram, Hale

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain misconceptions of students about basic physical concepts in the "Force and Motion" unit of secondary school seventh class curriculum, to eliminate the misconceptions with created argument environment and traditional approaches after evaluated, and categorize these misconceptions in an ontological sense.…

  18. Exploring Lecturers' Views of First-Year Health Science Students' Misconceptions in Biomedical Domains

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge…

  19. Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions

    Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a randomised educational experiment (n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from…

  20. Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium

    Sahin Pekmez, Esin

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…

  1. Misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries among South African ...

    Objective. To investigate the incidence and type of misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) harboured by university students. Method. A convenience sample of 705 university students were recruited and data were collected using an electronic survey. The link to the survey was sent via e-mail to all registered ...

  2. Does Conceptual Understanding of Limit Partially Lead Students to Misconceptions?

    Mulyono, B.; Hapizah

    2017-09-01

    This article talks about the result of preliminary research of my dissertation, which will investigate student’s retention of conceptual understanding. In my preliminary research, I surveyed 73 students of mathematics education program by giving some questions to test their retention of conceptual understanding of limits. Based on the results of analyzing of students’ answers I conclude that most of the students have problems with their retention of conceptual understanding and they also have misconception of limits. The first misconception I identified is that students always used the substitution method to determine a limit of a function at a point, but they did not check whether the function is continue or not at the point. It means that they only use the substitution theorem partially, because they do not consider that the substitution theorem \\mathop{{lim}}\\limits\\text{x\\to \\text{c}}f(x)=f(c) works only if f(x) is defined at χ = c. The other misconception identified is that some students always think there must be available of variables χ in a function to determine the limit of the function. I conjecture that conceptual understanding of limit partially leads students to misconceptions.

  3. Misconceptions of Concepts in Chemistry among Senior Secondary ...

    This study examined the misconceptions by chemistry teachers of senior secondary three (SSIII) in Cross River State, Nigeria. Concepts investigated were hydrocarbons, alkanols, alkanoic acids, pollution, classification and nomenclature of carbon compounds, natural products, chemistry in industry, extraction of metals, fats ...

  4. Hybrid orbitals notation: Some misconceptions in an undergraduate ...

    This work reports a study performed involving 26 students of an undergraduate basic chemistry course class at Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The study was performed in order to evaluate the misconceptions about hybridization that students bring from high school courses and how to overcame such ...

  5. hybrid orbitals notation: some misconceptions in an undergraduate

    Temechegn

    chemistry course class at Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The study was ... high school courses and how to overcame such misconceptions. Methane ... [African Journal of Chemical Education—AJCE 7(1), January 2017] ... [2], in both research and teaching. In high .... feature of the freshman student profile.

  6. Genetics and Cinema: Personal Misconceptions That Constitute Obstacles to Learning

    Muela, Francisco Javier; Abril, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to find out whether the genetic concepts conveyed by cinema could encourage students' personal misconceptions in this area. To that end, two sources of conceptions were compared: the students' personal concepts (from a consolidated bibliography and from an experimental sample) and the concepts conveyed by…

  7. Students' conceptions and misconceptions in chemical kinetics in ...

    The purpose of the study was to probe the conception and misconception of senior secondary (SS3) and University (US) chemistry students in chemical kinetics in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study sample was made up of 107 SS3 and 93 US students. Two main instruments were used to collect data for the study. They are the ...

  8. Internet as a Source of Misconception: "Radiation and Radioactivity"

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Ince, Elif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine students' usage styles of the Internet for seeking information and to investigate whether information obtained from the Internet is a source of misconceptions. For this reason, a two-stage study was conducted. At the first stage, a questionnaire was developed to get information about students' Internet usage…

  9. Neuromyths in education: Prevalence and predictors of misconceptions among teachers

    Dekker, S.J.; Lee, N.C.; Howard-Jones, P.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    The OECD's Brain and Learning project (2002) emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education.Though these so-called "neuromyths" are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice.The present study

  10. Knowledge of and misconceptions about the spread and prevention ...

    Three or more misconceptions were present in 48% of the participants, such as HIV spread by casual contact, the sharing of personal items, air-borne infection, mosquito bites, HIV testing and AIDS prevention or cure by traditional medicines or alternatives. Sixty-two per cent of the older women were found to have adequate ...

  11. Students' Misconceptions about Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits

    Herman, G. L.; Loui, M. C.; Zilles, C.

    2011-01-01

    To improve instruction in computer engineering and computer science, instructors must better understand how their students learn. Unfortunately, little is known about how students learn the fundamental concepts in computing. To investigate student conceptions and misconceptions about digital logic concepts, the authors conducted a qualitative…

  12. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Key words: Bad‑breath, emerging adults, misconceptions, Nigeria, perceptions. Date of ... negligible minority being attributable to food and ill health. Many cases of ..... Intra‑ and extra‑oral halitosis: finding of a new form of ...

  13. Misconceptions of genetics concepts among pre-service teachers ...

    Students' misconceptions are often deeply rooted and instruction-resistant obstacles to the acquizition of scientific concepts and remain even after instruction. A large number of prior studies reported that primary and secondary school students have many conceptional problems concerning cell biology and genetics.

  14. The Equal Sign: Teachers' Knowledge and Students' Misconceptions

    Vermeulen, Cornelis; Meyer, Bronwin

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated the extent to which 57 Grade 6 students at a particular school have misconceptions regarding equality, with the equal sign as focus. It also investigated this school's three Grade 5 and 6 teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching regarding equality, again focusing on the equal sign. The…

  15. Entropy and Entropy Production: Old Misconceptions and New Breakthroughs

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent misconceptions existing for dozens of years and influencing progress in various fields of science are sometimes encountered in the scientific and especially, the popular-science literature. The present brief review deals with two such interrelated misconceptions (misunderstandings. The first misunderstanding: entropy is a measure of disorder. This is an old and very common opinion. The second misconception is that the entropy production minimizes in the evolution of nonequilibrium systems. However, as it has recently become clear, evolution (progress in Nature demonstrates the opposite, i.e., maximization of the entropy production. The principal questions connected with this maximization are considered herein. The two misconceptions mentioned above can lead to the apparent contradiction between the conclusions of modern thermodynamics and the basic conceptions of evolution existing in biology. In this regard, the analysis of these issues seems extremely important and timely as it contributes to the deeper understanding of the laws of development of the surrounding World and the place of humans in it.

  16. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  17. Identifying Students’ Misconceptions on Basic Algorithmic Concepts Through Flowchart Analysis

    Rahimi, E.; Barendsen, E.; Henze, I.; Dagienė, V.; Hellas, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a flowchart-based approach to identifying secondary school students’ misconceptions (in a broad sense) on basic algorithm concepts is introduced. This approach uses student-generated flowcharts as the units of analysis and examines them against plan composition and construct-based

  18. Corporate Governance, Cash Holdings, and Firm Value: Evidence from Japan

    Qi Luo; Toyohiko Hachiya

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on cash holdings for Japanese firms listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, focusing on the impact of corporate governance factors in cash holdings and the implication of cash holdings to firm value. We find that insider ownership and bank relations of firms play a significant role in determining cash holdings. Our results indicate that foreign stockholders select profitable firms to invest, and these firms have higher levels of cash. We document evidence that cash ho...

  19. Better Categorizing Misconceptions Using a Contemporary Cognitive Science Lens

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the last three decades of discipline-based education research in the geosciences has focused on the important work of identifying the range and domain of misconceptions students bring into undergraduate science survey courses. Pinpointing students' prior knowledge is a cornerstone for developing constructivist approaches and learning environments for effective teaching. At the same time, the development of a robust a priori formula for professors to use in mitigating students' misconceptions remains elusive. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to put forth a model that will allow professors to operate on students' various learning difficulties in a more productive manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast, we propose a model based on the notion that 'misconceptions' are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties (e.g. students' spiritual commitments). In this sense, each of these different types of learning barriers would be more effectively addressed with an instructional strategy purposefully targeting these different attributes. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in geosciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the single generalized category of 'misconceptions' might allow our community to more effectively design learning experiences for our students and the general public

  20. Misconceptions in Astronomy: Before and After a Constructivist Learning Environment

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a pilot study on college students’ misconceptions in astronomy. The study was conducted on the campus of a Midwestern university among 43 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy laboratory course. The laboratory course was based on a constructivist learning environment where students learned astronomy by doing astronomy. During the course, students worked with educational simulations created by Project CLEA team and RedShift College Education Astronomy Workbook by Bill Walker as well as were involved in think-pair-share discussions based on Lecture-Tutorials (Prather et al 2008). Several laboratories were prompted by an instructor's brief presentations. On the first and last days of the course students were surveyed on what their beliefs were about causes of the seasons, the moon's apparent size in the sky and its phases, planetary orbits, structure of the solar system, the sun, distant stars, and the nature of light. The majority of the surveys’ questions were based on Neil Comins’ 50 most commonly cited misconceptions. The outcome of the study showed that while students constructed correct understanding of a number of phenomena, they also created a set of new misconceptions. For example, if on the first day of the course, nine out of 43 students knew what caused the seasons on Earth; on the last day of the course, 20 students gained the similar understanding. However, by the end of the course more students believed that smaller planets must rotate faster based on the conservation of angular momentum and Kepler's laws. Our findings suggest that misconceptions pointed out by Neil Comins over a decade ago are still relevant today; and that learning based exclusively on simulations and collaborative group discussions does not necessarily produce the best results, but may set a ground for creating new misconceptions.

  1. Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers.

    Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki C; Howard-Jones, Paul; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    The OECD's Brain and Learning project (2002) emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education. Though these so-called "neuromyths" are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general knowledge of the brain and neuromyths. The sample comprised 242 primary and secondary school teachers who were interested in the neuroscience of learning. It would be of concern if neuromyths were found in this sample, as these teachers may want to use these incorrect interpretations of neuroscience findings in their teaching practice. Participants completed an online survey containing 32 statements about the brain and its influence on learning, of which 15 were neuromyths. Additional data was collected regarding background variables (e.g., age, sex, school type). Results showed that on average, teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths, particularly myths related to commercialized educational programs. Around 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. Teachers who read popular science magazines achieved higher scores on general knowledge questions. More general knowledge also predicted an increased belief in neuromyths. These findings suggest that teachers who are enthusiastic about the possible application of neuroscience findings in the classroom find it difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from scientific facts. Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education.

  2. Neuromyths in education: Prevalence and predictors of misconceptions among teachers

    Sanne eDekker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The OECD’s Brain and Learning project (2002 emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education. Though these so-called ‘neuromyths’ are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general knowledge of the brain and neuromyths. The sample comprised 242 primary and secondary school teachers who were interested in the neuroscience of learning. It would be of concern if neuromyths were found in this sample, as these teachers may want to use these incorrect interpretations of neuroscience findings in their teaching practice. Participants completed an online survey containing 32 statements about the brain and its influence on learning, of which 15 were neuromyths. Additional data was collected regarding background variables (e.g., age, sex, school type. Results showed that on average, teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths, particularly myths related to commercialized educational programmes. Around 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. Teachers who read popular science magazines achieved higher scores on general knowledge questions. More general knowledge also predicted an increased belief in neuromyths. These findings suggest that teachers who are enthusiastic about the possible application of neuroscience findings in the classroom find it difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from scientific facts. Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education.

  3. The misconception of mean-reversion

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Cohen, Morrel H

    2012-01-01

    The notion of random motion in a potential well is elemental in the physical sciences and beyond. Quantitatively, this notion is described by reverting diffusions—asymptotically stationary diffusion processes which are simultaneously (i) driven toward a reversion level by a deterministic force, and (ii) perturbed off the reversion level by a random white noise. The archetypal example of reverting diffusions is the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, which is mean-reverting. In this paper we analyze reverting diffusions and establish that: (i) if the magnitude of the perturbing noise is constant then the diffusion's stationary density is unimodal and the diffusion is mode-reverting; (ii) if the magnitude of the perturbing noise is non-constant then, in general, neither is the diffusion's stationary density unimodal, nor is the diffusion mode-reverting. In the latter case we further establish a result asserting when unimodality and mode-reversion do hold. In particular, we demonstrate that the notion of mean-reversion, which is fundamental in economics and finance, is a misconception—as mean-reversion is an exception rather than the norm. (fast track communication)

  4. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and misconceptions among women ...

    Cette étude a fait une évaluation du niveau de connaissances et d'idées fausses sur la transmission du VIH / sida et sa prévention chez les femmes. A l'aide d'un questionnaire semi-structuré et pré-contrôlé, nous avons obtenu des données pertinentes parmi les 420 interviewées choisies au hasard dans cinq consultations ...

  5. Dilemmas, Confusion, and Misconceptions Related to Small Airways Directed Therapy

    Lavorini, Federico; Pedersen, Søren; Usmani, Omar S.

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways < 2 mm in internal diameter) contribute substantially to the pathophysiologic and clinical expression of asthma and COPD. The increased interest in small airways is, at least in part, a result of innova......During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways COPD. The increased interest in small airways is, at least in part, a result...... of innovation in small-particle aerosol formulations that better target the distal lung and also advanced physiologic methods of assessing small airway responses. Increasing the precision of drug deposition may improve targeting of specific diseases or receptor locations, decrease airway drug exposure...... benefit, compared with large-particle aerosol treatment. However, a number of questions remain unanswered about the pragmatic approach relevant for clinicians to consider the role of small airways directed therapy in the day-to-day management of asthma and COPD. We thus have tried to clarify the dilemmas...

  6. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology†

    Briggs, Amy G.; Morgan, Stephanie K.; Sanderson, Seth K.; Schulting, Molly C.; Wieseman, Laramie J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble. PMID:28101260

  7. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    Amy G. Briggs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein. Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

  8. Burden of Misconception in Sexual Health Care Setting: A Cross-Sectional Investigation among the Patients Attending a Psychiatric Sex Clinic of Bangladesh

    S. M. Yasir Arafat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bangladesh is a country in South Asia with about 160 million people and achieved health related Millennium Development Goals (MDG significantly. But sexual health is still an untapped issue with predominant myths and misconception. Objective. We aimed to look into the proportions of patients attending sexual health care services due to misconceptions. Methods. The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 patients attending Psychiatric Sex Clinic (PSC of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. Respondents were included in the study with convenient sampling from November 2016 to March 2017. Data were collected through face-to-face interview with semistructured preformed, pretested questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software 16.0 version. Results. Most of the patients (93% were male, 60% were married, 62% were urban habitant, 42% were under grade 10, and 33% were service holder. Total 55% of the patients had misconceptions and 29% visited only for misconception; 14% had Premature Ejaculation; and 12% had desire disorder. 32% of the patients had psychiatric disorders and among them depression was most common, 13%. Conclusion. Positive openness in sexual health and appropriate strategy should be taken to improve the quality of sexual life as well as reduce the misconception in the people of Bangladesh.

  9. SU-F-T-136: Breath Hold Lung Phantom Study in Using CT Density Versus Relative Stopping Power Ratio for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning System

    Syh, J; Wu, H; Rosen, L [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate mass density effects of CT conversion table and its variation in current treatment planning system of spot scanning proton beam using an IROC proton lung phantom for this study. Methods: A proton lung phantom study was acquired to Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC) Quality Assurance Center. Inside the lung phantom, GAF Chromic films and couples of thermal luminescent dosimeter (TLD) capsules embedded in specified PTV and adjacent structures to monitor delivered dosage and 3D dose distribution profiles. Various material such as cork (Lung), blue water (heart), Techron HPV (ribs) and organic material of balsa wood and cork as dosimetry inserts within phantom of solid water (soft tissue). Relative stopping power (RLSP) values were provided. Our treatment planning system (TPS) doesn’t require SP instead relative density was converted relative to water. However lung phantom was irradiated by planning with density override and the results were compared with IROC measurements. The second attempt was conducted without density override and compared with IROC’s. Results: The higher passing rate of imaging and measurement results of the lung phantom irradiation met the criteria by IROC without density override. The film at coronal plane was found to be shift due to inclined cylinder insertion. The converted CT density worked as expected to correlate relative stopping power. Conclusion: The proton lung phantom provided by IROC is a useful tool to qualify our commissioned proton pencil beam delivery with TPS within reliable confidence. The relative mass stopping power ratios of materials were converted from the relative physical density relative to water and the results were satisfied.

  10. Overcoming misconceptions in quantum mechanics with the time evolution operator

    Garcia Quijas, P C; Arevalo Aguilar, L M

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there have been many efforts to use the research techniques developed in the field of physics education research to improve the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. In particular, part of this research is focusing on misconceptions held by students. For instance, a set of misconceptions is associated with the concept of stationary states. In this paper, we argue that a possible way to remove these is to solve the Schroedinger equation using the evolution operator method (EOM), and stress the fact that to find stationary states is only the first step in solving that equation. The EOM consists in solving the Schroedinger equation by direct integration, i.e. Ψ(x, t) = U(t)Ψ(x, 0), where U(t)=e -itH-hat/h is the time evolution operator, and Ψ(x, 0) is the initial state. We apply the evolution operator method in the case of the harmonic oscillator

  11. Do the Washington Panel recommendations hold for europe inversigating the relation between quality of life versus work-status, absenteeism and presenteeism

    S. Knies (Saskia); A. Boonen (Annelies); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: The question of how to value lost productivity in economic evaluations has been subject of debate in the past twenty years. According to the Washington panel, lost productivity influences health-related quality of life and should thus be considered a

  12. A Study of the Relative Importance of Communication and Economic Variables in Diffusion: Dwarf Wheats on Unirrigated Small Holdings in Pakistan.

    Rochin, Refugio I.

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) it presents some empirical findings of the relative importance of both "economic" and "communication" variables in the diffusion of an innovation (dwarf wheats) in an unirrigated region of Pakistan which is densely populated by smallholders. The sample of farmers reported are…

  13. Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers

    Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki C.; Howard-Jones, Paul; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    The OECD's Brain and Learning project (2002) emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education.Though these so-called "neuromyths" are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice.The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general kno...

  14. "Cancer Put My Life on Hold": Work-Related Challenges Among Middle-aged Adults 12 Months After a Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer.

    McGrath, Catherine; Mihala, Gabor; Beesley, Vanessa L; Lynch, Brigid M; Graves, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa G

    Colorectal cancer affects a wide range of working-age people. Little is known about the consequent work limitations. The aim of this study was to understand the extent and changing nature of work-related limitations of middle-aged (45-64 years) people over the first 12 months of colorectal cancer. Surveys were administered to participants recruited via the Queensland Cancer Registry, at 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Among those who returned to work, the Work Limitations Questionnaire measured 4 job performance domains (time management, physical, mental-interpersonal, and output demands) and an overall productivity score. Open-ended questions supplemented the Work Limitations Questionnaire, and responses were thematically analyzed. Of 239 participants, 8% did not continue in the study, and 20% left employment by 12 months, leaving 171 participants eligible for this analysis. Open-ended responses for why participants stopped work included bowel problems and stoma, loss of strength, and medication adverse effects. At 12 months, 22% to 39% of participants reported work limitations, but there was no overall significant change in work limitations between 6 and 12 months. Qualitative data highlighted the key work-related issues were changes in work functioning, attitudes of employers and colleagues, financial pressures, and emotional responses. While a significant proportion left work because of treatment-related problems, and the majority of participants did not experience workplace limitations, some reported considerable work-related challenges. Discussions with health professionals about the possible impact of treatment adverse effects on employment, good communication with employers, and workplace flexibility may facilitate return to work for this population.

  15. Mure skal holde zombierne ude

    Stockmarr, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Vi bygger som besatte mure og barrierer for at holde flygtninge ude og tæmme de negative konsekvenser af den neoliberale globalisering.......Vi bygger som besatte mure og barrierer for at holde flygtninge ude og tæmme de negative konsekvenser af den neoliberale globalisering....

  16. PARENTAL MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT URTI AETIOLOGY AND TREATMENT ARE COMMON

    Chan GC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Most children have about 4 to 6 acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs each year. The majority of acute URTIs is caused by viruses and usually self-limiting. Improper use of antibiotic is associated with bacterial resistance and waste of health care resources. The inappropriate use could be partly due to mistaken belief of parents therefore their knowledge, attitudes and antibiotic use for acute URTIs in children are the main concern of this study.This cross-sectional study involved 421 parents, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, at Batu 9 Health Clinic of Hulu Langat district. Malay parents formed over half of the respondents followed by Chinese and Indian with mean age over 33 years old. Approximately 59% of parents believed that weather was the main cause of acute URTIs of their children, 13% thought it was due to food and only about 27% by germ. The majority of parents (68-76% believed that antibiotic was helpful in treating common cold, cough and fever. Twenty-nine percent of parents who thought that their child needed an antibiotic were not prescribed with any. On the other hand, 17% believed that an antibiotic was unnecessary when prescribed. Twenty-eight percent requested for an antibiotic and majority received what they asked for. About 31% of parents did not request any antibiotics but private general practitioners habitually prescribed them. The antibiotic compliance was poor with only 74% completing the entire course; 85% stopped once they improved symptomatically. Fifteen percent of parents gave a “left over” antibiotic; 24% gave a “shared” antibiotic, and 5.5% bought antibiotics without consultation. This study illustrated that parents generally have misconception and inappropriate use of antibiotics. This could be caused by lack of proper explanation and education. Besides this, past experience, traditional cultural and food belief also play a part here. Consequently, effective educational

  17. Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities

    Rowntree, Rebecca V.

    2009-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

  18. Singapore Students' Misconceptions of Climate Change

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…

  19. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For... Enterprise or OFHEO that the Enterprise is to retain records relating to a particular issue in connection...

  20. Thermodynamical interpretation of an adaptive walk on a Mt. Fuji-type fitness landscape: Einstein relation-like formula holds in a stochastic evolution.

    Aita, Takuyo; Husimi, Yuzuru

    2003-11-21

    We have theoretically studied the statistical properties of adaptive walks (or hill-climbing) on a Mt. Fuji-type fitness landscape in the multi-dimensional sequence space through mathematical analysis and computer simulation. The adaptive walk is characterized by the "mutation distance" d as the step-width of the walker and the "population size" N as the number of randomly generated d-fold point mutants to be screened. In addition to the fitness W, we introduced the following quantities analogous to thermodynamical concepts: "free fitness" G(W) is identical with W+T x S(W), where T is the "evolutionary temperature" T infinity square root of d/lnN and S(W) is the entropy as a function of W, and the "evolutionary force" X is identical with d(G(W)/T)/dW, that is caused by the mutation and selection pressure. It is known that a single adaptive walker rapidly climbs on the fitness landscape up to the stationary state where a "mutation-selection-random drift balance" is kept. In our interpretation, the walker tends to the maximal free fitness state, driven by the evolutionary force X. Our major findings are as follows: First, near the stationary point W*, the "climbing rate" J as the expected fitness change per generation is described by J approximately L x X with L approximately V/2, where V is the variance of fitness distribution on a local landscape. This simple relationship is analogous to the well-known Einstein relation in Brownian motion. Second, the "biological information gain" (DeltaG/T) through adaptive walk can be described by combining the Shannon's information gain (DeltaS) and the "fitness information gain" (DeltaW/T).

  1. Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept

    Siswaningsih, W.; Firman, H.; Zackiyah; Khoirunnisa, A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the two-tier pictorial-based diagnostic test for identifying student misconceptions on mole concept. The method of this study is used development and validation. The development of the test Obtained through four phases, development of any items, validation, determination key, and application test. Test was developed in the form of pictorial consisting of two tier, the first tier Consist of four possible answers and the second tier Consist of four possible reasons. Based on the results of content validity of 20 items using the CVR (Content Validity Ratio), a number of 18 items declared valid. Based on the results of the reliability test using SPSS, Obtained 17 items with Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0703, the which means that items have accepted. A total of 10 items was conducted to 35 students of senior high school students who have studied the mole concept on one of the high schools in Cimahi. Based on the results of the application test, student misconceptions were identified in each label concept in mole concept with the percentage of misconceptions on the label concept of mole (60.15%), Avogadro’s number (34.28%), relative atomic mass (62, 84%), relative molecule mass (77.08%), molar mass (68.53%), molar volume of gas (57.11%), molarity (71.32%), chemical equation (82.77%), limiting reactants (91.40%), and molecular formula (77.13%).

  2. Identification of Misconceptions through Multiple Choice Tasks at Municipal Chemistry Competition Test

    Dušica D Milenković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the level of conceptual understanding of chemical contents among seventh grade students who participated in the municipal Chemistry competition in Novi Sad, Serbia, in 2013 have been examined. Tests for the municipal chemistry competition were used as a measuring instrument, wherein only multiple choice tasks were considered and analyzed. Determination of the level of conceptual understanding of the tested chemical contents was based on the calculation of the frequency of choosing the correct answers. Thereby, identification of areas of satisfactory conceptual understanding, areas of roughly adequate performance, areas of inadequate performance, and areas of quite inadequate performance have been conducted. On the other hand, the analysis of misconceptions was based on the analysis of distractors. The results showed that satisfactory level of conceptual understanding and roughly adequate performance characterize majority of contents, which was expected since only the best students who took part in the contest were surveyed. However, this analysis identified a large number of misunderstandings, as well. In most of the cases, these misconceptions were related to the inability to distinguish elements, compounds, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. Besides, it is shown that students are not familiar with crystal structure of the diamond, and with metric prefixes. The obtained results indicate insufficient visualization of the submicroscopic level in school textbooks, the imprecise use of chemical language by teachers and imprecise use of language in chemistry textbooks.

  3. Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Science and Engineering Distinctions: Reflections on Modern Research Examples

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Meyer, Daniel Z.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to learn about the misconceptions that may arise for elementary and high school science teachers in their reflections on science and engineering practice. Using readings and videos of real science and engineering work, teachers' reflections were used to uncover the underpinnings of their understandings. This knowledge ultimately provides information about supporting professional development (PD) for science teachers' knowledge of engineering. Six science teachers (two elementary and four high school teachers) participated in the study as part of an online PD experience. Cunningham and Carlsen's (Journal of Science Teacher Education 25:197-210, 2014) relative emphases of science and engineering practices were used to frame the design of PD activities and the analyses of teachers' views. Analyses suggest misconceptions within the eight practices of science and engineering from the US Next Generation Science Standards in four areas. These are that: (1) the nature of the practices in both science and engineering research is determined by the long-term implications of the research regardless of the nature of the immediate work, (2) engineering and science are hierarchical, (3) creativity is inappropriate, and (4) research outcomes cannot be processes. We discuss the nature of these understandings among participants and the implications for engineering education PD for science teachers.

