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Sample records for hokokusho gas haidoreto

  1. FY 1998 result report. Research/development on the energy overall development/utilization technology of gas hydrate resource; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Gas haidoreto shigen no energy sogo kaihatsu riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This study is aimed at studying for survey of gas hydrate (GH) deposit required for GH resource development and gathering of it, and further at studying for industrial utilization technology development of GH which is different in formation condition depending on kind of gas with which it reacts. The results of FY 1998 are as follows. In the study of the situation of existence of gas hydrate in the tundra, the sedimentary environment of the tundra where natural gas hydrate exists was simulated in laboratory to measure thermal conductivity of the sediments including GH. In this fiscal year, design/fabrication/calibration were conducted of the GH synthesizer and thermal analyzer. In the study of GH gathering technology in the tundra, a technology is discussed for recovering gas from GH layer and at the same time substituting CO2 hydrate for GH by blowing CO2 into the geologic layer. In FY 1998, formation/dissociation behaviors were first studied of methane/CO2 mixture hydrate. For the overall energy development of GH resource and promotion of R and D of the utilization technology, studies were made on physical properties of GH and development of the usage. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the research and development to lead to gas hydrate using technology. Research and development on exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, survey and research on a method to evaluate environmental impact, and survey and research on a utilization system; 1997 nendo gas haidoreto shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansanado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The present study is intended to analyze comprehensively geophysical, geological and geochemical data, and establish a technology to estimate distribution of gas hydrate (GH) in sea areas around Japan. It is also intended to develop a high-accuracy resource amount calculating method utilizing the result of excavation of GH planned in the future. In order to achieve these goals, the following activities are performed: (1) study on a method to estimate production environment of GH deposits, (2) development of a method to estimate GH stability areas by using the crust thermal flow measuring method, and (3) study on estimation of GH distribution and wide-area potential. For the study (1), an inorganic element analyzer was introduced, and calibration of devices was performed in fiscal 1997. A survey was carried out on literatures related to distribution of inorganic elements and process of GH deposit production. In the study (2), design and trial fabrication were executed on a high-accuracy crust thermal flow measuring device, capable of long-term continuous observation. In the study (3), re-processing focusing on BSR was implemented by using the latest computer and analysis software on the data in which BSR has been confirmed in the surveys done in the past on sea areas around Japan. (NEDO)

  3. Report for fiscal 1995 by Coal Gasification Committee; 1995 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is a summary primarily of the distributed material. As of December 14, 1995, the 200t/d pilot plant for power generation by entrained bed coal gasification records a total coal gasification operation time of 4,485 hours with an accumulated amount of power generation of 9,227MWh. A large combustor is tested, and it is found that combustion is stable under a 1/4 load with low NOx emissions. The combustor is sufficiently cooled with a small supply of air. Coal ash and coal, supplied in a constant state for an improved heat recovery efficiency in the development of hydrogen-from-coal technology, are heated to a temperature near their melting points. They are then allowed to impinge at a heat transfer plane simulating a gasifier heat recovery section, and a study is made of the mechanism of ash adhesion, molten or semi-molten, to the heat recovery section. The reduction of the heat transfer coefficient due to added grains is 30-50%, and the reduction is small when the heat transfer pipe surface velocity is high or when the carbon concentration in the grains is high. In another effort, utilization of coal-derived gas as town gas is studied. As for yields as indicated by the Curie gas pyrolyzer, the gas yield increases and liquid yield decreases when the reaction temperature is high. Using a small test unit, it is found that a rise in the hydrogen partial pressure increases the production of both gas and liquid. (NEDO)

  4. Report for fiscal 1993 by coal gasification committee; 1993 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This report is a compilation mainly of distributed material. In the development of entrained bed coal gasification power generation, gasification is tested in a 2t/d-capable facility and gasification efficiency and operation characteristics are grasped, these constituting the studies of elements to assist pilot plant operation etc. The fluid temperature point of slag is found to decrease by 200 degrees C at the maximum upon addition of flux (CaO), and this improves on slag fluidity. For the development of a demonstration gas turbine, an experimentally built combustor is tested using a real gas. A combined cycle power system is studied by simulation. In the study of pilot plant operation, measures relative to slagging are implemented, inspection and maintenance are conducted for each facility, and the combustor for a demonstration plant is subjected to oil and coal combustion tests. In the study of a pilot plant for developing technologies for hydrogen production using coal, the plant stably runs more than 1,000 hours under 100% load at in a RUN-8-3 operation. Some deposit collects in the neighborhood of the contracted area of the blow nozzle and on some part in the slip stream, but it does not affect operation. No abnormalities are detected in the cyclone or heat recovery boiler. The pilot plant is let to continue its operation, and excellent results are achieved, which are beyond the targets of carbon conversion efficiency of 98% or higher and gas cooling efficiency of 78% or higher. (NEDO)

  5. Report for fiscal 1994 by Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Summarized in this report is the material already distributed concerning the program for modifying the Nakoso 200t/d pilot plant entrained bed coal gasification furnace. The program aims to verify the overall suitability for power generation use of the air-blow pressurized 2-chamber 2-stage flow entrained bed gasification furnace. Although each specific feature of gasification furnace performance is found to be satisfactory, yet a 100% operation and extended continuous operation remain to be accomplished. Slagging is a phenomenon of ash grains in high-temperature gas adhering to and growing on the furnace walls to block up the furnace to eventually disable the furnace from continuous operation. In view of past achievements and test results, it is found that slagging is closely related to the behavior of floating or molten ash and to the transition temperature range. Various slagging measures have been taken for the current gasification furnace, but they prove to be ineffective. Some drastic measures need to be implemented for improvement. Under study using model furnaces and test furnaces are the reduction of slag generation at its source (re-entrained slag), prevention of adhesion (untrapped slag), removal of slag, optimization of gyration in the furnace, modification of slag properties for enhanced discharge, optimization of the transition gas temperature range, and the modification of furnace dimensions. (NEDO)

  6. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Project of diffusing gas driven cooling systems in Oman; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru gas reibo fukyu jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the clean development mechanism (CDM) borne in mind, a study is made about the diffusion of gas driven cooling systems in Oman. The project under study aims to replace the motor driven turbo cooling systems, now in use at the Royal Hospital and other buildings in various areas, with gas driven cooling systems. It is then found that, when the Royal Hotel is equipped with such systems, energy will be saved by 1,855 tons/year in terms of oil, and greenhouse gas reduced by 5,129 tons/year in terms of CO2. When the Royal Hospital and other large buildings with heavy cooling loads, situated at or near the center of Muscat City and in the vicinity of the existing natural gas pipelines, are taken into account, energy will be saved by 13,049 tons/year in terms of oil and greenhouse gas will be reduced by 31,636 tons/year in terms of CO2, thanks to the presence of universities, hotels, and a sector occupied by government offices. As for the time necessary for investment recovery, it will be 4.7-5.3 years in case the investment does not cover a gas decompression station construction cost and 6.2-6.8 years in case it covers such. The new system will cost 7% less than the existing system. When a comparison is made in terms of electricity charges, the new system will be 30% lower than the existing system. The Omani Government is critical of a plan for allowing Japan to establish there an energy supply company (financed by Japan). (NEDO)

  7. FY 1993 Research and development of advanced ceramic gas turbines. Researches on social adaptability; 1993 nendo senshingata ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shakai tekigosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The ceramic gas turbines (CGT's) for, e.g., cogeneration and portable power generation systems are studied and evaluated for their environmental preservation, energy saving and economic characteristics. Types of utilization and market sizes are also studied for, e.g., portable power generation systems. The items studied include current status of cogeneration systems in USA, and recognition of cogeneration systems in Japan. The study results lead to the conclusions that the biaxial CGT for portable power generation systems is a promising substitute for diesel engines as the power source in the future, and 300kW class CGT's will have the markets of 170,000 units and potentially 450,000 units, because of their expected wide applicability. The studies on their economic, energy-saving and environmental load reduction effects indicate that one unit brings the economic effects totaling 616,000 yen, due to reduced fuel consumption and NOx abatement. They could reduce NOx emissions by 8,090 t/y for automobiles and 6,570 t/y for the others, when they fill the potential markets. (NEDO)

  8. Report for fiscal 1994 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    As the result of a RUN-9 operation in the research on technologies for hydrogen production from coal and for pilot plants, it is found that the Muswellbrook, Datong, and Blair Athol coals are all suitable for gasification in pilot plants. Their handlability is considerably improved when the grain sizes after crushing are allowed to remain coarse (with the Blair Athol coal still retaining some disadvantage). A concept design is prepared for a HYCOL (hydrogen from coal) process demonstration plant. The reference coal is an imported coal similar to the Taiheiyo coal, and the hydrogen production target is set at 1-million m{sup 3}N/d (590t/d in terms of Taiheiyo coal) and hydrogen purity at 95% or higher. The whole process consists of coal gasification (with oxygen serving as gasification agent), dedusting, conversion to CO, desulfurization and decarboxylation (recovery of sulfur), and methanation. The gasification furnace is a 1-chamber entrained bed type with a 2-stage gyration flow. Dried and pulverized coal is conveyed aboard an air flow into the gasification furnace, where it is thrown into partial combustion reaction with the gasification agent for gasification in a high-temperature zone (1,500-1,600 degrees C), and the ash is taken out as slag. The generated gas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler, dedusted in a cyclone dust filter, and then forwarded to the washing unit. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Feasibility study of reciprocative transportation system for carbon dioxide and natural gas utilizing gas hydrate; 2000 nendo gas hidrate wo riyosuru nisanka tanso to tennen gas no kogo yuso system no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A reciprocative CO2/CH{sub 4} transportation system will constitute a foundation on which minor gas fields may be made good use of in the Asia-Pacific region. For the construction of such a system, a survey is conducted into key technologies of separating CO2 from combustion exhaust with the aid of the hydrate process, reciprocative CO2/CH{sub 4} transportation with hydrate acting as medium, and subsurface CO2 storage and its utilization in minor gas fields or the like. The contents of the survey and the results fall in six areas, which are (1) the states of greenhouse gas reduction and natural gas utilization, (2) reciprocative CO2/CH{sub 4} transportation with hydrate acing as medium, (3) CO2 separation from combustion exhaust with the aid of the hydrate process, (4) reciprocative CO2/CH{sub 4} transportation with hydrate acing as medium, (5) subsurface CO2 storage and its utilization in minor gas fields, and (6) the establishment of a reciprocative CO2/CH{sub 4} transportation system and the evaluation of its cost performance. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Regenerative single-shaft ceramic gas turbine for cogeneration); 1998 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Cogeneration yo saiseishiki ichijiku ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop a 300kW-class ceramic gas turbine with a turbine inlet temperature of 1350 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher. The soundness in strength of the ceramic rotor blades and their fastening structure is confirmed. Rotor blade cushion thickness is found to decrease in start-and-stop repetitions in the initial period, but not thereafter. The exhaust diffuser and exhaust path shape are studied and improved for an increase in output, which improves turbine efficiency by 1.7%. Under the operating conditions of 1350 degrees C and full load, NOx emissions and combustion efficiency prove to be 5.6ppm and 99.9%. Even in the case using a large-diameter liner with its combustion efficiency under light load improved, the ultimate target value is achieved. Studies are further conducted on centrifugal stage loss reduction towards the ultimate goal set for the compressor. The diffuser shape is improved and the shroud clearance is reduced, and insulation efficiency of 81.1% is attained at the designing stage. In a test run of a pilot ceramic gas turbine in which temperature finally arrives at 1350 degrees C, engine thermal efficiency of 35% and shaft output of 282kW are achieved. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1994 report on the development of wood-waste/agri-waste pyrolytic gasification technology and utilization technology of gas product; 1994 nendo mokushitsukei haikibutsu no netsubunkai gas ka gijutsu to seisei gas no riyo gijutsu kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This 5-year joint project (FY 1990 to 1994) by Japan and the Philippines is aimed at joint research and development of (thermal decomposition/gasification and power generation system) for transforming large quantities of wood-wastes/agri-wastes left unutilized in the Philippines into electric power, in which thermal decomposition/gasification of the wastes is combined with a gas engine system. The field tests of the demonstration plant successfully produce power of 100 kW by burning only the low-calorie gas with a heating value near critical level for self-sustained combustion, obtained by gasification of sawdust by the fluidized gasifier and refined, attaining the object of the project. It is confirmed that a 200 to 300 kW class commercial plant can be designed and constructed basically by scaling up the 100 kW demonstration plant. The other data obtained by the field tests include those for improved operability and maintainability, gas purification, and reducing sizes of the facilities, including utility facilities. (NEDO)

  12. Technological development report for fiscal 1993 on the woodwaste thermolysis/gasification technology and generated gas utilization technology; 1993 nendo mokushitsukei haikibutsu no netsubunkai gas ka gijutsu to seisei gas no riyo gijutsu kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The project is a joint effort of Japan and the Philippines to develop a thermolysis/gasification system, in which woodwaste now remaining unexploited in the Philippines is subjected to thermolysis/gasification and the resulting gas is used in a gas engine for the generation of electric power, in a 5-year period beginning in fiscal 1990. In this fiscal year, element technology verification tests are conducted, components of a demonstration plant are manufactured, and procurement is made as required, which completes all the tasks allotted to this fiscal year. All the constituents of the said demonstration plant fabricated or procured since fiscal 1991 are packed up and forwarded to Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI) of the Philippines, and engineering guidance is extended and test operations are carried out at the site of plant installation. In line with the said endeavors, on-site investigations are performed and researches are conducted together with ITDI scientists concerning the construction work and element technology confirmation. On the other hand, the Philippine side performs the second phase of civil engineering and construction carried over from the first phase. The demonstration plant is completed, adjustment and test operations are carried out, which means that the project is in progress as initially scheduled. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1992 report on the development of wood-waste/agri-waste pyrolytic gasification technology and utilization technology of gas product; 1992 nendo mokushitsukei haikibutsu no netsubunkai gas ka gijutsu to seisei gas no riyo gijutsu kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    It is urgently necessary for the Philippines, which has no promising energy source to replace imported oil and lacks hard currencies, to reduce dependence on oil. The country, consisting of a number of islands, has faced many difficulties in construction of large-scale power transmission grids covering wide areas, which greatly retard development of local industries and dissemination of electricity. Therefore, great expectations have been placed on the techniques this project plans to develop for utilization of wastes as the energy source. This 5-year project (FY 1990 to 1994) is aimed at joint research and development of (thermal decomposition/gasification and power generation system) for transforming large quantities of wood-wastes/agri-wastes left unutilized into electric power, in which thermal decomposition/gasification of the wastes is combined with gas engine/power generator systems, and thereby to establish the systems suitable for the developing country. The major R and D results obtained in FY 1992 as the third year include on-the-spot surveys, tests for validating elementary techniques, designs and fabrication of part of the demonstration plant, and invitation of Philippine researchers to Japan. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1990 report on the development of wood-waste/agri-waste pyrolytic gasification technology and utilization technology of gas product; 1990 nendo mokushitsukei haikibutsu no netsubunkai gas ka gijutsu to seisei gas no riyo gijutsu kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    It is urgently necessary for the Philippines, which has no promising energy source to replace imported oil and lacks hard currencies, to reduce dependence on oil. The country, consisting of a number of islands, has faced many difficulties in construction of large-scale power transmission grids covering wide areas, which greatly retard development of local industries and dissemination of electricity. Therefore, great expectations have been placed on the techniques this project plans to develop for utilization of wastes as the energy source. This 5-year project (FY 1990 to 1994) is aimed at joint research and development of (thermal decomposition/gasification and power generation system) for transforming large quantities of wood-wastes/agri-wastes left unutilized into electric power, in which thermal decomposition/gasification of the wastes is combined with gas engine/power generator systems, and thereby to establish the systems suitable for the developing country. The major R and D results obtained in FY 1990 as the initial year include negotiations with the Philippines, on-the-spot surveys for the demonstration plant sites and conditions, and conceptual designs of the demonstration plant. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1991 report on the development of wood-waste/agri-waste pyrolytic gasification technology and utilization technology of gas product; 1991 nendo mokushitsukei haikibutsu no netsubunkai gas ka gijutsu to seisei gas no riyo gijutsu kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    It is urgently necessary for the Philippines, which has no promising energy source to replace imported oil and lacks hard currencies, to reduce dependence on oil. The country, consisting of a number of islands, has faced many difficulties in construction of large-scale power transmission grids covering wide areas, which greatly retard development of local industries and dissemination of electricity. Therefore, great expectations have been placed on the techniques this project plans to develop for utilization of wastes as the energy source. This 5-year project (FY 1990 to 1994) is aimed at joint research and development of (thermal decomposition/gasification and power generation system) for transforming large quantities of wood-wastes/agri-wastes left unutilized into electric power, in which thermal decomposition/gasification of the wastes is combined with gas engine/power generator systems, and thereby to establish the systems suitable for the developing country. The major R and D results obtained in FY 1991 as the second year include on-the-spot surveys, tests for validating elementary techniques, designs and fabrication of part of the demonstration plant, and invitation of Philippine researchers to Japan. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Basic research on coal type and gasification characteristics; 1984 nendo tanshu to gas ka tokusei no kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    The study of pressurized fluidized gasification of coal chars started in fiscal 1975, and a 0.2t/d unit was in operation until fiscal 1979. Since fiscal 1980, a 1t/d unit has been in operation. In fiscal 1984, an entrained bed gasification furnace was constructed, capable of high-temperature gasification of various coals, and it is now undergoing a test operation. This report consists of pressurized gasification tests for coal char, the result of a study on the effect of coal type on the char gasification reaction rate, and the result of experiments on the treatment of coal liquefaction residue, all accomplished in the 1t/d gasification unit. For the investigation of the effect of coal type, chars of 13 types of coals are subjected to reaction tests in the carbon dioxide gas, and weight reduction rates and changes in residue surface areas are determined while reaction is under way. The results are analyzed and parameters are made clear that enable a quantitative assessment of the effect of coal type on gasification reaction rates. Pulverized grains and coal liquefaction residue are blended and gasified in the fluidized bed in the presence of oxygen and steam. As the result, a gas capable of 2,000kcal/Nm{sup 3} containing 30% hydrogen and 25% carbon monoxide is acquired, when catalyst grains in the residue are segregated. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1999 basic study for promotion of joint implementation. Effective utilization of associated gas at Kokdumalak Field of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 1999 nendo Uzbekistan koku Kokdumalak zuihan gas yuko riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A feasibility study is conducted for an Uzbekistani plan for effectively utilizing associated gas at its Kokdumalak Gas Field. The effort will lead to a clean development mechanism in the future. The associated gas and off-gas now being totally burnt in a flare stack will serve as raw materials for the recovery of LPG (liquid petroleum gas), NGL (natural gas liquid), etc. The amount of total investment is US$82,003,000, with US$69,739,000 borrowed and US$12,264,000 self-financed. Thanks to the products to be recovered, there will be an energy substitution rate of 168,418 tons per year in terms of oil. There will be a huge reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 4.52-million tons per year in terms of CO2, tantamount to the discharge of a 1000MW-class power plant. Although the project will be low in profitability, with the FIRR (financial internal rate of return) on investment before tax being as low as 10.56%, yet it is desired that, in view of the expected reduction in greenhouse gas, effective utilization of associated gas, and in view of its impact on the future development of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its society, the project will be implemented as soon as possible. It is expected that the country will enjoy various tax revenues to be created, foreign exchange by importing LPG, and earnings through emission right trading involving greenhouse gas. (NEDO)

  18. Report on results of research. Basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure; Sekitan char no kaatsuka ni okeru gas ka tokuseino kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper explains basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure. Hydro-gasification of coal needs as a gasifying agent a large amount of hydrogen, which is effectively produced by the water gasification of exhaust unreacted residual char. In fiscal 1975, gasification was tested on Taiheiyo coal carbonized char by an atmospheric fluidized gasifier of 28 mm bore. In fiscal 1976, experiment was conducted under pressure by fully improving the auxiliary safety equipment. The char and gas yield increased with higher pressure in pressurized carbonization by an autoclave. In fiscal 1977, clinker was successfully prevented by using quartz sand for a fluidized medium. In fiscal 1978, two-stage continuous gasification was examined. In fiscal 1979, correlation was determined between operation factors such as gasification pressure, temperature, etc., and clinker formation/char reactivity. An experiment was conducted for particle pop-out using a pressurized fluidized bed of 100 mm inner diameter, with the pop-out quantity found to be proportional to the 0.38th power of a pressure. A high pressure fluidized gasifier was built having a char processing capacity of 1 t/day, 20 atmospheric pressure, and an inner diameter of 100 mm. In fiscal 1980, this device was continuously operated, elucidating problems for the practicability. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Research on collection and utilization of coal mine methane gas in Russia (Kuznetsk coal field); Russia (Kuznetsk tanden) ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The above-mentioned effort is to comply with the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) joint implementation clause. At this coal field, mining facilities are growing superannuated and obsolescent in the prolonged business depression, causing frequent occurrence of disasters such as gas explosions. The coal mine gas collection rate at the Kuznetsk coal field is as low as 17%, with concern for safety discouraging sufficient collection. Even the small amount of the collected gas is, in the absence of gas utilizing facilities, totally discharged into the air. For the mitigation of global warming, for mining safety, and for the establishment of a foundation for business, it is desired that coal mine methane gas collection/utilization facilities and related technologies be introduced into the coal field. Gas purging from the pits is incomplete, which is attributed to the lack of equipment capable of excavating proper-diameter bores longer than 100m for longwall mining. Ventilation also needs improvement. The research is under way on the premise that highly reliable intermediate range (300m) boring equipment and gas management technologies will be available. Collection of gas of a 30-35% concentration level at a collection rate of 40% is the target. (NEDO)

  20. Project to support formation of an energy and environment technology demonstration project in fiscal 1999. International joint demonstration and research project (Sichuan Province natural gas DME project); 1999 nendo Shisensho tennen gas DME project seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    DME can be manufactured from such raw materials as natural gas, coal bed gas and coal. NKK who is developing a technology to synthesize efficiently the DME being a new energy has been commissioned from NEDO to investigate and study a project to manufacture DME using natural gas produced in Sinchuan Province, and utilize it as fuel for power generation, transportation and LPG substitution. In the present research, the DME manufacturing plant size was assumed to be 500 tons a day (165 x 10{sup 3} tons annually). This output nearly corresponds to the current LPG consumption. The required amount of natural gas as the raw material is 0.2 x 10{sup 9} Nm{sup 3}/year, wherein, since the total production quantity of natural gas in Sinchuan Province is 10 x 10{sup 9} Nm{sup 3}/year, there is no problem in the supply of natural gas as the raw material. The construction cost was estimated to be 11 billion yen taking into consideration the device fabrication cost and construction labor cost in China. Furthermore, as a result of discussing the economy considering the natural gas material cost, industrial water cost, and labor cost for plant operation, the internal profit rate for the total capital after tax was found a little over 10%, proving the project to have excellent economic performance. (NEDO)

  1. International research cooperation project. Assessment report on the R and D of the comprehensive development/utilization technology of energy of gas hydrate resource; Gas hydrate shigen no energy sogo kaihatsu riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to 'the R and D of the comprehensive development/utilization technology of gas hydrate resource,' assessment was conducted and reported from an aspect of the third party. This R and D is a timely project being aimed at establishing the basic technology on gas hydrate from both aspects of fundamental research and practical research. In the development of gas hydrate resource in the tundra zone, the development of measuring methods for thermal conductivity and dielectric constants advanced the establishment of a guide for exploration and possibilities of assessment of the resource amount. In the development/production, it can be said that the knowledge/information collected by exchanging methane in gas hydrate with CO2 means no needs for new supply of heat and also contributes to the isolation of CO2. As to the utilization technology, the results were rated very high also internationally of tackling the quantitative evaluation method at molecular levels of the gas included in hydrate using Raman spectroscopy to establish the industrial gas separation method using the low-temperature environment in the tundra zone. (NEDO)

  2. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Effective utilization of associated gas as CNG; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado kiso chosa hokokusho. Zuihan gas no CNG to shite no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Back Ho oilfield is the largest oilfield in Vietnam and at the same time is producing the largest amount of natural gas (associated gas) in Vietnam. Although the majority of the associated gas has been used in the power generation plant, a large amount of surplus gas is not effectively used because of shortage of fund and technologies. Accordingly, a feasibility study has been executed for a project to compress 20% of the associated gas into CNG, and use it effectively as automobile and factory fuel. As a result of the site survey, it was found that, although Vietnam consumes less amount of energy and emits less amount of CO2, the nation has a strong interest and a large amount of knowledge about global warming and CDM because the country is subjected to large effect of warming. Furthermore, it has been reconfirmed that introducing CNG into this territory is highly effective. Discussions have been made on places of installing the facilities, effective surplus gas utilization systems, facility specifications, utilities, and number of workers. Calculations were made on approximate cost of the facilities and the running cost. As a result of the surveys and discussions, it was determined that technological support from Japan and the Yen loan for environment with low interest rate are necessary. (NEDO)

  3. Report on evaluation of research and development of direct steel-making using high-temperature reducing gas. Phase 1. Draft; Koon kangen gas riyo ni yoru chokusetsu seitetsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiikki) ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho (an)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-01-01

    Described herein is development of direct steel-making using high-temperature reducing gas. A light hydrocarbon fraction (boiling point: 230 degrees C or lower), produced by steam cracking of vacuum residua, is reformed into a reducing gas in the presence of steam, using heat to be supplied by a nuclear plant which produces high-temperature gases for various purposes. This reducing gas is then supplied to a plant for producing reduced iron. This project has established basic techniques for designing, constructing and operating a direct steel-making pilot plant, to be connected to a 50 MWt high-temperature gas test furnace. The closed iron-making system and greatly reduced SOx emissions to several fractions of the current level are some of the expected effects. The environmental impacts of the high-temperature gas furnace will be on a level with those associated with a light-water reactor. Cracking and gasification of vacuum residua, which has found limited purposes so far, should expand its applicable areas and reduce dependence on fossil resources, leading to diversification of energy sources. The overall thermal efficiency of the high-temperature gas furnace is expected to increase to at least 60%, because its high-temperature gases of around 1,000 degrees C can be used for heating processes, and the waste heat can be further used for generation of steam for power production. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on research under Sunshine Program. Basic research on high-calorie gas production technology; 1981 nendo sunshinte keikaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Test and research are conducted for acquiring basic data regarding coal gasification. In the basic research for the development of a high-calorie gas production process, a small moving bed gas furnace is improved, and a high-calorie gas of a heating value of approximately 5,100kcal/m{sup 3} is stably produced at a rate of approximately 20m{sup 3} per diem. The carbon conversion rate turns out to be approximately 37% for the gas, approximately 53% for the residual char, and approximately 10% for a mixture of tar, naphthalene, benzene, phenol, etc. Hydrogen is produced making use of the residual char when a small amount of coal is added, and it is deemed that the first experiment for the development of a moving bed hydrogasification process has been successfully completed. In the study of the mechanism of hydrogasification reaction, the result of a preliminary experiment in a fixed bed pressurized gasification furnace is compared with the data from a continuous gasification experiment, and the relationship is determined between the coal feed rate and the reaction rate. Conducted besides are a basic study of problems relating to operation, basic research on a reaction mechanism (carbonization by rapid heating), estimation of the equilibrium composition of gas generated by coal gasification, etc. (NEDO)

  6. Survey report for fiscal 1998 on the conversion of the existing coal burning power plant to natural gas burning plant in Sakhalin State; 1998 nendo Saharinshu muke, kisetsu sekitandaki hatsuden no tennen gas daki tenkan chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present survey is intended to discuss a modernization plan effective in reducing greenhouse effect gases for the two existing coal burning power plants in Sakhalin Island, Sakhalin State, the Federal Republic of Russia. The power plants are Sakhalinskaya Power Plant (GRES) and Yuzhno Sakalinskaya Power Plant (TETs-1). Simultaneously with converting the fuel from coal to natural gas, discussions are given on an optimal plan including introduction of the combined cycle and repowering technologies aiming at improving the thermal efficiency. Reduction in greenhouse effect gases, finance, and economy are evaluated. At the same time, verification will be given on environment improvement in Sakhalin Island, and influence on sustainable economic and social activation. The GRES modernization plan intends to build four combined cycle units each of 80 MW class to have nearly the same total capacity as the current total power generation facility capacity (315 MW). The TETs-1 modernization plan will convert the fuel for the existing boilers from coal to natural gas, modify one of the boilers whose construction is being suspended into gas burning boiler, and add gas turbines. (NEDO)

  7. Report on the joint research on the technology development of energy use reduction gas diffusion electrode salt electrolysis; Kyodo kenkyu energy shiyo gorika gas kakusan denkyoku shokuen denkai gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation in the 'soda industry' which is an energy multi-consumption industry, study was made of the commercialization applying 'gas diffusion electrode' which is used for fuel cells, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the development of production technology of gas diffusion electrode, conditional studies were conducted of the material production process, grinding process, mixing machine, filling, coating process, hot press process, etc. Concerning the evaluation of durability of the gas diffusion electrode, analysis of long-term operation electrode was conducted, and a lot of information on the degradation mechanism was obtained. In the degraded electrode, wetting of gas diffusion layer is going on, which is thought to directly cause the degradation. It is supposed that between the stable electrode and the degraded electrode, there are no changes in diameter of carbon powder and there is no carbon consumption. As to the verification test using the practical scale electrolytic cell, a trial operation started in February 2001. About the electrolytic performance, the electrolytic voltage is appropriately 2.2V, keeping the stable numerical value. The comparatively favorable performance is being maintained. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1999 research report. Survey on development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1999 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihtsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Russia having world-largest natural gas resources is promoting the forefront basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas, in particular, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic process positively. For 3 years from fiscal 1998, this project surveys the trend of R and D on catalytic technology for liquefaction of natural gas in Russia, and fabricates the prototype FT catalyst effective for liquefaction of natural gas at a Russian research institute to evaluate its practical applicability experimentally. In fiscal 1999, based on the research result in fiscal 1998, the project carried out continuous survey on the research activity of research institutes in Russia, the research trend of liquefaction technology and the concrete results of contract researches on catalyst, and summarized the evaluation result of research results. In addition, continuous world-wide document survey on FT synthetic process was made to confirm R and D trends based on the trend of liquefaction research projects in the world, and to collect basic information on catalytic reactors for FT synthetic process by document survey. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Survey of gas-fired cogeneration in Samarkand City; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshii nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Samarkand shi gas daki cogeneration chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In the existing heat supply plant in Samarkand City in Uzbekistan, feasibility study was conducted of the project aimed at energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission by introducing the repair/cogeneration system of the regional pipes superannuated. In the project, the following were planned: introduction of two units of 6MW class gas turbine cogeneration, introduction of boiler which can realize 90% of the thermal efficiency, replacement of the existing regional pipes with pre-insulated pipes with less water leak/heat loss, etc. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 21,006 toe, and the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 64,998 t-CO2/y. As to the effects vs. expenses, the energy conservation was 2.80 toe/million yen, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction was 8.66 t-CO2-y/million yen. The initial investment amount was 7.51 billion yen, the business profit was 468 million yen/y, and the internal earning rate was 1.133%. It was judged that great profitability was not expected for the project, but the profit was returnable on investment. (NEDO)

  10. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for gas turbine power plant in Iran; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Iran gas turbine hatsuden plant no koritsu kaizen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on measures to improve energy conservation and efficiency at a power plant of Kish Water and Power Company (KWPC) in Iran. The site has high ambient temperature throughout a year, making the gas turbine power plant capable of generating power only at about 70% of the rated output, with the power generation efficiency decreasing. The project has analyzed the current situation at the plant, and evaluated different means that appear effective in improving the efficiency, including the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, the steam injection system, and the combined cycle. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that energy saving effect can be obtained at 145 TJ with the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, 224 TJ with the steam injection system, and 1017 TJ with the combined cycle. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emission due to the above energy conservation would be about 11 thousand tons, 16.5 thousand tons, and 75 thousand tons, respectively. However, the investment payback period would be about 2.45 years, 8.31 years, and 14.21 years, respectively. Therefore, the profitability does not appear very attractive because of low fuel unit cost. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Basic survey of promotion of joint implementation, etc. Rehabilitation of KESC gas turbine power plant; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. KESC/gas turbine hatsudensho rihabiri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    KESC (Karachi Electric Power Supply Corporation) facilities supplying electricity to Karachi, Pakistan, were examined for rehabilitation aiming at energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction. The rehabilitation program covered power generation facilities, fuel supply facilities, instrument control systems, and their layout. Discussed were a schedule for the production, transportation, and installation of facilities, sharing of burdens between KESC and Japan, and the economic and environmental merits expected to ensue from energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction. The results are mentioned below. Project implementation will take approximately 18 months, and Japan will be responsible only for dispatching specialists to elaborate on CDM (clean development mechanism) and engineers. In Case 1, the amount of initial investment is estimated at 84-million US dollars, the economical efficiency of energy conservation at 107t/year/million yen, and the economical efficiency of greenhouse gas reduction at 330t-CO2/year/million yen. It is found in the study of profitability that the loan will be collected in 10 years after project implementation and the initial investment in 22 years. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 report on the results of development of the technologies for recovering and utilizing carbon dioxide using coal and natural gas; 2000 nendo sekitan tennen gas katsuyogata nisanka tanso kaishu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development project for converting the gas, produced by reacting carbon dioxide and water with coal and natural gas using solar ray and heat, into methanol. A solar furnace operating with solar energy, composed of a simulated solar ray collector (5kW), CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), molten salt furnace and coal gasifier, is designed, fabricated and installed. The motion in the molten salt furnace is simulated to analyze the heat flux. The wet and dry type coal gasification processes are simulated with Taiheiyo-coal as the basis. For the natural gas reforming solar furnace, various types of technical information on methane reforming and oxidation catalysts are pigeonholed. The catalytic reaction testing system is fabricated. The information of carbon dioxide separation technologies, e.g., membrane-aided separation, absorption, and membrane/absorption hybrid, is collected. The treatment test with the polyimide-based separation membrane is conducted. The information is pigeonholed and evaluated for development of the elementary techniques and optimization of the total system. The preliminary study on economic viability indicates that methanol production cost is 30 yen/kg-methanol or less, on the basis of releasing no carbon dioxide in the production step. (NEDO)

  13. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Research on manufacturing next-generation gas generating agent for air bag); 1998 nendo jisedai air bag yo gas hasseizai no seizo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Sodium azide has been used for many years as a gas generating agent for automobiles. However, sodium azide has strong toxicity, and is doubted of carcinogenicity. Bistetrazole having no such a drawback is now noticed as the next-generation gas generating agent, and substitution to gas agents having less toxicity is being advanced worldwide. The present research is intended to develop a method to manufacture bistetrazole (BHT) which does not by-produce wastes in a large amount, is friendly to environment, and economical. Research and development works were performed on manufacturing dicyanide as the raw material by using the electrolytic process and by using the catalytic process, while both processes were found successful. In the reaction to synthesize BHT from the manufactured dicyanide and sodium azide, high crystalline purity and yield as high as 94.5% have been achieved. As a result of having discussed improvement on the one-pot process that synthesizes BHT directly, not going through handling of the produced dicyanide, solution was made on a method to remove impurities, and conditions to produce BHT at high yield were discovered. This new catalytic process provides a total yield of 80%, successfully reducing the manufacturing cost. (NEDO)

  14. Promotion of the formation of environmentally friendly energy community (FY 2000). Demonstration of the gas turbine repowering waste combined power generation technology; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin seika hokokusho. Gas turbine repowering haikibutsu fukugo hatsuden gijutsu jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Demonstrative operation was conducted of the super waste power generation system in which the low temperature steam generated in waste incinerator is raised in temperature using the combustion exhaust gas emitted after the power generation using another gas turbine for conducting the steam turbine power generation with high efficiency. The FY 2000 results were summed up. In the demonstrative operation, operation and data acquisition/analysis were conducted following the previous fiscal year by 25MW class gas turbine repowering waste combined power generation facilities (Takahama power plant). Further, four years after the start of operation, the secular variation was studied by disassembly/inspection of equipment. As a result of the operation, the thermal efficiency was approximately 35%, much higher than the existing waste power generation. It was verified that the power system was maintained by the same maintenance as that of the ordinary power system. Moreover, the important point of this system is that no special corrosion resistant materials are used and that the high-efficiency waste power generation was demonstrated by combining the existing equipment. It can be said that the super waste power system has high qualities for forming energy community as a regionally dispersed stabilized power source. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 Fundamental study for promotion of jointed implementations. Feasibility study on reducing greenhouse gas emissions by modernizing Thanlyin Refinery in Myanmar; 2000 nendo Myanmar koku Thanlyin seiyusho kindaika ni yoru onshitsu koka gas haishutsu sakugen kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in Myanmar for the energy saving effect and reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions by introducing modern refining facilities in Thanlyin Refinery of Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise. The project items selected as a result of the study are improvement in the heat recovery efficiency of crude distillation unit, improvement in the furnace efficiency of crude distillation unit and coker plant, improvement in the efficiency of power plant, reduction of steam loss, modernization of the cooling water system, recovery and reuse of off-gas and LPG in crude distillation unit, and modernization of intermediate products run-down system. The conceptual designs and studies on these items indicate that implementation of these projects could lead to energy saving of 25,844 tons/y as crude and CO2 emission abatement of 57,457 tons/y, 46% and 33% reduction from the baseline. The total expenses for all of these items are estimated at 4,300 million yen. These are judged to be promising projects, with estimated investment recovery period of 9 years and internal profit rate of 12.9%, when the special yen loans are available. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey report on technology to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emitted from automobiles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (jidosha kara no onshitsu koka gas haishutsuryo teigen gijutsu no chosa). 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As to intelligent transport systems (ITS), the paper views the outline of the R and D and diffusion in Europe, the U.S. and Japan and trially estimated the effect of reduction in greenhouse gas, and worked out visions/scenario for diffusion of ITS. As developmental fields contributing to reduction in greenhouse gas, the following were taken up: 1) AVCS (advanced vehicle control system), 2) automatic rates receiving system, 3) traffic management, 4) plans of operation management/allocation of commercial cars, 5) modal shift of the material flow, and 6) public traffic in passenger transportation. As effects by developmental field, 1) and 5) are especially effective. 4) is promising because of its easiness in introduction, and 2) is also a promising technology as a tool to introduce an electronic road pricing system on general roads in future in addition to the effect of reducing heavy traffic by its introduction to expressways. However, the higher the service level on the facility side becomes, the more the traffic demand amount becomes. By how to introduce ITS, it possibly occurs that improvement of the situation will not be made at all on the future vehicle traffic system. 38 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  17. FY 1998 annual report on the research and development of advanced ceramic gas turbines. Study on social adaptability; 1998 nendo senshingata ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shakai tekigosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The New Sunshine Project, promoted by Ministry of International Trade and Industry, has developed a 300 kW ceramic gas turbine CGT302 (biaxial, regenerative type) in March 1999, which attains a turbine inlet temperature of 1,334 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42.1%. The conditions of optimum utilization of the system are studied for eventual commercialization and spread of these systems, including analysis of load types for specific purposes, prediction of operation management, economics of CGT, environmental impacts, and possibility of diversification of the fuel. The CGT cost analysis results indicate that a CGT system is well viable when the incremental initial cost of the power generator is kept below 70,000 yen/kW over the conventional system. The system can be doubled in scale at the largest. It can be further scaled up, when hybrid members with metallic materials are used. CGT is a basic technique for (system energy). In other words, the 21st. century will be the age of (system energy), i.e., (gas turbine). (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1992. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Study on its adaptability with society); 1992 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shakai tekigosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    With an objective to attain a guideline for putting ceramic gas turbine (CGT) into practical application, conceptual discussions on the CGT based industrial cogeneration system (CGS) and the CGT based CGS simulations were performed to discuss quantitatively the effects of the system introduction, and estimate latent markets based on the result of calculating the introduction effects. In addition, investigations were carried out on Germany as the advanced nation with regard to the systems according to utilization patterns, load profiles, operation cost, exhaust gas measures, and the related laws and regulations. The activities may be summarized specifically as follows: 1) putting the back-data for industrial energy demand into order; 2) calculation of CGT introduction effects in industrial areas; 3) discussions on latent demand and social adaptability of CGT in the industrial area; and 4) investigations in overseas countries. Item 2 is composed of the conceptual design of industrial CGT/CGS, and the simulations on the actual status of energy demand in industrial business operation centers and on the effects of the industrial CGT/CGS. (NEDO)