  4. Young Children Do Not Hold the Classic Earth's Shadow Misconception to Explain Lunar Phases

    Wilhelm, Jennifer Anne

    2014-01-01

    This research explored young children's early thoughts about natural phenomena and investigated sources of influence toward their knowledge construction. Two Piagetian interviews were conducted with four children. Each child was questioned about two phenomena in particular: (a) the moon and its changing appearance (moon phases) and (b) the…

  5. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  6. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  7. Misconceptions and false expectations in neutral evolution

    CARLOS Y. VALENZUELA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutral evolution results from random recurrent mutation and genetic drift. A small part of random evolution, that which is related to protein or DNA polymorphisms, is the subject of the Neutral Theory of Evolution. One of the foundations of this theory is the demonstration that the mutation rate (m is equal to the substitution rate. Since both rates are independent of population size, they are independent of drift, which is dependent upon population size. Neutralists have erroneously equated the substitution rate with the fixation rate, despite the fact that they are antithetical conceptions. The neutralists then applied the random walk stochastic model to justify alleles or bases that were fixated or eliminated. In this model, once the allele or base frequencies reach the monomorphic states (values of 1.0 or 0.0, the absorbing barriers, they can no longer return to the polymorphic state. This operates in a pure mathematical model. If recurrent mutation occurs (as in biotic real systems fixation and elimination are impossible. A population of bacteria in which m=10-8 base mutation (or substitution/site/generation and the reproduction rate is 1000 cell cycle/year should replace all its genome bases in approximately 100,000 years. The expected situation for all sites is polymorphism for the four bases rather than monomorphism at 1.0 or 0.0 frequencies. If fixation and elimination of a base for more than 500,000 years are impossible, then most of the neutral theory is untenable. A new complete neutral model, which allows for recurrent substitutions, is proposed here based on recurrent mutation or substitution and drift alone. The model fits a binomial or Poisson distribution and not a geometric one, as does neutral theory.

  8. SU-E-I-60: The Correct Selection of Pitch and Rotation Time for Optimal CT Scanning : The Big Misconception

    Ranallo, F; Szczykutowicz, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide correct guidance in the proper selection of pitch and rotation time for optimal CT imaging with multi-slice scanners. Methods: There exists a widespread misconception concerning the role of pitch in patient dose with modern multi-slice scanners, particularly with the use of mA modulation techniques. We investigated the relationship of pitch and rotation time to image quality, dose, and scan duration, with CT scanners from different manufacturers in a way that clarifies this misconception. This source of this misconception may concern the role of pitch in single slice CT scanners. Results: We found that the image noise and dose are generally independent of the selected effective mAs (mA*time/ pitch) with manual mA technique settings and are generally independent of the selected pitch and /or rotation time with automatic mA modulation techniques. However we did find that on certain scanners the use of a pitch just above 0.5 provided images of equal image noise at a lower dose compared to the use of a pitch just below 1.0. Conclusion: The misconception that the use of a lower pitch over-irradiates patients by wasting dose is clearly false. The use of a lower pitch provides images of equal or better image quality at the same patient dose, whether using manual mA or automatic mA modulation techniques. By decreasing the pitch and the rotation times by equal amounts, both helical and patient motion artifacts can be reduced without affecting the exam time. The use of lower helical pitch also allows better scanning of larger patients by allowing a greater scan effective mAs, if the exam time can be extended. The one caution with the use of low pitch is not related to patient dose, but to the length of the scan time if the rotation time is not set short enough. Partial Research funding from GE HealthCare

  9. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  10. Misconception p value among Chilean and Italian academic psychologists

    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The p value misconceptions are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals’ decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italians, 30 Chileans, questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with original research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  11. LMS learning algorithms: misconceptions and new results on converence.

    Wang, Z Q; Manry, M T; Schiano, J L

    2000-01-01

    The Widrow-Hoff delta rule is one of the most popular rules used in training neural networks. It was originally proposed for the ADALINE, but has been successfully applied to a few nonlinear neural networks as well. Despite its popularity, there exist a few misconceptions on its convergence properties. In this paper we consider repetitive learning (i.e., a fixed set of samples are used for training) and provide an in-depth analysis in the least mean square (LMS) framework. Our main result is that contrary to common belief, the nonbatch Widrow-Hoff rule does not converge in general. It converges only to a limit cycle.

  12. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  13. The water holding capacity of bark in Danish angiosperm trees

    Larsen, Hanne Marie Ellegård; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    The water holding capacity of bark in seven Danish angiosperm trees was examined. The aim of the study was (1) to examine height trends and (2) bark thickness trends in relation to the water holding capacity and (3) to determine interspecific differences. The wet-weight and dry-weight of a total...... number of 427 bark samples were measured. The water holding capacity was calculated as the difference between wet-weight and dry-weight per wet-weight. The water holding capacity increased with elevation in most tree species and contrary to the expectation, thinner bark generally had a higher water...... holding capacity. Differences in the water holding capacity of bark may influence the occurrence and distribution of a wide range of bark-living organisms including the distribution of corticolous lichens....

  14. The Determinants and Implications of Corporate Cash Holdings

    Tim Opler; Lee Pinkowitz; Rene Stulz; Rohan Williamson

    1997-01-01

    We examine the determinants and implications of holdings of cash and marketable" securities by publicly traded U.S. firms in the 1971-1994 period. Firms with strong growth" opportunities and riskier cash flows hold relatively high ratios of cash to total assets. Firms" that have the greatest access to the capital markets (e.g. large firms and those with credit" ratings) tend to hold lower ratios of cash to total assets. These results are consistent with the" view that firms hold liquid assets...

  15. Misconceptions about optics: An effect of misleading explanations?

    Favale, Fabrizio; Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    During our activities of physics dissemination with High School students especially concerning optics, we are used to distribute a questionnaire about colors and image formation by mirrors and lenses. The answers to some questions clearly show misconceptions and naïve ideas about colors, ray tracing, image formation in reflection and refraction. These misconceptions are widespread and do not depend on the gender, the level, and the age of the students: they seem to depend on some wrong ideas and explanatory models that are not changed by the curricular studies at school. In fact, the same errors are present in groups of students before and after taking optics courses at High School. On the other hand we have also found some misleading explanations of the phenomena both in textbooks and websites. Most of the time, errors occur in the explanatory drawings accompanying the text, which are based on some hybrid description of the optical processes: sometimes the description of the path of the ray light is confused with the image reconstruction by the lenses. We think that to partially avoid some errors it is important to use a teaching path centered on the actual path of the rays and not on what eyes see (the vision). Here we present the results of data collected from more than 200 students and some considerations about figures and explanations found in textbooks.

  16. Revising Psychology Misconceptions by Integrating a Refutation-Style Text Framework into Poster Presentations

    Lassonde, Karla A.; Kolquist, Molly; Vergin, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Refutation-style texts have been considered a viable strategy for changing psychological misconceptions. The current study aims to integrate refutation-style texts into a classroom-based method of learning. Psychology students were administered a true/false misconception survey and then viewed several refutation-style poster presentations…

  17. Factors associated with misconceptions about HIV transmission among ever-married women in Bangladesh.

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Hoque, Nazrul; Chowdhury, Md Rocky Khan; Hossain, Md Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic continues to be associated with misconceptions and misinformed opinions, which increase the risk of HIV transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the determinant factors among different socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting misconceptions about HIV transmission among ever-married women in Bangladesh. Data and necessary information of 9,272 ever-married women were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Three types of misconceptions were considered. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were used as the statistical tools to determine the factors affecting misconceptions about HIV transmission. The results revealed that misconceptions are more prevalent among women who are older, less educated, have husbands who are less educated, live in rural areas, have poor economic conditions, and have less access to mass media. The respondent's age, education, husband's education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media are significantly associated with the misconceptions. Finally, logistic regression analysis identified age, education, place of residence, wealth index, and exposure to mass media as significant predictors. Because socioeconomic factors are the key determinants of misconceptions about HIV transmission, intervention programs should be aimed at HIV prevention via education and awareness programs to reduce misconceptions as important parts of the prevention strategy.

  18. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results

    Svandova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

  19. An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.

    Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

    The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

  20. Students' Misconceptions about the Ozone Layer and the Effect of Internet-Based Media on It

    Gungordu, Nahide; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2017-01-01

    In this study, students' misconceptions about the ozone layer were investigated, looking specifically at the effect internet-based media has on the formation of these misconceptions. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used to perform the research. As part of the quantitative portion of the research, the descriptive survey…

  1. Myths and Misconceptions about LGBTQ Youth: School Counselors' Role in Advocacy

    Abreu, Roberto L.; McEachern, Adriana G.; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2017-01-01

    Although schools are thought to be safe environments for all students, sexual minority and gender expansive (i.e., LGBTQ) students often feel unsafe and unwelcome as a result of misconceptions about their identity. This paper explores eight commonly held myths and misconceptions about LGBTQ youth. The role of professional school counselors (PSCs)…

  2. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  3. "Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry

    Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

  4. Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe…

  5. Analysis of the Misconceptions of 7th Grade Students on Polygons and Specific Quadrilaterals

    Ozkan, Mustafa; Bal, Ayten Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study will find out student misconceptions about geometrical figures, particularly polygons and quadrilaterals. Thus, it will offer insights into teaching these concepts. The objective of this study, the question of "What are the misconceptions of seventh grade students on polygons and quadrilaterals?" constitutes the…

  6. Enhancing Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Thinking from Assessing and Analyzing Misconceptions in Homework

    An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…

  7. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  8. Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Chemistry and Misconceptions about Chemical Kinetics

    Çam, Aylin; Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Sülün, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates preservice science teachers' attitudes towards chemistry; their misconceptions about chemical kinetics; and relationships between pre-service science teachers' attitudes toward chemistry and misconceptions about chemical kinetics were examined. The sample of this study consisted of 81 freshman pre-service science…

  9. PENGARUH KUALITAS AKRUAL DAN LEVERAGE TERHADAP CASH HOLDING PERUSAHAAN

    Anggita Langgeng Wijaya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research tests the effect of accrual quality and leverage on corporate cash holding for a sample of manufacturing company listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2007. This research also tests the role of asymmetric information as a mediating variable on the relation between accrual quality and cash holding. Population of this research is 197 manufacturing companies at the Indonesian Stock Exchange. This research uses the purposive sampling method. Hypothesis test of this research em­ploys multiple regression analysis and path analysis. The results show that: accrual quality does not affect asymmetric information; asymmetric information positively affects corporate cash holdings; asymmetric information is not a mediating variable on the relation between accrual quality and cash holding; leverage negatively affects corporate cash holding.

  10. Development and Application of a Four-Tier Test to Assess Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Misconceptions about Geometrical Optics

    Kaltakci-Gurel, Derya; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian Christie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Correct identification of misconceptions is an important first step in order to gain an understanding of student learning. More recently, four-tier multiple choice tests have been found to be effective in assessing misconceptions. Purpose: The purposes of this study are (1) to develop and validate a four-tier misconception test to…

  11. The Holding Power of Anchors

    The efficiency of an anchor may be expressed as the ratio (holding force + weight of anchor). In dry sand .... the market at the beginning of the coming season in three sizes, namely 20, 35 and. 60 lb. These are ... Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis.

  12. The Capability to Hold Property

    Claassen, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  13. Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions

    Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a randomised educational experiment ( n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from learners that were triggered by their own confirmation biases. The treatment group showed superior learning gains to control at post-test immediately after the lesson, although benefits had dissipated after 6 weeks. Findings are discussed with reference to the conceptual change paradigm and to the importance of feeling emotion during a learning experience, having implications for the teaching of pedagogies to adults that have been previously shown to be successful with children.

  14. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers.

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

    2011-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  15. Expression of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians: a qualitative pilot study.

    Wazaify, Mayyada; Khalil, Susan S; Silverman, Henry J

    2009-06-30

    Studies have shown that research participants fail to appreciate the difference between research and medical care, labeling such phenomenon as a "therapeutic misconception" (TM). Since research activity involving human participants is increasing in the Middle East, qualitative research investigating aspects of TM is warranted. Our objective was to assess for the existence of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians. Study Tool: We developed a semi-structured interview guide to elicit the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of Egyptians regarding medical research. We recruited individuals from the outpatient settings (public and private) at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated. We analyzed the content of the transcribed text to identify the presence of a TM, defined in one of two ways: TM1 = inaccurate beliefs about how individualized care can be compromised by the procedures in the research and TM2 = inaccurate appraisal of benefit obtained from the research study. Our findings showed that a majority of participants (11/15) expressed inaccurate beliefs regarding the degree with which individualized care will be maintained in the research setting (TM1) and a smaller number of participants (5/15) manifested an unreasonable belief in the likelihood of benefits to be obtained from a research study (TM2). A total of 12 of the 15 participants were judged to have expressed a TM on either one of these bases. The presence of TM is not uncommon amongst Egyptian individuals. We recommend further qualitative studies investigating aspects of TM involving a larger sample size distinguished by different types of illnesses and socio-economic variables, as well as those who have and have not participated in clinical research.

  16. Nigerian dental technology students and human immunodeficiency virus infection: knowledge, misconceptions and willingness to care.

    Azodo, Cc; Omili, Ma; Akeredolu, Pa

    2014-05-01

    The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students' knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection and willingness to care for HIV-infected patients among respondents in the lower class and those in upper class.

  17. KNOWLEDGE AND MISCONCEPTIONS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AT DOTS CENTRE, URBAN MEERUT.

    R Bansal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populated country in the world; it has more new TB cases annually than any other country. In 2008, 1.98 million were estimated to have occurred in India, of whom 0.87 million were infectious cases, thus amounting to a fifth of the global burden of TB.With the entire country geographically covered under the DOTS program, research into socioeconomic impact of TB on patients and their households is crucial for providing comprehensive patient-friendly TB services and to document the benefits of DOTS. Objective: The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1 To determine the socio-demographic variables of registered patients for DOTS Treatment at Urban Health Training center Meerut. (2 To assess knowledge, awareness and attitude regarding Pulmonary Tuberculosis and its treatment among the patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 TB patients was done using a pre-tested semi-quantitative questionnaire in UHTC Meerut Period of Study: During 2010-2012. Results: Knowledge and awareness regarding Pulmonary Tuberculosis in patients at DOTS centre, Urban Meerut was very poor. There is a great need to educate the people about misconceptions like food and utensils as mode of transmission. BCC using the person to person contact in community , at health center and awareness campaigns are crucial in educating the ignorance seen in our field practice area. Conclusion: Poor knowledge and misconceptions concerning tuberculosis was quite concern in the patients. TB control program will remain ineffective unless myths and fears of TB patients are addressed related to causation of tuberculosis, mode of spread, and methods of prevention.

  18. KNOWLEDGE AND MISCONCEPTIONS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AT DOTS CENTRE, URBAN MEERUT.

    R Bansal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populated country in the world; it has more new TB cases annually than any other country. In 2008, 1.98 million were estimated to have occurred in India, of whom 0.87 million were infectious cases, thus amounting to a fifth of the global burden of TB.With the entire country geographically covered under the DOTS program, research into socioeconomic impact of TB on patients and their households is crucial for providing comprehensive patient-friendly TB services and to document the benefits of DOTS. Objective: The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1 To determine the socio-demographic variables of registered patients for DOTS Treatment at Urban Health Training center Meerut. (2 To assess knowledge, awareness and attitude regarding Pulmonary Tuberculosis and its treatment among the patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 TB patients was done using a pre-tested semi-quantitative questionnaire in UHTC Meerut Period of Study: During 2010-2012. Results: Knowledge and awareness regarding Pulmonary Tuberculosis in patients at DOTS centre, Urban Meerut was very poor. There is a great need to educate the people about misconceptions like food and utensils as mode of transmission. BCC using the person to person contact in community , at health center and awareness campaigns are crucial in educating the ignorance seen in our field practice area. Conclusion: Poor knowledge and misconceptions concerning tuberculosis was quite concern in the patients. TB control program will remain ineffective unless myths and fears of TB patients are addressed related to causation of tuberculosis, mode of spread, and methods of prevention.

  19. Text Based Analogy in Overcoming Student Misconception on Simple Electricity Circuit Material

    Hesti, R.; Maknun, J.; Feranie, S.

    2017-09-01

    Some researcher have found that the use of analogy in learning and teaching physics was effective enough in giving comprehension in a complicated physics concept such as electrical circuits. Meanwhile, misconception become main cause that makes students failed when learning physics. To provide teaching physics effectively, the misconception should be resolved. Using Text Based Analogy is one of the way to identifying misconceptions and it is enough to assist teachers in conveying scientific truths in order to overcome misconceptions. The purpose of the study to investigate the use of text based analogy in overcoming students misconception on simple electrical circuit material. The samples of this research were 28 of junior high school students taken purposively from one high school in South Jakarta. The method use in this research is pre-experimental and design in one shot case study. Students who are the participants of sample have been identified misconception on the electrical circuit material by using the Diagnostic Test of Simple Electricity Circuit. The results of this study found that TBA can replace the misconceptions of the concept possessed by students with scientific truths conveyed in the text in a way that is easily understood so that TBA is strongly recommended to use in other physics materials.

  20. Cash Holdings Policy: a Dynamic Analysis of Brazilian Companies

    Fadwa Muhieddine Dahrouge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how corporate cash holdings were adjusted over time for Brazilian companies during the crisis of 2008-2009. We adopt a dynamic model of corporate cash holdings to evaluate the main determinants for the speed of adjustment of cash holdings at the optimum level. We find evidence that: a the adjustment costs of Brazilian companies are high implying a delay in reaching the optimum level of cash; b the low speed adjustment to the optimum level is due to the limited availability of credit and the high cost of bank debt; c during crisis, the changes in working capital are positively related to the level of cash holdings providing evidence that companies prefer finance to growth with liquidity; d companies have looked for long-term financing to secure liquidity rather than investing on fixed assets, implying a negative relationship between investment and cash holding.

  1. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  2. Comments and Criticism: Comment on "Identification of Student Misconceptions in Genetics Problem Solving via Computer Program."

    Smith, Mike U.

    1991-01-01

    Criticizes an article by Browning and Lehman (1988) for (1) using "gene" instead of allele, (2) misusing the word "misconception," and (3) the possible influences of the computer environment on the results of the study. (PR)

  3. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    Ernst, Anja F.; Albers, Casper J.

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated

  4. Cultural misconceptions and public stigma against mental illness among Lebanese university students.

    Rayan, Ahmad; Fawaz, Mirna

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cultural misconceptions about mental illness and how they are associated with the public stigma against mental illness among Lebanese university students. A sample of 203 participants completed the study. Data about cultural misconceptions, attitudes about mental illness, and public stigma of mental illness were obtained. The researchers examined the mean difference in public stigma according to cultural beliefs about mental illness. The majority of students believe that mental health professionals have inadequate knowledge and expertise to treat mental disorders. Various cultural misconceptions about mental illness were reported. Public stigma significantly differed based on these cultural misconceptions. Psychiatric nurses should play a vital role in reshaping the inappropriate cultural view about mental illness. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Study on Overcoming Misconceptions of 6th Graders About Equations

    Gözde AKYÜZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine and overcome misconceptions of 6th graders about first degree equations with one unknown. The study has a mixed research design and was conducted with 25 sixth graders in a public school during the spring semester of the 2011-2012 academic year. Data were collected through a test of 20 open-ended items developed by the researcher. The misconceptions were detected through descriptive analysis of the test. Then, students were being taught based on activity-based instructional methods for eight hours. The test was also given at the end of the instruction as a post-test to examine the effectiveness of the activity-based instruction with overcoming their misconceptions. Data were analyzed by paired samples t test through SPSS 16.0. Findings indicated that activity-based instruction was effective in overcoming students’ misconceptions.

  6. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  7. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education......, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  8. The Profile of Student Misconceptions on The Human and Plant Transport Systems

    Ainiyah, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Hidayat, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to identify misconceptions on the humans and plants transportation systems. The research was done in the 8th grade in Indonesia. Data were collected to use a three-tier test. This type of research was used survey design. Content analysis was used to analyze the misconception data. The results of this research were the location of misconception of each student is different. The highest misconceptions identified in this research, namely: a) arteries that drain blood to the heart (73.3%); b) veins that drain blood from the heart (70.0%); c) place of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occurs in the veins (66.7%); d) blood pressure in veins greater than in capillaries (63.3%); e) absorption of water occurs diffusion and absorption of minerals occurs osmosis (76.7%); f) transport of photosynthesis process occurs by diffusion (66.7%); g) photosynthesis process occurs during the day (63.3%); and h) process of evaporation of water through the leaves are guttation (56.7%). The results of this research show that the level of students misconceptions on the of human and plant transport systems is still high so that it can serve as a reference to improve the learning process and the reduction of student misconceptions.

  9. Lula VS. Larry Rohter: Misconceptions in international coverage

    Heloiza Golbspan Herckovitz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the confl ict between the New York Times foreign correspondent Larry Rohter and Brazil’s President Luis Inácio Lula da Silva over a story published by the American newspaper on May 9, 2004 accusing the President of being a drunkard. Larry Rohter’s piece was criticized for its lack of facts and of reliable sources, and for its ironic overtone. President Lula was criticized for cancelling the journalist’s visa, a measure later revoked because of public pressure. The case exemplifi es a well-know sequence of misconceptions and stereotypes from both sides (the world’s most prestigious newspaper and the president of the largest country in Latin America, which brings to light a much needed discussion on the quality of international news coverage, press freedom and social responsibility. This article also attempts to advance the discussion on how framing – second level agenda-setting —may infl uence how we think about foreign political leaders.

  10. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults.

    Nwhator, S O; Isiekwe, G I; Soroye, M O; Agbaje, M O

    2015-01-01

    To provide baseline data about bad-breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Multi-center cross-sectional study of individuals aged 18-64 years using examiner-administered questionnaires. Age comparisons were based on the model of emerging adults versus full adults. Data were recoded for statistical analyses and univariate and secondary log-linear statistics applied. Participants had lopsided perceptions about bad-breath. While 730 (90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad-breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad-breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant sex differences but the older adults showed better knowledge in a few instances. Most respondents (747, 92.9%) would tell a spouse about their bad-breath and 683 (85%) would tell a friend. Participants had lop-sided knowledge and perceptions about bad-breath. Most Nigerian adults are their "brothers' keepers" who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment.

  11. Therapeutic Misconception in Psychiatry Research: A Systematic Review.

    Thong, Ivan Sk; Foo, Meng Yee; Sum, Min Yi; Capps, Benjamin; Lee, Tih-Shih; Ho, Calvin; Sim, Kang

    2016-02-29

    Therapeutic misconception (TM) denotes the phenomenon in which research subjects conflate research purpose, protocols and procedures with clinical treatment. We examined the prevalence, contributory factors, clinical associations, impact, and collated solutions on TM within psychiatric research, and made suggestions going ahead. Literature search for relevant empirical research papers was conducted until February 2015. Eighty-eight reports were extracted, of which 31 were selected, summarised into different headings for discussion of implications and collated solutions of TM. We found variable and high rates of TM (ranging from 12.5% to 86%) in some psychiatry research populations. Contributory factors to TM included perceived medical roles of researchers, media, research setting and subject factors. Greater TM in affective, neurodevelopmental and psychotic spectrum conditions were associated with demographic variables (such as lower education, increased age), clinical factors (such as poor insight, cognitive deficits, increased symptoms, poorer self-rated quality of health), and social functioning (such as decreased independence). Inattention to TM may lead to frustration, negative impression and abandonment of participation in psychiatry research. Strategies such as the employment of a neutral educator during the informed consent process and education modules may be effective in addressing TM. Further research is warranted to examine the different TM facets, specific clinical correlates and more effective management strategies.

  12. The danger of epigenetics misconceptions (epigenetics and stuff…).

    Georgel, Philippe T

    2015-12-01

    Within the past two decades, the fields of chromatin structure and function and transcription regulation research started to fuse and overlap, as evidence mounted to support a very strong regulatory role in gene expression that was associated with histone post-translational modifications, DNA methylation, as well as various chromatin-associated proteins (the pillars of the "Epigenetics" building). The fusion and convergence of these complementary fields is now often simply referred to as "Epigenetics". During these same 20 years, numerous new research groups have started to recognize the importance of chromatin composition, conformation, and its plasticity. However, as the field started to grow exponentially, its growth came with the spreading of several important misconceptions, which have unfortunately led to improper or hasty conclusions. The goal of this short "opinion" piece is to attempt to minimize future misinterpretations of experimental results and ensure that the right sets of experiment are used to reach the proper conclusion, at least as far as epigenetic mechanisms are concerned.

  13. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A

    2014-01-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)

  14. Perceptions and Misconceptions Regarding Climate Change: Politics versus Education

    Gil, Elia O.

    Climate change has been increasingly becoming a commonly debated topic among the public (Lambert & Bleicher, 2013). This is especially true with scientists and educators (Cooney, 2010). Terminology, politics, and misconceptions can bias perceptions. Scientists also tend to disagree over the cause of climate change and the data resulting from different studies (Idso, Carter, & Singer, 2016). The pilot study was conducted to examine perceptions of preservice teachers regarding climate change. There were forty participants, comprised of twenty Hispanic, nineteen Anglo American, and one African American, enrolled in a required course for future science educators in a medium-sized south Texas university. The pilot study included pre- and post-tests distributed to all of the participants and one on one interviews with three randomly selected pre-service teachers. The post-test results showed a significant difference in statements about the belief that climate change is real, about there being enough scientific evidence to prove the climate is changing, and the belief we are experiencing an extinction event due to climate change. While one lesson on climate change may not prove to be enough to change all of the participants' perceptions, there were some pre-service teachers who did begin to think differently about the impact of human activities and became more aware of climate change issues. The findings from this research show how beneficial a lesson on climate change can be to the future careers of science educators and in turn contribute considerably to the education of future students.