  19. Investigation of geothermal development and promotion for fiscal 1997. Fluid geochemical investigation (hot-spring gas) report (No. B-5 Musadake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatus sokushin chosa. Ryutai chikagaku chosa (onsen gas) hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This investigation elucidated the possible existence of geothermal reservoir layer in the subject area by studying and analyzing the hot-spring gasses of Musadake. The Musadake area is the one extending over Shibetu-cho and Nakashibetu-cho, Shibetu district, Hokkaido. The sampling of the hot-spring gasses was carried out at three natural gusher sites and one hot spring well site. The gasses in the Kawakita hot spring is most affected by volcanic gasses. The origin of the volcanic gasses is a magmatic gas of andesite nature the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio of which is 8X10{sup -6} or about. As a result of the analysis, the hot-spring water is Na-Cl type, high salt concentrated, and 200 degrees C in temperature; from the result of a gas geochemical thermometer, it is estimated to be not less than 250 degrees C. In the tectonic viewpoint, the depth hot water is derived from the meteorite water that flows in through a bent zone incident to the Musadake-Shitabanupuri mountain fault and from the fossil sea water that exists in the underground depth; the depth hot water is formed by conduction heat from a magma reservoir that formed Musadake and by volcanic ejecta. This depth hot water rises along Kawakita south, Urappu River fault, etc., mixing with the meteorite water and forming the shallow reservoir layer. (NEDO)

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1989. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Study on its adaptability with society); 1989 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shakai tekigosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    Ceramic gas turbine (CGT) is superior in the aspects of high efficiency, low pollution, multi-kind fuel performance, small size, and light weight. Its utilization field is broad, whereas putting it into practical use at an early time is desired from the viewpoints of energy conservation, reduction in CO2 emission, resource conservation, and economic influence. The utilization field of CGT may include cogeneration and portable power generator, but putting it into practical use requires that it be superior in environment protection performance such as gas exhaust, noise and vibration, economic performance, safety, and adaptability with the utilization fields. From such a viewpoint, discussions were given on its adaptability with the society based on different characteristics of the CGT, and other conditions such as related laws and regulations. The first edition investigated the developmental trends in ceramic materials, and the second edition studied the CGT utilizing systems, in particular, the status of utilization and proliferation of the current cogeneration systems. The edition evaluated various conditions required for conceptual design of the system. The third edition put into order the environmental regulations and future trends in order to identify the effect of introducing the CGT. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1994 entrusted task report. Surveys of advanced natural gas development and efficient utilization (Survey of coal hydrogasification technology development); 1994 nendo tennen gas kodo kaihatsu yuko riyo chosa tou itaku gyomu hokokusho. Sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    For the establishment of a practical process for substitute natural gas (SNG) production, technological and economical assessments were made, and tasks to discharge for the development were discussed. In this fiscal year, the results of surveys conducted in the past five-year period were compiled, and studies were made to prepare for a smooth transition to the element research stage. Findings obtained are described below. SNG producing technologies need to be developed, with the demand for SNG increasing sharply, to further stabilize the base for SNG supply; coal which is abundantly available should be used as the material for SNG; and coal hydrogasification, among various methods for producing SNG from coal, is the most suitable in view of efficiency and cost performance. It was also found after a prolonged study for the improvement of efficiency and cost performance that probabilities were high that the yield of BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) would increase and cost performance would improve. Besides, a basic plan and an element technology research plan were prepared for the development of the ARCH (advanced rapid coal hydrogasification) process. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in India on effective utilization of blast furnace gas pressure energy; 1999 nendo Indo ni okeru koro gas atsuryoku energy yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    From the viewpoint of energy utilization stated above, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) unit installability was studied at Bhilai Steel Works of Steel Authority of India, Ltd., Bokaro Steel Works of Steel Authority of India, Ltd., and Visakhapatnum Steel Works of Rashtriya Ispat Nigem. The energy consumption rate at an Indian steelmaking plant is 8Gcal/t-steel, which is larger than 5-6Gcal/t-steel of Japan and therefore needs improvement. Out of the blast furnaces in India, 26 are larger than 1,000m{sup 3}, and two of them are provided with a TRT device of now-defunct Soviet Union manufacture. The blast furnaces were examined for pressure at the top, amount of gas at the top, amount of dust, and safeness in operation. The No. 2 blast furnace of the Borkaro plant was selected for the project, and studies were made for a wet type TRT device. Improvements to be achieved by TRT device installation were calculated to be a TRT output of 5,900kW, power output of 49,100MWh/year, saved crude oil amount of 12,990toe/year, and CO2 reduction of 40,200 tons-CO2/year. (NEDO)

  3. FY 2000 report on the results of the leading research and development of the carburetion technology using sensible heat of coke oven gas; 2000 nendo seika hokokusho. Kokusuro gas kennetsu riyo zonetsu gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of recovering sensible heat of coke oven gas (COG), the paper conducted a potential study of 'the carburetion technology using COG sensible heat,' of which the basic design is to give the endothermic catalyst reforming hydrogen production reaction directly to the components mainly including methane, and the R and D for establishing it as an industrial technology. In the R and D, the optimum process was studied in terms mainly of the dry pretreatment technology and the catalyst reformation reaction of hydrocarbons such as methane. As a result, the inhibition of the progress of the reforming reaction, which was a difficult problem at first because of the catalyst poison of associated components, could be avoided by making conditions for development/reaction of solid solution appropriate. Further, as to the associated coal tar which was regarded as carbon deposition source, a possibility of the process for converting it into the light chemical energy was recognized. Further, in FY 2000, survey was made on the solid electrolyte oxygen separation technology to which attention was paid as a chemical energy conversion technology for heat energy and which is closely related also to the energy structure of iron making plant. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1993 Research and development of ceramic gas turbines. Development of methods of testing and evaluating ceramic member bonding techniques; 1993 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ceramic buzai setsugo gijutsu no shiken hyoka hoho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    Studies are conducted to establish the methods of testing and evaluating applicability of ceramic-metal bonding for ceramic gas turbines, and the FY 1993 results are reported. The program involves measurement of residual stress by the X-ray method and durability tests for the joints of silicon nitride and austenitic stainless steel with copper as the intermediate layer, and analysis and classification of the strength/durability test results obtained until the previous fiscal year by the finite element method, to evaluate applicability of the joining. For the strength characteristics at high temperature, the test pieces tend to lose strength at 400 degrees C and higher, and high-temperature strength as cross-head displacement speed increases. The upper limit of bending strength at room temperature decreases as number of thermal cycles increases. The test pieces subjected to thermal cycles have a higher bending strength at high temperature than at room temperature. The results of the two-dimensional plasticity analysis of the residual stress in the joint by the finite element method are in good agreement with the results by the X-ray method. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1992 Research and development of ceramic gas turbines. Reliability demonstration tests for ceramic members; 1992 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ceramic buzai no shinraisei kakusho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    The creep rupture demonstration testing methods and non-destructive testing technologies are investigated for ceramic members, to promote development of ceramic gas turbines (CGT's), and the FY 1992 results are reported. For creep rupture demonstration testing methods, 3 types of silicon nitride as the CGT rotor materials are tested for tensile creep rupture at a rated temperature level (1200 degrees C) in the operating atmosphere (in the air), and applicability of the Larson-Miller method to ceramic members is investigated. It is found that Larson-Miller index, determined for each test temperature, is useful for explaining the test results, and analysis of the data by the Larson-Miller method is applicable to prediction of creep rupture life for specific members. For the non-destructive testing technologies to be applied to CGT members, the studied items include determination of white X-ray absorption coefficient by the film method and optimization of X-ray photographing, and the good results are produced. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Reliability verification test for ceramic members); 1998 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ceramic buzai no shinraisei kakusho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    For a ceramic gas turbine to achieve efficiency of 42%, materials capable of withstanding approximately 1300 degrees C are required. In fiscal 1998, the mechanism of creep deformation and life prediction are studied, with specimens exposed to a short-term high-stress conditions equivalent to a time to fracture of 1000h. It is known after studies in the past that, under a stress of approximately 240Mpa, the logarithmic values of the load stress and time to fracture may be described by two differently inclined straight lines. Strain is accurately measured by use of a CCD camera for the determination of a creep curve, and then stress indexes are worked out. It is then found that the stress indexes are 4 on the lower stress side of 260MPa and 11 on the higher stress side of the same. This enables the extrapolation of short-term creep fracture data for the prediction of long-term life. No large-scale reduction in resistance to creep due to changes in the crystal phase is not predicted. Longitudinal sound wave speeds are measured, and the result manifestly describes how the longitudinal sound wave speed slows down with the progress of creepage in the material. Reference is also made to international reports about the study of ceramics performance tests and evaluation methods, international joint studies about mechanical properties tests, and the international round robin test of material powder. (NEDO)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1990. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Study on its adaptability with society); 1990 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shakai tekigosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-05-01

    With an objective to assist proliferation of ceramic gas turbine (CGT) which is desired of being put into practical use at an early time because of its effects of energy conservation, environmental preservation, and economic influence, investigations and studies were made on the CGT systems for cogeneration and portable power generation with regard to their latent markets, utilization patterns, and durability. In Section 1, investigations were given on stocking quantity by size in civil use buildings as the back-data for identification of effects by CGT and for estimation of its proliferation; identification of electric power to heat ratio (heat quantity/electric power amount) and patterns in use of energy in industries promising in CGT introduction; and on stocking quantity, energy demand and utilization patterns in industrial facilities. In Section 2, discussions were given on heat-power characteristics of the CGT, and energy utilization systems as the feasibility study on applicability of the cogeneration using the CGT. In Section 3, discussions were given on corrosion resistance of non-oxide based ceramics in relation with durability of the CGT, and oxidation behavior of silicon carbides in high temperature steam. In Section 4, future investigation assignments were discussed. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Gas pipeline system optimization involving Ukrainian pipeline modification for reduction in global warming gas emissions; 1999 nendo ondanka gas haishutsu sakugen no tame no Ukraina ni okeru gas pipeline no kaishu wo fukumu pipeline system no saitekika chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The result of a survey which involves a 520km-long gas pipeline (Shebelinka-Dikanka-Kyiv) modification in the Ukraine is described, which will promote joint implementation programs under COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Since the greenhouse effect of methane gas is 21 times as serious as that of CO2, it is important to ensure good maintenance and structural soundness for natural gas transporting pipeline systems. The currently available Ukrainian gas turbines and compressors are so obsolescent that their efficiency rate is as low as 23%. The rate will rise to 36% when the old ones are replaced by high power equipment capable of high efficiency combustion. Pipelines will be checked for deterioration due to stress corrosion cracking and dangerous pipes will be replaced, with attention paid particularly to joint sections. It is expected that there will be a greenhouse gas reduction of 512,000 tons (in terms of CO2) and a saving of 103,000 tons on fuel (in terms of crude). Balance is tentatively estimated in case the expected reduction in emissions is transacted in emission trading. Profitability will occur, in view of profit from emission trading and gas sales revenue after gas leakage prevention thanks to project implementation, when the emission right sells at 30 dollars/ton or higher. The rippling effect will be great now that the Ukrainian pipeline system is quite extensive (with 30% thereof superannuated). (NEDO)

  9. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D of the substituting gas system and the substituting process of the etching gas used in the electronic device production process; 1999 nendo denshi device seizo process de shiyosuru etching gas no daitai gas system oyobi daitai process no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to the dry etching process and the wiring process where PFC gas and electric power are required most in the electronic device production process, an investigational study was conducted with the aim of PFC saving and energy saving, and the FY 1999 results were summed up. In the study, high efficiency etching process analysis equipment was developed, and three kinds of PFC gas quantitative analysis method were comparatively studied. Relating to the substitution of global environmental warming gas, it was found that C{sub x}F{sub y} type gas was effective which includes no oxygen, has a lot of carbon element numbers, and has double unsaturated bond. Further, in the study of the technology of PFC decomposition by plasma, it was indicated that PFC of 98.7% at maximum in exhaust gas could be removed on ideal conditions. In the dry etching technology by non-PFC gas of the organic insulating film, it was found out that NH{sub 3} base gas is more excellent in both shape and speed of etching than the existing O{sub 2} base one. As to the future wiring technology, new concepts of the optical wiring inside chip, etc. were proposed. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1992. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Portable regenerative double-shaft ceramic gas turbine for portable power generation); 1992 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kahanshiki hatsuden'yo saiseishiki ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Research and development has been advanced on a ceramic gas turbine (CGT) with an output of 300-kW class and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher. Activities were performed in the following three fields: 1) research of heat resistant ceramic members, 2) research of elementary technologies, and 3) studies on design, prototype fabrication, and operation. In Item 1, research was performed on forming the heat resistant ceramic members, and all-ceramic members constituting the basic type gas turbine were fabricated. Improvements were given on the problems discovered in the heat shock test, and the hot spin test. In Item 2, elementary researches were made on the basic technologies for the ceramic gas turbine, such as on the heat exchanger, combustor, and ceramic turbine, wherein discussions were given on improvement of mechanical strength and performance. In Item 3, design and prototype fabrication were performed on the basic type ceramic gas turbine, based on the results of research operations on the basic type (metallic gas turbine). Adjustment operations were launched on some of the components. (NEDO)

  11. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  12. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  13. Achievement report on research and development (1st phase) of direct iron making by use of high-temperature; Koon kangen gas riyo ni yoru chokusetsu seitetsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiikki) ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-02-01

    Efforts are put into the study of direct iron making for use in a closed system where heat energy from a multi-purpose high-temperature gas furnace expected to be developed in the near future will be utilized for iron making. The researches, carried out for the establishment of technologies necessary for designing, building, and operating a pilot plant dimensionally suitable for connection to a 50MWt multi-purpose high-temperature gas furnace, cover the plant total system, a high-temperature heat exchanger, ultrahigh-temperature alloys, high-temperature insulating materials, a reduced gas generating unit, and a reduced iron making unit. When the effort is evaluated as a whole, it is found that the newly developed system is effective in preventing pollution, emitting but 0.1Nm{sup 3} of SOx per 1 ton of crude iron against the 0.4-0.9Nm{sup 3} emitted by a blast furnace/converter iron making mill. It is also found effective in reducing fossil fuel dependence and in enhancing energy source diversification. When it comes to energy conversion efficiency, furthermore, it is shown that the new system achieves a rate of 60% or more while only approximately 30% is attained by light water reactor power generation and approximately 40% by a high-temperature gas furnace. (NEDO)

  14. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Analysis of materials related to IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Program (IEA/GHG); 1999 nendo EIA/GHG kanren shiryo bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Materials related to IEA Greenhouse Gas Rand D Program (IEA/GHG) were analyzed. The Sleipner carbon dioxide underground storage workshop is acting to narrow themes for understanding the technologies, observation methods, and research activities. The IEA/GHG has verified the known facts about ocean storage of carbon dioxide, and discussed the important development targets. Researches were made on improving methane recovery efficiency and the possibility of sealing carbon dioxide by injecting carbon dioxide in order to improve recovery of carbon bed methane. The IEA/GHG has developed a methodology for complete fuel cycles of LNG, and evaluated cost and benefit of reducing greenhouse effect gas emission. A process combining electric power generation, carbon dioxide absorption and hot heat energy utilization can reduce emission of carbon dioxide into atmosphere at relatively low cost and low energy loss. The paper also describes reduction of greenhouse effect gas emitted from cement factories, petroleum refining and petro-chemical industries, and offshore petroleum and gas facilities. It also describes influence of forestry on carbon absorption and timber markets. Case studies have discussed effects of modifying power generation plants. (NEDO)