  15. Student certainty answering misconception question: study of Three-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test in Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibrium

    Ardiansah; Masykuri, M.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    Students’ concept comprehension in three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test related to student confidence level. The confidence level related to certainty and student’s self-efficacy. The purpose of this research was to find out students’ certainty in misconception test. This research was quantitative-qualitative research method counting students’ confidence level. The research participants were 484 students that were studying acid-base and equilibrium solubility subject. Data was collected using three-tier multiple-choice (3TMC) with thirty questions and students’ questionnaire. The findings showed that #6 item gives the highest misconception percentage and high student confidence about the counting of ultra-dilute solution’s pH. Other findings were that 1) the student tendency chosen the misconception answer is to increase over item number, 2) student certainty decreased in terms of answering the 3TMC, and 3) student self-efficacy and achievement were related each other in the research. The findings suggest some implications and limitations for further research.

  16. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  17. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  18. FUNCTIONING OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS IN UKRAINE: STRONG AND WEAK SIDES

    Postgraduate, assistant Sergii Ivanovich TODORIUK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the organizational forms of the agricultural management which is gaining popularity in the world is agricultural holdings. The essence of agricultural holdings is considered in the article. Also the peculiarities of their functioning in Ukraine and determination of the strengths and weaknesses of their activities is defined, as well as perspectives of their further functioning. Agrarian holding, as a relatively new organizational legal form of managing in Ukraine has its advantages and disadvantages. As the experience shows the advantages of agrarian holdings over the subjects of management are revealed mainly in the economic sphere. While their disadvantages over the subjects of management are revealed in social and ecological spheres. This is a negative moment considering the implementation in Ukraine of the concept of the sustainable development, which means the combination of these main components (economic component, environmental component, social component.

  19. Student’s mental model, misconceptions, troublesome knowledge, and threshold concept on thermochemistry with DToM-POE

    Wiji, W.; Mulyani, S.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a profile of students' mental models, misconceptions, troublesome knowledge, and threshold concept on thermochemistry. The subjects in this study were 35 students. The method used in this research was descriptive method with instruments Diagnostic Test of Mental Model - Prediction, Observation, and Explanation (DToM-POE). The results showed that the students' ability to predict, observe, and explain ΔH of neutralization reaction of NaOH with HCl was still lacking. Most students tended to memorize chemical concepts related to symbolic level and they did not understand the meaning of the symbols used. Furthermore, most students were unable to connect the results of observations at the macroscopic level with the symbolic level to determine ΔH of neutralization reaction of NaOH with HCl. Then, most students tended to give an explanation by a net ionic equation or a chemical reaction equation at the symbolic level when explaining ΔH of neutralization reaction at the submicroscopic level. In addition, there are seven misconceptions, three troublesome knowledges, and three threshold concepts held by students on thermochemistry.

  20. Misconceptions of Synthetic Biology: Lessons from an Interdisciplinary Summer School

    Verseux, Cyprien; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Chizzolini, Fabio; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely disconnected from the current research in synthetic biology. Another observation was that when debating developments in synthetic biology, semantics strongly mattered: depending on the terms used to present an application of synthetic biology, attendees reacted in radically different ways. For example, using the term "GMOs" (genetically modified organisms) rather than the term "genetic engineering" led to very different reactions. Stimulating debates also happened with participants having unanticipated points of view, for instance biocentrist ethicists who argued that engineered microbes should not be used for human purposes. Another communication challenge emerged from the connotations and inaccuracies surrounding the word "life", which impaired constructive debates, thus leading to misconceptions about the abilities of scientists to engineer or even create living organisms. Finally, it appeared that synthetic biologists tend to overestimate the knowledge of non-biologists, further affecting communication. The motivation and ability of synthetic biologists to communicate their work outside their research field needs to be fostered, notably towards policymakers who need a more accurate and technical understanding of the field to make informed decisions. Interdisciplinary events gathering scholars working in and around synthetic biology are an effective tool in addressing those

  1. 78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    2013-04-18

    ... bank holding company's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) forms; \\3... Balance Sheet of the BHC's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) (OMB No... holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets, and nonbank financial companies...

  2. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  3. Identification student’s misconception of heat and temperature using three-tier diagnostic test

    Suliyanah; Putri, H. N. P. A.; Rohmawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test (TTDT) to identify the student's misconception of heat and temperature. Stages of development include: analysis, planning, design, development, evaluation and revise. The results of this study show that (1) the quality of the three-tier type diagnostic test instrument developed has been expressed well with the following details: (a) Internal validity of 88.19% belonging to the valid category. (b) External validity of empirical construct validity test using Pearson Product Moment obtained 0.43 is classified and result of empirical construct validity test obtained false positives 6.1% and false negatives 5.9% then the instrument was valid. (c) Test reliability by using Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.98 which means acceptable. (d) The 80% difficulty level test is quite difficult. (2) Student misconceptions on the temperature of heat and displacement materials based on the II test the highest (84%), the lowest (21%), and the non-misconceptions (7%). (3) The highest cause of misconception among students is associative thinking (22%) and the lowest is caused by incomplete or incomplete reasoning (11%). Three-Tier Diagnostic Test (TTDT) could identify the student's misconception of heat and temperature.

  4. Leverage, Asymmetric Information, Firm Value, and Cash Holdings in Indonesia

    Aldea Mita Cheryta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of leverage and asymmetry information on the firm value through cash holding as mediation variable. The populations of this research were all the firms which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2012 – 2015. A sample of this research was saturated sample and census, consisted 56 firms related the population criteria.  This research used secondary data from the firm financial report through path analysis method. This research showed that leverage had a negative effect on the cash holdings, asymmetry information had a negative effect on the firm value through cash holding, and cash holding had a negative effect on the firm value.  With leverage and effect on cash, holding cannot affect the firm value, due to investor risk-averse, investor risk seeker, and neutral investor has their own point of view in assessing the company. Cash holdings can lead to asymmetric information that can lead to agency conflict that can affect a company's performance, so that indirectly, with the existence of asymmetry information had an effect on the declining the firm value. 

  5. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  6. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types.

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2010-06-01

    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  7. Birthday and birthmate problems: misconceptions of probability among psychology undergraduates and casino visitors and personnel.

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S; Formann, Anton K

    2008-02-01

    Subjective estimates and associated confidence ratings for the solutions of some classic occupancy problems were studied in samples of 721 psychology undergraduates, 39 casino visitors, and 34 casino employees. On tasks varying the classic birthday problem, i.e., the probability P for any coincidence among N individuals sharing the same birthday, clear majorities of respondents markedly overestimated N, given P, and markedly underestimated P, given N. Respondents did notedly better on tasks varying the birthmate problem, i.e., P for the specific coincidence among N individuals of having a birthday today. Psychology students and women did better on both task types, but were less confident about their estimates than casino visitors or per sonnel and men. Several further person variables, such as indicators of topical knowledge and familiarity, were associated with better and more confident performance on birthday problems, but not on birthmate problems. Likewise, higher confidence ratings were related to subjective estimates that were closer to the solutions of birthday problems, but not of birthmate problems. Implications of and possible explanations for these findings, study limitations, directions for further inquiry, and the real-world relevance of ameliorating misconceptions of probability are discussed.

  8. Physics behind the magnetic hysteresis loop--a survey of misconceptions in magnetism literature

    Sung, H.W.F.; Rudowicz, C.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive survey of misinterpretations and misconceptions concerning presentation of the hysteresis loop for ferromagnetic materials occurring in undergraduate textbooks has recently been carried out. As a follow-up, this article provides similar examples, now drawn from recent magnetism literature. The distinction between the two notions of 'coercivity' referred to the B vs. H curve and the M vs. H curve, which turn out to be often confused in textbooks is elucidated. Various misinterpretations and conceptual problems revealed by our survey of recent magnetism-related scientific journals are summarized. In order to counteract the misinterpretations in question, some real examples of hysteresis loops showing the correct characteristics have also been identified in this search. Various ways of presenting units for the same physical quantity, i.e. the SI or cgs units as well as both units mixed, have been revealed in the regular articles. This is a worrying factor, which calls for a concerted action at the level of the whole magnetism community. A number of intricacies and fundamental conceptual problems in magnetism encountered in a recent review are dealt with in a separate note

  9. The Effects of Concept Cartoons on Eliminating Students’ Misconceptions: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Lale Cerrah Ozsevgeç

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the effects of concept cartoons on eliminating students’ misconceptions about the global warming and greenhouse effect. The sample of the study is consisted of 17 students from the 7 grade of Rize Çay Primary School. Simple experimental study design was used in the study. Test and semi-structured interview were used to collect the data. The results of the study showed that the students had misconceptions about global warming and greenhouse effect. The teaching process comprising concept cartoons treated most of these misconceptions. Students indicated that the teaching process was enjoyable and it eased the students’ remembering of the given knowledge. Based on the results, it was suggested that the teachers should be informed about the usage of concept cartoon in the classroom and combination of different teaching methods which is supported by concept cartoon may be more useful for different science subjects.

  10. Calcium contained tap water phenomena: students misconception patterns of acids-bases concept

    Liliasari, S.; Albaiti, A.; Wahyudi, A.

    2018-05-01

    Acids and bases concept is very important and fundamental concept in learning chemistry. It is one of the chemistry subjects considered as an abstract and difficult concept to understand. The aim of this research was to explore student’s misconception pattern about acids and bases phenomena in daily life, such as calcium contained tap water. This was a qualitative research with descriptive methods. Participants were 546 undergraduate students of chemistry education and chemistry program, and graduate students of chemistry education in West Java, Indonesia. The test to explore students’ misconception about this phenomena was essay test. The results showed that there were five patterns of students’ misconception in explaining the phenomena of calcium carbonate precipitation on heating tap water. Students used irrelevant concepts in explaining this phenomena, i.e. temporary hardness, coagulation, density, and phase concepts. No students had right answer in explaining this phenomena. This research contributes to design meaningful learning and to achieve better understanding.

  11. The effect of remediation on reducing misconception: a metaanalysis of student thesis on physics education

    Oktavianty, E.; Haratua, T. M. S.; Anuru, M.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of various remediation practices in reducing the number of student misconceptions on physics concepts. This research synthesizes 68 thesis undergraduate students of physics education which are published in Tanjungpura University library 2009-2016 period. In this study, the guidance in the form of checklist in conducting the study arranged to facilitate the understanding and assessment of the scientific work. Based on the analysis result, the average of effect size of all the synthesized thesis is 1.13. There are six forms of remedial misconceptions performed by physics education students, such as re-learning, feedback, integration of remediation in learning, physical activity, utilization of other learning resources and interviews. In addition, sampling techniques and test reliability were have contributed to the effect size of the study. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can be considered in preparing the remediation of misconceptions on physics learning in the future.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXT TRANSFORMATION IN PHYSICS EDUCATION TO REDUCE STUDENTS’ MISCONCEPTION

    Soeharto Soeharto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to know the effect of  text transformation in educational physics especially Impuls and momentum to reduce students’ misconception. This study was held at state senior high school (SMAN 2 in Pontianak, West Borneo.  The instrument in this study has made with diagnostic test using  certainly of responden index method. The research design in this study using one group pretest-posttest design. Population in this research is all students of science major in state senior high school 2 in Pontianak. This study have found that implementation of text transformation giving effect significantly to reduce students’ misconception according Wilcoxon test (Z = -3,418, p = 0.01. However, this research is not finding corelation which is significantly between skill to make a note using text transformation and reduction of students’ misconception ( = 0.119, p = 0.490. The value of effect size in this research is 1.65.

  13. Excess cash holdings and shareholder value

    Lee, Edward; Powell, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    We examine the determinants of corporate cash holdings in Australia and the impact on shareholder wealth of holding excess cash. Our results show that a trade-off model best explains the level of a firm’s cash holdings in Australia. We find that 'transitory' excess cash firms earn significantly higher risk-adjusted returns compared to 'persistent' excess cash firms, suggesting that the market penalises firms that hoard cash. The marginal value of cash also declines with larger cash balances, ...

  14. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction with Conceptual Change Texts on Removing the Misconceptions of Radioactivity

    Ahmet YUMUŞAK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Training young scientists, enabling conceptual understanding in science education is quite important. Misconception is one of the important indications for whether the concepts are understood or not. The most important educational tools to remove misconceptions are conceptual change texts. In addition, one of the important methods to remove misconceptions is computer-assisted instruction. The goal of this study is to research the effects of the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI, conceptual change texts (CCT, computer-assisted instruction with conceptual change texts (CAI+CCT, and use of traditional teaching method (TTM on removing the misconceptions of science teacher candidates on the subject of radioactivity. Research sample was made of totally 92 students studying at four different groups of senior students in Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education in 2011-2012 academic year. A different teaching method was used in each group. Experimental groups were randomly determined; in the first experimental group, computer-assisted instruction was used (23 students; in the second experimental group, conceptual change texts were used (23 students; in the third experimental group, computer-assisted instruction with conceptual change texts were used (23 students; and the fourth group, on which traditional education method was used, was called control group (23 students. Two-tier misconception diagnostic instrument, which was developed by the researcher, was used as data collection tool of the research. “Nonequivalent Control Groups Experimental Design” was used in this research in order to determine the efficiency of different teaching methods. Obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0. As a result of the research, it was determined that methods used on experimental groups were more successful than traditional teaching method practiced on control group in terms of removing misconceptions on

  15. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  16. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  17. Misconceptions and Conceptual Changes Concerning Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics among Portuguese Students Aged 16-17.

    Marques, Luis; Thompson, David

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates student misconceptions in the areas of continent, ocean, permanence of ocean basins, continental drift, Earth's magnetic field, and plates and plate motions. A teaching-learning model was designed based on a constructivist approach. Results show that students held a substantial number of misconceptions. (Author/DKM)

  18. Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers

    Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

    2012-12-01

    Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1

  19. Inflation, operating cycle, and cash holdings

    Yanchao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A corporate cash-holding strategy is a trade-off between the costs and benefits of holding cash. At the macrolevel, firms are inclined to adjust and optimize their cash-holding strategies in response to changes in purchasing power due to inflation. At the microlevel, the operating cycle, which indicates the speed and turnover of corporate cash flow, also influences the corporate cash-holding strategy. Firms flexibly adjust their cash-holding strategies in response to changes in the internal and external environment, which is referred to as the cash adjustment strategy. We examine these predicted relationships using a sample of listed firms in China’s stock market over the 1998–2009 period. Consistent with our predictions, the empirical results indicate a significant negative association between cash holdings and the CPI, but the relationship is reversed when the CPI reaches a certain level. There is also a U-shaped relationship between operating cycle and cash holdings, and this relationship is similarly influenced by changes in the inflation level. In examining the macroeconomic environment and microlevel firm-specific characteristics simultaneously, our findings supplement the literature on firms’ cash-holding strategies and provide theoretical and practical implications.

  20. A Hold-down Margin Assessment using Statistical Method for the PWR Fuel Assembly

    Jeon, S. Y.; Park, N. K.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, H. K.

    2007-01-01

    The hold-down springs provide an acceptable hold down force against hydraulic uplift force absorbing the length change of the fuel assembly relative to the space between the upper and lower core plates in PWR. These length changes are mainly due to the thermal expansion, irradiation growth and creep down of the fuel assemblies. There are two kinds of hold-down springs depending on the different design concept of the reactor internals of the PWR in Korea, one is a leaf-type hold down spring for Westinghouse type plants and the other is a coil-type hold-down spring for OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000). There are four sets of hold-down springs in each fuel assembly for leaf type hold-down spring and each set of the hold-down springs consists of multiple tapered leaves to form a cantilever leaf spring set. The length, width and thickness of the spring leaves are selected to provide the desired spring constant, deflection range, and hold down force. There are four coil springs in each fuel assembly for coil-type hold-down spring. In this study, the hold-down forces and margins were calculated for the leaf-type and coil-type hold-down springs considering geometrical data of the fuel assembly and its components, length changes of the fuel assembly due to thermal expansion, irradiation growth, creep, and irradiation relaxation. The hold-down spring forces were calculated deterministically and statistically to investigate the benefit of the statistical calculation method in view of hold-down margin. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was used for the statistical hold down force calculation

  1. Rethinking the therapeutic misconception: social justice, patient advocacy, and cancer clinical trial recruitment in the US safety net.

    Burke, Nancy J

    2014-09-20

    Approximately 20% of adult cancer patients are eligible to participate in a clinical trial, but only 2.5-9% do so. Accrual is even less for minority and medically underserved populations. As a result, critical life-saving treatments and quality of life services developed from research studies may not address their needs. This study questions the utility of the bioethical concern with therapeutic misconception (TM), a misconception that occurs when research subjects fail to distinguish between clinical research and ordinary treatment, and therefore attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures in the safety net setting. This paper provides ethnographic insight into the ways in which research is discussed and related to standard treatment. In the course of two years of ethnographic fieldwork in a safety net hospital, I conducted clinic observations (n=150 clinic days) and in-depth in-person qualitative interviews with patients (n=37) and providers (n=15). I used standard qualitative methods to organize and code resulting fieldnote and interview data. Findings suggest that TM is limited in relevance for the interdisciplinary context of cancer clinical trial recruitment in the safety net setting. Ethnographic data show the value of the discussions that happen prior to the informed consent, those that introduce the idea of participation in research. These preliminary discussions are elemental especially when recruiting underserved and vulnerable patients for clinical trial participation who are often unfamiliar with medical research and how it relates to medical care. Data also highlight the multiple actors involved in research discussions and the ethics of social justice and patient advocacy they mobilize, suggesting that class, inequality, and dependency influence the forms of ethical engagements in public hospital settings. On the ground ethics of social justice and patient advocacy are more relevant than TM as guiding ethical principles in the context of

  2. A Ship Cargo Hold Inspection Approach Using Laser Vision Systems

    SHEN Yang; ZHAO Ning; LIU Haiwei; MI Chao

    2013-01-01

    Our paper represents a vision system based on the laser measurement system (LMS) for bulk ship inspection. The LMS scanner with 2-axis servo system is installed on the ship loader to build the shape of the ship. Then, a group of real-time image processing algorithms are implemented to compute the shape of the cargo hold, the inclination angle of the ship and the relative position between the ship loader and the cargo hold. Based on those computed inspection data of the ship, the ship loader c...

  3. 31 CFR 346.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 346.5 Section 346.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... deducted in any one year be in equal amounts. While it is permissible for an eligible married couple to...

  4. 26 CFR 1.543-1 - Personal holding company income.

    2010-04-01

    ..., franchises, and other like property. It does not, however, include rents. For rules relating to rents see... from futures transactions in commodities. Gross income and personal holding company income include the amount by which the gains exceed the losses from futures transactions in any commodity on or subject to...

  5. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies. 223.16 Section 223.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS...

  6. Student Misconceptions about Newtonian Mechanics: Origins and Solutions through Changes to Instruction

    Adair, Aaron Michael

    In order for Physics Education Research (PER) to achieve its goals of significant learning gains with efficient methods, it is necessary to figure out what are the sorts of preexisting issues that students have prior to instruction and then to create teaching methods that are best able to overcome those problems. This makes it necessary to figure out what is the nature of student physics misconceptions---prior beliefs that are both at variance to Newtonian mechanics and also prevent a student from properly cognizing Newtonian concepts. To understand the prior beliefs of students, it is necessary to uncover their origins, which may allow instructors to take into account the sources for ideas of physics that are contrary to Newtonian mechanics understanding. That form of instruction must also induce the sorts of metacognitive processes that allow students to transition from their previous conceptions to Newtonian ones, let alone towards those of modern physics. In this paper, the notions of basic dynamics that are common among first-year college students are studied and compared with previous literature. In particular, an analysis of historical documents from antiquity up to the early modern period shows that these conceptions were rather widespread and consistent over thousands of years and in numerous cultural contexts. This is one of the only analyses in PER that considers the original languages of some of these texts, along with appropriate historical scholarship. Based on the consistent appearance of these misconceptions, a test and interview module was devised to help elucidate the feelings students have that may relate to fictitious forces. The test looked at one-dimensional motion and forces. The first part of the interview asked each student about their answers to the test questions, while the second part asked how students felt when undergoing three cases of constant acceleration in a car. We determined that students confabulated relative motion with the

  7. Molten core material holding device in a nuclear reactor

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Nobuo; Takahashi, Katsuro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the function of cooling to hold molten core materials in a molten core material holding device. Constitution: Plenum structures are formed into a pan-like configuration, in which liners made of metal having high melting point and relatively high heat conductivity such as tantalum, tungsten, rhenium or alloys thereof are integrally appended to hold and directly cool the molten reactor core materials. Further, a plurality of heat pipes, passing through the plenum structures, facing the cooling portion thereof to the coolants at the outer side and immersing the heating portion into the molten core materials fallen to deposit in the inner liners are disposed radially. Furthermore, heat pipes embodded in the plenum structure are disposed in the same manner below the liners. Thus, the plenum structures and the molten reactor core materials can be cooled at a high efficiency. (Seki, T.)

  8. Coherent Backscattering: Conceptions and Misconceptions (Reply to Comments by Bruce W. Hapke and Robert M. Nelson)

    Tishkovets, Victor P.; Mishchenko, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the note by Hapke and Nelson has virtually no relevance to our original publication, it contains a number of statements that are misleading and/or wrong. We, therefore, use this opportunity to dispel several profound misconceptions that continue to hinder the progress in remote sensing of planetary surfaces.

  9. The Surprise Element: How Allaying Parents' Misconceptions Improves a Teacher's Communicative Process

    Kumar, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Challenged by parents' misconceptions about the role of cooperative learning activities in developing their gifted children, a teacher began to mentor the parents. The act of mentoring those parents resulted in the teacher's longer-term professional development: specifically, creating a process of seeking structured feedback from parents and…

  10. The Effect of Group Work on Misconceptions of 9th Grade Students about Newton's Laws

    Ergin, Serap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method on 9th grade students' misconceptions about Newton Laws was investigated. The study was conducted in three classes in an Anatolian Vocational High School in Ankara/Turkey in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. Two of these classes were chosen as the experimental group and…

  11. The Effects and Side-Effects of Statistics Education: Psychology Students' (Mis-)Conceptions of Probability

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca; Handley, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In three studies we looked at two typical misconceptions of probability: the representativeness heuristic, and the equiprobability bias. The literature on statistics education predicts that some typical errors and biases (e.g., the equiprobability bias) increase with education, whereas others decrease. This is in contrast with reasoning theorists'…

  12. Development and Application of an Instrument to Identify Students Misconceptions: Diffusion and Osmosis

    Misischia, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…

  13. What We Call Misconceptions May Be Necessary Stepping-Stones toward Making Sense of the World

    Campbell, Todd; Schwarz, Christina; Windschitl, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The vision of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) "requires a dramatic departure from approaches to teaching and learning science occurring today in most science classrooms K-12" (Reiser 2013, p. 2). In this article the authors emphasize the importance of examining student misconceptions and correcting them with sense-making…

  14. Questions about Answers: Probing Teachers' Awareness and Planned Remediation of Learners' Misconceptions about Electric Circuits

    Gaigher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an exploratory multi-case study on how science teachers understand and envisage addressing learners' misconceptions about electric circuits. Four teachers from schools in and around a large South African city participated in the study. An open-ended questionnaire was designed in a novel way, questioning teachers about wrong…

  15. A Probabilistic Model for Diagnosing Misconceptions by a Pattern Classification Approach.

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    A probabilistic approach is introduced to classify and diagnose erroneous rules of operation resulting from a variety of misconceptions ("bugs") in a procedural domain of arithmetic. The model is contrasted with the deterministic approach which has commonly been used in the field of artificial intelligence, and the advantage of treating the…

  16. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge, Misconceptions and Gaps about Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Fernández-Andrés, María-Inmaculada; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    The inclusive education framework and the increase in autism diagnoses have led to an overwhelming challenge for pre-service teachers who need to be qualified to teach all children. To test the quality of their training, the main purpose of this study was to compare 866 pre-service teachers' knowledge, misconceptions, and gaps about autism in…

  17. Analysis of Errors and Misconceptions in the Learning of Calculus by Undergraduate Students

    Muzangwa, Jonatan; Chifamba, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper is going to analyse errors and misconceptions in an undergraduate course in Calculus. The study will be based on a group of 10 BEd. Mathematics students at Great Zimbabwe University. Data is gathered through use of two exercises on Calculus 1&2.The analysis of the results from the tests showed that a majority of the errors were due…

  18. Genius Is Not Immune to Persistent Misconceptions: Conceptual Difficulties Impeding Isaac Newton and Contemporary Physics Students.

    Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others

    Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings,…

  19. The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject

    Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

  20. High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It

    Akbas, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

  1. Conceptions and Misconceptions about Neuroscience in Preschool Teachers: A Study from Argentina

    Hermida, M. J.; Segretin, M. S.; Soni García, A.; Lipina, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teachers' conceptions and misconceptions about neuroscience are crucial in establishing a proper dialogue between neuroscience and education. In recent years, studies in different countries have examined primary and secondary school teachers' conceptions. However, although preschool education has proved its importance to later academic…

  2. Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties

    Welder, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…

  3. Misconceptions and Biases in German Students' Perception of Multiple Energy Sources: Implications for Science Education

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-01-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way…

  4. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  5. Seafarers, Great Circles, and a Tad of Rhumb: Understanding the Mercator Misconception

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Being flat, Mercator maps inherently misrepresent some aspects of Earth's geography. That's because there is absolutely no way to simultaneously conserve all of the elements of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional model. To dispel misconceptions, check out the Activity Worksheet and the website resources included in this article. Along…

  6. Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts

    Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

  7. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

  8. Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Colligative Properties: Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression

    Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Canpolat, Nurtac

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying prospective chemistry teachers' misconceptions of colligative properties. In order to fulfill this aim, a diagnostic test composed of four open-ended questions was used. The test was administered to seventy-eight prospective chemistry teachers just before qualifying to teaching in secondary schools. Nine different…

  9. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  10. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  11. Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.