  15. Public subscription project for international joint research proposals in fiscal 2000 - public subscription of international proposal (substitution No.3). Report on achievements in research related to industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.3). Gas hydrate gijutsu no sangyo riyo shakai system ka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Activities have been advanced to establish necessary basic technologies by making clear the possibilities and problems in applying gas hydrate technologies to industrial fields. Activities have been taken in the following three fields: 1) industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies, 2) conceptual design of gas hydrate utilization technologies, and 3) researches on basic technologies to utilize the gas hydrate technologies in industries. In Item 1), discussions were given on significance of social systematization of the gas hydrate technologies, conditions for social systematization of the gas hydrate technologies, the current status of natural gas development and industrial utilization of the gas hydrate technologies. In Item 2), discussions were given on utilization of gas containability (application to natural gas transportation and storage processes), utilization of cold heat storage performance (utilization to suction air cooling of gas turbine generators), and utilization of gas selectivity (application to gas separation processes and acidic gas (CO2, SOx) separation). (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on investigative research on society compatibility of development of coal hydrogasification technology; 1997 nendo sekitan suiso tenka gas ka gijutsu kaihatsu shakai tekigosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In view of possibility of the future tightness in natural gas supply, establishment of coal gasification technology was set as the final objective, which can supply cheaply and stably the substitution natural gas of high quality by using coal existing affluently over the world as the raw material. An investigative research is carried out under a five-year plan on society compatibility required to assess the possibility of the practical application thereof. Fiscal 1997 has performed in continuation from the previous year the 'survey on process level elevation' and 'survey on the society compatibility'. This report summarizes the achievements thereon. In the investigative research on the process level elevation, the Shell's methane synthesis process based on an oxygen blown and dry feed coal gasifier was evaluated, and the calculation process was pursued on material balance in a hydrogasification reactor as having been performed in the 'survey on developing the coal hydrogasification technology' in which its reasonability was verified. In the survey on the society compatibility of the process, a survey was carried out on natural gas (including non-conventional methane hydrate and coal bed methane) and coals as raw materials for hydrogasification. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the investigation of alternative gas system and process technologies for dry etching in electronic device manufacturing; 2000 nendo denshi device seizo process de shiyosuru etching gas no daitai gas system oyobi daitai process no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop technologies for saving PFC (perfluoro-compound) and conserving energy in semiconductor manufacturing processes, in particular, in the layer insulation film (SiO{sub 2}) dry etching process. Activities are conducted in the five fields of (1) research and development of technologies for reducing the amount of etching gas consumption, (2) development of a dry etching technology using alternative gas, (3) development of a dry etching technology using a low dielectric constant layer insulation film, (4) research and development of novel wiring structures and a method for fabricating the same, and (5) re-entrusted studies. Conducted in field (5) are studies of novel alternative gas - solid sources to substitute PFC, theory design technologies for low dielectric constant organic macromolecules, low dielectric constant material film fabrication by CVD (chemical vapor deposition), and technology for optical wiring inside chips. In field (2), studies are conducted of low GWP (global warming potential) alternative PFC gas aided etching and decomposition prevention technologies for reduction in PFC emissions, and it is made clear that C{sub 4}F{sub 6} performs excellently as an etchant. (NEDO)

  18. 1998 report on results of R and D project for quick-acting/innovative energy and environment related technology; 1998 nendo kyuchakuzai wo mochiita shinkina tennen gas chozo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    R and D were conducted for a storing method using an adsorption material concerning methane, the main component of natural gas, with a report made on the 1998 results. In the development of high performance metallic complexes, a molecular design of a material was carried out that has a pore size most suitable for methane adsorption by means of computer simulation, in relation to a metallic complexes on which a rapid improvement of absorptivity can be expected. Consequently, a promising material group was extracted in which an adsorptive capacity of 200-300Ncc/cc can be expected for each of two dimensional copper carboxylate complexs, three dimensional SiF{sub 6} type complexs, and three dimensional hydrogen bond type complexs. As a result of these synthesis by experiment and the examination, a rapid increase in occlusion quantity was recognized in the three dimensional hydrogen bond type complexs. This type uses rhodium, a noble metal and, if synthesis is possible with a lower priced metal, an application can be expected as a general purpose gas absorber. In the R and D of a high performance improved product, the improvement/development of activated carbon was performed, as was the analysis of adsorption-desorption phenomenon, for example. (NEDO)

  19. Survey report for fiscal 2000 on survey of high-efficiency gasification technology of catalyst utilization type; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shokubai riyo gata kokoritsu gas ka gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Survey and experimental research have been carried out on coal gasification using a pressurized internal circulation fluidized bed, spouted bed hydrogenation pyrolysis, supercritical water gasification, and a possibility of efficiency improvement by utilization of catalyst in chemical raw material production spouted bed gasification system. In the coal gasification using the pressurized internal circulation fluidized bed, an experiment was performed by using active alumina and Ni catalyst, where outstanding effect was identified. In the spouted bed hydrogenation pyrolysis, an experiment was executed by using iron hydroxide catalyst, but no noticeable effect was recognized. In the supercritical water gasification, an experiment was carried out by using Na{sub 2}CO2 and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalysts, where it was found that the effect of the catalysts is little in the supercritical gasification reaction area of 800 degrees C. The power generation system composite with the chemical raw material production spouted bed gasification is a one-path system in which coal is gasified by the spouted bed gasification furnace, catalyst and steam are put into a heat exchanger to perform DME synthesis, and non-reacted gas is supplied as gas turbine fuel. Estimation was made on the possibility by an on-the-desk study, which requires experiments in the future. (NEDO)

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1991. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Study on its adaptability with society); 1991 nendo ceramic tas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shakai tekigosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    With an objective to assist proliferation of ceramic gas turbine (CGT) which is desired of being put into practical use at an early time because of its effects of energy conservation and environmental preservation, discussions were given on the cogeneration system (CGS) with regard to the system design, the effect calculation and its latent markets. In Section 1, discussions were given on the energy demand characteristics in business facilities such as hotels and hospitals, and on the CGS using the CGT. Section 2 calculates effects of introducing the CGT/CGS in business facilities, Section 3 discusses the latent market quantity of the CGT/CGS for business facilities, and its social adaptability including the environmental load, Section 4 studies the CGT characteristics and the status of its development, Section 5 researches heat resistant ceramics members, and Section 6 considers the future GCT utilization fields and problems in its effective utilization. In Section 2, it was estimated that the maximum energy saving effect can reach 21% when a facility that has been operated on purchased electric power and town gas introduced a CGT/CGS system consisted mainly of an absorption type freezer and a boiler. (NEDO)

  1. 1998 report on development of high-efficiency waste power generation technology. 2. Development of waste gasification and ash melting power generation technology; 1998 nendo kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Haikibutsu gas ka yoyu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In regard to waste gasification and ash melting power generation, a basic test and examination were conducted in fiscal 1998, with a full-scale development test made ready to start. In the development of technology for raising steam temperature, evaluation of high temperature corrosivity of SH materials and development of high-temperature dust removal system were carried out for example, as were development of dechlorination technology for thermal decomposition process and development of ceramic high-temperature air heater. In the development of technology to prevent exhaust gas reheating, preliminary examination was made on denitrification technologies using a catalyst with superior low-temperature activity. In the development of technology to reduce self-heat melting critical calorific value, investigation and basic test were carried out concerning a stable waste feed system, with a pilot test device experimentally manufactured and tested based on the findings. In the development of technology for reducing external fuel input, examination and analysis were performed on pretreatment techniques for waste plastics, with basic data obtained for a waste blowing system project. In addition, the thermal decomposition and combustion characteristics of waste plastics were clarified by the basic test. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on research under Sunshine Program. Basic research on plasma-aided coal gasification technology; 1981 nendo sushine keikaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. Sekitan no plasma gas ka gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Researches are conducted for the development of a technology of producing useful gases such as acetylene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, etc., from coal by the use of the high temperature and high-density energy of the plasma jet. In an experiment using a 100kW 3-port plasma-aided gasification unit, rapid quenching tests are conducted using hydrogen and helium, where the reaction furnace is changed, the specimen feed device is changed, and the plasma torch head is replaced by a high-power head. In a test of the coal specimen, it is found that rapid quenching exerts a great effect on the prevention of re-decomposition of the generated acetylene into hydrogen and carbon black and that a rise in the hydrogen partial pressure results in a great decrease in the quantity of acetylene generated. The said torch head replacement increases the rate of the coal specimen infiltrating into the plasma flame, which brings about an increase in the quantity of acetylene generated. It is found after all that the conventional acetylene yield of 34g/kWh increases to 59g/kWh in a rapid quenching test in which the specimen is dried Akabira coal and the plasma is an argon gas plasma containing 40% hydrogen. (NEDO)

  3. Report on the research achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. Studies on improving the efficiency of coal gasification; 1992 nendo sekitan gas ka no kokoritsuka ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992 in studies on improving the efficiency of coal gasification. Three kinds of coals were gasified under the atmosphere of hydrogen, He or CO2 by using the TPR method. The sulfur removing rate varies depending on coals even under the same reaction atmosphere, and so does the degree of influence of the atmospheric gases depending on coals. Very little effect of the atmospheric gases was found on the sulfur removing rate in Taiheiyo and Wandoan coals. While Tatung coal presents the same removing rate under the atmosphere of He and CO2, it shows 1.8 times greater removing rate under the hydrogen atmosphere. Generation patterns for H{sub 2}S and COS also vary depending on coal types and atmospheric gases. Inorganic sulfur shows the same behavior in the reaction process regardless of coal type and atmosphere, but organic sulfur behaves differently. The sulfur removing rate is determined by how easily the organic sulfur can be removed, which attributes to the difference in kinds and structures of organic sulfur compounds in the coal, together with the gas generation patterns. In order to discuss gasification of char, investigations were performed on effects of coal types and heat treatment temperatures, with regard to the gasification characteristics that can be estimated from the industrial and element analyses. (NEDO)

  4. Report on 1978 results. R and D on coal gasification technology (R and D on manufacture of low calorie gas for electric power generation); 1978 nendo sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden'yo teikarori gas no seizo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-05-01

    The subject research has been conducted, since fiscal 1974, on the development of a pressurized fluidized-bed low calorie gasification furnace and on the various problems concerning a combined cycle power system, with the aim of establishing a technology for manufacturing fuel gas for power generation from coal and a power generation system linked with the technology. At the end of fiscal 1974, a test equipment was completed in Yubari for the development of gasification process with a coal processing capacity of 5 t/day, operating the gasification furnace for a total of 1,506 hours and gasifying Pacific coal for a total of 185 tons. The gasification reaction conditions were varied within the range of 0.3-1.5 mm coal grain size, 850-1,050 degrees C temperature, and normal to 8 atmospheric pressure, with a continuous test conducted for 48-96 hours, and with basic operation data obtained capable of producing gas having 1,200-1,400 kcal/Nm{sup 3} calories. In addition, through feasibility study, research and investigation were carried out for technologies relating to the practicability of a gasification power generation plant in 30 MW and 500 MW class. Implemented this year were studies for grasping various operating conditions by the 5 t/day gasification equipment, manufacture of a 40 t/day gasification equipment, and foundation work for construction in the Yubari test site. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey of long-term energy technology strategy and the like (Survey of natural gas technology trend); 2000 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nadoni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa (tennen gas gijutsu doko chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In search of new technical tasks involving the supply, transportation, and utilization of natural gas, a survey is conducted of the trend of natural gas supply and demand, trend of development of related technologies, and their impact on the market. After natural gas matters are outlined and definition and classification are established, investigations are conducted into natural gas production and the trend of new natural gas consuming countries supposedly to affect the natural gas supply and demand situation. Taken up as relevant technologies are cogeneration, natural gas powered automobiles, fuel cells, GTL (gas to liquid) technology, and micro gas turbines. These technologies are examined from the viewpoints of environmentally-friendliness and energy conservation feature, and then tasks to discharge are proposed in the fields of technology development, operation, and fuel. For natural gas powered automobiles, vehicular performance improvement and the conformability and standardization of high-pressure parts and components are taken up in the field of technology development, and the introduction and augmentation of quick fillers for natural gas and increase in the number of natural gas supply stations are taken up in the field of operation. Concerning fuel cells, in the field of fuels to be fed to the same, technologies of hydrogen storage and of refining and reforming of oil based fuels are taken up. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on hydrogen gas turbine); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso gas turbine ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research aims at establishment of the meaning of using hydrogen as gas turbine fuel in the hydrogen energy system and various conditions for hydrogen gas turbines, and approaches to the feasibility study and R and D of hydrogen gas turbines in the future. In fiscal 1975, researches were made on (1) feasibility study on hydrogen-oxygen gas turbine, (2) establishment of various conditions for technical, social and economic realization of hydrogen gas turbines in the total energy system, and (3) study on technical troubles to be solved for realization of hydrogen gas turbines. For the above researches, study was made on hydrogen combustion based on the hydrogen combustion test result of gas mixture including hydrogen, and on the feasibility of aphodid cycle. In addition, study on the applicability of hydrogen-oxygen gas turbines, comparative study on hydrogen-oxygen gas turbine, MHD power generation and fuel cell, and the future prospect of hydrogen gas turbines for ships were made to place this hydrogen gas turbine. (NEDO)

  7. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Project on methane gas recovery use in the Donetsk coal field/coal mine; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Donetsk tanden tanko methane gas kaishu riyo keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of getting petroleum substitution energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was carried out of the project for methane gas recovery/utilization at the Donbassa coal mine in Ukraine. At the Donbassa coal mine, degassing by test boring is being conducted to reduce the gas emission at coal face for safety, but most of the gas is discharged into the air. In this project, the following were studied: degassing boring/gas induction from bore hole/measurement in gas induction pipe, gas recovery system combined with gas induction in flyash, and installation/operation of gas engine power generation facilities (1,710kW x 7 units) with exhaust heat recovery boiler using the recovered methane gas as fuel. The results obtained were the petroleum substitution amount of 31,000 toe/y and the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction of 480,000 t/y. In the economical estimation, the initial investment amount was 3 billion yen, the profitability of the total investment used was 2.9%, and the internal earning rate was 6.5%. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1998 annual report on the preliminary research and development of techniques for developing resources from gas-hydrate. Studies on gas-hydrate exploration, excavation techniques, methods for assessing environmental impacts, and gas hydrate handling systems; 1998 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendoken kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansanado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no kenkyu kaihatsu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This R and D project is for the preliminary studies on development of the following 4 types of techniques for developing resources from gas-hydrates (GH): (1) gas-hydrate exploration, (2) excavation techniques, (3) methods for assessing environmental impacts, and (4) gas hydrate handling systems. The FY 1988 R and D results are described. For gas-hydrate exploration, the methods for analyzing inorganic ions and trace quantities of elements, which are necessary for accurately estimating the offshore GH around Japan, are established; and case studies are conducted for methods of predicting GH deposit forming mechanisms, and stability fields of GH, based on terrestrial heat flow and seismic data. For excavation techniques, GH decomposition rate is analyzed using a laboratory system which reproduces conditions of excavation of GH layers. For methods for assessing environmental impacts, a geo-hazard predicting model is established, to study ground displacement and gas leakage sensing systems and data transmission systems to cope with the hazards. For gas hydrate handling systems, an overall system is studied, and storage and transportation systems are outlined. (NEDO)

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1989. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Portable regenerative two-shaft radial turbine for electric power generation); 1989 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kahanshiki hatsuden'yo saisei nijikushiki radial turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    Research and development has been advanced on a ceramic gas turbine with an output of 300-kW class, and having thermal efficiency of 42% or higher. Activities were performed in the following three fields: 1) research of heat resistant ceramic members, 2) research of elementary technologies, and 3) studies on design, prototype fabrication, and operation. In Item 1, forming and sintering were performed on a scroll of large size difficult for forming, an output turbine nozzle, a gas generator turbine nozzle, a shroud and back-shroud for same to extract technological problems. In addition, discussions were given on a method to bond the rotor of the gas generator turbine with the shaft. In Item 2, elementary tests were given on the rotary heat-storage type heat exchanger which has high relative technological difficulty and requires a great amount of time for development, wherein the thermal efficiency was improved by improving the flow velocity distribution. Furthermore, a combustor for the metal gas turbine was developed. Specifications were established for a test device required for hot spin tests of the gas generator turbine and output turbine, and part of the device was fabricated. In Item 3, detailed design was made for the metallic basic-type gas turbine to become the master form of the turbine to be developed. (NEDO)

  12. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Rehabilitation of gas turbine power plants owned by Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. MEPE/gas turbine hatsudensho rihabiri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Myanmar generates majority of the whole electric power by using thermal power plants consisting of single gas turbines, and gas and steam composite turbines. However, because of chronic power shortage and fund unavailability, the major gas turbines are being operated in quite inadequate environment. As a result, reduction in power generation efficiency has become manifest due to aged deterioration, increasing the quantity of CO2 emission. The present project is, in order to link it to the 'Clean Development Mechanism' being carried out with developing countries, and placing Tharkayta Power Plant as the object, intended to comprehensively discuss a rehabilitation program to renew the existing gas turbines with advanced ones, in relation with feasibility of the project implementation including the effect of CO2 emission reduction, profitability, and proliferation effects. A prospect was acquired that, by replacing the gas turbines alone with 25-MW class gas turbines, the plant output will increase to 97.2 MW (78.5 MW in the existing facilities) and the plant efficiency to 43.3% (36.5% in the existing facilities). The energy saving effect during a period of 40 years would be 708,000 (toe) as heat consumption converted to crude oil, and the CO2 emission reducing effect would be 2,160,000 (t-CO2), respectively. (NEDO)

  13. Report for fiscal 2000. Part 4. Research on assistance to put recycling technologies into practical use (Research and development of elevating automotive fuel consumption and exhaust gas technologies); 2000 nendo recycle gijutsu nado jitsuyoka shien kenkyu hokokusho. 4. Jidosha nenpi hai gas gijutsu kodoka kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions have been given on identification of actual status of exhaust gas emission during driving, starting, and idling of automobiles, on technologies to enhance fuel consumption and reduce exhaust gas emission, and on technologies to measure harmful substances. In the investigation of effects of environmental temperatures on evaporation gas, it was shown that fuel evaporation generated from the fuel tank increases as the average ambient temperature rises. In the investigation of effects of environmental temperatures on exhaust gas and fuel consumption, it was discovered that the effects of environmental temperatures on 10{center_dot}15 mode regulated exhaust gas differ depending on vehicles, and no definite difference due to combustion systems was recognized. Carbon monoxide and THC under the 11 mode regulation showed a trend to increase when the environmental temperature falls down. In the investigation of effects of fuel properties on exhaust gas, no definite difference due to combustion systems was recognized as a result of measurements using various types of gasoline having different distillation properties. In the investigation of analysis methods for harmful substances, development has been made on an analysis method mainly for 1-3 butadiene. (NEDO)

  14. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a high-calorie gas manufacturing technology (research on a pressurized and fluidized gasification system for coal and heavy oil mixed materials); Sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan oyobi jushitsuyu kongo genryo no kaatsu ryudo gas ka hoshiki no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in developing a high-calorie gas manufacturing technology for coal gasification in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Pulverized coal and heavy oil are heated and stirred to make it a slurry, which is forced into a fluidized bed gasification furnace together with spraying steam, and pyrolyzed by using a unique slurry feeding system (a hydrohoist). Carbon-like material as a by-product (char) is partially oxidized (burned) by steam and oxygen at the lower part of the gasification furnace. The material is gasified in the furnace, where the generated heat is sent to the pyrolysis zone in the upper part by the gas and fluidized bed media particles (char), and utilized as a heat source for the slurry pyrolysis. The produced gas is cooled by an indirect heat exchanger of the fluidized bed system and a scrubber to separate tar, dust and unreacted steam. Part of the sensible heat is recovered as steam. Thus, high-calorie gas of 6,000 kcal/Nm{sup 3} can be obtained, which is rich in methane, CO and hydrogen. Fiscal 1981 has performed a continuous test by using an internal heat type low-pressure gasification equipment to evaluate its compatibility to the diversification of materials. (NEDO)

  15. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 of energy and environment technology verification project formation assisting project and international joint verification and research project. Verification of discrete power generation system utilizing mini-power generation that utilizes micro gas turbine; 1999 nendo micro gas turbine riyo mini hatsuden wo riyoshita bunsangata hatsuden system no kensho seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the verification test on power generation by using natural gas driven micro gas turbines (rated at 28 kW) in Thailand. The turbine presented excellent result of providing a maximum power generation output of 25 kW, having no efficiency deterioration even at the 50% output point (about 22%). Its exhaust gas emitted under the normal operation is clean. The waste heat is as low as 290 degrees C, which can be used for hot water supply, but may be difficult for steam generation. Under the severe condition for building large power plants in remote areas due to environmental issues and power transmission loss, proliferation of the discrete power generation system in the suburbs of the city of Bangkok draws expectation. This system can be more advantageous than the existing facilities if the end user gas price is 6.7 Bht/m{sup 3} or less. Discussions were given on a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus driven by electric power generated from the gas turbine mounted on the bus. The bus is overwhelmingly superior in the environmental aspect to diesel fueled buses. The HEV bus emits no black smoke at all, and NOx emission is as low as about 1/70. Fuel consumption is less than half (when regenerative braking is used). However, the vehicle body cost is higher by 40%. Smooth operation of the buses requires indispensably deployment of compressed natural gas service stations (to be located at 40-km interval ideally). Assistance is required also on the fund for gas line installations, and civil engineering construction technologies. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the research and development achievements in fiscal 1999 on the international research cooperation project for comprehensive development and utilization technologies for gas hydrate resources; 1999 nendo gas hydrate shigen no energy sogo kaihatsu riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of gas hydrate resources. As a result of synthesizing gas hydrates in deposit systems, identifying stability zones in compositions, and studying thermal conductivity and dielectric constant of the deposits, the estimation accuracy has been enhanced steadily in estimating hydrate existing areas in actual frost areas. In the collecting technologies, a proposal was presented for a system by which carbon dioxide is introduced into ground beds at the same time as recovering gases, and gas hydrates are displaced with carbon dioxide hydrates. The displacement phenomenon was verified experimentally by controlling temperatures and pressures. Even below the freezing point, the production rate of the carbon dioxide hydrates is fast if it is above minus 4 degrees C. Salt diffusion behavior important in control of the production and decomposition, and action mechanisms of production and suppression agents were made clear microscopically. Experimental and theoretical discussions were given on dynamics of the production and decomposition. The cage occupation rate of methane hydrates was quantitatively measured successfully by using the Raman spectroscopy. Hydrates of gas mixture were utilized to have verified the possibility of separating the gas mixture constituents. (NEDO)

  17. Commissioned operation report for fiscal 1991 on commissioning of surveying high-level development and effective utilization of natural gas, and development of coal hydrogasification technology; 1991 nendo tennen gas kodo kaihatsu yuko riyo chosa tou itaku gyomu hokokusho. Sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    With an objective of establishing a practically usable process to manufacture substitution natural gas, discussions have been given on the technical, economical, and developmental problems therein. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1991. The summary of surveys in the current fiscal year is as follows: the coal hydrogasification process is positioned as having high necessity in the gas industry because of its high thermal efficiency and low gas cost; in order to evaluate the reaction heat in the hydrogasification reaction, a mathematical model having flexibility was structured, whereas a large number of findings has been derived, including performance of the reactor and the optimum operating conditions; in addition to having made clear the conditions for an entrained bed hydrogasification reactor, comparisons and discussions were given on the internally circulating reactor and one-through reactor; studies were performed on thermal efficiency and gas cost in the optimized process configuration o the ARCH-1 process base; and a proposal was made on the test for a new reactor having the two-step reaction zone that could be expected of increased yield in aqueous solution, and could contribute to reducing the gas cost. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 2000 report on result. Phase-1 R and D on closed type high efficiency gas turbine technology corresponding to recovery of carbon dioxide; 2000 nendo nisanka tanso kaishu taio closed gata kokoritsu gas turbine gijutsu dai 1 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Technological development is aimed at a 500MW class gas turbine plant with a generator-end efficiency of over 60%, while using a 1,700 degree C class ultra high temperature gas turbine by natural gas fuel and fully collecting CO{sub 2} in the exhaust gas through an oxygen combustion closed type system. The paper describes the results of fiscal 2000. A conceptual design was made on the basis of a tentatively set second mass and heat balance concerning the closed cycle that facilitated CO{sub 2} recovery by methane-oxygen combustion, with a system optimization method examined by parameter studies (sensitivity analysis of the effect of each parameter on the generator-end efficiency). Using the zero-th conceptual design implemented in fiscal 1999, the first mass and heat balance (generator-end efficiency 58%) and the results of parameter studies, the system optimization was continuously examined, deciding the second mass and heat balance. A calculation of 59.8% was obtained for the generator-end efficiency. A study was conducted on a closed system verification machine based on the ME-1000 gas turbine by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. The premises of CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) Yokosuka laboratory was assumed to be the installation site for the machine. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1999 project for R and D of technology for immediately effective and innovative energy environment technology. Report on result of development concerning novel technology for natural gas storage using absorbent; 1999 nendo kyuchakuzai wo mochiita shinkina tennen gas chozo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    R and D was conducted on a natural gas storage method using absorbent, a method having higher density compared with a conventional method in the form of liquefied or compressed natural gas, and the fiscal 1999 results were reported. In the development of materials, studies in the preceding year were continued on the synthesis of prospective organic metal complexes, with the selection and manufacturing of the materials carried out that were suitable for methane absorptive storage, for the use of bench-scale equipment for system development BOG treatment. In the development of the system, taking the need of gas holders and BOG treatment into consideration, the design of the bench-scale equipment was performed, as were the manufacturing and the installation of the equipment. In addition, with an absorptive storage simulation built, calculation under various conditions was found possible as well as calculation for the verification of concepts for the enhancement of performance. Furthermore, in the development of a fuel storage system for natural gas vehicles, studies were conducted on the reduction of weight of the fuel container, improvement in the freedom of a place for mounting the fuel container, grasp of needs of absorptive natural gas vehicles such as increase in the fuel storage, and analysis of application feasibility. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Feasibility study for rehabilitation and optimization of pipelines for reduction of greenhouse gas emission; 1999 nendo onshitsu koka gas haishutsu sakugen no tame no pipeline no rihabiri, saitekika no tame no F/S chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A survey is conducted of the actual state of leaks from natural gas pipelines and of the energy-saving and greenhouse gas-reducing effects of pipeline rehabilitation, with the clean development mechanism (CDM) borne in mind. Comilla and Chittagong are the areas that are covered by the survey. Natural gas leaks from the main pipelines BC and BD are calculated to be 5,300 and 5,600 tons/year, respectively. Total leakage across the country is estimated at 85,000 tons/year. Approximately 41% of the imbalance is explained by leakage while the rest is attributable to errors in gas flow measurement etc. The total leakage from branch pipelines is approximately three times larger than that from main pipelines, and some measures need to be taken to remedy the situation. For the densely populated city of Dhaka which finds itself in a network of branch pipelines, in particular, rehabilitation and optimization of its accessory power stations etc. are quite important. Measures for leakage if properly implemented will not only reduce the amount of leakage but also prevent ignition or explosion for the minimization of economic loss and for the assurance of safety. Error-free gas flow measurement if realized will strengthen the foundation on which sales are performed. (NEDO)

  1. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of methods for evaluating characteristics of high-strength, large-diameter steel pipes for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Chokoatsu tennen gas pipeline yo kokyodo daikei kokan no tokusei hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The pipelines for safely transmitting superhigh-pressure natural gas should have excellent characteristics. The steel pipe is required to have a sufficient toughness, more concretely Charpy impact-absorbing energy, to prevent propagating shear fracture characteristic of natural gas pipelines. Recently, the natural gas pipeline is increasingly required to have higher design pressures (15 Mpa or higher) and grade (X80 or higher). In order to develop the techniques for simulating crack propagation in the propagating shear fracture of natural gas pipe lines as part of the programs to cope with these trends, the 1998 efforts were directed to reviewing the research results obtained so far and analysis of the problems to be solved and tasks to be taken, based on which the analytical procedure for gas releasing phenomena during the fracture process was basically developed, the material characteristic data were collected by the laboratory scale toughness tests, and the preliminary tests with rupture disks were conducted to verify the above analytical procedure. These efforts have established the bases for evaluating the characteristics of high-strength, large-diameter steel pipes in the light of safety against fracture, and greatly advanced the program towards the final target of developing the international specification drafts for toughness. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1999 report on the results of the study to support the commercialization of recycling technology, etc. 4. R and D for enhancement of automobile fuel consumption/exhaust gas technology; 1999 nendo recycle gijutsu nado jitsuyoka shien kenkyu seika hokokusho. 4. Jidosha nenpi hai gas gijutsu kodoka kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of clarifying measures for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust gas of automobiles, survey was made of effects of environmental temperatures and fuel properties on exhaust gas. In the survey of effects of environmental temperatures, experiment on exhaust gas was carried out by changing the laboratory temperature from 5 degrees C to 35 degrees C using direct injection gasoline engine. As a result, it was found out that environmental temperatures have effects exhaust gas according to changes in purification rate by rise in catalytic temperature, changes in air/fuel ratio by changes in air density, control methods to secure starting-up/drivability, etc. In the survey of effects of gasoline properties, study was made on effects of distillation properties, especially, 90% distillation temperature (T90) on exhaust gas. As a result, in 10(center dot)15 mode, CO and THC decreased with a decrease in T90 both in three-way catalytic car and direct injection car. Especially, CO decreased to about 1/4 when decreasing T90 from 151 degrees C to 116 degrees C. NOx increased in three-way catalytic car and decreased in direct injection car with a decrease in T90. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Power generation No.10). Achievement report on independent distributed type power generation technology of using now-unused gas pressure difference energy; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.10). Miriyo gas atsuryokusa energy ni yoru dokuritsu bunsangata hatsuden gijutsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Development is under way of a power generation system utilizing pressure difference during fuel gas transportation, independent from the outside and installable in the vicinity of the load. It is assumed that power is supplied to a decompression device in a fuel gas supply pipeline. Fuel gas placed under high pressure in the mainline is decompressed upon arriving at a consumer area. The intended technology of utilizing the now-unused pressure difference will be employed for power generation, and energy will be collected accordingly. Activities are conducted in the three fields of (1) the acquisition of heat sources for heating, (2) the development of technologies for compensating for seasonal and daily load variations on gas or power, and (3) the development of control technologies to cope with emergency. In field (1), a system is developed, independent from external heat sources, to operate on an indirect heating system based on a heating furnace. In domain (2), it is proved that high efficiency system operation will be available if the influence of gas pipeline transportation parameters on load variations is analyzed for the effective utilization of the pipeline operating system. (NEDO)

  4. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Feasibility survey on conservation of energy and reduction of warming gas emission; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Seitogyo no sho energy oyobi ondanka gas sakugen kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Upon the request from the Ministry of Agriculture of the Polish Government, a survey has been performed on three sugar production factories (Lesmierz, Lapy and Werbkowice) in Poland in relation with conservation of energy and reduction of warming gas emission. The survey has been made from the following two aspects: improvement of energy utilization efficiency in the sugar production processes, and efficiency improvement and fuel conversion in the boilers being the energy supplying source. As a result of the discussions on the sugar production process improvement, annual fuel conservation of 304,495 GJ (or 12,688 tons as converted to coal) in total for the three factories, or the energy saving rate of 28% was obtained. Regarding the greenhouse gas emission, an effect of reducing 25,235 tons, or a reduction rate of 27% was achieved. In the combination of the sugar production process improvement and the boiler improvement, the fuel conservation will be 18,363 tons as converted into coal, and the reduction of the greenhouse gas emission will be 56,107 tons. However, when based on the present coal price and natural gas price, the improvement efforts will not be realizable economically for both of Lesmierz and Werbkowice factories, hence comprehensive judgment is required from the viewpoint of the fuel price and environment preservation expense in the future. (NEDO)

  5. Survey of selecting the promising drilling points out of the ground survey of the FY 1992 geothermal development promotion survey. Soil gas survey (No.C-1 - Shirotori area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chijo chosa no uchi yubo kussaku chiten sentei chosa (Dojo gas chosa) hokokusho (No. C-1 Shirotori chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As a part of the survey of selecting promising drilling points, survey was made using soil gas to grasp the area of existence of geothermal fluid in the area for careful examination and the locational distribution of fractures controlling the behavior of fluid. In the survey, the concentration of Hg in soil gas/carbon isotopic ratio of CO2 were measured at 247 measuring points. Generally speaking, there existed the hydrothermal fluid along the structure controlling geothermal activities in the area where the concentration of Hg in soil gas is high, and the volcanic gas as a heating source of geothermal fluid was rising in the area where the carbon isotopic ratio is high. In the survey, areas where both the Hg concentration and the carbon isotopic ratio were high were extracted as promising areas where the high temperature geothermal fluid possibly exists. The promising areas extracted were the periphery of the Daiichi (No.1) Shirotori Hot Spring, periphery of KT-4, southern periphery of N4-ST-2, periphery of 54E-OBN-1 - 54E-OBN-2, and periphery of N4-ST-2. Besides, a possibility of existence of geothermal fluid was indicated in the northeast of N4-ST-1 and in the northeast of KT-9. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report (edition B) for fiscal 1999 on development of technology to manufacture coal gas for fuel cells. Studies by using pilot test facilities (Volumes for equipment fabrication and constructions, and trial run design); 1999 nendo seika hokokusho (B ban). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (kisokoji kiki seisaku hen shiunten sekkei hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop a coal gas manufacturing system for fuel cells, research and development has been performed on a oxygen-blown coal gasifier and researches on a technology to purify gases for fuel cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The current fiscal year has performed, among other the pilot plant construction works, execution of the above-the-ground constructions for the operation center and compressor room building, construction of the cooling water tanks, and partial improvement of roads in the plant site. In the gasifier facilities, items of equipment were fabricated, some of the outsourced articles were procured, and the installations thereof were carried out. For the gas purifying equipment, installation of the gas analyzer room was executed. In the trial run design, discussions were given on the systematic improvements in the test items, the gas sampling procedures, the unit protecting interlock, and the facility protecting logic. For the trial run design, establishment has been implemented on the efficient and functional test plans by establishing priority on the tests to be executed, so that the development items demanded in the pilot test and research can be achieved within the limited test processes. (NEDO)

  7. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Project to utilize coal bed methane gas for power generation in Poland; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Poland tanko methane gas hatsuden riyo keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Having the Mining Industry Restructuring Public Corporation located in the city of Katowice, Poland as the counterpart, a feasibility study has been executed on a project to utilize coal bed gas for power generation. Selected for the study are the 'Budryk coal mine' owned by KWK 'Budryk' Coal Company and the 'Pniowek coal mine' owned by Jastrzebie Coal Company. Since the Pniowek coal mine can utilize the whole quantity of recovered methane by 2001, the Budryk coal mine was selected as the object of the project. As a result of the trial calculation on the economy when the new gas power plant is installed in the Budryk coal mine, the energy substitution effect was found to equal to a power amount at transmission terminal of 6 MWh/year. Furthermore, when proliferation effect is taken into consideration, an enormous effect can be expected if new coal mines are developed and the existing cola mines will go further deeper, because the Silesian coal mine presently has the coal resource quantity of 57 billion tons and the annual gas discharge quantity of 750 million m{sup 3}. Therefore, if the technologies to recover, manage and utilize the gas are established at the Budryk coal mine, a large effect leading to an aspiration would be expected under the current situation of the structural reorganization under which the Polish coal companies are placed. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on research and development of industrial technologies. Research and development of synergy ceramics (Research and development of ultrahigh temperature gas turbine for power generation); 2000 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu (hatsuden'yo chokoon gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The fruits of fiscal 2000 efforts to develop high temperature energy materials and ultraprecision materials are briefly described. Activities are conducted in the four fields of (1) materials derivation and advanced evaluation/design technologies, (2) application technologies, (3) common base technologies, and (4) multifunction realization process evaluation. Discussed in field (1) are high temperature energy materials, high performance active materials, fundamental technologies for member designing, active materials for dealing with environmental gas, silicon based high resistance energy materials, porous multiple layer ceramic materials, macro-/micro-scale stress analysis technology, and microfracture analysis technology. Discussed in field (2) are heat resistant and damage tolerant materials, heat shielding materials and energy absorbing materials, and nanofilter materials capable of selective separation. In the study of active materials specific for environmental gas, a catalyst is developed, stable at high temperatures and capable of treating NOx selectively. The catalyst is a layered product comprising Ba hexaaluminate layers and stabilized zirconia layers. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on research and development of industrial technologies. Research and development of synergy ceramics (Research and development of ultrahigh temperature gas turbine for power generation); 2000 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu (hatsuden'yo chokoon gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The fruits of fiscal 2000 efforts to develop high temperature energy materials and ultraprecision materials are briefly described. Activities are conducted in the four fields of (1) materials derivation and advanced evaluation/design technologies, (2) application technologies, (3) common base technologies, and (4) multifunction realization process evaluation. Discussed in field (1) are high temperature energy materials, high performance active materials, fundamental technologies for member designing, active materials for dealing with environmental gas, silicon based high resistance energy materials, porous multiple layer ceramic materials, macro-/micro-scale stress analysis technology, and microfracture analysis technology. Discussed in field (2) are heat resistant and damage tolerant materials, heat shielding materials and energy absorbing materials, and nanofilter materials capable of selective separation. In the study of active materials specific for environmental gas, a catalyst is developed, stable at high temperatures and capable of treating NOx selectively. The catalyst is a layered product comprising Ba hexaaluminate layers and stabilized zirconia layers. (NEDO)

  10. Commissioned operation report for fiscal 1992 on commissioning of surveying high-level development and effective utilization of natural gas, and development of coal hydrogasification technology; 1992 nendo tennen gas kodo kaihatsu yuko riyo chosa tou itaku gyomu hokokusho. Sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    With an objective of establishing a practically usable process to manufacture substitution natural gas, discussions have been given on the technical, economical, and developmental problems therein. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1992. With respect to the possibility of applying the coal SNG to power generation fuel, a power generation system composed of coal SNG, pipeline transportation and natural gas was recognized of having the significance of technological development because of its capability of raising the power plant utilization rate and possibility of being superior in the economic aspect. In the study on enhancement of aqueous solution yield, performance of the ARCH-2 reactor was discussed by the simulation forecast using a mathematical model, whereas the benzene yield was found possible to be raised up to 15% in the carbon conversion rate. As the target of the hydrogasification process to be developed by Japan, based on the study results of the current fiscal year, three points consisted of SNG yield maximization, cooling gas efficiency maximization, and BTV yield maximization were indicated, and it was proposed that a process having flexibility in the product yield should be developed. (NEDO)

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of coal gasification (Feasibility study of fluidized gasification process by pressurized hydrogenation); 1982 nendo sekitan gas ka no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaatsu suiten ryudo gas ka process no feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the 'Research and development of high-calorie gas production technology (Fluidized gasification process by pressurized hydrogenation)' entrusted to the Mifuji Ironworks during the period 1974-1977 and then entrusted to the Babcock-Hitachi K.K. in the period 1978-present. The hydrogenation gasification process is characterized in that hydrogen serves as the gasification agent for the generation of a methane-rich high-calorie gas. It is preferred that the gasification temperature be relatively low and the pressure high for a hydrogenation gasification reaction. Under the Sunshine Program, development efforts are under way to produce a high-calorie gas, clean and its combustion easy to control, under a pressure of 30kg/cm{sup 2}G, more or less. In this pressurized gasification process, it is important to acquire high-concentration hydrogen for hydrogenation gasification simultaneously with the hydrogenation gasification reaction. In order to achieve the goal, a study is made of a new separated reaction type wet gasification furnace capable of generating high-concentration hydrogen efficiently and economically, and research is under way for the development of such a furnace. The results of element studies and of this feasibility study, and future tasks are compiled into this report. (NEDO)