    Kusnick, Judi

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

  12. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  13. Reducing therapeutic misconception: A randomized intervention trial in hypothetical clinical trials.

    Paul P Christopher

    Full Text Available Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials.This prospective randomized trial was conducted from 2015 to 2016 to test the efficacy of an informed consent intervention based on scientific reframing compared to a traditional informed consent procedure (control in reducing therapeutic misconception among patients considering enrollment in hypothetical clinical trials modeled on real-world studies for one of five disease categories. Patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, head/neck cancer, breast cancer, and major depression were recruited from medical clinics and a clinical research volunteer database. The primary outcomes were therapeutic misconception, as measured by a validated, ten-item Therapeutic Misconception Scale (range = 10-50, and willingness to participate in the clinical trial.154 participants completed the study (age range, 23-87 years; 92.3% white, 56.5% female; 74 (48.1% had been randomized to receive the experimental intervention. Therapeutic misconception was significantly lower (p = 0.004 in the scientific reframing group (26.4, 95% CI [23.7 to 29.1] compared to the control group (30.9, 95% CI [28.4 to 33.5], and remained so after controlling for education (p = 0.017. Willingness to participate in the hypothetical trial was not significantly different (p = 0.603 between intervention (52.1%, 95% CI [40.2% to 62.4%] and control (56.3%, 95% CI [45.3% to 66.6%] groups.An enhanced educational intervention augmenting

  14. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  15. One output function: a misconception of students studying digital systems - a case study

    Trotskovsky, E.; Sabag, N.

    2015-05-01

    Background:Learning processes are usually characterized by students' misunderstandings and misconceptions. Engineering educators intend to help their students overcome their misconceptions and achieve correct understanding of the concept. This paper describes a misconception in digital systems held by many students who believe that combinational logic circuits should have only one output. Purpose:The current study aims to investigate the roots of the misconception about one-output function and the pedagogical methods that can help students overcome the misconception. Sample:Three hundred and eighty-one students in the Departments of Electrical and Electronics and Mechanical Engineering at an academic engineering college, who learned the same topics of a digital combinational system, participated in the research. Design and method:In the initial research stage, students were taught according to traditional method - first to design a one-output combinational logic system, and then to implement a system with a number of output functions. In the main stage, an experimental group was taught using a new method whereby they were shown how to implement a system with several output functions, prior to learning about one-output systems. A control group was taught using the traditional method. In the replication stage (the third stage), an experimental group was taught using the new method. A mixed research methodology was used to examine the results of the new learning method. Results:Quantitative research showed that the new teaching approach resulted in a statistically significant decrease in student errors, and qualitative research revealed students' erroneous thinking patterns. Conclusions:It can be assumed that the traditional teaching method generates an incorrect mental model of the one-output function among students. The new pedagogical approach prevented the creation of an erroneous mental model and helped students develop the correct conceptual understanding.

  16. "She came out of mum's tummy the wrong way". (Mis)conceptions among siblings of children with rare disorders.

    Vatne, Torun M; Helmen, Ingerid Østborg; Bahr, David; Kanavin, Øivind; Nyhus, Livø

    2015-04-01

    Misconceptions or uncertainty about the rare disorder of a sibling may cause adjustment problems among children. New knowledge about their misconceptions may enable genetic counselors to provide targeted information and increase siblings' knowledge. This study aims to describe misconceptions and uncertainties of siblings of children with rare disorders. Content analysis was applied to videotapes of 11 support group sessions with 56 children aged 6 to 17. First, children's statements about the disorder (turns) were categorized into the categories "identity," "cause," "cure," "timeline," and "consequences" and then coded as medically "correct," "misunderstood," or "uncertain." Next, turns categorized as "misunderstood" or "uncertain" were analyzed to explore prominent trends. Associations between sibling age, type of disorder, and frequency of misconceptions or uncertainties were analyzed statistically. Approximately 16 % of the children's turns were found to involve misconceptions or uncertainty about the disorder, most commonly about the identity or cause of the disorder. Misconceptions seemed to originate from information available in everyday family life, generalization of lay beliefs, or through difficulties understanding abstract medical concepts. Children expressed uncertainty about the reasons for everyday experiences (e.g. the abnormal behavior they observed). A lack of available information was described as causing uncertainty. Misconceptions and uncertainties were unrelated to child age or type of disorder. The information needs of siblings should always be addressed during genetic counseling, and advice and support offered to parents when needed. Information provided to siblings should be based on an exploration of their daily experiences and thoughts about the rare disorder.

  17. Implementation of ECIRR model based on virtual simulation media to reduce students’ misconception on kinetic theory of gases

    Prastiwi, A. C.; Kholiq, A.; Setyarsih, W.

    2018-03-01

    The purposed of this study are to analyse reduction of students’ misconceptions after getting ECIRR with virtual simulation. The design of research is the pre-experimental design with One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. Subjects of this research were 36 students of class XI MIA-5 SMAN 1 Driyorejo Gresik 2015/2016 school year. Students misconceptions was determined by Three-tier Diagnostic Test. The result shows that the average percentage of misconceptions reduced on topics of ideal gas law, equation of ideal gases and kinetic theory of gases respectively are 38%, 34% and 38%.

  18. Response to Dr. Smith's Comments and Criticisms Concerning "Identification of Student Misconceptions in Genetics Problem Solving via Computer Program."

    Browning, Mark; Lehman, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Authors respond to criticisms by Smith in the same issue and defend their use of the term "gene" and "misconception." Authors indicate that they did not believe that the use of computers significantly skewed their data concerning student errors. (PR)

  19. Misconceptions about Ebola virus disease among lay people in Guinea: Lessons for community education.

    Kpanake, Lonzozou; Gossou, Komlantsè; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2016-05-01

    To characterize the perception of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, we administered, from November 2014 to February 2015, a questionnaire to a convenience sample of 200 lay people in Conakry and a group of 8 physicians. We found widespread misconceptions among lay people, including that praying to God can protect against EVD, that traditional healers are more competent than physicians in treating EVD, that people get infected through physical proximity without contact, that the Ebola epidemic is the result of Western bioterrorism experiments, that Western medical staff disseminated the virus, and that the purpose of quarantine measures is to hasten the death of Ebola patients. Major educational interventions, sensitive to local cultural beliefs, are needed to overcome the misconceptions about Ebola in Guinea.

  20. Therapeutic misconception in clinical trials: fighting against it and living with it.

    Dal-Ré, R; Morell, F; Tejedor, J C; Gracia, D

    2014-11-01

    A clinical trial seeks information for the benefit of future patients and not necessarily for those who participate in the study. However, there are patients who believe that they will receive a direct therapeutic benefit by participating in a clinical trial, the so-called «therapeutic misconception». In this article, we describe the nature and extent of therapeutic misconception, which researchers can also experience. Its presence is especially important in phase 1 oncology trials and those with placebo group. To limit its occurrence, investigators have to ensure that participant information sheet are well written and to establish an effective and transparent discussion during the process of obtaining informed consent so that patients understand all aspects of their participation in the research and appreciate what this participation entails. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Clarifying misconceptions of extinction risk assessment with the IUCN Red List

    Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Gärdenfors, Ulf; Keith, David A.; Punt, André E.; Regan, Helen M.; Böhm, Monika; Hedges, Simon; Seddon, Mary; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Bachman, Steven P.; Akçakaya, H. Reşit

    2016-01-01

    The identification of species at risk of extinction is a central goal of conservation. As the use of data compiled for IUCN Red List assessments expands, a number of misconceptions regarding the purpose, application and use of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria have arisen. We outline five such classes of misconception; the most consequential drive proposals for adapted versions of the criteria, rendering assessments among species incomparable. A key challenge for the future will be to recognize the point where understanding has developed so markedly that it is time for the next generation of the Red List criteria. We do not believe we are there yet but, recognizing the need for scrutiny and continued development of Red Listing, conclude by suggesting areas where additional research could be valuable in improving the understanding of extinction risk among species. PMID:27072401

  2. 31 CFR 401.3 - Authority of District Directors of Customs to hold in custody.

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Authority of District Directors of Customs to hold in custody. District Directors of Customs are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of District Directors of Customs to hold in custody. 401.3 Section 401.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  3. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Uncover Misconceptions and Improve Developmental Math Instruction: An Exploratory Study

    Charles Secolsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in education continue to escalate around the world. The focus on outcomes assessment has narrowed instructional research and curriculum evaluation to standardized testing in certain subject areas. A prototype for a quantitative literacy assessment instrument was developed with the goal of diagnosing student misconceptions of basic mathematics content and changing instructional practices to undo the misconceptions by applying cognitive psychological theory. Two hundred thirty-eight basic math high school students and 209 remedial community college students in New Jersey and New York were administered the instrument, which had been based on coded data from think-aloud protocols. The instrument asked students to answer 20 basic mathematics items and, in addition, to evaluate four possible solution strategies. For each item, frequencies of selected solution strategies and the association between strategy selection and performance on the 20-question math test are presented as a means for improving instruction. Follow-up research is proposed for determining whether undoing the student misconceptions first before teaching material on a new unit of instruction may yield more positive student outcomes.

  5. Development and Application of Diagnostic Test to Identify Students' Misconceptions of Quantum Physics

    Halim, A.A.; Meerah, T.S.; Lilia Halim

    2009-01-01

    A study on students' misconceptions on quantum physics is rarely being done, because the target audience is quite small. It is important to understand quantum physics concepts correctly especially for science students. This study was under taken to help students identify their misconceptions at the early stage. The aim of this study is to develop a diagnostic test which can access the students' misconceptions, and use the findings for the benefits of quantum physics courses. A multiple-choice Quantum Physics Diagnostic Test (QPDT), that involves concepts of light, atomic model, particle-wave dualism, wave function, and potential energy, was administered to 200 university students. The results shows that many students use the classical concepts to describe the quantum phenomenon. For example students describe light only as a wave, an electron only as a particle, and that the atomic structure is parallel to the solar system. To overcome these problems, it is suggested that lecturers spend more time in explaining the basic definitions and using analogies in quantum physics teaching. (author)

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  7. Influence of Learning Strategy of Cognitive Conflict on Student Misconception in Computational Physics Course

    Akmam, A.; Anshari, R.; Amir, H.; Jalinus, N.; Amran, A.

    2018-04-01

    Misconception is one of the factors causing students are not suitable in to choose a method for problem solving. Computational Physics course is a major subject in the Department of Physics FMIPA UNP Padang. The problem in Computational Physics learning lately is that students have difficulties in constructing knowledge. The indication of this problem was the student learning outcomes do not achieve mastery learning. The root of the problem is the ability of students to think critically weak. Student critical thinking can be improved using cognitive by conflict learning strategies. The research aims to determine the effect of cognitive conflict learning strategy to student misconception on the subject of Computational Physics Course at the Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Padang. The experimental research design conducted after-before design cycles with a sample of 60 students by cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using repeated Anova measurements. The cognitive conflict learning strategy has a significant effect on student misconception in the subject of Computational Physics Course.

  8. Phase 3 Oncology Clinical Trials in South Africa: Experimentation or Therapeutic Misconception?

    Malan, Tina; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2016-02-01

    Although clinical research in oncology is vital to improve current understanding of cancer and to validate new treatment options, voluntary informed consent is a critical component. Oncology research participants are a particularly vulnerable population; hence, therapeutic misconception often leads to ethical and legal challenges. We conducted a qualitative study administering semi-structured questionnaires on 29 adult, Phase 3, oncology clinical trial participants at three different private oncology clinical trial sites in South Africa. A descriptive content analysis was performed to identify perceptions of these participants regarding Phase 3 clinical trials. We found that most participants provided consent to be included in the trial for self-benefit. More than half of the participants had a poor understanding of Phase 3 clinical trials, and almost half the participants believed the clinical trial did not pose any significant risk to them. The word "hope" was used frequently by participants, displaying clear optimism with regard to the clinical trial and its outcome. This indicated that therapeutic misconception does occur in the South African oncology research setting and has the potential to lead to underestimation of the risks of a Phase 3 clinical trial. Emphasizing the experimental nature of a clinical trial during the consent process is critical to address therapeutic misconception in oncology research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Identifying and Remediating Student Misconceptions in Introductory Biology via Writing-to-Learn Assignments and Peer Review.

    Halim, Audrey S; Finkenstaedt-Quinn, Solaire A; Olsen, Laura J; Gere, Anne Ruggles; Shultz, Ginger V

    2018-06-01

    Student misconceptions are an obstacle in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses and unless remediated may continue causing difficulties in learning as students advance in their studies. Writing-to-learn assignments (WTL) are characterized by their ability to promote in-depth conceptual learning by allowing students to explore their understanding of a topic. This study sought to determine whether and what types of misconceptions are elicited by WTL assignments and how the process of peer review and revision leads to remediation or propagation of misconceptions. We examined four WTL assignments in an introductory biology course in which students first wrote about content by applying it to a realistic scenario, then participated in a peer-review process before revising their work. Misconceptions were identified in all four assignments, with the greatest number pertaining to protein structure and function. Additionally, in certain contexts, students used scientific terminology incorrectly. Analysis of the drafts and peer-review comments generated six profiles by which misconceptions were addressed through the peer-review process. The prevalent mode of remediation arose through directed peer-review comments followed by correction during revision. It was also observed that additional misconceptions were elicited as students revised their writing in response to general peer-review suggestions.

  10. Identification misconception of primary school teacher education students in changes of matters using a five-tier diagnostic test

    Bayuni, T. C.; Sopandi, W.; Sujana, A.

    2018-05-01

    This research was conducted on third grade students (III) semester six, with sample number 84 respondents. The method used in this research is descriptive method. This article identifies the misconceptions of Primary School Teacher Education students by using a five tier diagnostic test research instrument, a question adapted to three chemical representations accompanied by an open reason and a level of confidence in the choice of answers. The categorization of the five tier diagnostic test scoring is divided into four namely, understand the concept, lack of concept, misconception and not understand the concept. Questionnaire in the form of a closed questionnaire is used to determine the factors that cause misconception. The data obtained is misconception has the highest percentage on the concept of substance properties and changes in its form. The highest incidence of misconceptions is due to self-factors. The conclusion is that five tier diagnostic tests can be used to uncover misconceptions of elementary school teachers and assist teachers in presenting lesson material tailored to the chemical representation so that students can understand the concept of the nature of matter and change its form well.

  11. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 360 - Hold File Structure

    2010-01-01

    ... ReasonReason for the hold. Possible values are: Character (2). • LN = Loan Collateral Hold • LG = Court... structure of the data file to provide information to the FDIC for each legal or collateral hold placed on a...

  12. Cash Holdings and Mutual Fund Performance

    Mikhail Simutin

    2014-01-01

    Cash holdings of equity mutual funds impose a drag on fund performance but also allow managers to make quick investments in attractive stocks and satisfy outflows without costly fire sales. This article shows that actively managed equity funds with high abnormal cash—that is, with cash holdings in excess of the level predicted by fund attributes—outperform their low abnormal cash peers by over 2% per year. Managers carrying high abnormal cash compensate for the low return on cash by making su...

  13. The Unusual Suspects: Myths and Misconceptions Associated with PECS

    Bondy, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication protocol designed to help children and adults with autism and related disabilities to engage in functional communication. The protocol was developed over a number of years and was based on Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. Publications about the…

  14. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that due to informational advantages economists are more likely to hold stocks than otherwise identical investors. Weconfirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stockmarket than investors with any other...

  15. Venezuela and Chavez: What the Future Holds...

    2010-04-01

    government made public 26 presidential decrees that had been enacted. These acts: ...covered such areas as tourism , railways, social security, and...great prosperity or a harbinger of doom to the region, and for this reason the United States must prepare for the many paths that the future holds

  16. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  17. Biosketch Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner ...

    ashok

    Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner Professorship of Cancer Research at the University of Cambridge, and is the Director of the Medical Research Council. (MRC) Cancer Cell Unit there. He learnt and practiced medicine at the Christian. Medical College, Vellore, before completing his Ph.D. at University College ...

  18. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  19. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Malaria among Pregnant Women in a Post-Conflict Internally Displaced Persons' Camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda

    James Obol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Uganda Malaria continues to be a major public health problem accounting for about 30–50% of all outpatient consultations and 35% of hospital admissions and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Pregnant women and their unborn children are vulnerable to malaria. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 postconflict IDP camps of Gulu district selected randomly as clusters. 769 pregnant women were interviewed. Results. The majority of the respondents 85% have ever heard about malaria. Most (80% 571 respondent attributed malaria to be transmitted by mosquito bites, 15 said cold weather, 53 said dirt, and 35 said not sleeping under net. Most (91% 683 respondents mentioned that malaria was caused by mosquito, 28 mentioned cold food, 3 mentioned playing in the rain, 19 mentioned cold weather, and 6 mentioned eating mangos. Conclusion. Most pregnant women in the post conflict IDP camps have relatively high knowledge about malaria transmission, signs, symptoms, and consequences during pregnancy. However, majority of respondents had misconception about the cause of malaria while a few had misconception about the mode of malaria transmission.

  20. Misconception and miseducation: Presentations of radical behaviorism in psychology textbooks

    Todd, James T.; Morris, Edward K.

    1983-01-01

    Behavior analysts have recently expressed concern about what appear to be misrepresentations of behaviorism in psychology textbooks. This paper presents an analysis of currently used textbooks in the areas of introductory, social, cognitive, personality, and developmental psychology that confirms this. Topics on which behavior analysis is most often misrepresented relate to the role of animal learning research, environmentalism, the “empty organism,” language, and the overall utility of the approach. Because textbooks are often a major medium of interaction between the public and behaviorism, behavior analysts must work to correct these errors and to prevent possible negative consequences of widespread misunderstanding. Several potential solutions to these problems are presented that take into account current publishing practices and the monetary contingencies which support them. PMID:22478585

  1. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio holdings...

  2. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a savings...

  3. 76 FR 20459 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application

    2011-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Savings and Loan Holding Company... officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual who owns, controls, or holds with power...

  4. Regulation of Cross-holdings between European Companies

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2003-01-01

    Cross-holdings can be a barrier to takeovers, and they may have other disadvantages. This article analyses how cross-holdings may be regulated to avoid these negative effects.......Cross-holdings can be a barrier to takeovers, and they may have other disadvantages. This article analyses how cross-holdings may be regulated to avoid these negative effects....

  5. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971, the... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section...

  6. Bonding in phase change materials: concepts and misconceptions

    Jones, R. O.

    2018-04-01

    Bonding concepts originating in chemistry are surveyed from a condensed matter perspective, beginning around 1850 with ‘valence’ and the word ‘bond’ itself. The analysis of chemical data in the 19th century resulted in astonishing progress in understanding the connectivity and stereochemistry of molecules, almost without input from physicists until the development of quantum mechanics in 1925 and afterwards. The valence bond method popularized by Pauling and the molecular orbital methods of Hund, Mulliken, Bloch, and Hückel play major roles in the subsequent development, as does the central part played by the kinetic energy in covalent bonding (Ruedenberg and others). ‘Metallic’ (free electron) and related approaches, including pseudopotential and density functional theories, have been remarkably successful in understanding structures and bonding in molecules and solids. We discuss these concepts in the context of phase change materials, which involve the rapid and reversible transition between amorphous and crystalline states, and note the confusion that some have caused, in particular ‘resonance’ and ‘resonant bonding’.

  7. Misconceptions of Electric Propulsion Aircraft and Their Emergent Aviation Markets

    Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been aircraft conceptual design and system studies that have reached conflicting conclusions relating to the feasibility of full and hybrid electric aircraft. Some studies and propulsion discipline experts have claimed that battery technologies will need to improve by 10 to 20 times before electric aircraft can effectively compete with reciprocating or turbine engines. However, such studies have approached comparative assessments without understanding the compelling differences that electric propulsion offers, how these technologies will fundamentally alter the way propulsion integration is approached, or how these new technologies can not only compete but far exceed existing propulsion solutions in many ways at battery specific energy densities of only 400 watt hours per kilogram. Electric propulsion characteristics offer the opportunity to achieve 4 to 8 time improvements in energy costs with dramatically lower total operating costs, while dramatically improving efficiency, community noise, propulsion system reliability and safety through redundancy, as well as life cycle Green House Gas emissions. Integration of electric propulsion will involve far greater degrees of distribution than existing propulsion solutions due to their compact and scale-free nature to achieve multi-disciplinary coupling and synergistic integration with the aerodynamics, highlift system, acoustics, vehicle control, balance, and aeroelasticity. Appropriate metrics of comparison and differences in analysis/design tools are discussed while comparing electric propulsion to other disruptive technologies. For several initial applications, battery energy density is already sufficient for competitive products, and for many additional markets energy densities will likely be adequate within the next 7 years for vibrant introduction. Market evolution and early adopter markets are discussed, along with the investment areas that will fill technology gaps and

  8. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988.

  9. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  10. Common misconceptions and future intention to smoke among secondary school students in Malaysia.

    Caszo, Brinnell; Khair, Muhammad; Mustafa, Mohd Habbib; Zafran, Siti Nor; Syazmin, Nur; Safinaz, Raja Nor Intan; Gnanou, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking among secondary school children continues to remain unchanged over the last 3 decades even though awareness regarding the health effects of smoking is increasing. Common misconceptions about smoking and parental influence could be factors influencing future intentions to smoke among these students. Hence, we looked at the common misconceptions as well as student perceptions about their future intention to smoke among Form 4 students in Shah Alam, Malaysia. This study was conducted by distribution of a questionnaire developed as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to Form 4 student in 3 schools at Shah Alam. Prevalence of smoking (current smokers) was 7.5%. Almost half of the children came from families where one or both parents smoked and a third of the parents had no discussion regarding consequences of smoking with them. A large number of students were classified as "triers" as they had tried smoking and were unsure of whether they would not be smoking in the future. Contrary to our expectations, students generally felt smoking did make one feel more uncomfortable and helped one to reduce body weight. Most students seemed to be aware of the ill-effects of smoking on health. They felt they had received adequate information from school regarding the effects on smoking on health. Our study showed that even though Form 4 students in Shah Alam were knowledgeable about ill-effects of smoking and were taught so as part of their school curriculum, the prevalence of smoking was still high. Students in the "trier group" represent a potential group of future smokers and strategies targeting tobacco control may be aimed at tackling these vulnerable individuals. Efforts are also needed to help educate secondary school children about common misconceptions and dispel myths associated with cigarette smoking.

  11. Prevalence and pattern of misconceptions about semen loss and sexual prowess among male medical interns

    Ajish G Mangot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual misconceptions have been around in India for a very long time. Growing liberal attitudes toward sex and sexual permissiveness can be expected to occur in the context of improved sexual knowledge among people. However, sexual myths continue to remain rampant. Therefore, the present study was planned with the aim to assess the level of sexual misconceptions regarding semen loss prevalent among male medical interns. Participants and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among unmarried male medical students doing an internship. Eighty-one interns were recruited after fulfilling predecided inclusion/exclusion criteria and were asked to complete a specially made questionnaire to assess their sexual beliefs anonymously in complete privacy. Responses were analyzed using frequency distribution. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the participants believed that loss of semen can lead to reduction in the size of the penis, while 44.44% (n = 36 believed that it leads to sexual weakness, 56.8% (n = 46 believed it can lead to physical weakness, and 56.8% (n = 46 believed that excess masturbation can decrease sexual prowess. Discussion: This study helps bring to light the prevalence of sexual misconceptions among medical interns in spite of reaching a stage where they are expected to have sound conceptual, theoretical, and practical knowledge about sexual health and wellbeing. There is a dearth of national and international studies exploring the sociocultural aspects of sexuality specifically among medical students. The findings from this study are expected to stimulate researchers and academicians into further exploring the aspect of sexuality among the young medical fraternity.

  12. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Addressing Misconceptions in Ghana's Preparation towards an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Philip Baba Adongo

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is not new to the world. However, the West African EVD epidemic which started in 2014 evolved into the largest, most severe and most complex outbreak in the history of the disease. The three most-affected countries faced enormous challenges in stopping the transmission and providing care for all patients. Although Ghana had not recorded any confirmed Ebola case, social factors have been reported to hinder efforts to control the outbreak in the three most affected countries. This qualitative study was designed to explore community knowledge and attitudes about Ebola and its transmission.This study was carried out in five of the ten regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (N = 235 and 40 in-depth interviews were conducted across the five regions with community members, stakeholders and opinion leaders. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nvivo 10.The results showed a high level of awareness and knowledge about Ebola. The study further showed that knowledge on how to identify suspected cases of Ebola was also high among respondents. However, there was a firm belief that Ebola was a spiritual condition and could also be transmitted through air, mosquito bites and houseflies. These misconceptions resulted in perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people who may get Ebola or work with Ebola patients.We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. The study recommends that health education on Ebola disease should move beyond creating awareness to targeting the identified misconceptions to improve future containment efforts.

  13. Misconceptions about smoking in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis.

    Chau, Tin Kin; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Wong, Janet Yuen Ha; Li, William Ho Cheung; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Leung, Angela Yee Man; Wong, David Chung Ngok; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the smoking behaviours, perceptions about quitting smoking and factors associated with intention to quit in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Smoking causes type 2 diabetes mellitus. There has been limited research on the needs and concerns of smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus about quitting smoking. The study used a qualitative design. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had a history of smoking were recruited at the outpatient diabetic clinics of two major local hospitals in Hong Kong for a semi-structured interview (n = 42), guided by the theory of planned behaviour. At data saturation, 22 current smokers and 20 ex-smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited. The current smokers reported they had not quit smoking because of satisfaction with present health status, and misconceptions about the association between diabetes and smoking, and the perceived hazards of quitting. In contrast, ex-smokers had a positive opinion about quitting smoking, accepted advice about quitting from health professionals and received more family support than current smokers. Psychological addiction and weight gain after cessation made quitting challenging. Satisfaction with health status, inadequate knowledge about the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and smoking, and misconceptions about quitting smoking resulted in negative attitudes toward quitting by type 2 diabetes mellitus smokers. Smoking peers, psychological addiction and post-cessation weight gain hindered the quitting process. Education on the causal link between smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications is important to raise health awareness and counter misconceptions about quitting smoking. Behavioural counselling with weight control strategies should be part of a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention for type 2 diabetes mellitus smokers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    2010-01-01

    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this part...