  12. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology for a closed type high-efficiency gas turbine handling recovery of carbon dioxide (Research and development in the first term); 1999 nendo nisanka tanso kaishu taio closed gata kokoritsu gas turbine gijutsu daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been made on a gas turbine that can separate and recover carbon dioxide without discharging nitrogen oxides by means of oxygen combustion of natural gas (methane). This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The system discussions included those on accuracy of a performance analyzing program, sensitivity analysis, and a possibility of constructing a closed verification device in case of using the existing gas turbines. In developing the combustion control technology, design, trial fabrication, and combustion tests were carried out on combustion nozzles. As a result, it was discovered that achieving the combustion efficiency of 98% or higher is possible as the development target for the time being. In developing the turbine blade cooling technology, two-dimensional analysis was performed on heat fluidity between blades by using the low Reynolds k-{epsilon} method, wherein relatively good agreement with measurement results was obtained. In developing major auxiliary devices, a high-pressure compressor was designed, and candidate materials for a condenser and a heat exchanger were tested. In developing ultra high temperature materials, an oxidation test was performed on the undercoat for TBC, and a steam oxidation test on TMS-75. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1999 basic study for promotion of joint implementation. Study of greenhouse gas reduction by modifying the power generation system of a power station in the Republic of Kazakhstan; 1999 nendo Kazakhstan ni okeru hatsudensho no hatsuden system kaishu ni yoru onshitsu koka gas sakugen ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A feasibility study is conducted aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by refurbishing obsolete power stations in Shymkent City, the Republic of Kazakhstan. The clean development mechanism is also discussed. Aircraft engine-derived 20MW-class gas turbine cogenerators will be introduced, one each into a 1st and 2nd power stations. A simple-cycle model of the same will also be introduced into the 1st power station. The facility costs will be US$61.279 million for the 1st power station and US$33.590 million for the 2nd power station. The amount of fuel to be saved will be 238.6-thousand tons/year in terms of oil, totalling 5,964-thousand tons in a 25-year period. As for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, there will be a 737.9-thousand tons/year reduction in terms of CO2, meaning a total reduction of 18.448-thousand ton in a 25-year period. An FIRRROI (Financial Internal Rate of Return on Investment) is tentatively calculated using power and heat prices presented by the other party. The result of calculation shows that the net cash flow before and after tax stays negative throughout the whole operating period, which means a total lack of cost effectiveness. This is attributed to the low power and heat unit prices set by the other party, extremely lower than the internationally accepted prices. The FIRRROI after tax will turn positive when the unit prices are 1.5 times higher and the total investment is reduced by 20%. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1998 survey report. Survey on reduction in environmental effect of greenhouse effect gas by the transfer of environmental technology in the Asian region; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Asia chiiki ni okeru kankyo gijutsu iten ni yoru onshitsu koka gas no kankyo eikyo keigen ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Effects of the transfer of environmental technology were studied as an important policy for control of greenhouse effect gas in the Asian region. As schemes, those that were drew up by NEDO, JICA, etc. now exist and are used also in Japan. However, for the control of greenhouse effect gas emission which is expected to rapidly increase in future, it is indispensable to construct a new powerful and effective scheme in which technology transfer and fund to be given are organically connected. Especially, in the U.S., etc., the assistance of developing countries of a huge amount of money such as Japan's ODA is not extended. However, they position the environmental technology as an important strategy and is developing the assistance of developing countries by technology transfer and eco-business of private companies. Also in the eco-business field, the environment-related technology of Japanese companies is used in Asian developing countries, with expectations of its being a new business with international competitive strength. This is the subject for the whole global environment, and an important subject also for Japan which requires the creation of a new business field with international competitive strength. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1997 report of the R and D result of industrial science and technology. R and D on synergy ceramics (R and D on an ultrahigh-temperature gas turbine for power generation); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu (hatsuden`yo chokoon gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For development of high-efficiency power generation gas turbines using petroleum substituting energy, the process technology which can highly harmonize conflicting characteristics and various functions was developed for new ceramic materials. This paper summarizes the result in fiscal 1997. On design technology of the characteristics harmonizing process, the design and synthesis of ceramic precursors were made by using chemical reaction of metal organics. On analysis of fracture behavior by controlling microscopic and macroscopic particle shapes, orientations were observed by convergent ion beam. On control technology of a structure formation process, study was made on continuous pore shape control to form porous material with uni-directionally arranged pores in ceramic matrix, interface control between particles to decrease a plastic deformation temperature and improve a heat insulation, interface control between phases of a rare-earth silicate/silicon-carbide-based composite, boundary control between layers of piezoelectric ceramics, and boundary control of the composite where inorganic-organic hybrids occupy the interface between ceramic particles. 79 refs., 193 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 2000 survey on electrical power supply system for the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas. Three scenarios for spread of distributed power generation by 2010; 2000 nendo onshitsu koka gas sakugen no tame no denryoku kyokyu system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 2010 nen made no bunsangata dengen fukyu ni kansuru mittsu no scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An examination was conducted concerning the course of spread of distributed power generation (on-site power generation of 2,000 kW or less) by the year 2010, with three scenarios prepared. In the scenario 1, the government will completely deregulates the power market and take no other steps, leaving the matter to market competition. The universal service will be abandoned, which means higher power prices for remote regions, contributing to the spread of home power generation. In the scenario 2, the government, having reached the limits of the nuclear propulsion policy, will adopt natural gas as the center of its electrical power policy, providing preferential treatments such as subsidies and tax exemptions and requesting the power companies to increase their usage. This will lead to higher transmission charges, with distributed power generation more advantageous to the IPPs in terms of cost. In the scenario 3, environmental awareness will make increase in the capacity quite difficult including power generation facilities and transmission/distribution network, and will invite a power crisis in the long run through insufficient capacity in power generation and transmission/distribution volume. Distributed power generation requiring no reinforcement to the grid will spread such as household-use type without system interconnection, solar cells or small fuel cells. (NEDO)

  17. Report on 1977 result of Sunshine Project. Test research for detailed design of coal gasification plant (pressure fluidized gasification method for mixed material of coal/heavy oil); 1977 nendo sekitan gas ka plant no shosai sekkei no tame no shiken kenkyu seika hokokusho. Sekitan jushitsuyu kongo genryo no kaatsu ryudo gas ka hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    Since fiscal 1974, development has been implemented for the coal/heavy oil hybrid gasification process which converts coal and heavy oil simultaneously to clean fuel gas. With the purpose of obtaining basic data to be reflected on the detailed design of 7,000 Nm{sup 3}/d pilot plant of the subject process started in fiscal 1977, implemented this year were (1) test on high pressure valves and (2) research on operation studies. In (1), a life test device for high pressure operation valves will be designed and manufactured so that basic materials may be obtained for the development of durable operation valves to be used in a high temperature and high pressure coal/heavy oil slurry feeding device. Operation studies of a low pressure slurry feeding device will be continued, accumulating data required for the design of the coal/heavy oil slurry feeding device. In (2), studies will be started on the operation of a 300{phi}(diameter) internal heat type low pressure gasification device, collecting know-how for the model and design of the gasification furnace of the pilot plant. Gasification experiments will be continued using the high pressure gasification device, so that gasification characteristics under a high pressure will be grasped to examine the optimization of gasification conditions. In addition, a fluidized bed quencher test equipment will be designed and manufactured. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the survey to support the R and D on the development of the coal/natural gas use CO2 recovery/utilization technology; 2000 nendo sekitan tennen gas katsuyogata nisanka tanso kaishu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu shien chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In this study, technology to rationalize energy utilization is developed by which CO2 is efficiently converted into methanol which is the next generation liquid fuel by reacting CO2 with coal, natural gas and steam using solar heat. Together with this study, survey/study are conducted of the trend of the related element technology and the total system technology, trend of the competitive technology, study of comparison with the competitive technology, economical efficiency, possibility of the commercialization, etc. In this report, in Chapter 1, summarized are the trend of the R and D which each country conducts with the aim of using abundant solar energy in the Sun Belt and the trend of other R and D of energy utilization in each country. In Chapter 2, the paper describes the technology that Japan is now developing and the developmental trend of the related technology. In Chapter 3, the methanol supply/demand balance and the related researches were arranged. The most important points in future commercialization of the said technology are the establishment of technology and the economical efficiency. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 Study report. Feasibility study on model project for effective utilization of sensible heat of off gas from hot stoves at blast furnaces in India; 2000 nendo Indo ni okeru koro netsufuro hai gas kennetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a model project in India for the energy saving effect and reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions by introducing blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery systems in steelworks. The blast furnaces studied are Blast Furnace G at Jamshedpur Steelworks of TISCO, the largest private steel maker in India, and No.7 Blast Furnace at Bhilai Steelworks of state-operated Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL). The study results indicate that the annual energy-saving effects of 8,255 and 8,190 tons as heavy oil, and annual CO2 emission reduction of 25,543 and 25,342 tons are expected in the TISCO and SAIL blast furnaces, respectively, in the case of increasing blast temperature and reducing blast furnace fuel coke (increased iron production possible). The model project is applicable to both blast furnaces. There are a total of 46 blast furnaces in India in which the heat recovery systems can be introduced. The nation-wide annual energy saving and CO2 abatement would reach 126,202 tons as heavy oil and 390,501 tons, when all of these blast furnaces could be provided with the heat recovery systems. (NEDO)

  20. Reports on 1977 result of Sunshine Project. Research for detailed design of coal gasification plant (studies on operating conditions 'pressurized hydro-fluidized gasification method', dissolution of research equipment); 1977 nendo sekitan gas ka plant no shosai sekkei no tame no shiken kenkyu seika hokokusho. Unten joken no kenkyu 'kaatsu suiten ryudo gas ka hoshiki' kenkyu kaitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    The pressurized hydro-fluidized gasification method is such that coal is hydro-gasified under a pressure of 30kg/cm{sup 3} to produce a methane-rich calorie gas. This method is a combination of three independent processes, namely, (1) thermal cracking of coal, (2) hydrogasification of thermally decomposed product, and (3) water gasification for self-contained hydrogen, and is a continuous gasification method in which all processes are operated in a fluidized bed. In fiscal 1976, an operation technique was found in which conditions suitable for each reaction purpose were given to a detached thermal cracking furnace and hydrogasification furnace and in which continuous gasification was still maintained without an adverse effect between the two furnaces. This year, the continuous gasification test will be implemented successively, determining suitable operating conditions for the purpose of increasing methane concentration and improving gasification efficiency, and concurrently extracting device-related problems that impair the continuous operation. With the aim of obtaining a self-contained system for hydrogen, water gasification tests will be conducted, with the optimum conditions determined for the water gasification. An operation test will be carried out for an internal heat type control box, so that the functions under pressurization, durability and operation criteria will be determined. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells (Research using pilot test facility - for public release); 2000 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2000 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, part of the road in the site was constructed as continued from the preceding fiscal year. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, some of the devices were built, which were the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and the char recovery device, and some of the thus-built devices and procured devices were installed. In the study of the control of the operation of the oxygen-blown coal gasification system, the pilot test facility was divided into unit devices and, for each of the unit devices, detailed procedures for pre-start preparation, start, stop, and for the stop of accessorise were deliberated, and important operating steps were worked out. Timing charts were prepared for the operation of each of the facilities during plant start/stop operations. In the effort to deal with serious accidents, special operation procedures were studied and prepared on the case-by-case basis. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1999 report on the plan to implement the model project for effective utilization of blast furnace gas pressure energy and the potential survey of the spread in India; 1999 nendo Indo ni okeru koro gas atsuryoku energy yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi keikaku oyobi fukyu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to the implementation of 'the model project for effective utilization of blast furnace gas pressure energy' and the possibility of spreading the said technology, survey/study were conducted, and the results were reported. The enterprise implementing the model project, Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), has been investing a total of 300 billion yen in modernizing facility/equipment after the liberalization in 1992, which is a cause of a large amount of deficit. About SAIL' cash flow, it is expected that SAIL will go into the black after tax in and after 2002. Local financial institutions are careful in investing in the iron/steel industry, but they have no problems in their own financing ability. In the evaluation of economical efficiency on the commercial basis, it is difficult to implement this model if using power prices, customs duties and borrowing rates in India as conditions. However, when preferential measures such as the exemption from taxation and help to borrowing rates are taken for energy conservation facility/equipment and the cost reduction is realized by technical cooperation, etc., it will be possible to recover the investment in 5 years. As to the possibility of spreading this model, the blast furnace with a capacity of 1000{sup 3} or more is targeted, and the number of the targeted blast furnace is 23. (NEDO)

  3. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote the joint implementation. Potential survey of the greenhouse effect gas reduction by high-efficient utilization of the oil residue in Bataan Refinery in the Philippines; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Philippines koku Bataan seiyusho ni okeru sekiyu zansa kokoritsu riyo ni yoru onshitsu koka gas sakugen kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the CO2 emitted from electricity/vapor supply facilities of Bataan Refinery in the Philippines, study was conducted of optimum energy supply facilities considering the effective use of the oil residue and future reinforcement of the refinery. Concerning the high-pressure/high-temperature condensing extraction boiler/turbine cogeneration, gas turbine cogeneration and low speed diesel engine cogeneration, comparative study was carried out in terms of thermal efficiency, reliability/preservation, environmental acceptability, effectiveness of measures for the future excessive oil residue, etc. As a result, the study was concluded as follows: the electric power consumption will markedly increase in the future; however, in the light of the situation of the refinery where the vapor demand will not increase, it is the most suitable to use low speed diesel engine cogeneration facilities as on-site power generation facilities which can burn the excessively increasing oil residue as direct fuel. The CO2 reduction effect estimated from the project on the present scale was 132,880 t-CO2/y, and the energy conservation effect estimated was 50,861 toe/y. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1989. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Development of test and evaluation methods for ceramic member bonding technology); 1989 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ceramic buzai setsugo gijutsu no shiken hyoka hoho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    Development of test and evaluation methods has been performed on a technology to bond ceramics with metals as a support to develop a ceramic gas turbine (CGT), from the viewpoint that what governs bonding is residual stress. Activities were made in the following three fields: 1) investigative studies, 2) tests and researches, and 3) analytical studies. In Item 1, literatures were investigated, and research plans were established with regard to residual stress. Selections were made on Si3N4 as the ceramics, ordinary steel (S45C) as the metal, butt joint bonding of flat plates with each other as the bonding method, X-ray stress measuring method and IF method (semi-destructive test) as the residual stress measuring methods, and the finite element method as the analytical method. In Item 2, bonded test pieces were made, and the residual stress measuring test was performed to discuss the test and evaluation methods in relation with the bonding patterns and adaptability of the bonding. In Item 3, basic discussions were given on applicability of the residual stress analysis method using the finite element method, and on analysis of the affecting factors and modeling. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Part 1 - Construction and test operation); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Sono 1 - Koji shiken unten hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2001 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, work involved the road in the site, road illumination system installation in the site, and an unauthorized entry prevention system. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, work involved electrical instrumentation and painting for the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and so forth, and the installation of a series of devices was completed. In July following the completion, power was received and test operations were started, which included the operation of the coal gasification facility alone. Renting was started in August for the coal pretreatment facility, air separation facility, and the slag treatment device. In the study of the operation control technology for the oxygen-blown coal gasification furnace system, test operations were conducted based on the operating procedures prepared in the preceding fiscal year, which included a test operation performed for the pilot test facility alone. Parameters for equipment control obtained through the test operations, and improvements on operating steps carried out as required, were all reflected on the operating procedures. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on research and development project for immediately effective and innovative energy environment technologies. Development of new natural gas storage technology using adsorbents; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kyuchaku zai wo mochiita shinkina ten'nen gasu chozo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation with natural gas which contributes to preserving the environment and reducing dependence on petroleum, research and development has been performed on a storage system using adsorbents that allows storage of natural gas at higher density than conventional systems. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In material development, the current fiscal year has performed the discussions on synthesis of three dimensional complexes. An adsorbent was synthesized successfully that has adsorption performance 2.5 times greater than the secondary complex. In developing an improved activated carbon, an adsorbent was synthesized successfully that has methane adsorption performance four times greater than the compressed gas, by using monolithic activated carbon that uses no binders. Carbon briquettes were manufactured for the basic testing equipment for fuel storage container of natural gas fueled automobiles. In the system development, installation was completed on a bench scale equipment for a gas holder and BOG treatment system, whereas engineering data were acquired from the single-column type high pressure test and two-column type constituent separation and storage test using natural gas. Selection was carried out on applicable vehicle types for the adsorption storage system for natural gas fueled automobiles, and the basic design was made for fabrication of containers of different shapes. (NEDO)

  7. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on research and development project for immediately effective and innovative energy environment technologies. Development of new natural gas storage technology using adsorbents; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kyuchaku zai wo mochiita shinkina ten'nen gasu chozo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation with natural gas which contributes to preserving the environment and reducing dependence on petroleum, research and development has been performed on a storage system using adsorbents that allows storage of natural gas at higher density than conventional systems. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In material development, the current fiscal year has performed the discussions on synthesis of three dimensional complexes. An adsorbent was synthesized successfully that has adsorption performance 2.5 times greater than the secondary complex. In developing an improved activated carbon, an adsorbent was synthesized successfully that has methane adsorption performance four times greater than the compressed gas, by using monolithic activated carbon that uses no binders. Carbon briquettes were manufactured for the basic testing equipment for fuel storage container of natural gas fueled automobiles. In the system development, installation was completed on a bench scale equipment for a gas holder and BOG treatment system, whereas engineering data were acquired from the single-column type high pressure test and two-column type constituent separation and storage test using natural gas. Selection was carried out on applicable vehicle types for the adsorption storage system for natural gas fueled automobiles, and the basic design was made for fabrication of containers of different shapes. (NEDO)

  8. Public subscription project for international joint research proposals in fiscal 2000 - public subscription of international proposal (substitution No.3). Report on achievements in research related to industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies - Separate volume; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.3). Gas hydrate gijutsu no sangyo riyo shakai system ka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (bessatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations were performed on important properties when utilization of gas hydrates to industries is discussed, such as production and decomposition speeds and storage stability. Activities have been taken in the following two fields: 1) experimental studies on production and decomposition of gas hydrates, and 2) summarized view on research related to gas hydrate self-retention effect. In Item 1), a production device of stirring system using rotating blades with gas circulation holes (self-suction type) was fabricated to have discussed the production and decomposition speeds. It was made clear that the production speed is governed by the over-cooling degree under the appropriate gas circulation and appropriate stirring conditions, and that the decomposition speed becomes abnormally high unless the self-retention status is maintained. In Item 2), following the introduction, seven researches were introduced, including the first observation of abnormal reaction of gas hydrate under the decreased pressure condition, the research by Yu. P. Handa related to gas hydrate decomposition below zero degree C, and the research by E. Mayer and A. Hall Brucker related to unexpectedly stable nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide and argon clathrate gas hydrate formed from amorphous solid water. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the survey of the calculation of the overall conversion efficiency in case of using natural gas for fuel cells, etc.; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Tennengas wo nenryodenchi ni mochiita baai no sogo henkan koritsu no santei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of fuel cell including the fuel supply system, survey was made of drilling of gas resource, conversion to liquid base fuel, transportation, storage, etc., the energy conversion efficiency was studied considering reforming characteristics of various fuels. In the comparison between LNG, methanol, DME and GTL that originate in natural gas and LPG and naphtha that originate in oil, a big difference is that methanol, DME and GTL were made through the conversion process with the large energy consumption. Namely, by the time before the reforming into hydrogen, the oil base indicated a higher efficiency in secondary energy fuel production than the natural gas base. Further, the reforming efficiency is the highest in methanol and DME, and there is a little difference between the integrated fuel cell (normal pressure) and the hydrogen production use fuel cell (pressurized). Concerning city gas and GTL, the efficiency is lower, affected by S/C. The overall efficiency is determined considering the conversion efficiency in other stages since it is determined by the conversion efficiency of up to the raw fuel and the energy conversion efficiency at PEFC. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research and development of semiconductor CVD chamber cleaning systems for electronic device manufacturing using new alternative gas instead of SF6, PFCs, and other gases; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SF6 tou ni daitaisuru gasu wo riyo shita denshi debaisu seizo cleaning system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The efforts aim to develop a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) mechanism cleaning gas with less environmental impact such as global warming and a CVD process using the same. The candidate gas synthesizing study for the development of such a gas continues from the preceding fiscal year. In addition, various candidate gases and tentatively synthesized gases are evaluated for their cleaning performance using a simplified experimental system. As the result, patent applications were filed for three novel alternative gases low in environmental impact and high in cleaning performance. In the research and development of CVD processes, a verification test process is developed for the evaluation of alternative gases at the real system level using a large CVD evaluation system. Studies are also made in which some existing gases are utilized to improve on CVD cleaning efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the process, one domestic patent application is made, and three essays are presented at an international conference on electrochemistry in the United States. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Development of the new field of usage of Orinoco oil for fuel of gas turbine combined power generation; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Gasu tabin fukugo hatsuden nenryo muke Orinoko oil no shin yoto kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    For the purpose of spreading the usage of Orinoco crude oil which is suffering from sluggishness in the export and heightening the economical efficiency in Venezuela, research cooperation was made for a project for reduction of the power cost and environmental loads in Japan by producing the advanced gas turbine use fuel oil from Orinoco oil and exporting it to Japan. In this project, conducted were the technical verification that the gas turbine use fuel oil (GTF) can be produced from Orinoco oil and the economical verification based on the result thereof. As a result of the technical verification, it was confirmed that from the Orinoco crude oil which is heavy, high in sulfur and high in heavy metal concentration, a refined oil satisfying the following properties of the advanced gas turbine fuel oil could be trial-produced using the distilling unit, SDA unit, desulfurizer and de-metaling unit: vanadium concentration: 0.5 wtppm or below; sodium + potassium concentration: 1.0 wtppm or below; viscosity: 20 cSt or below at 135 degrees C. Further, from the economical verification, the good result was obtained that the price was lower than the LNG price and the domestic price of A heavy oil/C heavy oil. (NEDO)

  12. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology to use gas hydrate as a resource (Research and development for exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and investigative research on a utilization system); 1999 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The contents of the research and development performed in the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) research and development for exploration, (2) research and development on drilling technologies, (3) investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and (4) investigative research on a utilization system. In Item (1), element analysis data are used to study a method to estimate production environment of hydrate ore beds by using an inorganic ion analyzer and a trace amount element analyzer, the crust thermal flow measuring method is used to discuss a method to analyze the hydrate stability zones together with the data of sea area exploration records, and conceptual design is made on a resource potential evaluation system. In Item (2), experiments and analytical discussions are performed on decomposition control of the gas hydrate solid-liquid interface according to such conditions for the drilling fluid as temperatures and flow rates. Elucidation is given on the initial process of bubble generation for behavior of decomposed gas bubbles. Observation and elucidation are made on two-phase flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluid. In Item (3), conceptual design is carried out on a system to detect elements of shape change in each bed due to fluid movement in a gas hydrate bed and an upper bed. In Item (4), discussions are given on the optimizing conditions for generation and dissociation of gas hydrates. Investigation is made also on a possibility of the transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  13. Report on investigation of new energy vision at Hamanaka Town area. Investigation theme 'Investigation on commercialization of bio-gas facility at Hamana Town'; 2001 nendo Hamanaka cho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou chosa hokokusho. Chosa tema Hamanaka cho baiogasu shisetsu jigyoka chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    In the 'new energy vision at Hamanaka Town area' planned in the previous fiscal year, investigations and discussions were given on commercialization of the 'bio-gas plant (joint type) utilizing livestock excreta, kitchen refuse, fishery-based wastes, dairy factory washing sludge, and sewage sludge'. The investigations were carried out for the joint type bio-gas plant on the local citizens' intention and participation, examples in Europe, examples in Japan, introduction of overseas examples of technological levels of the plant to be introduced, operating conditions of factories in Japan, and systems to be employed. In addition, discussions were given on economic evaluation on the business, and the nuclear organization of the business and operation, and effects of promoting the business. Issues in promoting the business included the fund supporting policies, assurance of operation rates in the severely cold season, maximization of electric power and thermal efficiencies, assurance of kitchen refuse resources, assurance of commission expense in the revenue aspect, assurance of major stockholders in the operating organization, assurance of the systems in the operation aspect, stocks of the new company to be possessed by Hamanaka Township residents, and acquisition of performance guarantee. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1999 research report. Support project for formation of the energy and environment technology demonstration project (International joint demonstration research). Underground coal gasification and cogeneration power plant construction plan; 1999 nendo sekitan chika gas ka oyobi netsuden heikyu plant kensetsu keikaku seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This research was made as the joint demonstration research project with National Mining University of Ukraine having abundant scientific information on underground coal gasification (UCG) technology. The research themes are as follows: (1) Verification of UCG element technologies, (2) Verification and proposal on combined cycle power generation, (3) Profitability of UCG, and (4) Future trend of UCG. The result of (1) on linking, ignition and UCG reaction process control technologies showed that the level of Ukraine is equivalent to that of leading western countries. Thermal behavior simulation on ground water, and experiment on mass transfer considering environment impact were also made. The result of (2) showed low calorific value of UCG gas, difficulty in use as chemical raw material or power generation fuel, and applicability to only small-scale cogeneration systems. The result of (3) showed the profitability of UCG gas higher than that of general coals. The result of (4) showed that in spite of various problems, UCG is very practical and promising as near future coal use technology. (NEDO)

  15. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  16. FY1998 report on the result of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. Building of the industrial waste management plant for controlling evolution of dioxins and high-efficiency heat recovery; 1998 nendo dioxin hassei yokushi kokoritsu netsu kaishugata sangyo haikibutsuyo shokyaku hai gas shori system no kochiku seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for small-size gasification melting furnace and exhaust gas treatment system to develop a small-size industrial waste incineration system capable of coping with the new standards, which simultaneously incinerates the waste and treats the resultant ashes, to control evolution of dioxins and, at the same time, recover heat at high efficiency. The studied items include controlling evolution of dioxins by removing salts of heavy metals (e.g., copper) and quenching exhaust gases in a ceramic heat-exchanger, and development of the materials for filters and high-temperature mist separators serviceable under severe conditions. For building the systems, the plant comprising a pyrolysis/gasification melting furnace, high-temperature dust collector and ceramic heat exchanger is designed, constructed and continuously operated for an extended period. As a result, it has been confirmed that the system can be operated stably, evolution of dioxins can be controlled, self-heat recovery type system can be developed, and dust can be reduced in volume. (NEDO)

  17. Report on results of feasibility study in fiscal 1986 on use of coal in next generation high efficiency power generation system - research commissioned by Moonlight project propulsion room of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. MHD generation subcommittee; 1986 nendo jisedai kokoritsu hatsuden system no sekitan gas riyo feasibility chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho (Kogyo Gijutsuin Moonlight keikaku suishinshitsu itaku chosa). MHD hatsuden bunkakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    A research study was done on MHD generation by coal gasificating combustion. MHD generation is a very attractive power generation system such that efficiency is as high as 55%, that preservation of the environment is superior, and that coal can be used as fuel. The open cycle seems suitable for a one million kW class as a base load following up load fluctuation of approximately 20%, while the closed cycle for 200-300 thousand kW class doing daily start-stop. With a mind to a scale of 30 MWt, in the open cycle, R and D is required in such items as a coal gas combustor, generation channel, high temperature air heater, and seed/slag recovery device. In the closed cycle, R and D is required in the generation channel, high temperature helium heater/high temperature valve, seed injection/recovery device, operation technique of helium closed loop, etc.. Moreover, as a total system, development is necessary in the areas of conceptual design and optimization method, partial load operation and DSS operation method, for example. (NEDO)

  18. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  19. Report on diagnosis and survey on research cooperation in the research cooperation promotion project in fiscal 1994. Research cooperation on manufacturing clean fuel for consumer use from gasified coal gas / Research cooperation on a method for pulp manufacturing of low-pollution and energy saving type by using non-wood raw materials; 1994 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo 'kenkyu kyoryoku shindan chosa' hokokusho. Sekitan gas ka gas kara no minseiyo clean nenryo seizo ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku / himokuzaikei genryo wo mochiita teikogai shoenegata pulp seizoho ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    In solving the problems in developing technologies peculiar to developing countries, Japan will provide cooperation. This paper describes the achievements in diagnosis and survey in fiscal 1994. Development will be made on a manufacturing process for dimethylether (DME), a synthesizable and portable clean fuel, by using coal produced in China. Annual DME production of 10,000 tons will make it possible to supply 50,000 households with the fuel of one year consumption, whereas return on the construction investment and profit can be expected. At the Shanxi Coal Chemistry Research Institute, a 500 tons a year plant making DME from gasified coal gas is scheduled to begin operation. Development will be made on a pulp manufacturing technology in China, in which environmental pollution due to waste water is largely reduced, and operation cost is reduced. Application of the oxygen-alkaline evaporation and decomposition process developed in Japan will be considered, which uses non-wood raw material such as rice straw, wheat straw and megass). The raw materials are immersed continually in low-concentration alkaline solution, dehydrated, and then lignin is oxidized and decomposed by using oxygen in a continuous oxidation reactor to make the material into pulp. China uses non-wood materials as paper raw materials at 80%, whereas effects are expected in waste water pollution prevention, energy saving, resource saving and economics. (NEDO)

  20. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  1. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  2. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  3. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO (book on the handling / gas lift system). Report on the results of the R and D of the overall base technology of ocean resources (R and D of submarine oil drilling technology, etc.); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shine Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kaiyo shigen sogo kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kaitei sekiyu kussaku gijutsu nado kenkyu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho (handling / gas lift system hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper conducted a R and D on the handling of drilling equipment in drilling/collecting of submarine oil and the gas lift of artificial oil extraction technology. As to each equipment of a barge style handling system, conducted were assembly/adjustment/trial run on land and pipe handling experiments on sea. In the experiment, confirmed were pipe transfer function, lifting function, fitting function, grasping function, etc. In the ocean experiment, studied were pipe bending stress, Karman vortex control effects, etc. Relating to the gas lift system, experiments were made on confirmation of fabrication/performance of air compressor. Moreover, a technique of air transportation to the blowing inlet of the gas lift pipe was established by developing an air blowing system and fabricating a long-distance flexible pipe. Concerning the gas/liquid/solid three-phase separator, a cyclone separator was developed, and improvement in lifting efficiency was confirmed. Helped by these, the problems of the gas lift system were almost solved, and a possibility of the commercial-base production system was obtained. 2 refs., 182 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. Gas manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, J W

    1915-05-03

    Retorts for the distillation of shale or coal for the production of oil or illuminating-gas are heated by gas from a generator or a gas-holder, and a portion of the gas from the flue leading to the heating-flues is forced by a steam jet through a by-pass and is injected into the bottom of the retorts. If the gas to be admitted to the retort is cold, it is first heated.

  5. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  6. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  7. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  8. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  9. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  10. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1947-05-01

    A short description of the process is given, with gas yields from various feedstocks, and the composition of the gas. Short descriptions of several batch digester designs are given: Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofta, and Somagaz. The utilization and the economics of the process are discussed. Two diagrams of Ducellier and Isman designs are included.

  11. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  12. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  13. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  14. Gas dusulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.E.; Bakhshi, V.S.; Randolph, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for adsorbing sulfur dioxide from a gas comprising contacting a gas containing SO 2 , such as a flue gas, with about stoichiometric amounts of a specially prepared calcium oxide so that substantially all of the sulfur dioxide content is reacted throughout the calcium oxide particle to form a calcium sulfate reaction product. The useful calcium oxide particles comprise a highly voided skeletal structure of very large surface area and large pore volume with numerous macro pores. Such particles are obtained by flash calcining sand-size grains of calcium carbonate, such as aragonite, calcite or dolomite

  15. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  16. Volcanic Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offensive odor. It is sometimes referred to as sewer gas. Interestingly, the human nose is more sensitive ... the atmosphere where they can potentially cause acid rain. In an ash -producing eruption, ash particles are ...

  17. Gas - flatulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and other symptoms such as stomach pain, rectal pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fever, or ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  18. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  19. Tomorrow, gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icart, Laura; Jean, Pascale; Georget, Cyrille; Schmill, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This document contains 12 articles notably addressing the importance of natural gas production and supplies in Europe. The themes of the articles are: the advantages of natural gas in the context of energy and environmental policies, energy diversification, energy supply in the local territories, etc.; the position of GrDF, one of the main French natural gas supplier; LPG (butane, propane), a solution which popularity grows in remote areas; the Gaya project (production of renewable gas from dry biomass); a panorama of gas supply routes in Europe; the situation of gas in Europe's energy supply and consumption; the promotion of LNG fuel for maritime and fluvial ships; why the small scale LNG could be the next revolution; presentation of the new 'Honfleur' ferry (using LNG fuel) that will cross the English Channel by 2019; carbon market and the role of ETS for the energy policy in Europe facing the climatic change challenge; presentation of the French 'Climate Plan' that aims to engage France into a carbon neutrality by 2050; presentation of the French policy against air pollution; economic growth, energy, climate: how to square this circle?

  20. Gas war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1992-01-01

    The sale of natural gas to California is one of the most complex and contested trade disputes between the USA and Canada. The background and the issues involved are discussed. An oversupply of Canadian gas, combined with USA subsidies for producing coalbed methane and a general oversupply of gas in the USA, have made spot gas prices decline to unexpectedly low levels. California regulators have responded to this situation by trying to secure the lowest possible prices for consumers, thereby causing them to abandon long-standing trade policies with Canada. The main agent of this change is the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), whose actions have reduced the value of Canadian exports and Alberta government revenues by at least $250 million annually. CPUC supported buying from a supply pool (Alberta ampersand Southern Gas) since it provided monopoly purchasing power, and CPUC's policy against pipeline expansion produced the limited access to California that the CPUC now cites as evidence of a producer cartel. CPUC has interfered in contracts with Canadian producers in its pipeline access policies, its capacity brokering decision of 1991, and its reasonableness test for past sales. In its haste to force its own view of market results onto existing contractual relationships, the CPUC is not allowing open negotiations to reshape the relationship, and CPUC actions may be generating countermeasures by Alberta that are inappropriate under deregulation. 3 figs

  1. Gas attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, D.

    1977-08-01

    Consumersfirst Ltd. is reacting to deregulation with a massive advertising campaign. The gas utility is owned by Consumers Gas Energy Inc., and is struggling to hold onto its 35 per cent share of Ontario`s two million residential natural gas buyers. An industry analyst pointed out that deregulation could mean that Consumers` Gas has much to lose: customers, market share, control of the assets and control of the process. The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) however, had specified that Consumersfirst is not to proceed with paperwork to sign up new customers until the OEB issues a draft code-of-conduct that would prevent cross-subsidizing between regulated franchise holders. This has now been done, and several heavyweights such as Calgary-based Suncor Energy Inc., Union Gas of Chatham, Ontario, and the US-based Enron Corp. of Houston, have started campaigns to sign up potential consumers. It is predicted that brand loyalty will be a factor, but in the end, like long distance telephone rates, it will all come down to pricing, and a winning formula is not easy to find.

  2. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    , not all of them are white like snow. Some hydrates from the deep Gulf of Mexico are richly colored in shades of yellow, orange, or even red. The ice-like masses are beautiful, and contrast with the dull gray of deep sea muds. Hydrates from the Blake... volcanoes and associated gas hydrates: Marine Geology, v. 167, p. 29-42. Milkov, A.V. and R. Sassen, 2001a, Estimate of gas hydrate resource, northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: Marine Geology, v. 179, pp. 71-83. Milkov, A.V., Sassen, R...

  3. Cowdung gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A basic guide for the design and construction of a small biogas plant is presented. The gas holder consists of a battery of seven used oil drums bound together with interconnected via plastic piping. Most other components, with the exception of metal valves and joints, are made of wood, stone or cement.

  4. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  5. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1948-11-01

    Descriptions are given of several batch digesters: the Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofla, and Somagaz designs. Sketches of two Ducellier and Isman designs are given with a photograph of an installation consisting of four contiguous, rectangular concrete tanks. There are short explanations of the fundamentals and economics of the process, and of the use of the gas.