  15. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?

    2010-01-01

    ... holding company to become a financial holding company shall not be effective if, during the period...) Effective date of election—(1) In general. An election filed by a bank holding company under paragraph (a... financial holding company is effective prior to the 31st day after the date that a complete declaration was...

  16. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice-a systematic review of common misconceptions.

    Ernst, Anja F; Albers, Casper J

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  17. Investigating Climate Science Misconceptions Using a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Registration Survey

    Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development

  18. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING AND ITS MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE PRACTICE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT

    Sri Diana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Communicative Language Teaching (CLT has been accepted as one of the teaching methods by numerous language teachers due to its major focus on developing learners’ communicative competence. This paper aims to describe communicative language teaching, misinterpretations about its practice and the factors leading to teachers’ misconceptions. It shows four misinterpreted beliefs of the implementation of communicative language teaching: communicative skills, teacher’s role in communicative activities, fluency and accuracy as the main goals and teaching techniques. It then presents three reasons that might lead to teachers’ misinterpretations concerning the practice of CLT. Teachers do not have enough training and  adequate resources.

  19. Misconceptions about emotional intelligence: Deploying emotional intelligence in one’s life dimensions

    Anobé Badenhorst

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI has become a buzz-word over the past ten years, yet misconceptions with regard to the concept abound. This leads to confusion among the general public, the scientific community, as well as to unfounded claims being made as to what the development of EI can accomplish in a person’s life. In this article the aim is to clarify the concept EI by making a sharper demarcation between the Emotional Life Dimension and the other life dimensions. Based on this clarification, the conceptualisation of EI in the literature is reviewed in more depth.

  20. Towards a comprehensive knowledge package for teaching proof: A focus on the misconception that empirical arguments are proofs

    Andreas J. Stylianides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of proof is central to meaningful learning of mathematics, but is hard for students to learn. A serious misconception dominant amongst students at all levels of schooling is that empirical arguments are proofs. An important question, then, is the following: What knowledge might enable teachers to help students overcome this misconception? Earlier research led to construction of a significant but rather incomplete ‘knowledge package’ for teaching in this area. Major elements of this knowledge package are summarised and its further development is contributed to by discussing a research-based instructional intervention found to be effective in helping secondary students begin to overcome the misconception that empirical arguments are proofs. Implications for mathematics teacher education are considered.

  1. STUDENT'S SCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE STATE CHANGES OF WATER AND THEIR REMEDIATION USING THREE DIFFERENT LEARNING MODELS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    M. Taufiq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum, kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh mahasiswa dapat menyebabkan kesulitan dalam penelitian, sementara anakanakmemiliki kesadaran mereka sendiri. Tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh siswa juga tidak sama, dalam kasus inisesuatu mengalami kesalahpahaman pengalaman tingkat tinggi, menengah, dan rendah. Untuk alasan itu, siswa memerlukanmodel pembelajaran yang tepat untuk masing-masing tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami untuk membuat studi menjadibermakna. Dalam makalah ini, peneliti mengeksplorasi informasi tentang; (1 tingkat kesalahpahaman ilmu siswa tentangperubahan wujud dari air, dan (2 model pembelajaran yang paling efektif untuk mengatasi kesalahpahaman siswa mengenaiperubahan wujud air. Model pembelajaran tiga dalam penelitian ini adalah: siklus belajar, penyelidikan dipandu, dan model konseppemetaan. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara klinis dan pretest-posttest. Informasi yangdikumpulkan dianalisis secara kuantitatif dengan percobaan uji ANOVA dan keuntungan rata-rata normal dihitung untuk setiapkelompok percobaan. In general, misconceptions experienced by student could cause difficulties in study, meanwhile children have their own sense.Level of misconceptions experienced by student also unequal, in this case something experiences high level misconceptions,medium, and low. For that reason, student requires correct learning model for each level of misconception experienced to make thestudy become meaningful. In this paper, the researcher explored information about; (1 the level of science misconceptions of thestudent concerning the state changes of water, and (2 the most effective learning model to remedy student's misconceptionsconcerning the state changes of water. The three learning models in this research are: learning cycle, guided inquiry, and conceptmapping model. The method applied in this research is the clinical interview and pretest-posttest. The information collected wasanalyzed in

  2. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  3. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London...

  4. The Economics of an Admissions Holding Unit.

    Schreyer, Kraftin E; Martin, Richard

    2017-06-01

    With increasing attention to the actual cost of delivering care, return-on-investment calculations take on new significance. Boarded patients in the emergency department (ED) are harmful to clinical care and have significant financial opportunity costs. We hypothesize that investment in an admissions holding unit for admitted ED patients not only captures opportunity cost but also significantly lowers direct cost of care. This was a three-phase study at a busy urban teaching center with significant walkout rate. We first determined the true cost of maintaining a staffed ED bed for one patient-hour and compared it to alternative settings. The opportunity cost for patients leaving without being seen was then conservatively estimated. Lastly, a convenience sample of admitted patients boarding in the ED was observed continuously from one hour after decision-to-admit until physical departure from the ED to capture a record of every interaction with a nurse or physician. Personnel costs per patient bed-hour were $58.20 for the ED, $24.80 for an inpatient floor, $19.20 for the inpatient observation unit, and $10.40 for an admissions holding area. An eight-bed holding unit operating at practical capacity would free 57.4 hours of bed space in the ED and allow treatment of 20 additional patients. This could yield increased revenues of $27,796 per day and capture opportunity cost of $6.09 million over 219 days, in return for extra staffing costs of $218,650. Analysis of resources used for boarded patients was determined by continuous observation of a convenience sample of ED-boarded patients, which found near-zero interactions with both nursing and physicians during the boarding interval. Resource expense per ED bed-hour is more than twice that in non-critical care inpatient units. Despite the high cost of available resources, boarded non-critical patients receive virtually no nursing or physician attention. An admissions holding unit is remarkably effective in avoiding the

  5. Hold-down device for nuclear reactor

    Leclercq, J.; Bonnamour, M.

    1984-01-01

    The present device can be used in nuclear reactors and more particularly in pressurized water reactors consisting of coupled fuel assemblies, certain of which are equipped with non-displaceable elements carried by an unsertable member. The device comprises the unsertable member provided with at least two sets of springs which transmit the load of an upper structure common to the fuel assemblies ajacent that which supports the unsertable member. The device is used to hold-down fuel assemblies which are subjected to the forces of circulating coolant [fr

  6. The Economics of an Admissions Holding Unit

    Kraftin E. Schreyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With increasing attention to the actual cost of delivering care, return-on-investment calculations take on new significance. Boarded patients in the emergency department (ED are harmful to clinical care and have significant financial opportunity costs. We hypothesize that investment in an admissions holding unit for admitted ED patients not only captures opportunity cost but also significantly lowers direct cost of care. Methods: This was a three-phase study at a busy urban teaching center with significant walkout rate. We first determined the true cost of maintaining a staffed ED bed for one patient-hour and compared it to alternative settings. The opportunity cost for patients leaving without being seen was then conservatively estimated. Lastly, a convenience sample of admitted patients boarding in the ED was observed continuously from one hour after decision-to-admit until physical departure from the ED to capture a record of every interaction with a nurse or physician. Results: Personnel costs per patient bed-hour were $58.20 for the ED, $24.80 for an inpatient floor, $19.20 for the inpatient observation unit, and $10.40 for an admissions holding area. An eight-bed holding unit operating at practical capacity would free 57.4 hours of bed space in the ED and allow treatment of 20 additional patients. This could yield increased revenues of $27,796 per day and capture opportunity cost of $6.09 million over 219 days, in return for extra staffing costs of $218,650. Analysis of resources used for boarded patients was determined by continuous observation of a convenience sample of ED-boarded patients, which found near-zero interactions with both nursing and physicians during the boarding interval. Conclusion: Resource expense per ED bed-hour is more than twice that in non-critical care inpatient units. Despite the high cost of available resources, boarded non-critical patients receive virtually no nursing or physician attention. An

  7. MIM Holdings Limited 1984 annual report

    1984-01-01

    M.I.M. Holdings Limited is a major mining and mineral processing company formed in 1970. The group traces its origins to 1924 following the discovery of silver lead zinc started in 1931 and parallel production of silver lead zinc ore at Mount Isa the previous year. Today the MIM group is a diversified mineral, coal and metal producing and marketing organisation. Details of the company's principal activities over the last year, and accounts and management information for the last year are presented.

  8. Applying Agnotology-Based Learning in a Mooc to Counter Climate Misconceptions

    Cook, J.

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge facing educators and climate communicators is the wide array of misconceptions about climate science, often fostered by misinformation. A number of myths interfere with a sound understanding of the science, with key myths moderating public support for mitigation policies. An effective way to reduce the influence of misinformation is through agnotology-based learning. Agnotology is the study of ignorance while agnotology-based learning teaches students through the direct addressing of myths and misconceptions. This approach of "refutational teaching" is being applied in a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course) currently being developed by Skeptical Science and The University of Queensland, in collaboration with universities in Canada, USA and the UK. The MOOC will examine the science of climate change denial. Why is the issue so controversial given there is an overwhelming consensus on human-caused global warming? How do climate myths distort the science? What can scientists and laypeople do in response to misinformation? The MOOC will be released on the EdX platform in early 2015. I will summarise the research underpinning agnotology-based learning and present the approach taken in the MOOC to be released in early 2015

  9. The efficacy of print and video in correcting cognitive misconceptions in science

    Finney, Mary Jo

    One hundred fifty-three fifth grade students found to have misconceptions about seasonal change were randomly assigned to either a video-print or print-video group. In Study One, each group read or viewed content about seasonal change and a free recall, multiple choice and application task were administered during the following week. Two weeks later, Study Two replicated the procedures with the groups receiving content in the alternate media. Hypotheses predicting video would be more effective than print in correcting misconceptions were rejected since there was either no significance on the measures or performance was higher after reading. Exposure to both media favored the video-print order. Low and high ability readers performed better after print treatment with no significant difference between media among average ability readers. More concepts than content vocabulary were present in written responses by both video and print groups. Post-hoc analysis revealed no gender differences, no significant difference in length of free recall between Study One and Study Two and significant differences between reading abilities on all measures.

  10. Teaching evolution (and all of biology) more effectively: Strategies for engagement, critical reasoning, and confronting misconceptions.

    Nelson, Craig E

    2008-08-01

    The strength of the evidence supporting evolution has increased markedly since the discovery of DNA but, paradoxically, public resistance to accepting evolution seems to have become stronger. A key dilemma is that science faculty have often continued to teach evolution ineffectively, even as the evidence that traditional ways of teaching are inferior has become stronger and stronger. Three pedagogical strategies that together can make a large difference in students' understanding and acceptance of evolution are extensive use of interactive engagement, a focus on critical thinking in science (especially on comparisons and explicit criteria) and using both of these in helping the students actively compare their initial conceptions (and publicly popular misconceptions) with more fully scientific conceptions. The conclusion that students' misconceptions must be dealt with systematically can be difficult for faculty who are teaching evolution since much of the students' resistance is framed in religious terms and one might be reluctant to address religious ideas in class. Applications to teaching evolution are illustrated with examples that address criteria and critical thinking, standard geology versus flood geology, evolutionary developmental biology versus organs of extreme perfection, and the importance of using humans as a central example. It is also helpful to bridge the false dichotomy, seen by many students, between atheistic evolution versus religious creationism. These applications are developed in detail and are intended to be sufficient to allow others to use these approaches in their teaching. Students and other faculty were quite supportive of these approaches as implemented in my classes.

  11. Reverse Asteroids: Searching for an Effective Tool to Combat Asteroid Belt Misconceptions

    Summers, F.; Eisenhamer, B.

    2014-12-01

    The public 'knows' that asteroid belts are densely packed and dangerous for spaceships to cross. Visuals from "Star Wars" to, unfortunately, the recent "Cosmos" TV series have firmly established this astronomical misconception. However, even scientifically correct graphics, such as the Minor Planet Center's plot of the inner solar system, reinforces that view. Each pixel in the image is more than a million kilometers in width, making an accurate representation of the object density impossible.To address this widespread misconception, we are investigating an educational exercise built around a computer interactive that we call "Reverse Asteroids". In the arcade classic video game, the asteroids came to the player's spaceship. For our reverse implementation, we consider an inquiry-based activity in which the spaceship must go hunting for the asteroids, using a database of real objects in our solar system. Both 3D data visualization and basic statistical analysis play crucial roles in bringing out the true space density within the asteroid belt, and perhaps a reconciliation between imagination and reality. We also emphasize that a partnership of scientists and educators is fundamental to the success of such projects.

  12. Students’ analogical reasoning in novel situations: theory-like misconceptions or p-prims?

    Fotou, Nikolaos; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been much research in the area of students’ misconceptions. Whilst this research has been useful in helping to inform the design of instructional approaches and curriculum development it has not provided much insight into how students reason when presented with a novel situation and, in particular, the knowledge they draw upon in an attempt to make predictions about that novel situation. This article reports on a study of Greek students, aged from 10 to 17 years old, who were asked to make predictions in novel situations and to then provide, without being told whether their predictions were correct or incorrect, explanations about their predictions. Indeed, their explanations in such novel situations have the potential to reveal how their ideas, as articulated as predictions, are formed as well as the sources they draw upon to make those predictions. We also consider in this article the extent to which student ideas can be seen either as theory-like misconceptions or, alternatively, as situated acts of construction involving the activation of fragmented pieces of knowledge referred to as phenomenological primitives (p-prims). Our findings suggest that in most cases students’ reasoning in novel situations can be better understood in terms of their use of p-prims and that teaching might be made more effective if teachers were more aware of the p-prims that students were likely to be using when presented with new situations in physics.

  13. The influence of implementation of interactive lecture demonstrations (ILD) conceptual change oriented toward the decreasing of the quantity students that misconception on the Newton's first law

    Kurniawan, Yudi; Suhandi, Andi; Hasanah, Lilik

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to know the influence of implementation of ILD conceptual change oriented (ILD-CC) toward the decreasing of the quantity of students that misconception on the Newton's First Law. The Newton's First Law misconceptions separated into five sub-misconceptions. This research is a quantitative research with one group pretest-posttest design. The samples of this research were 32 students on 9th grade of junior high school in Pandeglang, Banten, Indonesia. The diagnostic test is a multiple-choice form with three-tier test format. The result of this study found that there was decreasing of the quantity of students that misconception on the Newton's First Law. The largest percentage in the decreasing of the number of the students that misconception was on the Misconception 4 about 80, 77%. The Misconception 4 is "The cause of tendency of the body passenger that sat upright on the accelerated bus from motionless bus suddenly to backward be a backward force". For the future studies, it suggested to combine other methods to optimize the decreasing the number of students that misconception.

  14. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  15. Analysis of cash holding for measuring the efficiency of cash management: A study on IT sector

    Somnath Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For measuring the efficiency of management of cash, cash holding is one of the most important financial decisions that the manager of the concerned organization, has to make in the organization. Basically, it is observed that the organization hold cash for future purposes is very negligible. If the organization invested cash in profitable securities then there is some flexibility but when it relates to the capital market holding cash is not advantageous. Generally two contradictory theories such as Trade-off theory and the Pecking order theory are considered for measuring the efficiency of cash management. In this study we generally observed measured the efficiency of Cash Management influenced by Cash Holding. We also measured whether cash holding of the organization is affected with the degree of financial leverage, size of the organization, investment and profitability. This study helps us to understand the influence of DFL, Investment and Size of the organization on Cash holding. Proper holding of cash in cash management can prevent the bankruptcy of any organization and also increases the efficiency of Cash or Liquidity management.

  16. Small forest holdings could be combined for hunting leases

    John J. Stransky; Lowell K. Halls

    1969-01-01

    Most forest land acreage in the South is in small holdings. Much-needed hunting land, and income for rural landowners, could be provided by combining small forest holdings into large units and teasing the hunting rights.

  17. Governance mechanisms, investment opportunity set and SMEs cash holdings

    Belghitar, Yacine; Khan, James

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of firm characteristics and governance mechanisms on cash holdings for a sample of UK SMEs. The results show that UK SMEs with greater cash flow volatility and institutional investors hold more cash; whereas levered and dividend paying SMEs with non-executive ownership hold less cash. We also find that ownership structure is significant only in explaining the cash holdings for firms with high growth investment opportunities, and leverage is only significant in e...

  18. Biogeochemistry Science and Education Part One: Using Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes as Environmental Tracers Part Two: Identifying and Measuring Undergraduate Misconceptions in Biogeochemistry

    Mead, Chris

    This dissertation is presented in two sections. First, I explore two methods of using stable isotope analysis to trace environmental and biogeochemical processes. Second, I present two related studies investigating student understanding of the biogeochemical concepts that underlie part one. Fe and Hg are each biogeochemically important elements in their own way. Fe is a critical nutrient for phytoplankton, while Hg is detrimental to nearly all forms of life. Fe is often a limiting factor in marine phytoplankton growth. The largest source, by mass, of Fe to the open ocean is windblown mineral dust, but other more soluble sources are more bioavailable. To look for evidence of these non-soil dust sources of Fe to the open ocean, I measured the isotopic composition of aerosol samples collected on Bermuda. I found clear evidence in the fine size fraction of a non-soil dust Fe source, which I conclude is most likely from biomass burning. Widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Isotope analysis would be a useful tool in quantifying this impact if the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL were known. My measurements show that CFL-Hg is isotopically fractionated, in a unique pattern, during normal operation. This fractionation is large and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg can be uniquely identified from other sources. Misconceptions research in geology has been a very active area of research, but student thinking regarding the related field of biogeochemistry has not yet been studied in detail. From interviews with 40 undergraduates, I identified over 150 specific misconceptions. I also designed a multiple-choice survey (concept inventory) to measure understanding of these same biogeochemistry concepts. I present statistical evidence, based on the Rasch model, for the reliability and validity of this instrument. This instrument will allow teachers and researchers to

  19. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents...

  20. 76 FR 35085 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application

    2011-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company... Proposal: Savings Loan Holding Company Application. OMB Number: 1550-0015. Form Numbers: H-(e). Description... that no company, or any director or officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual...

  1. Creditor rights, country governance, and corporate cash holdings

    Seifert, Bruce; Gonenc, Halit

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of creditor rights and country governance on cash holdings using a sample of firms from 47 countries. We hypothesize that cash holdings are smaller when both creditor rights and country governance are high. In these circumstances firms will not need to hold as much

  2. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    2010-01-01

    ... follows: Federal MHC Subsidiary Holding Company Charter Section 1. Corporate title. The full corporate... subsidiary holding company available for distribution, in cash or in kind. Each share of common stock shall... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidiary holding companies. 575.14 Section...

  3. "Hold Harmless" Option for Staff Babysitting and Employee References

    Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2010-01-01

    Help for educators and administrators may be on the way in the form of "hold harmless" documents that allow for flexibility in enforcing program policies. Having a "No Babysitting policy," and "Hold Harmless" documentation will not stop one's program from being sued. However, with the "No Babysitting policy" and "Hold Harmless" documentation…

  4. Sustainable rare diseases business and drug access: no time for misconceptions.

    Rollet, Pierrick; Lemoine, Adrien; Dunoyer, Marc

    2013-07-23

    Legislative incentives enacted in Europe through the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 to incentivize orphan drug development have over the last 12 years constituted a powerful impetus toward R&D directed at the rare diseases population. However, despite therapeutic promises contained in these projects and significant economic impact linked to burgeoning R&D expenditures, the affordability and value of OMPs has become a topic of health policy debate in Europe fueled by the perception that OMPs have high acquisition costs, and by misconceptions around pricing dynamics and rare-diseases business models. In order to maintain sustainable patient access to new and innovative therapies, it is essential to address these misconceptions, and to ensure the successful continuation of a dynamic OMPs R&D within rare-diseases public health policy. Misconceptions abound regarding the pricing of rare diseases drugs and reflect a poor appreciation of the R&D model and the affordability and value of OMPs. Simulation of potential financial returns of small medium sized rare diseases companies focusing on high priced drugs show that their economic returns are likely to be close to their cost of capital. Research in rare diseases is a challenging endeavour characterised by high fixed costs in which companies accrue substantial costs for several years before potentially generating returns from the fruits of their investments. Although heavily dependent upon R&D capabilities of each individual company or R&D organization, continuous flow of R&D financial investment should allow industry to increasingly include efficiencies in research and development in cost considerations to its customers. Industry should also pro-actively work on facilitating development of a specific value based pricing approach to help understanding what constitute value in rare diseases. Policy makers must reward innovation based upon unmet need and patient outcome. Broader understanding by clinicians, the public, and

  5. 78 FR 31590 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    2013-05-24

    ... (``My position at Sears had nothing to do with Analytics or space Management. I worked in Marketing... firm clarified that one petitioner supplied print marketing management services, another petitioner... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,253] Sears Holdings Management...

  6. Exploring Secondary Students' Knowledge and Misconceptions about Influenza: Development, validation, and implementation of a multiple-choice influenza knowledge scale

    Romine, William L.; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Folk, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Understanding infectious diseases such as influenza is an important element of health literacy. We present a fully validated knowledge instrument called the Assessment of Knowledge of Influenza (AKI) and use it to evaluate knowledge of influenza, with a focus on misconceptions, in Midwestern United States high-school students. A two-phase validation process was used. In phase 1, an initial factor structure was calculated based on 205 students of grades 9-12 at a rural school. In phase 2, one- and two-dimensional factor structures were analyzed from the perspectives of classical test theory and the Rasch model using structural equation modeling and principal components analysis (PCA) on Rasch residuals, respectively. Rasch knowledge measures were calculated for 410 students from 6 school districts in the Midwest, and misconceptions were verified through the χ 2 test. Eight items measured knowledge of flu transmission, and seven measured knowledge of flu management. While alpha reliability measures for the subscales were acceptable, Rasch person reliability measures and PCA on residuals advocated for a single-factor scale. Four misconceptions were found, which have not been previously documented in high-school students. The AKI is the first validated influenza knowledge assessment, and can be used by schools and health agencies to provide a quantitative measure of impact of interventions aimed at increasing understanding of influenza. This study also adds significantly to the literature on misconceptions about influenza in high-school students, a necessary step toward strategic development of educational interventions for these students.

  7. Trends Concerning Four Misconceptions in Students' Intuitively-Based Probabilistic Reasoning Sourced in the Heuristic of Representativeness

    Kustos, Paul Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Student difficulty in the study of probability arises in intuitively-based misconceptions derived from heuristics. One such heuristic, the one of note for this research study, is that of representativeness, in which an individual informally assesses the probability of an event based on the degree to which the event is similar to the sample from…

  8. Correcting Misconceptions on Electronics: Effects of a Simulation-Based Learning Environment Backed by a Conceptual Change Model

    Chen, Yu-Lung; Pan, Pei-Rong; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulation has significant potential as a supplementary tool for effective conceptual-change learning based on the integration of technology and appropriate instructional strategies. This study elucidates misconceptions in learning on diodes and constructs a conceptual-change learning system that incorporates…

  9. On (mis-)conceptions of culture as a vehicle of business succes: Singapore Chinese investment strategies after failing in China

    Dahles, H.

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the strategies applied by Singapore Chinese businesses upon failing in their China business ventures. It has been argued that both the increase in Singapore ventures into China and the failures are due to either cultural issues (misconceptions of 'shared ethnicity') or

  10. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Remedying Misconceptions of Operating System Concepts: A Design-Based Approach

    Çakiroglu, Ünal; Öngöz, Sakine

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine students' experiences on collaborative work with peer tutoring in projects. The study also focused impact of peer tutoring on remedying misconceptions. The study was conducted in the context of an operating system course in which 30 pre-service ICT teachers are the participants. Data were gathered from pre-tests,…

  11. The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach to Eliminate 9th Grade High School Students' Misconceptions about Air Pressure

    Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…

  12. The Role of Computer-Aided Instruction in Science Courses and the Relevant Misconceptions of Pre-Service Teachers

    Aksakalli, Ayhan; Turgut, Umit; Salar, Riza

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the ways in which pre-service physics teachers interact with computers, which, as an indispensable means of today's technology, are of major value in education and training, and to identify any misconceptions said teachers may have about computer-aided instruction. As part of the study, computer-based physics…

  13. The AP Chemistry Course Audit: A Fertile Ground for Identifying and Addressing Misconceptions about the Course and Process

    Schwenz, Richard W.; Miller, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    The advanced placement course audit was implemented to standardize the college-level curricular and resource requirements for AP courses. While the process has had this effect, it has brought with it misconceptions about how much the College Board intends to control what happens within the classroom, what information is required to be included in…

  14. Comment on ‘Overcoming misconceptions in quantum mechanics with the time evolution operator’

    Toyama, F M; Nogami, Y

    2013-01-01

    In their paper ‘Overcoming misconceptions in quantum mechanics with the time evolution operator’, García Quijas and Arévalo Aguilar (2007 Eur. J. Phys. 28 147) examined the time-dependent wave function of a particle in the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential using two different methods. The two wave functions that the authors obtained through the methods have different analytical expressions. The authors showed numerically that the two wave functions lead to the same probability density. When the real parts of the wave functions are compared, however, they are different in their details. That was puzzling because both wave functions are supposed to be solutions of the same time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the same initial condition. We point out that the two wave functions are actually identical. We show this analytically. (letters and comments)

  15. Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions

    Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.

    2011-01-01

    Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.

  16. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    Ernst, Anja F.

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking. PMID:28533971

  17. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    Anja F. Ernst

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  18. Multiple job holding, local labor markets, and the business cycle

    Barry T. Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 5 % of US workers hold multiple jobs, which can exacerbate or mitigate employment changes over the business cycle. Theory is ambiguous and prior literature is not fully conclusive. We examine the relationship between multiple job holding and local unemployment rates using a large Current Population Survey data set of workers in urban labor markets during 1998–2013. Labor markets with high unemployment have moderately lower rates of multiple job holding. Yet no relationship between multiple job holding and unemployment is found within markets over time, with near-zero estimates being precisely estimated. Multiple job holding is largely acyclic. JEL Classification: J21

  19. Middle School Teacher Misconceptions and Anxieties Concerning Space Science Disciplinary Core Ideas in NGSS

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    The Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are grouped into the broad disciplinary areas of Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences, and Engineering, Technology and Application of Science, and feature learning progressions based on endpoint targets for each grade band. Since the Middle School DCIs build on the expected learning achievements to be reached by the end of Fifth Grade, and High School DCI similarly build on the expected learning achievements expected for the end of Eighth Grade, the Middle School grade band is of particular importance as the bridge between the Elementary and High School curriculum. In states where there is not a special Middle School Certification many of these science classes are taught by teachers prepared to teach at the Elementary level (and who may have limited content background). As a result, some pre-service and in-service teachers have expressed reduced self-confidence in both their own science content knowledge and their ability to apply it in the NGSS-based classroom, while decades of research has demonstrated the pervasiveness of science misconceptions among teachers. Thus the adoption of NGSS has the potential to drive talented teachers out of the profession who feel that they are ill-prepared for this sweeping transition. The key is providing rigorous education in both content and pedagogy for pre-service teachers and quality targeted professional development for in-service teachers. This report focuses on the Middle School Space Sciences grade band DCIs and presents research on specific difficulties, misconceptions and uncertainties with the material demonstrated by pre-service education students over the past four years in a required university science content course, as well as two year-long granted workshop series for current Middle School teachers. This information is relevant to the development of both new content courses aligned with NGSS for pre

  20. Noise distribution of a peak track and hold circuit

    Seller, Paul; Hardie, Alec L.; Morrissey, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Noise in linear electronic circuits is well characterised in terms of power spectral density in the frequency domain and the Normal probability density function in the time domain. For instance a charge preamplifier followed by a simple time independent pulse shaping circuit produces an output with a predictable, easily calculated Normal density function. By the Ergodic Principle this is true if the signal is sampled randomly in time or the experiment is run many times and measured at a fixed time after the circuit is released from reset. Apart from well defined cases, the time of the sample after release of reset does not affect the density function. If this signal is then passed through a peak track-and-hold circuit the situation is very different. The probability density function of the sampled signal is no longer Normal and the function changes with the time of the sample after release of reset. This density function can be classified by the Gumbel probability density function which characterises the Extreme Value Distribution of a defined number of Normally distributed values. The number of peaks in the signal is an important factor in the analysis. This issue is analysed theoretically and compared with a time domain noise simulation programme. This is then related to a real electronic circuit used for low-noise X-ray measurements and shows how the low-energy resolution of this system is significantly degraded when using a peak track-and-hold.

  1. Student’s Misconception of Digestive System Materials in MTs Eight Grade of Malang City and the Role of Teacher’s Pedadogic Competency in MTs

    Yuswa Istikomayanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconception research has important value in the development of students' thinking processes especially in science field. As the identification of important concepts that must be mastered by the students can be done, the teacher will easily able to emphasis the important or main concepts. This study aims to identify the students’ misconception in digestive system materials in eight grade of MTs and teacher pedagogic competence role. The survey was conducted in 8A (16 students and 8B (17 students MTs Muhammadiyah 1 and 8E (19 students Surya Buana Malang. The stages of research survey were: preparation of research goals (formulation, sample determination, preparation and instruments validation, data collection, and data analysis. The instruments used were: misconception test, student response questionnaire, learning observation guide, and teacher pedagogic competency form. The findings of the learning outcomes were discussed with the observer team, which then were assessed by using the assessment rubric and classified into the categories of student misconceptions. The results showed that the three teachers, neither certified nor uncertified were proved to be limited in overcoming misconceptions in the learning process; meanwhile, the results of students’ misconception test were mostly reach only level 3 (medium. Thus, the study of misconceptions of the digestive system material or other physiological material matter needs to get the attention of the teachers and educational practitioners.

  2. Fighting against a misconception about the Energy Yielding Metabolism: a proposal for starting the teaching of human nutrition in schools

    F. Souza Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that undergraduate and high school students share two contradictory concep- tions  regarding  the  energy  yielding  metabolism  (EYM:  the  incorrect  notion  that only glucose can be used for ATP  production together  with  more appropriated conception  according  to which other molecules,  mainly  lipids can also be used for ATP  production.  We have  deepened  the  study  about the origin of such conceptual  profile. Using questionnaires, we have determined that 7th grade school students do not  present  the  erroneous  conception,  but those  from the 8th  grade  (and  later  grades do.  This  finding has led us to  propose  the  hypothesis  that the wrong conception  may  emerge as a result of formal learning during 8th grade.  Indeed, the analysis of 8th grade textbooks  showed that the carbohydrates were associated  mainly  with  energy production by the  cells, while proteins  and  lipids were regarded  only as structural and storage  molecules, respectively.  In addition, only the glycolytic pathway was taught in high school, reinforcing  the  misconception.   We have also demonstrated that the conceptual  profile was widely distributed among students from different schools of different regions of the Rio de Janeiro  state,  reinforcing the importance of reformulation of the teaching of EYM-related topics  both  in grade  and  high schools.  Here we describe  the  development and  the  evaluation of an investigation-based approach  to human  nutrition to be used with  8th grade  students.  This  method- ology is based  in the  use of the  nutritional tables  found  in Brazilian  food packages  and  allows the students to identify not only which of the main nutrients do contain  calories (and thus can be used for,, energy production,, but the amount of calories found in 1g of each of them.  The methodology wastested

  3. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intangible Capital and Corporate Cash Holdings: Theory and Evidence

    Dalida Kadyrzhanova; Antonio Falato; Jae Sim

    2012-01-01

    The rise in intangible capital is a fundamental driver of the secular trend in US corporate cash holdings over the last decades. We construct a new measure of intangible capital and show that intangible capital is the most important firm-level determinant of corporate cash holdings. Our measure accounts for almost as much of the secular increase in cash since the 1980s as all other standard determinants together. We then develop a new model of corporate cash holdings that introduces intangibl...

  5. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  6. Using Three-Tier Test to Identify the Quantity of Student that Having Misconception on Newton's Laws of Motion Concept

    Emi Sulistri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify students quantity who are having the misconception on Newton's laws of motion concept using a Three-tiered Test. The sampling technique used in this study is purposive sampling technique and has been conducted on 56 students at Senior High School. A three-tier "Newton’s Law Of Motion Test" with 10 items is using as instrument to collected date in this study. The results showed that the quantity of students who experienced misconception with the highest category is on the concept of determining the relationship between the mass of objects and the time required for free fall that is equal to 89.3%. While the lowest category is in the concept of explaining the relationship between acceleration, mass and force with the time required for the object to fall freely that is equal to 26.8%.

  7. Pop Rocks! Engaging first-year geology students by deconstructing and correcting scientific misconceptions in popular culture. A Practice Report

    Leslie Almberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Popular culture abounds with ill-conceived notions about Earth’s processes.  Movies, books, music, television and even video games frequently misrepresent fundamental scientific principles, warping viewers’ perceptions of the world around them.  First year geoscience students are not immune to pop culture’s portrayal of earth science and the misconceptions they bring to Geology 101 cloud their ability to differentiate between fact and fiction.  Working within an action research context, a semester-long assessment was designed with the intent to highlight and subsequently challenge students’ misconceptions using examples of “bad geoscience” from pop culture.  Students were required to practice and refine generic skills within this context.  This project succeeded in engaging students, but requires refinement to become more effective in enhancing their geoscience literacy. 

  8. Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Ahmed A. Alsunni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12, moderate (13-24 and high (25-36 scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. Results: The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56% subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%, while 122 (61% had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%, 124 (62% were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56% were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5% before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5% subjects had low misconception scores (15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P 15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.

  9. Experience in a Climate Microworld: Influence of Surface and Structure Learning, Problem Difficulty, and Decision Aids in Reducing Stock-Flow Misconceptions

    Medha Kumar; Varun Dutt; Varun Dutt

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that people’s wait-and-see preferences for actions against climate change are a result of several factors, including cognitive misconceptions. The use of simulation tools could help reduce these misconceptions concerning Earth’s climate. However, it is still unclear whether the learning in these tools is of the problem’s surface features (dimensions of emissions and absorptions and cover-story used) or of the problem’s structural features (how emissions and absorptions cause a ...

  10. Cancer Pain Management Education Rectifies Patients' Misconceptions of Cancer Pain, Reduces Pain, and Improves Quality of Life.

    Koh, Su-Jin; Keam, Bhumsuk; Hyun, Min Kyung; Ju Seo, Jeong; Uk Park, Keon; Oh, Sung Yong; Ahn, Jinseok; Lee, Ja Youn; Kim, JinShil

    2018-03-26

    More than half of the patients have reported improper management of breakthrough cancer pain. Empirical evidence is lacking concerning the effectiveness of cancer pain education on breakthrough pain control. This study aimed to examine the effects of individual pain education on pain control, use of short-acting analgesics for breakthrough pain, quality of life outcomes, and rectification of patients' misconceptions regarding cancer pain. A quasi-experimental design was used. In total, 176 (102 inpatients and 74 outpatients) and 163 (93 inpatients and 70 outpatients) cancer patients completed questionnaires on pain intensity, quality of life, use of short-acting medication for breakthrough pain, and misconceptions about cancer pain and opioid use before and immediately and/or seven days after individual pain education. The mean age of the participants was 60.9 years (±11.2), and 56.3% were male. The most common cancers were lung cancer (17.0%), colon cancer (15.9%), and breast cancer (12.5%). The subjects' reasons for attrition were conditional deterioration, death, or voluntary withdrawal (N = 13, 7.4%). Following the education, there was a significant reduction in overall pain intensity over 24 hours (P < 0.001). The outpatients showed more use of short-acting analgesics for breakthrough pain. Sleep quality change was most significantly associated with intervention; other quality of life aspects (e.g., general feelings and life enjoyment) also improved. Pain education also significantly reduced misconceptions regarding cancer pain management. The present educational intervention was effective in encouraging short-acting analgesic use for breakthrough pain, improving quality of life outcomes, and rectifying patients' misconceptions about analgesic use.

  11. Pop Rocks! Engaging first-year geology students by deconstructing and correcting scientific misconceptions in popular culture. A Practice Report

    Leslie Almberg

    2011-01-01

    Popular culture abounds with ill-conceived notions about Earth’s processes.  Movies, books, music, television and even video games frequently misrepresent fundamental scientific principles, warping viewers’ perceptions of the world around them.  First year geoscience students are not immune to pop culture’s portrayal of earth science and the misconceptions they bring to Geology 101 cloud their ability to differentiate between fact and fiction.  Working within ...

  12. Identifying the Misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA Using CRI (Certanty of Response Index at the Primary School Students in Tarakan

    Muhsinah Annisa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA on primary school students in Tarakan. The output of this study is presented into a national scientific journal with ISSN. This study absolutely contributes to the schools and the education providers (universities. This study can identify the misconceptions of what happens to the students, so that teachers know how to handle and remediate these misconceptions. This study employs quantitative descriptive research. The population is the sixth grade students of primary schools in Tarakan. It is because the students of this grade have got the learning material on force, light, and simple machine. The technique.;s used in taking the sample is cluster sampling by considering on the three criteria, namely: superior, medium, and low school category which is based on the mean scores of final test (UAS on natural science subject. So, the sixth grade students of SDN A, SDN B Tarakan, and SDN C Tarakan are chosen as the sample of this study. The instrument of this research is a written test in a form of multiple choice test equiped with the CRI (certainty of response index answer sheet. The data are collected by distributing multiple-choice test which is consisted of 40 questions that are equipped with the CRI answer sheet.

  13. Misconception of biology education student of teacher training and education of Sriwijaya University to the concept of photosynthesis and respiration

    Susanti, Rahmi

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to gain an overview of misconceptions on the concept of photosynthesis and respiration. The study involved 58 students from Biology Education of Sriwijaya University. Collecting data used written test of 16 questions, which are 10 questions of multiple choice and 6 of choice with reason. The results showed that:photosynthesis occurs continuously (37.9%), energy used for photosynthesis are light and heat energy (34.5%), plants take CO2to respiration (47%), plants carry on respiration in the absence of light for photosynthesis (22.4%), respiration in plants occurs only in leaf cells (76.4%), and only animals that take O2 of photosynthesis to respiration (68.9%). The conclusion: 1) on the concept of photosynthesis is still prevailing misconceptions about the concept of the place and time of the occurrence of photosynthesis in plants, the role of the sun in photosynthesis, energy is required in the form of photosynthesis, and the role of photosynthesis for the plant. 2) on the concept of respiration is still prevailing misconceptions about the place of the respiration in plants, gas necessary for respiration of plants, and the plants perform respiration time, as well as the cycle of CO2 and O2 that occurs in nature.

  14. Marvels, mysteries, and misconceptions of vascular compensation to peripheral artery occlusion.

    Ziegler, Matthew A; Distasi, Matthew R; Bills, Randall G; Miller, Steven J; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Murphy, Michael P; Akingba, A George; Sturek, Michael; Dalsing, Michael C; Unthank, Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a major health problem and there is a significant need to develop therapies to prevent its progression to claudication and critical limb ischemia. Promising results in rodent models of arterial occlusion have generally failed to predict clinical success and led to questions of their relevance. While sub-optimal models may have contributed to the lack of progress, we suggest that advancement has also been hindered by misconceptions of the human capacity for compensation and the specific vessels which are of primary importance. We present and summarize new and existing data from humans, Ossabaw miniature pigs, and rodents which provide compelling evidence that natural compensation to occlusion of a major artery (i) may completely restore perfusion, (ii) occurs in specific pre-existing small arteries, rather than the distal vasculature, via mechanisms involving flow-mediated dilation and remodeling (iii) is impaired by cardiovascular risk factors which suppress the flow-mediated mechanisms and (iv) can be restored by reversal of endothelial dysfunction. We propose that restoration of the capacity for flow-mediated dilation and remodeling in small arteries represents a largely unexplored potential therapeutic opportunity to enhance compensation for major arterial occlusion and prevent the progression to critical limb ischemia in the peripheral circulation.

  15. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-03-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it is argued that many misconceptions in chemistry may derive from students' failure to consider emergence in a systemic manner by taking into account all relevant factors in conjunction. Based on this argument, undergraduate students' conceptions of acids, and acid strength (an emergent chemical property) were investigated and it was examined whether or not they conceptualized acid strength as an emergent chemical property. The participants were 41 third- and fourth-year undergraduate students. A concept test and semi-structured interviews were used to probe students' conceptualizations and reasoning about acid strength. Findings of the study revealed that the majority of the undergraduate students did not conceptualize acid strength as an emergent property that arises from interactions among multiple factors. They generally focused on a single factor to predict and explain acid strength, and their faulty responses stemmed from their failure to recognize and consider all factors that affect acid strength. Based on these findings and insights from philosophy of chemistry, promoting system thinking and epistemologically sound argumentative discourses among students is suggested for meaningful chemical education.

  16. Myths and misconceptions concerning contrast media-induced anaphylaxis: a narrative review.

    Böhm, Ingrid; Morelli, John; Nairz, Knud; Silva Hasembank Keller, Patricia; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2017-03-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiological examinations are an increasingly important diagnostic tool in modern medicine. All approved and available contrast media (iodinated and gadolinium-based) are safe compounds that are well-tolerated by most patients. However, a small percentage of patients exhibit contrast medium-induced adverse drug reactions that are dose-dependent and predictable (type A) or an even smaller cohort experience so-called type B (dose-independent, non-predictable). To increase patients' safety, recommendations/guidelines have been put forth in the literature and advice passed down informally by radiologists in practice to ensure contrast media safety. Through these, both reasonable suggestions as well as misinterpretations and myths (such as the misleading terms "allergy-like" reactions, and "iodine-allergy", the wrong assumption that the initial contact to a contrast medium could not induce an allergy, the estimation that an anti-allergy premedication could suppress all possible adverse reactions, and interleukin-2 as a risk/trigger for contrast medium adverse events) have arisen. Since the latter are not only unhelpful but also potentially reduce patients' safety, such myths and misconceptions are the focus of this review.

  17. Current trends in Canadian health care: myths and misconceptions in health economics.

    Coyte, P C

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the economic aspects of the trends in Canadian health care. Various myths and misconceptions abound regarding the applicability of economics to behaviour in the health care industry as well as to the interpretation of recent trends. Both issues are examined in this paper. While most discussions regarding health care trends begin with the share of health expenditures in Gross National Product, I propose an alternative share that adjusts for cyclical variations in both unemployment and labour force participation. Using this measure, I show that the "real" growth of resources devoted to the health care industry is much larger than that obtained with conventional measures, and that the difference in growth rates between Canada and the U.S. is narrowed considerably. The paper outlines and disputes the validity of three public health policy propositions. First, it is not empirically valid to say that the introduction of universal medical insurance in Canada successfully contained the growth in the share of society's resources devoted to the health care industry. Second, it is not correct to argue that the change in the federal funding for hospital and medical care in 1977 was a "fiscal non-event". And finally, the proposed "equity" funding formula for Ontario hospitals is unlikely to contain costs and will potentially skew hospitals towards the provision of complex forms of care instead of cost-effective community-based alternatives.

  18. Influence of the hold period on the fuel rod behaviour during a power ramp

    Bourreau, S.; Lansiart, S.; Couffin, P.; Verdeau, C.; Decroix, G.M.; Grandjean, M.-C.; Hugot, H.; Mermaz, F.; Van Schel, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents three examples of power ramp tests performed in the OSIRIS experimental reactor, located at Saclay (France). The rods tested during these experiments stem from the same segmented 'mother' rod, pre-irradiated for two cycles in a French PWR. They underwent very similar power transient conditions, except for the hold time at Ramp Terminal Level (RTL) - respectively 41.5 kW/m (J12/2), 40.7 kW/m (J12/4) and 39.5 kW/m (J12/5) for RTL, but zero (J12/2), 16 minutes (J12/4) and 12 hours (J12/5) for the hold time at RTL. No failure was detected for any of the three experiments despite the relatively high mechanical stress applied to the cladding in the case of J12/2. Moreover, although no hold time was maintained at RTL, a permanent deformation clearly appeared on the clad during the power transient. An analysis of the cladding deformation has also been undertaken concerning the J12/2, J12/4 and J12/5 experiments. This study was realized by carrying out post-calculations of the three experiments with a 2D fuel modelling code using the finite element method. The computations satisfactorily reproduce the influence of hold time on the cladding deformation during the power transients, especially for the J12/2 and J12/4 experiments with hold times enclosing the failure times experimentally observed for power ramp tests. For the hold time of 12 hours, the micrographic observations of the fuel, compared to the case of the 16 minutes hold time, support the hypothesis of weak but noticeable gaseous swelling. (author)

  19. 34 CFR 200.73 - Applicable hold-harmless provisions.

    2010-07-01

    ... meet the eligibility requirements for a basic grant, targeted grant, or education finance incentive... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Allocations to Leas § 200.73 Applicable hold... provided in § 200.100(d), an SEA must apply the hold-harmless requirement separately for basic grants...

  20. PBL og de sammensatte hold på kandidatuddannelser

    Engen, Mie; Fallov, Mia Arp; Jensen, Rune Hagel Skaarup

    Denne rapport omhandler pædagogiske udfordringer og muligheder i Aalborgs Problembaserede Læringstilgang (PBL), når den omsættes til pædagogisk og didaktisk handling på kandidatuddannelser med sammensatte hold. Sammensatte hold betyder i denne sammenhæng kandidatuddannelser, hvor de optagne stude...

  1. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    1989-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  2. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    2011-09-02

    ... other financial statements submitted to the securities holding company's current consolidated supervisor... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... Companies (FR Y-6), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial...

  3. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Seong-Bong Lee

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  4. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) currently holds in excess of millions in spare parts inventory ... equipment/utilities at all times in view of stochastic item ... line contingency and small conductor sizing lines which are ...

  5. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... delivery. Each handler shall, at all times, hold in his possession or under his control, in proper storage...

  6. The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding

    Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

  7. Implementacion de modulos constructivistas que atiendan "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales en temas de la fisica en estudiantes universitarios

    Santacruz Sarmiento, Neida M.

    Este estudio se enfoco en los "misconception" y lagunas conceptuales en temas fundamentales de Fisica como son Equilibrio Termodinamico y Estatica de fluidos. En primer lugar se trabajo con la identificacion de "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales y se analizo en detalle la forma en que los estudiantes construyen sus propias teorias de fenomenos relacionados con los temas. Debido a la complejidad en la que los estudiantes asimilan los conceptos fisicos, se utilizo el metodo de investigacion mixto de tipo secuencial explicativo en dos etapas, una cuantitativa y otra cualitativa. La primera etapa comprendio cuatro fases: (1) Aplicacion de una prueba diagnostica para identificar el conocimiento previo y lagunas conceptuales. (2) Identificacion de "misconceptions" y lagunas del concepto a partir del conocimiento previo. (3) Implementacion de la intervencion por medio de modulos en el topico de Equilibrio Termodinamico y Estatica de Fluidos. (4) Y la realizacion de la pos prueba para analizar el impacto y la efectividad de la intervencion constructivista. En la segunda etapa se utilizo el metodo de investigacion cualitativo, por medio de una entrevista semiestructurada que partio de la elaboracion de un mapa conceptual y se finalizo con un analisis de datos conjuntamente. El desarrollo de este estudio permitio encontrar "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales a partir del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes participantes en los temas trabajados, que fueron atendidos en el desarrollo de las distintas actividades inquisitivas que se presentaron en el modulo constructivista. Se encontro marcadas diferencias entre la pre y pos prueba en los temas, esto se debio al requerimiento de habilidades abstractas para el tema de Estatica de Fluidos y al desarrollo intuitivo para el tema de Equilibrio Termodinamico, teniendo mejores respuestas en el segundo. Los participantes demostraron una marcada evolucion y/o cambio en sus estructuras de pensamiento, las pruebas estadisticas

  8. Progress Report on Long Hold Time Creep Fatigue of Alloy 617 at 850°C

    Carroll, Laura Jill

    2015-01-01

    Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an intermediate heat exchanger for the very high temperature reactor. To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain-controlled cyclic tests that include long hold times up to 240 minutes at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 850°C. In terms of the total number of cycles to failure, the fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain. Increases in the tensile hold duration degraded the creep-fatigue resistance, at least to the investigated strain controlled hold time of up to 60 minutes at the 0.3% strain range and 240 minutes at the 1.0% strain range. The creep-fatigue deformation mode is considered relative to the lack of saturation, or continually decreasing number of cycles to failure with increasing hold times. Additionally, preliminary values from the 850°C creep-fatigue data are calculated for the creep-fatigue damage diagram and have higher values of creep damage than those from tests at 950°C.

  9. Ensuring Peace and Reconciliation while Holding Leaders ...

    need to be adopted to ensure that both organizations fulfil their mandate to address impunity on the ... international law; international relations and political studies. ...... 'not any other consideration', which was an attempt to assuage any fears that she ... system, which should play into the hands of the AU – in theory. Yet this.

  10. Misconception regarding conventional coupling of fields and particles in XFEL codes

    Geloni, Gianluca [Europeam XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Maxwell theory is usually treated in the laboratory frame under the standard time order, that is the usual light-signal clock synchronization. In contrast, particle tracking in the laboratory frame usually treats time as an independent variable. As a result, here we argue that the evolution of electron beams is usually treated according to the absolute time convention i.e. using a different time order defined by a non-standard clock synchronization procedure. This essential point has never received attention in the accelerator community. There are two possible ways of coupling fields and particles in this situation. The first, Lorentz's prerelativistic way, consists in a 'translation' of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the absolute time world-picture. The second, Einstein's way, consists in a 'translation' of particle tracking results to the electromagnetic world-picture, obeying the standard time order. Conventional particle tracking shows that the electron beam direction changes after a transverse kick, while the orientation of the microbunching phase front stays unvaried. Here we show that in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic v → c, the orientation of the planes of simultaneity, i.e. the orientation of the microbunching fronts, is always perpendicular to the electron beam velocity when the evolution of the modulated electron beam is treated under Einstein's time order. This effect allows for the production of coherent undulator radiation from a modulated electron beam in the kicked direction without suppression. We hold a recent FEL study at the LCLS as a direct experimental evidence that the microbunching wavefront indeed readjusts its direction after the electron beam is kicked by a large angle, limited only by the beamline aperture. In a previous paper we quantitatively described this result invoking the aberration of light effect, which corresponds to Lorentz's way of coupling fields and particles. The purpose of

  11. Misconception regarding conventional coupling of fields and particles in XFEL codes

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    Maxwell theory is usually treated in the laboratory frame under the standard time order, that is the usual light-signal clock synchronization. In contrast, particle tracking in the laboratory frame usually treats time as an independent variable. As a result, here we argue that the evolution of electron beams is usually treated according to the absolute time convention i.e. using a different time order defined by a non-standard clock synchronization procedure. This essential point has never received attention in the accelerator community. There are two possible ways of coupling fields and particles in this situation. The first, Lorentz's prerelativistic way, consists in a 'translation' of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the absolute time world-picture. The second, Einstein's way, consists in a 'translation' of particle tracking results to the electromagnetic world-picture, obeying the standard time order. Conventional particle tracking shows that the electron beam direction changes after a transverse kick, while the orientation of the microbunching phase front stays unvaried. Here we show that in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic v → c, the orientation of the planes of simultaneity, i.e. the orientation of the microbunching fronts, is always perpendicular to the electron beam velocity when the evolution of the modulated electron beam is treated under Einstein's time order. This effect allows for the production of coherent undulator radiation from a modulated electron beam in the kicked direction without suppression. We hold a recent FEL study at the LCLS as a direct experimental evidence that the microbunching wavefront indeed readjusts its direction after the electron beam is kicked by a large angle, limited only by the beamline aperture. In a previous paper we quantitatively described this result invoking the aberration of light effect, which corresponds to Lorentz's way of coupling fields and particles. The purpose of

  12. The Misconception of Case-Control Studies in the Plastic Surgery Literature: A Literature Audit.

    Hatchell, Alexandra C; Farrokhyar, Forough; Choi, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015). Two independent reviewers screened the resulting titles, abstracts, and methods, if applicable, to identify articles labeled as case-control studies. These articles were appraised and classified as true case-control studies or non-case-control studies. The authors found 28 articles labeled as case-control studies. However, only six of these articles (21 percent) were truly case-control designs. Of the 22 incorrectly labeled studies, one (5 percent) was a randomized controlled trial, three (14 percent) were nonrandomized trials, two (9 percent) were prospective comparative cohort designs, 14 (64 percent) were retrospective comparative cohort designs, and two (9 percent) were cross-sectional designs. The mislabeling was worse in recent years, despite increases in evidence-based medicine awareness. The majority of published case-control studies are not in fact case-control studies. This misunderstanding is worsening with time. Most of these studies are actually comparative cohort designs. However, some studies are truly clinical trials and thus a higher level of evidence than originally proposed.

  13. Sexual practices, myths and misconceptions among long distance truck drivers in North India.

    Sawal, N; Hans, G D R; Verma, G

    2016-07-01

    Long distance truck drivers and helpers constitute a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus /acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Despite increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS and safe sex practices, they still have a high incidence of new cases of HIV. This study carried out at an ART (anti-retroviral treatment) centre in North India aimed to evaluate the sexual myths and misconceptions prevalent among long distance drivers and helpers. This was a retrospective study carried out at apex ART centre. Data were collected retrospectively from ART records of 129 long distance Truck drivers and 68 helpers. Details of socio-demographic characteristics, contact with commercial sex workers (CSW'S), pattern of condom usage with CSW'S and factors influencing it were studied. We found that a significant number of drivers and helpers had sexual contact with CSW's and out of these, 30% of drivers and 50% of helpers reported not using condoms and instead resorting to methods like washing genitalia after sex with battery water/urine to avoid getting HIV. There was no significant relationship between pattern of condom usage and educational status, marital status and age. We also found that certain myths like sex with young CSW's was less likely to cause sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and HIV were also widespread. Owing to continuing prevalence of such sexual myths, long distance truck drivers and helpers do not use condoms while having sex with CSW's as they feel that they can enjoy sex with CSW's and still stay protected against STD's/HIV. It is imperative that this battery water/urine antiseptic myth be specifically targeted for better HIV control in this high risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. "RU486: Misconceptions, myths and morals." A critique of the criticisms.

    Cottingham, J; Van Look, P

    1993-01-01

    This article was written to counter some of the misinformation contained in the book "RU486: Misconceptions, Myths and Morals." The book concludes that use of RU486 constitutes yet another form of medical violence against women which will have unknown longterm effects. One of the major goals of the women's health movement is to disseminate information about women's health through information networks which also expose abusive reproductive health practices. Critiques about new products and procedures are important because what is considered clinically safe may pose problems for women in practice. While the book on RU486 is important from this viewpoint, it lacks careful scrutiny of its criticisms. Thus, the book suggests that animal testing has been inadequate at 17 months when, in fact, this time frame meets all standards for a single dose drug. The authors also mislabel the exclusion criterion for experimental trials as "contraindications" for use and claim that this incorrectly inflated number of contraindications prohibits the use of RU-486 as a viable alternative to other methods of abortion. In several instances the authors present inaccurate information about the pharmacodynamics and dosages of the drugs involved. The use of prostaglandins is also unjustly criticized by drawing comparisons with other uses of the prostaglandins which involve different doses and delivery periods. The authors act irresponsibly when they suggest that incomplete abortion with Ru-486 may result in uterine cancer or that the simultaneous use of aspirin will result in an almost guaranteed incomplete abortion. Additional ill-founded remarks overemphasize the failure rate, demand unrealistic guarantees about fetal abnormality, and charge that the World Health Organization has "discarded" suction curettage abortion. The book grew out of valid concerns and raises important questions about the best ways to serve women's interests, but these concerns and questions are obfuscated by

  15. Students misconceptions on chemical equilibrium and their consequences to biochemistry learning

    E. Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that misconceptions onchemical equilibrium (CE are widespread among students in  higher education. Nevertheless CE concept is critical for biochemistry topics development such as buffer solutions, enzymekinetics, allosteric enzymes, metabolic networks, among others. In the present work weperformed tests in order to diagnose howstudents use the concepts of CE acquired inother courses. We tested high school andundergraduate students from two courses intwo institutions, in four moments of their course: a. freshmen; b. after basic general chemistry courses; c. along the biochemistrycourse and d. after physical chemistry courses. The tests dealt with: 1. tasks containing current terms, keywords and concepts about CE; 2. tests that exclusively use symbolic representations of CE and 3. application of elementary concepts of CE in biochemistry. The resultsshow that among thestudents: 1. more than 95% correctly answer questions of group1; 2. more than 50% fail in questions of group 2, and; 3. morethan 50% fail in questions of the group 3. We conclude that students solve tests  on CE without really understand the concepts involved; consequently studentsare unable to work CE concepts without mathematical tools or conventional formulas.Finally, the results show that students are restricted to use CE concept only in the context in which it was learned and this certainly impairs the significant learning of the forthcoming biochemical contents.

  16. Holding back moderates the association between health symptoms and social well-being in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Bartley, Emily J; Edmond, Sara N; Wren, Anava A; Somers, Tamara J; Teo, Irene; Zhou, Sicong; Rowe, Krista A; Abernethy, Amy P; Keefe, Francis J; Shelby, Rebecca A

    2014-09-01

    Holding back, or withholding discussion of disease-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative outcomes including lower quality of life, diminished well-being, and relational distress. For patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the degree to which one holds back from discussing illness-related concerns may be an important determinant of social well-being and health; however, this has not been systematically assessed in this population. The purpose of the present study was to assess the moderating effects of holding back discussion of disease-related concerns on the relationship between health-related symptoms and social well-being in adult patients undergoing HSCT. Seventy autologous (n = 55) and allogeneic (n = 15) HSCT patients completed measures of holding back, social well-being, and health symptoms (i.e., pain, fatigue, sleep problems, cognitive problems) both before and after transplantation (i.e., three months after transplantation and six months after transplantation). In patients with average to high levels of holding back, health symptoms were significantly related to lower levels of social well-being; however, for patients with low levels of holding back, the relationship between health symptoms and social well-being was not significant. The results of the present study suggest that the level of holding back may be important in understanding how health-related symptoms relate to social well-being in patients undergoing HSCT. These findings underscore the importance of addressing how patients undergoing HSCT communicate about their disease with others as this may be related to their adjustment to illness and treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  18. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  19. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C.; McCubbins, Mathew D.; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges—whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth—require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians’ behavior. PMID:27856736

  20. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  1. Patent holdings of US biotherapeutic companies in major markets.

    Sebastian, Teena E; Yerram, Chandra Bindu; Saberwal, Gayatri

    2009-05-01

    In previous studies we examined the (United States, US) patent holdings of 109 largely North American biotech companies developing therapeutics that, in particular, have an interest in discovery stage science. There appears little correlation between the number of patents and the number of products of individual companies. Here we quantified and compared the 103 US-headquartered companies' patent holdings in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the US. The companies demonstrate variable and surprising patterns of patent holdings across these countries or regions. For most companies, patent holdings are not in proportion to the importance of the country as a biotech or pharma market. These results have implications for the patenting strategies of small biotech companies involved in drug discovery.

  2. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians.

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C; McCubbins, Mathew D; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-11-29

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians' behavior.

  3. INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT IN VERTICALLY INTEGRATED HOLDING COMPANY

    Natalya T. Uspenskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards production consolidation and integration processes taking place both in the Russian and global economies leads to development of business associations, with a holding company being the most common form inRussiaand around the globe. The evidence in favor of the formation of holding companies is that they can benefit from the scale (bulk purchasing, centralized stuff training; in the global capital and exports markets they can be more effective than smaller businesses and, if non-profitable, a loss-making structure is easier to liquidate than the entire company; holding companies and associations can be an effective defender from political interference. As the importance of the well-functioning and harmonized procedure for the companies’ integration will increase (especially in the context of Russian business, where specific features of many areas of the production system imply the use of holding oligopolies as the most effective form of market structures, there is a need in their more profound study and, in particular, in the analysis of the most important technologies of the general integration procedure. The article outlines the relevance of innovative development management of vertically integrated holding systems, lists principles of innovative activity management and considers the features of innovation management of a vertically integrated holding company. The objective of the research is to study theoretical and practical aspects of innovative development management in vertically integrated holding systems. The object of research is management structures in innovative holding companies. While working on the article, the following methods of economic research were used: abstract and logical method, empirical method, method of expert evaluations, as well as methods of structural and functional and statistical analysis. 

  4. Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing.......This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing....

  5. The performance and risk of Hartalega Holdings Berhad

    Wong, Kah Wai

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the overall performance of Hartalega Holdings Berhad and specific risk factors and macroeconomic factors are influence on profitability performance. The data obtained from annual report of Hartalega Holdings Berhad during the years 2011 to 2015. The measurement of financial ratios and regression analysis used to see the overall performance and risk of the company. The study found that performance of the company is unfavourable due to the decreasing m...

  6. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  7. Dead space variability of face masks for valved holding chambers.

    Amirav, Israel; Newhouse, Michael T

    2008-03-01

    Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC will be inhaled with each breath, thus speeding VHC emptying and improving overall aerosol delivery efficiency and dose. Masks may have different DSV and thus different performance. To compare both physical dead space and functional dead space of different face masks under various applied pressures. The DSV of three commonly used face masks of VHCs was measured by water displacement both under various pressures (to simulate real-life application, dynamic DSV) and under no pressure (static DSV). There was a great variability of both static and dynamic dead space among various face mask for VHCs, which is probably related to their flexibility. Different masks have different DSV characteristics. This variability should be taken into account when comparing the clinical efficacy of various VHCs.

  8. The role of the power/efficiency misconception in the rebound effect's size debate: Does efficiency actually lead to a power enhancement?

    Ruzzenenti, F. [Center for Complex System Investigations, University of Siena (Italy); Basosi, R. [Center for Complex System Investigations, University of Siena (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Siena (Italy)

    2008-09-15

    This paper addresses the question of whether the rebound effect's size is bigger or smaller than one. After a brief review of the related economic literature, a thermodynamic perspective tackles this topic by demonstrating that the dispute over the size of the rebound effect relies on a misconception of the thermodynamic nature of energy efficiency. The dichotomy, in fact, concerns the relationship between efficiency and power output rather than the scale of the economic side effects generated by energy efficiency mutations. Early intuitions of the dichotomy efficiency/power belong to the pioneering works of Stanley Jevons, in the field of economics, and Alfred Lotka in that of biology. Their findings are here approached using the basis of finite-time thermodynamics with a simple amendment, the addition of the time variable to the Carnot machinery. The model shows how a process of power maximization always leads to a sub-optimal efficiency level and additionally, that any efficiency improvement, in the context of low energy costs, will shift the power output of the machine instead of reducing energy consumption. A case study taken from the transport system is presented to elucidate this argument. (author)

  9. The role of the power/efficiency misconception in the rebound effect's size debate: Does efficiency actually lead to a power enhancement?

    Ruzzenenti, F.; Basosi, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the rebound effect's size is bigger or smaller than one. After a brief review of the related economic literature, a thermodynamic perspective tackles this topic by demonstrating that the dispute over the size of the rebound effect relies on a misconception of the thermodynamic nature of energy efficiency. The dichotomy, in fact, concerns the relationship between efficiency and power output rather than the scale of the economic side effects generated by energy efficiency mutations. Early intuitions of the dichotomy efficiency/power belong to the pioneering works of Stanley Jevons, in the field of economics, and Alfred Lotka in that of biology. Their findings are here approached using the basis of finite-time thermodynamics with a simple amendment, the addition of the time variable to the Carnot machinery. The model shows how a process of power maximization always leads to a sub-optimal efficiency level and additionally, that any efficiency improvement, in the context of low energy costs, will shift the power output of the machine instead of reducing energy consumption. A case study taken from the transport system is presented to elucidate this argument

  10. Multi-professional holding: A new way of connecting liberal profession in the French legal system

    Knežić-Popović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, significant changes occur in the exercise of the liberal professions. In particular, the French legislator made a big step forward, after almost fifty years of searching for the optimal solution, anticipating the holding of the liberal professions that establishes the principle of multi-professional connections on the basis of equity investments. The companies for the financial participation of the liberal professions can have a share in the capital assets of companies for performing the liberal professions as well as in business entities of General Corporate Law, and which have as their subject the performance of two or more professions including: attorney-at-law, notaries, bailiffs, court appraisers, accountants, auditors and advisers for industrial property. In other words, this is to allow the establishment of a holding company whose branches conduct their regulated profession in these domains. The aim was to create a network of companies from different professions in law, accounting and industrial property, whose connective tissue is the capital, and thereby strengthen their global competitive ability in domestic and foreign markets services. Also the possibility is prescribed that the companies for financial participation take part in each group of foreign law which has as its subject in performance of one or more of the mentioned professions, in order to create international, primarily European network of companies for performing liberal professions. Multi-professional holding has certain specific characteristics in relation to the holding of general law, among which are of particular importance two protective measures: more than half of the capital and voting rights of the holding company should hold the professionals who exercise their profession in the branches; the management board shall be elected among the members who perform their professions in the branches. Holding of the liberal professions has its own

  11. How to hold an ethical pox party.

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz

    2018-04-01

    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Some may consider pox parties more morally objectionable than opting out of vaccination through non-medical exemptions. In this paper, I argue that this is not the case. Pox parties involve immediate risk of harm for children and reduce future harms, whereas opting out of vaccination places children at long-term risk of harms that increase with time, at least for some pathogens. Regarding harm to others through onward transmission of infection, this can be easily prevented in the case of pox parties-given the relatively controlled timing of infection-by quarantining attendees after the party, whereas opting out of vaccination involves risks to others that are more difficult to control. I defend three criteria for an ethical pox party: (1) that the disease is sufficiently low risk, (2) that parents consent to their child's attendance and (3) that children exposed to infection are quarantined and isolated appropriately. I argue that, if these criteria are met, pox parties are morally preferable to non-vaccination; such parties involve less risk to non-consenting others and, for some pathogens in some cases, even involve less risk for the children who participate. Thus, policies that permit non-medical exemption to vaccination should also permit ethical pox parties. Alternatively, if pox parties are not permitted, then vaccination should be mandated for those without medical contraindication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. On experiments to detect possible failures of relativity theory

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two recently proposed experiments by Kolen and Torr, designed to show failures of Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) are analysed. It is pointed out that these papers contain a number of imprecisions and misconceptions which are cleared out. Also the very spread misconception about anysotropy of propagation of light in vacuum in Lorentz Aether Theory (LAT) is analysed showing that the anysotropy is only a coordinate effect. Comparison of the correct results in LAT theory, leading to violation of SR, with new theoretical and experimental results of Torr et al is made. Some of these new results are shown to be incorrect and/or inconsistent with both SR and LAT. (Author) [pt

  13. 12 CFR 225.81 - What is a financial holding company?

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies § 225.81 What is a financial holding company? (a) Definition. A financial holding... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a financial holding company? 225.81...

  14. 12 CFR 583.12 - Multiple savings and loan holding company.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple savings and loan holding company. 583... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.12 Multiple savings and loan holding company. The term multiple savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan holding...

  15. 12 CFR 583.11 - Diversified savings and loan holding company.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diversified savings and loan holding company... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.11 Diversified savings and loan holding company. The term diversified savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan holding...

  16. Influence of pressure on the properties of chromatographic columns. II. The column hold-up volume.

    Gritti, Fabrice; Martin, Michel; Guiochon, Georges

    2005-04-08

    The effect of the local pressure and of the average column pressure on the hold-up column volume was investigated between 1 and 400 bar, from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. Calculations based upon the elasticity of the solids involved (column wall and packing material) and the compressibility of the liquid phase show that the increase of the column hold-up volume with increasing pressure that is observed is correlated with (in order of decreasing importance): (1) the compressibility of the mobile phase (+1 to 5%); (2) in RPLC, the compressibility of the C18-bonded layer on the surface of the silica (+0.5 to 1%); and (3) the expansion of the column tube (columns packed with the pure Resolve silica (0% carbon), the derivatized Resolve-C18 (10% carbon) and the Symmetry-C18 (20% carbon) adsorbents, using water, methanol, or n-pentane as the mobile phase. These solvents have different compressibilities. However, 1% of the relative increase of the column hold-up volume that was observed when the pressure was raised is not accounted for by the compressibilities of either the solvent or the C18-bonded phase. It is due to the influence of the pressure on the retention behavior of thiourea, the compound used as tracer to measure the hold-up volume.

  17. Agreement and repeatability of vascular reactivity estimates based on a breath-hold task and a resting state scan.

    Lipp, Ilona; Murphy, Kevin; Caseras, Xavier; Wise, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    FMRI BOLD responses to changes in neural activity are influenced by the reactivity of the vasculature. By complementing a task-related BOLD acquisition with a vascular reactivity measure obtained through breath-holding or hypercapnia, this unwanted variance can be statistically reduced in the BOLD responses of interest. Recently, it has been suggested that vascular reactivity can also be estimated using a resting state scan. This study aimed to compare three breath-hold based analysis approaches (block design, sine-cosine regressor and CO2 regressor) and a resting state approach (CO2 regressor) to measure vascular reactivity. We tested BOLD variance explained by the model and repeatability of the measures. Fifteen healthy participants underwent a breath-hold task and a resting state scan with end-tidal CO2 being recorded during both. Vascular reactivity was defined as CO2-related BOLD percent signal change/mmHg change in CO2. Maps and regional vascular reactivity estimates showed high repeatability when the breath-hold task was used. Repeatability and variance explained by the CO2 trace regressor were lower for the resting state data based approach, which resulted in highly variable measures of vascular reactivity. We conclude that breath-hold based vascular reactivity estimations are more repeatable than resting-based estimates, and that there are limitations with replacing breath-hold scans by resting state scans for vascular reactivity assessment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Development of hold down plate of INGLE fuel assembly

    Kim, Hyeong Koo; Kim, Kyu Tae

    1996-07-01

    Hold down plate for the INGLE fuel which has been designed for high performance in the standpoints of thermal margin and structural integrity compared to current fuel for YGN 3/4 and UCN 3/4 has been developed and its structural integrity has been verified based on the eh stress analysis. The design feature of the developed hold down plate has not only perfect compatibility with the reactor internals of Korea standard reactor, but also brand-new locking mechanism between upper tie plate and guide tubes. This locking mechanism introduced to the INGLE fuel provides very simple and reliable reconstitutability. In this report, finite element stress analysis with the aid of the ANSYS code as a solver and the MSC/PATRAN code as a pre and post processor were performed to verify structural integrity of the hold down plate considering various load cases which seem to be applied to the hold down plate during its lifetime. Based on the analysis results, the developed hold down plate for INGLE fuel sustains structural integrity under considered load conditions. 3 tabs., 16 figs., 9 refs. (Author)

  19. Using intervention-oriented evaluation to diagnose and correct students' persistent climate change misconceptions: A Singapore case study.

    Pascua, Liberty; Chang, Chew-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of classroom-based educational interventions is fraught with tensions, the most critical of which is choosing between focusing the inquiry on measuring the effects of treatment or in proximately utilizing the data to improve practice. This paper attempted to achieve both goals through the use of intervention-oriented evaluation of a professional development program intended to diagnose and correct students' misconceptions of climate change. Data was gathered, monitored and analyzed in three stages of a time-series design: the baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The evaluation itself was the 'intervention' such that the data was allowed to 'contaminate' the treatment. This was achieved through giving the teacher unimpeded access to the collected information and to introduce midcourse corrections as she saw fit to her instruction. Results showed a significant development in students' conceptual understanding only after the teacher's decision to use direct and explicit refutation of misconceptions. Due to the accessibility of feedback, it was possible to locate specifically at which point in the process that the intervention was most effective. The efficacy of the intervention was then measured through comparing the scores across the three research stages. The inclusion of a comparison group to the design is recommended for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is It the Earth That Turns or the Sun That Goes behind the Mountains? Students' Misconceptions about the Day/Night Cycle after Reading a Science Text

    Vosniadou, Stella; Skopeliti, Irini

    2017-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the reading of science text can create new misconceptions in students with incongruent prior knowledge, and that these new misconceptions will be similar to the fragmented and synthetic conceptions obtained in prior developmental research. Ninety-nine third- and fifth-grade children read and recalled…

  1. Control of cooperative manipulators in holding deformable objects

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a control system to control cooperative manipulators to hold deformable objects. The aim is to hold the deformable object without having information on the shape and stiffness of the deformable object beforehand. The prototype of a pair of manipulators has been designed and built to test the controller. A force sensor and a rotary encoder are used to give feedback to the controller, which controls the DC motor actuators accordingly. A position proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller technique has been applied for one of the manipulators and a PID force control technique is applied to the other. Simulations and experimental tests have been conducted on models and the controller has been implemented on the real plant. Both simulation and test results prove that the implemented control technique has successfully provided the desired position and force to hold the deformable object with maximum experimental errors of 0.34mm and 50mN respectively.

  2. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  3. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  4. Self-face Captures, Holds, and Biases Attention.

    Wójcik, Michał J; Nowicka, Maria M; Kotlewska, Ilona; Nowicka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The implicit self-recognition process may take place already in the pre-attentive stages of perception. After a silent stimulus has captured attention, it is passed on to the attentive stage where it can affect decision making and responding. Numerous studies show that the presence of self-referential information affects almost every cognitive level. These effects may share a common and fundamental basis in an attentional mechanism, conceptualized as attentional bias: the exaggerated deployment of attentional resources to a salient stimulus. A gold standard in attentional bias research is the dot-probe paradigm. In this task, a prominent stimulus (cue) and a neutral stimulus are presented in different spatial locations, followed by the presentation of a target. In the current study we aimed at investigating whether the self-face captures, holds and biases attention when presented as a task-irrelevant stimulus. In two dot-probe experiments coupled with the event-related potential (ERP) technique we analyzed the following relevant ERPs components: N2pc and SPCN which reflect attentional shifts and the maintenance of attention, respectively. An inter-stimulus interval separating face-cues and probes (800 ms) was introduced only in the first experiment. In line with our predictions, in Experiment 1 the self-face elicited the N2pc and the SPCN component. In Experiment 2 in addition to N2pc, an attentional bias was observed. Our results indicate that unintentional self-face processing disables the top-down control setting to filter out distractors, thus leading to the engagement of attentional resources and visual short-term memory.

  5. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site

  6. Self-face Captures, Holds, and Biases Attention

    Michał J. Wójcik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implicit self-recognition process may take place already in the pre-attentive stages of perception. After a silent stimulus has captured attention, it is passed on to the attentive stage where it can affect decision making and responding. Numerous studies show that the presence of self-referential information affects almost every cognitive level. These effects may share a common and fundamental basis in an attentional mechanism, conceptualized as attentional bias: the exaggerated deployment of attentional resources to a salient stimulus. A gold standard in attentional bias research is the dot-probe paradigm. In this task, a prominent stimulus (cue and a neutral stimulus are presented in different spatial locations, followed by the presentation of a target. In the current study we aimed at investigating whether the self-face captures, holds and biases attention when presented as a task-irrelevant stimulus. In two dot-probe experiments coupled with the event-related potential (ERP technique we analyzed the following relevant ERPs components: N2pc and SPCN which reflect attentional shifts and the maintenance of attention, respectively. An inter-stimulus interval separating face-cues and probes (800 ms was introduced only in the first experiment. In line with our predictions, in Experiment 1 the self-face elicited the N2pc and the SPCN component. In Experiment 2 in addition to N2pc, an attentional bias was observed. Our results indicate that unintentional self-face processing disables the top-down control setting to filter out distractors, thus leading to the engagement of attentional resources and visual short-term memory.

  7. Water holding capacity of meat from rabbits (Belgian Giant breed

    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Meat science has always been most interested in practical applications and macroscopic effects of internal/external factors in relation to water holding capacity (WHC. Research has been motivated by technological and sensory aspects, both finally linked to economic benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of gender and different muscle groups from rabbits on WHC of their meat. Determining WHC was carried out by compression of the meat over filter paper between two plates. The biological material was collected from 56 Belgian Giant breed rabbits (25 males and 31 females. Aged 11-12 months, the rabbits had an average body weight of 11.5 kg. Measurements were performed on the muscles Longissimus dorsi (LD, Psoas major (PM and Semimembranosus (SM 24 hours after slaughter. The percentage of WHC was calculated as ratio (per cent of weight of released water to intact meat. WHC for females, in LD, had an average value of 8%, in PM it had an average value of 9.31%, and in SM it had an average value of 12.91%. For males, WHC in LD was 7.6%, in PM 8.23% and in SM 11.43%. The average value for WHC was higher for females than for males. Regarding the statistical significance of differences by gender, distinct significant differences for SM and very significant differences for PM were recorded. For PM, a higher average value of WHC is probably due to the smaller diameter of muscle fibres and also to water higher percentage of them.

  8. 76 FR 68189 - Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To...

    2011-11-03

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 111 0097] Healthcare Technology Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of... Technology Holdings, Inc. (``Healthcare Technology''), subject to final approval, an Agreement Containing... Healthcare Technology's proposed acquisition of SDI Health LLC (``SDI'') from SDI Health Holdings LLC (``SDI...

  9. Investasi: Komparasi Strategi Buy and Hold dengan Pendekatan Teknikal

    Natica Ardani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyse effectivity of technical analysis moving average compare to buy and hold strategy on index LQ-45 (as emerging market and S&P500 (as developed market. Using descriptive approach, this research analysed by metastock program with moving average exponential crossovers method. This research data samples use LQ45 and S&P500 from year 2001-2011. The findings of this research indicate that technical analysis more effective when economic situation on crisis (bearish. Whereas buy and hold strategy more effective on good economic condition (bullish. The results consistent for LQ-45 and S&P500.

  10. Holding Pressure and Its Influence on Quality in PIM Technology

    Pavel Petera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIM (powder injection molding process consists of several steps in which faults can occur. The quality of the part that is produced usually cannot be seen until the end of the process. It is therefore necessary to find a way to discover the fault earlier in the process. The cause of defects is very often “phase separation” (inhomogeneity in powder distribution, which can also be influenced by the holding pressure. This paper evaluates the powder distribution with a new method based on density measurement. Measurements were made using various holding pressure values.

  11. The Effect of Holding a Research Chair on Scientists’ Impact

    Mirnezami, S.R.; Beaudry, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the effect of holding Canada Research Chair (CRC) on a scientist’s number of citations as a measure of research impact, based on an econometric analysis with combined data on Quebec scientists’ funding and journal publication. Using Generalized Least Square (GLS) method for regression analysis, the results show that holding either tier-1 or tier- 2 of CRC significantly and positively results in conducting research with higher impact. This finding, however, does not necessarily imply that the others are the lesser scientists. (Author)

  12. Geometric uncertainties in voluntary deep inspiration breath hold radiotherapy for locally advanced lung cancer

    Josipovic, Mirjana; Persson, G F; Dueck, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) increases lung volume and can potentially reduce treatment-related toxicity in locally advanced lung cancer. We estimated geometric uncertainties in visually guided voluntary DIBH and derived the appropriate treatment margins for different...... image-guidance strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients were included prospectively. An optical marker-based respiratory monitoring with visual guidance enabled comfortable DIBHs, adjusted to each patient's performance. All patients had three consecutive DIBH CTs at each of the treatment...

  13. Test theories of special relativity: a general critique

    Maciel, A.K.A.; Tiomno, J.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute Spacetime Theories conceived for the purpose of testing Special Relativity (SR) are reviewed. It is found that most theories proposed were in fact SR in different coordinate systems, since in general no specific SR violations were introduced. Models based on possible SR violating mechanisms are considered. Misconceptions in recently published papers are examined. (author) [pt

  14. Relativity

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  15. 12 CFR 225.104 - “Services” under section 4(c)(1) of Bank Holding Company Act.

    2010-01-01

    ... of advertising, public relations, developing new business, organizations, operations, preparing tax... on the later bill (“advertising, public relations, developing new business, organization, operations... used in a broad and general sense, the legislative history of the Bank Holding Company Act indicates...

  16. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  17. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    Aragao, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.) [pt

  18. Water holding capacity and enzymatic modification of pressed potato fibres

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) contribute to the water holding capacity (WHC) of fibre rich feeds, such as pressed potato fibres (PPF). However, the role of CWPs on the WHC of PPF was unidentified so far.

    PPF was characterized to be abundant in arabinogalactan (AG) linked

  19. Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision ...

    Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision while exploring an uncharted mountain. HM MacKay, KH Rogers, DJ Roux. Abstract. This paper discusses the long-term implementation of the South African National Water Policy of 1997, and addresses some of the difficult issues of the management and ...

  20. Linearization of weak hand holds in Russian Sign Language

    Kimmelman, V.

    2017-01-01

    Russian Sign Language (RSL) makes use of constructions involving manual simultaneity, in particular, weak hand holds, where one hand is being held in the location and configuration of a sign, while the other simultaneously produces one sign or a sequence of several signs. In this paper, I argue that

  1. Carbon Dioxide Changes in Hyperventilation and Breath-hold Diving

    1974-01-05

    Jan 5, 1974 ... South Africa. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 18 (1974). Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported ... haemoglobin in the face of falling CO, output to the ... Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they ...

  2. Swiveling Lathe Jaw Concept for Holding Irregular Pieces

    David, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clamp holds irregularly shaped pieces in lathe chuck without damage and eliminates excessive time in selecting optimum mounting. Interchangeable jaws ride in standard jaw slots but swivel so that the jaw face bears evenly against the workpiece regardless of contour. The jaws can be used on both engine and turret lathes.

  3. Sample-hold and analog multiplexer for multidetector systems

    Goswami, G C; Ghoshdostidar, M R; Ghosh, B; Chaudhuri, N [North Bengal Univ., Darjeeling (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-08-15

    A new sample-hold circuit with an analog multiplexer system is described. Designed for multichannel acquistion of data from an air shower array, the system is being used for accurate measurements of pulse heights from 16 channels by the use of a single ADC.

  4. OFFSHORIZATION AS MAIN PROBLEM OF HOLDING GROUPS TAXATION

    Y. Petlenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At this article, we have analyzed and systematized the conditions of holdings' activity to reduce the taxation level in countries and on the territory of special, so-called offshore, jurisdiction. In addition, we have made a suggestionhow to regulatean offshore capital flows inorder to prevent from tax frauds.

  5. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    2010-04-01

    ... securities as of the close of business upon the instruction of such broker or dealer, it shall send a... depository institution's control or direction that are not in its physical possession, where the securities... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custodial holdings of...

  6. Holding device for gas-cooled reactor fuel elements

    Hensolt, T.

    1980-01-01

    The sheathed fuel elements of the GCFR are inserted with their pedestal in a grid plate arranged below the reactor core and are clamped there. The clamping force as well as the force required for hydraulic holding-down against the flow pressure of the coolant are applied through the differential pressure between inlet and outlet of the coolant. (DG) [de

  7. farm size holding in northern nigeria: a remote sensing assessment ...

    currys

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... FARM HOLDINGS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA AND IMPLICATION FOR. FOOD SECURITY: A ... about 80.0% of the export earnings in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is the source of .... They rear herds of goats, cattle, donkeys and ...

  8. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  9. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    2012-06-04

    ...), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... comprehensive consolidated supervision by a foreign regulator, a nonbank financial company supervised by the...

  10. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  11. Removing tar information from cigarette packages may reduce South Korean smokers' misconceptions about low-tar cigarettes

    Hye-Jin Paek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Many smokers still have misconceptions about “light” or “low tar” cigarettes. In South Korea, low-tar (< 3 mg cigarette sales have increased sharply from 1.8% in 2002 to 49.2% in 2015. Although government regulations forbid cigarette packages from displaying messages such as “mild,” “low-tar,” and “light,” numbers indicating tar amounts are still permitted. This study examines whether removing tar information from packaging altogether reduces people's misconceptions about low tar cigarettes. Methods An online experiment was conducted among 531 smokers who were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the “tar” condition, 271 participants were shown in random order three cigarette packages for three major brands (Esse, The One, Marlboro with different tar amounts. In the “no-tar” condition, 260 participants were shown the same packages without tar information. Next, participants evaluated which type of cigarette was mildest, least harmful, easier for nonsmokers to start smoking, and easier for smokers to quit. After descriptive statistics were checked, twelve sets of chi-square tests were performed. Results Average age of the participants was 26.22 (14 - 62 years; 53.5% were male. All 12 chi-square tests were statistically significant. Participants in the tar condition judged the lowest-tar cigarette to be mildest, least harmful, easier to start, and easier to quit. In the no-tar condition, for the Korean brands Esse and The One, most respondents evaluated all cigarette types to be the same only for harm, ease of starting, and ease of quitting; for Marlboro, judgments were the same as those in the tar condition except that “easier to quit” was judged to be the same across the three types. Conclusions Banning tar information from cigarette packages may help reduce smokers' misconceptions about low-tar cigarettes. People have inconsistent judgments about differently packaged cigarettes when tar

  12. Evaluation of the Knowledge and Misconceptions of Science Teacher Candidates in Turkey Regarding the Greenhouse Effect through the Use of Drawings

    Aksan, Zeynep; Çelikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, through the use drawings, the knowledge and misconceptions of science teacher candidates regarding the greenhouse effect, and to thereby categorize their level of knowledge on this subject. The study was conducted with a group of 327 science teacher candidates. In this study, science teacher candidates were…

  13. Determination of Misconceptions Belonging to the "Solar System and Beyond: Space Puzzle" Unit in 7th Grade Science and Technology Curriculum with Two-Tier Diagnostic Tests

    Töman, Ögr. Gör. Ufuk; Ergen, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Today's World is in period of rapid development of science and technology. There is science and technology education that not based on rote, practical on the basis of development in science and technology. Misconceptions are a major obstacle in order to take the desired efficiency. Because concepts that learned wrong obstacle attainment of right…

  14. Closing the "Hole in the Sky": The Use of Refutation-Oriented Instruction to Correct Students' Climate Change Misconceptions

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty; Ess, Frances

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the implementation of a pedagogical tool aimed at the refutation of secondary school (grade ten-equivalent) students' persistent climate change misconceptions. Using a lesson study approach, the materials and intervention techniques used were developed collaboratively with geography teachers. The objective is two-pronged: to…

  15. The Nature of Conceptual Understanding in Biomedicine: The Deep Structure of Complex Ideas and the Development of Misconceptions. Technical Report No. 440.

    Feltovich, Paul J.; And Others

    This report presents a general framework for studying the acquisition and cognitive representation of biomedical concepts and analyzing the nature and development of misconceptions. The central approach of the report is a selective and highly concentrated analysis of the true nature of clusters of complex concepts and the manner in which they are…

  16. WWC Review of the Report "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 study, "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions," examined the effects of using the true-to-scale (TTS) display mode versus the orrery display mode in the iPad's Solar Walk software application on students' knowledge of the Earth's place in the solar system. The…

  17. Understanding the physics of functional fibers in the gastrointestinal tract: an evidence-based approach to resolving enduring misconceptions about insoluble and soluble fiber

    Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readil...

  18. Review of deep inspiration breath-hold techniques for the treatment of breast cancer

    Latty, Drew, E-mail: drew.latty@health.nsw.gov.au [Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Stuart, Kirsty E [Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Wang, Wei [Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Nepean Cancer Care Centre, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Ahern, Verity [Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    Radiation treatment to the left breast is associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. The deep inspiration breath-hold technique (DIBH) can decrease radiation dose delivered to the heart and this may facilitate the treatment of the internal mammary chain nodes. The aim of this review is to critically analyse the literature available in relation to breath-hold methods, implementation, utilisation, patient compliance, planning methods and treatment verification of the DIBH technique. Despite variation in the literature regarding the DIBH delivery method, patient coaching, visual feedback mechanisms and treatment verification, all methods of DIBH delivery reduce radiation dose to the heart. Further research is required to determine optimum protocols for patient training and treatment verification to ensure the technique is delivered successfully.

  19. Do business groups affect corporate cash holdings? Evidence from a transition economy

    Weixing Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether business groups’ influence on cash holdings depends on ownership. Group affiliation can increase firms’ agency costs or benefit firms by providing an internal capital market, especially in transition economies characterized by weak investor protection and difficult external capital acquisition. A hand-collected dataset of Chinese firms reveals that group affiliation decreases cash holdings, alleviating the free-cash-flow problem of agency costs. State ownership and control of listed firms moderate this benefit, which is more pronounced when the financial market is less liquid. Group affiliation facilitates related-party transactions, increases debt capacity and decreases investment-cash-flow sensitivity and overinvestment. In transitional economies, privately controlled firms are more likely to benefit from group affiliation than state-controlled firms propped up by the government.

  20. Experience in a Climate Microworld: Influence of Surface and Structure Learning, Problem Difficulty, and Decision Aids in Reducing Stock-Flow Misconceptions

    Medha Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people’s wait-and-see preferences for actions against climate change are a result of several factors, including cognitive misconceptions. The use of simulation tools could help reduce these misconceptions concerning Earth’s climate. However, it is still unclear whether the learning in these tools is of the problem’s surface features (dimensions of emissions and absorptions and cover-story used or of the problem’s structural features (how emissions and absorptions cause a change in CO2 concentration under different CO2 concentration scenarios. Also, little is known on how problem’s difficulty in these tools (the shape of CO2 concentration trajectory, as well as the use of these tools as a decision aid influences performance. The primary objective of this paper was to investigate how learning about Earth’s climate via simulation tools is influenced by problem’s surface and structural features, problem’s difficulty, and decision aids. In experiment 1, we tested the influence of problem’s surface and structural features in a simulation called Dynamic Climate Change Simulator (DCCS on subsequent performance in a paper-and-pencil Climate Stabilization (CS task (N = 100 across four between-subject conditions. In experiment 2, we tested the effects of problem’s difficulty in DCCS on subsequent performance in the CS task (N = 90 across three between-subject conditions. In experiment 3, we tested the influence of DCCS as a decision aid on subsequent performance in the CS task (N = 60 across two between-subject conditions. Results revealed a significant reduction in people’s misconceptions in the CS task after performing in DCCS compared to when performing in CS task in the absence of DCCS. The decrease in misconceptions in the CS task was similar for both problems’ surface and structural features, showing both structure and surface learning in DCCS. However, the proportion of misconceptions was similar across

  1. Using formative feedback to identify and support first-year chemistry students with missing or misconceptions. A Practice Report

    Gwen Lawrie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Students entering tertiary studies possess a diverse range of prior experiences in their academic preparation for tertiary chemistry so academics need tools to enable them to respond to issues in diversity in conceptual models possessed by entering students. Concept inventories can be used to provide formative feedback to help students identify concepts that they need to address to improve construction of subsequent understanding enabling their learning.Modular, formative learning activities that can be administered inside or outside of class in first year chemistry courses have been developed. These activities address key missing and mis-conceptions possessed by incoming student. Engagement in these learning activities by students and academics will help shift the culture of diagnostic and formative assessment within the tertiary context and address issues around the secondary/tertiary transition. This diagnostic/intervention framework is currently being trialed across five Australian tertiary institutions encompassing a large heterogeneous sample of students.

  2. 26 CFR 1.552-1 - Definition of foreign personal holding company.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of foreign personal holding company. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-1 Definition of foreign personal holding company. (a) A foreign personal holding company is any foreign...

  3. 12 CFR 584.2a - Exempt savings and loan holding companies and grandfathered activities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempt savings and loan holding companies and... THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2a Exempt savings and loan holding companies and grandfathered activities. (a) Exempt savings and loan holding companies. (1) The following savings and loan...

  4. Impact of knowledge and misconceptions on benefit and risk perception of CCS.

    Wallquist, Lasse; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is assumed to be one of the key technologies in the mitigation of climate change. Public acceptance may have a strong impact on the progress of this technology. Benefit perception and risk perception are known to be important determinants of public acceptance of CCS. In this study, the prevalence and effect of cognitive concepts underlying laypeople's risk perception and benefit perception of CCS were examined in a representative survey (N=654) in Switzerland. Results confirm findings from previous qualitative studies and show a quantification of a variety of widespread intuitive concepts that laypeople hold about storage mechanisms as well as about leakage and socioeconomic issues, which all appeared to influence risk perception and benefit perception. The perception of an overpressurized reservoir and concerns about diffuse impacts furthermore amplified risk perception. Appropriate images about storage mechanisms and climate change awareness were increasing the perception of benefits. Knowledge about CO2 seemed to lower both perceived benefits and perceived risks. Implications for risk communication and management are discussed.

  5. Dedicated memory structure holding data for detecting available worker thread(s) and informing available worker thread(s) of task(s) to execute

    Chiu, George L.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O' Brien, John K. P.

    2016-12-13

    The present disclosure relates generally to a dedicated memory structure (that is, hardware device) holding data for detecting available worker thread(s) and informing available worker thread(s) of task(s) to execute.

  6. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  7. CASH HOLDING, GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM VALUE

    Prana Wahyu Nisasmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the influence of profitability, capital structure, cash holding, and GCG (Good Corporate Governance on firm value.  The samples of this study were the property sector and real estate companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in the period of 2008-2013. The data used from the annual report company. The methods of data analysis were multiple regression models and analyzed using IBM SPSS software. The results of this study are profitability has no influence on firm value, capital structure has positive influence on firm value, cash holding has no influence on firm value and GCG a has a positive influence on firm value.

  8. Corporate cash holdings: Determinants and implications from Vietnamese market

    Cap, Kim Hoang

    2014-01-01

    2014 dissertation for MSc in International Accounting and Finance. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. This paper investigates the determination of corporate cash holdings in Vietnam. The sample includes Vietnamese publicly-traded firms for the period 2010-2013. Determinants include financial indicators as firm-specific characteristics and state ownership as an institutional factor for the purpose of exploring the existence of agency costs for this em...

  9. How Seniors Change Their Asset Holdings During Retirement

    Karen Smith; Mauricio Soto; Rudolph G. Penner

    2009-01-01

    We use the 1998-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to investigate how households change their asset holdings at older ages. We find a notable increase in the net worth of older households between 1998 and 2006, with most of the growth due to housing. Our results indicate that, through 2006, older households did not spend all of their capital gains. This asset accumulation provides older households with a financial cushion for the turbulence experienced after 2007. The wealth ...

  10. Breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MRA : clinical application

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kang, Ji Hee; Kim, Won Hong; Lim, Myung Kwan; Cho, Young Kook; Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare breath-hold gadolinium enhanced MR angiography (MRA) with digital subtraction angiography. Ten patients underwent angiography and breath-hold gadolinium enhanced MRA; the latter performed at 1.5T with 3D FSPGR after a bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.4m mol/kg). Seven of ten pathologic conditions (70%) evaluated by both techniques had a similar appearance. The conditions examined were as follows: the artery feeding renal cell carcinoma(n=2); renal artery stenosis (n=2); pulmonary AVM(n=2); abdominal aortic aneurysm (n=1); atheromatous plaque in the lower abdominal aorta (n=1); an enlarged bronchial artery (n=1); and an aberrant renal artery (n=1). For evaluating an anatomic relationship, a reconstructed 3D image obtained by MRA is more advantageous. Breath hold contrast enhanced MRA is a potentially useful noninvasive screening method for detecting vascular abnormality of the aorta and its branches. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. Breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MRA : clinical application

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kang, Ji Hee; Kim, Won Hong; Lim, Myung Kwan; Cho, Young Kook; Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae [Inha University Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare breath-hold gadolinium enhanced MR angiography (MRA) with digital subtraction angiography. Ten patients underwent angiography and breath-hold gadolinium enhanced MRA; the latter performed at 1.5T with 3D FSPGR after a bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.4m mol/kg). Seven of ten pathologic conditions (70%) evaluated by both techniques had a similar appearance. The conditions examined were as follows: the artery feeding renal cell carcinoma(n=2); renal artery stenosis (n=2); pulmonary AVM(n=2); abdominal aortic aneurysm (n=1); atheromatous plaque in the lower abdominal aorta (n=1); an enlarged bronchial artery (n=1); and an aberrant renal artery (n=1). For evaluating an anatomic relationship, a reconstructed 3D image obtained by MRA is more advantageous. Breath hold contrast enhanced MRA is a potentially useful noninvasive screening method for detecting vascular abnormality of the aorta and its branches. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. In vitro holding and PLD-repair. Pt. 2

    Stevenson, A.F.G.; Palackal, T.; Lange, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The repair of potentially lethal damage (PLDR) in mammalian cells is expected to be better in quiescent cultures since PLD is supposedly fixed during cycle progression. Plateau phase cultures, therefore, serve as models because of assumed mitotic quiescence. Four established cell lines (V79, CHO, L5178Y and HELA) and one euploid cell strain IMR-90 have been analysed by flow cytometry and electron microscopy to address questions on quiescence in the plateau phase and the effect of holding (induction of quiescence by nutrient privation). In contrast to commonly held views, our results indicate that the quiescent fraction in cultures from transformed cells is exceedingly low (1% or less). Plateau phase cultures of transformed cells are constantly turning over. Euploid cells like the IMR-90 show true quiescence in the plateau phase. Holding causes typical cytopathological changes. These changes have been ultrastructurely characterised. Resistant sub-populations of cells can be selected out under holding-conditions. Such selected cells show completely different radiobiological characteristics, which raise questions on the interpretation of data on PLDR. (orig.)

  13. Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation

    Adamowski, A.; Gagny; Gallet, G.; Lhermitte, J.; Monne, M.; Vautherot, G.

    1984-01-01

    Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation. The apparatus comprises a telescopic arm supported via a ball and socket joint from a support mounted in or near an access aperture in a chamber at one end of the steam generator. A probe guide is carried by a carriage pivotally mounted at the other end of the telescopic arm. The carriage includes an endless belt having a series of spaced projections which engage into the ends of the tubes, the projections being spaced by a distance equal to the tube pitch or a multiple thereof. The belt is driven by a stepping motor in order to move the carriage and place the probe guide opposite different ones of the tubes

  14. Suture holding capacity of the Achilles tendon during the healing period: an in vivo experimental study in rabbits.

    Yildirim, Yakup; Kara, Hasan; Cabukoglu, Cengiz; Esemenli, Tanil

    2006-02-01

    Early motion and weightbearing is known to promote the healing of Achilles tendon repair. It is important to be informed about the repair strength for a secure rehabilitation. There are reports about the initial repair strength of Achilles tendons; however, they are mainly in vitro studies that represent the time zero strength of the repair. Softening of the tendon observed during the biological process of the tendon healing, which may effect the suture holding capacity and in turn the repair strength of the tendon has not been evaluated before. In the current study, the suture holding capacity of rabbit Achilles tendon was observed at various times during the healing period. The suture holding capacity of the tendon at the end of the first and third weeks after surgery was found to be similar within 30% of the control tendon. However, at the end of the fourth week it was doubled reaching 65% of the control tendon. Intrinsic tendon insufficiency which causes a decrease in the suture holding capacity of the tendon may lead to pull-out of the suture material during the postoperative third week. This period is precarious for early motion and weightbearing since the suture holding capacity of the tendon doubled relative to the previous three weeks.

  15. 12 CFR 225.109 - “Services” under section 4(c)(1) of Bank Holding Company Act.

    2010-01-01

    ..., investment counseling”) and in the Committee Report on the later bill (“advertising, public relations... for exemption. The legislative history of the Act, however, as indicated in the relevant portion of... banking subsidiary of the holding company which the legislative history clearly indicates does not come...

  16. 78 FR 26032 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    2013-05-03

    ..., North Carolina; Frank B. Holding, Sr., Smithfield, North Carolina; Ella Ann Holding, Smithfield, North..., individually and together with Olivia Britton Holding, Raleigh, North Carolina; Frank B. Holding, Sr... Brown Holding, Jr., Raleigh, North Carolina; Frank B. Holding, Sr., Smithfield, North Carolina; Ella Ann...

  17. 'Holding on to life': An ethnographic study of living well at home in old age.

    Bjornsdottir, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to how older people living at home can remain independent and manage their illness themselves, while less attention has been given to those who have become frail and need assistance with challenges of everyday life. In this article, I drew on Latimer's formulation of care for frail older people as relational and world-making and on Foucault's work related to the care of the self in developing an understanding of how frail older persons manage to live well at home in the final years of their lives. I use data from an ethnographic study of home care nursing in the homes of 15 frail older people to develop an understanding of how their care at home can be developed. The participants were holding on to life, which reflected their vitality and vulnerability as well as agency in continuing to explore ways to preserve and build their world at home. With declining ability and stamina relations with material things, relatives and official care workers become of central importance in holding on to life. Home care services can be thought of as part of life, as world-forming, where workers contribute to daily activities that support living well at home. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems

    Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems.......In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell...

  19. Technology demonstration assessment report for X-701B Holding Pond

    1992-07-01

    This Technology Demonstration Assessment Report (TDAR) was developed to evaluate and recommend the most feasible approach for cleanup of contaminated Minford soils below the X-701B Holding Pond and to summarize closure activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)X-701B Holding Pond(X-701B)site. In this TDAR, the recommended alternative and the activities for closure of the X-701B site are discussed. Four treatment technologies chosen for the TD, along with a contingent design, were evaluated to determine which approach would be appropriate for final closure of X-701B. These technologies address removal of soil contamination from the vadose zone and the saturated zone. The four technologies plus the Contingent Design evaluated were: In situ Soil Mixing with Solidification/Stabilization; In situ Soil Mixing with Isothermal Vapor Extraction; In situ Soil Mixing with Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction; In situ Soil Mixing with Peroxidation Destruction; and Contingent Closure. These technologies were evaluated according to their performance, reliability, implementability, safety, waste minimization, cost, and implementation time. Based on these criteria, a preferred treatment approach was recommended. The goal of the treatment approach is to apply the most appropriate technology demonstrated at X-231 B in order to reduce Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the saturated Minford soils directly beneath the X-701B Holding Pond. The closure schedule will include bid and award of two construction contracts, mobilization and demobilization, soil treatment, cap design, and cap construction. The total time required for soil treatment will be established based on actual performance of the soil treatment approach in the field

  20. Cognitive-motor interference while grasping, lifting and holding objects.

    Erwan Guillery

    Full Text Available In daily life, object manipulation is usually performed concurrently to the execution of cognitive tasks. The aim of the present study was to determine which aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources using a motor-cognitive dual-task paradigm. Eighteen healthy participants took part in the experiment, which comprised two conditions. In the first condition, participants performed a motor task without any concomitant cognitive task. They were instructed to grip, lift and hold an apparatus incorporating strain gauges allowing a continuous measurement of the force perpendicular to each contact surface (grip force, GF as well as the total tangential force applied on the object (load force, LF. In the second condition, participants performed the same motor task while concurrently performing a cognitive task consisting in a complex visual search combined with counting. In the dual-task condition, we found a significant increase in the duration of the preload phase (time between initial contact of the fingers with the apparatus and onset of the load force, as well as a significant increase of the grip force during the holding phase, indicating that the cognitive task interfered with the initial force scaling performed during the preload phase and the fine-tuning of grip force during the hold phase. These findings indicate that these aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources. In contrast, other aspects of the precision grip, such as the temporal coupling between grip and load forces, were not affected by the cognitive task, suggesting that they reflect more automatic processes. Taken together, our results suggest that assessing the dynamic and temporal parameters of precision grip in the context of a concurrent cognitive task may constitute a more ecological and better-suited tool to characterize motor dysfunction in patients.