  6. Report for fiscal 1998 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1998 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The gasification technology subcommittee met on August 4 and November 17, 1998, and on March 10, 1999. Reported for deliberation were the research plan for coal hydrogasification technology development, its progress, and its achievements. On the other hand, the fuel cell-oriented coal gasification subcommittee met on July 23, 1998, and February 26, 1999, when studies were reported for deliberation concerning the development of a coal gasification technology for fuel cells, research plans, and research achievements. Reported in relation to studies using experimenting units were findings acquired using a small test unit, development of an injector, tests using a hot and cold models, development of a cooled char flow extraction technology, development of a highly concentrated powder transportation technology, and conceptual designs of next-generation facilities. A report was also delivered on survey and research on the friendliness toward the community of the development of coal hydrogasification technologies. Furthermore, a plan for reinforcing the system for evaluating the development of coal hydrogasification technologies was brought under deliberation. (NEDO)

  7. Report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1988; 1989 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1988. It summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the technology sub-committee meetings. In developing the coal utilizing hydrogen manufacturing technology, a high-temperature coal gasification pilot plant of the jet flow bed type with a capacity of 50 tons a day will be built. The plan covers five years from fiscal 1986 through fiscal 1990. Fiscal 1988 has performed the detailed design, civil and building constructions, device fabrication, and their installation. Studies are also being carried out by using a small equipment as the studies on supports. For furnace materials in trial production and development of the materials, discussions are given on iron oxide burst (refractories made mainly of Cr ore absorb iron oxide from slag, resulting in deterioration), for which improvement will be attempted. The crucible method and the slag mounting method were used for tests as the purely static testing method. Although no abnormal expansion in the structure can be recognized in any of the tested materials, internal penetration of slag takes place in association with temperature rise. Difference in melting loss appears in the surface parts, which requires more detailed investigation. ZrB2 (ceramics and sintered refractory) is a promising material. Evaluation was given on healthiness of repaired parts under heating cycle, whereas a possibility of maintaining the healthiness was recognized. High-purity sintered alumina showed excellent corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  8. Report for fiscal 1997 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1997 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1st meeting of the subcommittee was held on August 1, 1997, and the 2nd meeting on February 24, 1998. Research plans for developing coal hydrogasification technology were reported and the achievements were brought under deliberation. The Coal Gasification Committee met in a plenary session on March 10, 1998, and reports were delivered and deliberation was made on the progress of coal gasification technology development. Reported in relation with studies using an experimental coal hydrogasification system were findings obtained by use of a small test unit, development of an injector, hot model test, cold model test, development of a cooled char extraction technology, development of a concentrated coal transportation technology, etc. Reported in relation with studies of assistance were the basic study of coal hydrogasification reaction, structure of and materials for a hydrogasification furnace, etc. Reports were also delivered on the survey and research of friendliness toward the community of coal hydrogasification technology development and on the study of coal gasification for fuel cells. (NEDO)

  9. Report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the coal gasification committee and the gasification technology sub-committee in fiscal 1992. The paper summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the gasification technology sub-committee meetings in fiscal 1992. In developing the coal utilizing hydrogen manufacturing technology, the trial operation was started on the pilot plant in fiscal 1991, wherein two comprehensive trial operations were carried out on gasification of 10 kg/cm{sup 2} to extract troubles throughout the whole system, smooth temperature rise and pressure rise were performed, and coal and oxygen were supplied into a furnace to have verified ignition of the coal. Furthermore, one trial operation for gasification of 30 kg/cm{sup 2} was executed. Fiscal 1992 will continue the gasification test of 30 kg/cm{sup 2}. In addition, a test on measures to improve efficiency purposed for gasification efficiency enhancement is carried out, and so is a coal type diversification test purposed to expand coal type applicability. A study was performed by using a small device as a pilot plant supporting study. Prototype fabrication, development, and in-plant tests were made on materials for plant devices (refractories and ceramics). The paper also describes the current status of HYCOL pilot plant operation study. Discussions were given also on heat balance of a gasification furnace. (NEDO)

  10. Gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, S.P.; Risby, T.H.; Field, L.R.; Yu, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to the published literature for the years 1978 - 79, this review of developments in the field of gas chromatography includes earlier articles of particular significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature which was not available at the time of the previous review. The articles cited were selected as presenting the most fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation. Some applications are cited if they reflect an advance in the state-of-the-art or have particular relevance to new developments. 1149 references are cited

  11. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  12. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  13. Gas, gas, gas... discoveries and developments booming worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep water exploration is yielding more than billion barrel oil fields. Unocal's 3 May discovery of 2-3 Tcf of gas in its Kutei block of Indonesia marks the first major discovery of natural gas in the deep water frontier: Wildcats Gula and Gada were drilled in over 1800 m of water as part of an aggressive search for gas instigated by Unocal last year. The author makes a survey of gas exploration and development throughout the world. (author)

  14. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  15. Report on studies on closed cycle MHD power generation; Closed cycle MHD hatsuden kento hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    Summarized herein are results of the studies on closed cycle MHD (CCMHD) power generation by the study committee. The studied system is based on the MHD gas turbine combined Brayton cycle of about 500,000 kW in output power, firing natural gas as the fuel, and the conceptual design works therefor are completed. The major findings are: the overall plant efficiency: 54.2% at the power transmission side, plot area required per unit power output: 0.04 m{sup 2}/KW, unit construction cost: 251,000 yen/KW, and unit power generation cost: 10.2 yen/KWh. This system will be more operable than the gas turbine combined cycle with steam system, because start-up time, output change rate, optimum load and so on are constrained not on the power generator side but on the gas turbine side. The expected environmental effects include the exhaust gas NOX concentration being equivalent with that associated with the conventional power generator of 2-stage combustion system, quantity of combustion gases to be treated being approximately 40% of that associated with the gas turbine combined cycle, and reduced CO2 gas emissions, resulting from enhanced power generation efficiency. It is expected that the CCMHD system can exhibit higher efficiency than the high-temperature gas turbine combined cycle system. (NEDO)

  16. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  18. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  19. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  20. Coalbed gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties

  1. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  2. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  3. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  4. Future of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Widdershoven, C.; Nicola, S.; Cragg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles and two columns in this section on the future of natural gas. In the first article attention is paid to the possibility that large natural gas producers are setting up a cartel a la OPEC. Most experts argue that the structure of gas markets makes the gas business much less amenable to cartelisation than the oil business. If that is true, why are so many people in the gas industry afraid of a gas cartel? The second article focuses on the future role of North Africa in the supply of natural gas

  5. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  6. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Worldwide gas marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas is an important source of energy throughout the world due to its availability and clean burning characteristics. From liquefied natural gas being shipped via tanker from Alaska to Japan, to natural gas via pipeline from Canada to the US, to inter-country natural gas shipment within the European continent, natural gas continues to expand and justify its place of honor in the world energy picture

  8. Wet Gas Airfoil Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tarjei Thorrud

    2011-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression renders new possibilities for cost savings and enhanced gas recovery on existing gas wells. Technology like this opens to make traditional offshore processing plants redundant. With new technology, follows new challenges. Multiphase flows is regarded as a complex field of study, and increased knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regarding wet gas flow is of paramount importance to the efficiency and stability of the wet gas compressor. The scope of this work was ...

  9. Green gas in the natural gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, B.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk] [nl

  10. Gas engine supplied with fermentation gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupial, K

    1978-01-01

    A CH/sub 4/-rich fermentation gas from the waste-treatment plant at Czestochowa is used as fuel to drive the generating set composed of an electric generator and a piston diesel engine adapted to operation with the fermentation gas. The adaption involved the use of a classical car ignition installation instead of the injection pumps and injector. The gas contains approximately CH/sub 4/ 60, CO/sub 2/ 32, N 5, and H 3 volume%.

  11. Gas-on-gas competition in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuhutu, Chassty; Owen, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    In common with other major economic centres in China, Shanghai's energy consumption has been increasing rapidly to support the high growth rate of its economy. To achieve rational, efficient and clean use of energy, together with improved environmental quality within the city, the Shanghai municipal government has decided to expand the supply and utilization of natural gas. Shanghai plans to increase the share of natural gas in its primary energy mix to 7 per cent by 2010, up from 3 per cent in 2005. This increase in natural gas demand has to be matched with a corresponding increase in supply. To date, the Shanghai region has relied on offshore extracted natural gas but this supply is limited due to the size of the reserves. Since 2005, the West-East pipeline has provided an alternative for Shanghai but demands from other regions could reduce the potential for expanding supplies from that source. Since domestic production will not be sufficient to meet demand in the near future, Shanghai is building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal at the Yangshan deep-water port that would allow an additional supply of more than 3 billion cubic meters per year of natural gas. Malaysia has already committed to supply LNG to the Shanghai terminal at a price that is significantly higher than the wholesale 'city-gate' price for natural gas transported via pipeline, but still lower than the gas price to end-use consumers. The presence of both an LNG terminal and a transmission pipeline that connects Shanghai to domestic gas-producing regions will create gas-on-gas competition. This study assesses the benefits of introducing such competition to one of China's most advanced cities under various scenarios for demand growth. In this paper, the impact of imported LNG on market concentration in Shanghai's gas market will be analysed using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann index (HHI) and the residual supply index (RSI). Our results show that Shanghai remains a supply

  12. Shale gas. Shale gas formation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Francois; Artru, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A first article recalls the origin of shale gases and technological breakthroughs which allowed their exploitation, describes the development of shale gas exploitation in the USA during the 2000's and the consequences for the gas and electricity markets, and discusses the various environmental impacts (risks of pollution of aquifers, risks of induced seismicity, use and processing of drilling and production waters). The second article describes the formation of shale gas: presence of organic matter in sediments, early evolution with the biogenic gas, burrowing, diagenesis and oil formation, thermal generation of gas (condensates and methane). The author indicates the location of gas within the rock, and the main sites of shale oils and shale gases in the World. In the next part, the author describes the various phases of shale gas extraction: exploration, oriented drillings, well preparation for hydraulic fracturing, fracturing, processing of fracturing fluids, flow-back, gas production and transport, aquifer protection. He finally gives a brief overview of technical evolution and of shale gas economy

  13. Report of commission for investigating MHD on a visit to U.S. Part 2. Report on each place of visit; Hobei MHD chosadan hokokusho. 2. Homonsakibetsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-01-01

    The members of MHD project examination subcommittee made an investigative tour of the U.S. on the state of development of MHD generation. This report of the 2nd part explains opinions and the present status of the R and D on MHD generation by each of the 19 institutions visited. The U.S. research on MHD generation is under the leadership of DOE, whereby the budget for the development is so large as nearly one hundred million dollars have been provided for several years. The purpose is the effective use of domestic coal. General Electric is of the opinion that a combined gas turbine system will be put to practical use earlier because MHD takes time for practicability despite its highest efficiency in coal-utilized power generation. Yet, GE thinks MHD will be more attractive in the future. Reynolds Metal is considering application of MHD generation to the electro-chemical industry at present. According to Reynolds, combined supply of electric output and heat of MHD can reduce the use of calorie per ton of aluminum from 240 MBTU to 100. Montana Power is promoting practicability through a combined plan with DOE-built MHD generation. (NEDO)

  14. Selling gas, selling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)

  15. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  16. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  17. Union Gas and Ontario gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step review of the tie-in process of new production wells into the Union Gas System is described. Requirements of the producer and those of Union Gas are explained. Also described are the choices available to the producer to sell his gas. He can sell either to Union Gas directly at an agreed upon price, or the producer has the option to have what is called an M13 contract which allows him to sell his gas at Dawn, where it can be stored within parameters of the contract, and sold to any buyer at Dawn at a negotiated rate. This arrangement, while entailing a much greater administrative load than direct sale to Union Gas, nevertheless, allows the producer to take advantage of market fluctuations. A third option provided by Union Gas is to make available to the producer storage space greater than the provisions of the M13 contract at current market rate, thereby opening up the opportunity to the producer to capture additional value in later winter months (when gas is in greater demand)

  18. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  19. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  20. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  1. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  2. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  3. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  4. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  5. Sulphur hexafluoride gas detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This poster describes the development process of an electro-optical based solution for detecting and locating SF6 gas leaks at gas insulated switch gear. The principal technologies that were researched are explained with their advantages...

  6. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  7. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  8. The gas menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Richard.

    1994-01-01

    The NSW Southern Coalfield at Bulli is Australia's most gas plagued producing region. Whilst gas drainage using long boreholes has been successfully adapted in high methane areas, these techniques are not efficient when high levels of carbon dioxide are present, as is the case at Bulli NSW. This article discusses the limitations of the current gas drainage technologies and the improvements needed in underground drilling technologies and hydrofacing for efficient gas drainage. 1 table, 1 photo

  9. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  10. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  11. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  12. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  13. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  14. Water into gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodord, Julian.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the move by water utilities into the gas market and potentially into the electricity supply market. Operation by Dee Valley Holdings, York Waterworks, York Gas, and North Wales Gas are reported, and investment, use of mail campaigns and telemarketing to secure customers, and the opportunities offered by diversification are considered. (UK)

  15. Gas conference Paris 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui journal contains the proceedings of the 2013 edition of the annual French gas conference. These proceedings comprise 7 talks, 5 round-tables and 9 workshops: 1 - Opening talk (H. Malherbe); 2 - Defending the natural gas position in the energy mix (G. Mestralet); 3 - The new youth of natural gas (P. Sauquet); 4 - Round-table No.1: the natural gas market perspectives; 5 - Round-table No.2: natural gas in France's energy transition; 6 - Answering the energy transition challenges (B. Lescoeur); 7 - Round-table No.3: towards an integrated European market in 2014?; 8 - Building up the European gas market (P. de Ladoucette); 9 - Workshop No.1: the big client's strategies in the gas market; 10 - Workshop No.2: the fuel gas perspectives in terrestrial mobility; 11 - Workshop No.3: gas innovations; 12 - The 2030 and 2050 strategy of the European Union policy (B. Devlin); 13 - Round-table No.4: Decentralized production and local development; 14 - Workshop No.4: Gas and maritime transport; 15 - Workshop No.5: bio-methane, vector of the energy transition; 16 - Workshop No.6: Evolution of the storage activity; 17 - Workshop No.7: Dwellings renovation and natural gas development; 18 - Workshop No.8: Is the target model of gas a reality?; 19 - Workshop No.9: Non-conventional gases in the world; 20 - Round-table No.5: Actors' strategy; 21 - Closing talk (J. Ferrier)

  16. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  17. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  18. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  19. Gas development plan - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A detailed description of the plan for the development of gas utilization in Lithuania is presented. The plan is subdivided under the headings of gas supply, gas demand, gas transmission and distribution, economy and the organization of the gas sector in the country. The first phase of the project has been undertaken by a Danish firm in cooperation with the Lithuanian firm Lietuvos Dujos. The first aim was to clarify the problems that will arise in connection with this joint venture on developing the use of gas in Lithuania, focusing on existing gas supply and market conditions, the current flow control and metering and economic constraints. The organization of the gas sector in the country as it stands today is described and possible models for its future organization are discussed in addition to a strategy of implementation. Possible development trends are outlined and maximum/minimum demand scenarios are suggested. Subjects and areas related to the gas sector in Lithuania are identified for further investigation in the next phase. It is stated that Lithuania is at present undergoing a fast transformation towards a market economy and that the transfer of foreign currency has been liberalized. Only the pipeline from Minsk to Vilnius is open at present and provides the total supply of natural gas to Lithuania and Kalingrad, controlled by the Russian gas company, Lentransgas, on the basis of a gas purchase agreement regulated on a yearly basis. Other possible supply sources are the Danish part of the North Sea and the Norwegian offshore fields. (AB)

  20. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  1. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  2. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  3. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  4. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  5. Landfill gas: development guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A Guide produced as part of the UK DTI's New and Renewable Energy Programme provides information which forms a framework enabling landfill gas to be exploited fully as a renewable energy resource. The eight chapters cover the resource base of landfill gas in the UK in the wider context, the technology for energy recovery from landfill gas, the utilisation options for landfill gas, the various project development arrangements and their implementation, the assessment of a site's landfill gas resource, the factors which influence the project economies, financing aspects and the management of project liabilities and finally the national waste disposal policy and required consents followed by the overall process for project mobilisation. (UK)

  6. The Gas Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document is published before a congress which will address the struggle against climate change, the security of the gas supply chain, the responses of energy groups to environmental and economic challenges, the opening of the gas market, the European energy policy, the future role of gas in the third industrial revolution, and the security of gas supplies. After an introduction briefly discussing these issues and the impacts of the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' and the struggle against climate change for gas production and consumption, several interviews are proposed with actors belonging to the AFG (Association Francaise du Gaz), ADEME, European Commission, Total, GDF Suez, other professional bodies, or local communities

  7. Gas: the great depression?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the worrying situation of gas industry: thermal plants are being closed one after the other because of the concurrence of renewable energies and of consumption decrease. European gas industries outline that gas plants could be used for back-up production in case of consumption peaks, and criticize subsidies awarded to renewable energies. Several factors impact this situation: decrease of gross prices, decrease of energy consumption due to a better energy efficiency, development of shale gas production in the USA and in Canada, revival of coal plants (coal is now competitive with respect to gas, and CO 2 is very cheap on the ETS)

  8. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  9. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  10. Venezuelan gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Venezuelan natural gas industry. The structure of PDVSA, the Petroleos de Venezuela Organization, its foreign and domestic affiliates, and its subsidiaries are discussed. Natural gas resources in Venezuela total 290 trillion cubic feet, and Venezuela's share of world, OPEC and latin American production and reserves are 1%, 11% and 26%, respectively for production and 3%, 6% and 49% for reserves. Venezuela's gas pipeline network, plants, production, and marketing are described. Natural gas production and demand forecasts to 2002 are presented. Gas resources are largely located in eastern Venezuela, and large volumes of natural gas non-associated with crude oil will start to become important in the Venezuelan natural gas industry. 19 figs

  11. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  12. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  13. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  14. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  15. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  16. Competitive landscape for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990s, natural gas will be the critical pressure point for energy and environmental developments in North America, according to the author of this paper. The author points to the forces bearing on natural gas, including the need for new power generation capacity, tightening environmental standards, growing concerns about energy security, cyclical factors in U.S. oil and gas exploration, and changes in the oil services industry. This paper discusses how these external factors will shape gas markets in the 1990s. First, it states that gas will gain market share in power generation through greater use of both existing gas-fired facilities and new turbines by electric utilities. Second, it predicts that the cumulative impact of the Clean Air Act and other environmental legislation having significant consequences for the relative roles of coal and natural gas, particularly during the late 1990s. Third, it points to the eventual reawakening of energy security concerns, focusing attention on developing North America's sizeable gas reserves. Finally, it states that while the long-term view of a gas supply crisis without a rebound in drilling activity is accurate, it has been disastrously wrong in the short term. This had led to underestimation of the amount of extra gas that can be provided in the interim from conventional areas at relatively low cost

  17. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  18. Thai gas expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2001-01-01

    Demand for natural gas in Thailand is increasing significantly as the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and the independent private power producers (IPPs) switch from oil to gas to fire their power stations in line with Government policy to reduce oil imports and use more gas from the Gulf of Thailand. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) has the sole right to buy and sell natural gas and other petroleum products in Thailand. According to PTT, the surge in demand for natural gas in the first half of 2001 was matched by a fall in demand for refined oil products. The PTT has received Government approval to convert to a limited company ready for listing on the Thai Stock Exchange. This is expected to further increase gas consumption. Details of gas sales to power generation and other industrial sectors by PTT and Unocal, Thailand's largest producer, are given. PTT operations include work to extend its gas pipeline transmission system. A number of new pipeline schemes are planned, including one across southern Thailand to transfer offshore gas from the Joint Development Area gas field owned by Thailand and Malaysia. This has encountered protests over the proposed plant and pipeline route

  19. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  20. FY 1994 report on the Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1994. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on May 18,1994, the 2nd Meeting on October 28, 1994, and the 3rd Meeting on February 21, 1995. Report/discussion were made about activities of each section meeting and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. For the 50 t/d HYCOL pilot plant, disassembly examination was conducted. As a result of the examination, the high-temperature gas corrosion caused by gas product against metal members was negligible, but against members in the wet corrosion environment, SCC, intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion were generated. About members used in the high-temperature environment, it was made clear that Ir was applicable to thermowell, high chromia-base sintered products were applicable to non-cooling hearth tapping materials, and high chromia-base indeterminate-formed materials were applicable to water-cooled fireproofing wall. Based on the data obtained through the operational study of a 50 t/d pilot plant, conceptual design was made of a coal gasification hydrogen production plant of a scale of demonstration plant. (NEDO)

  1. Investigational report on the trend of measures for global warming; Chikyu ondanka taisaku doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To know the trend of measures taken for global warming, conducted were overseas surveys, participation in academic society meetings, and literature surveys. The phaseout time of all ozone depleting substances responsible for the ozonospherial destruction was determined for both developed and developing countries in the 7th Meeting of countries which concluded the Montreal Protocol. As information on measures for protecting the ozonosphere, introduced was activities under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). New fluorine containing ethers were introduced as cleaning solvent which causes no ozonospherial destruction and is low in global warming index. Toxicity data were obtained on HFC-236ea and HFC-236fa which are promising substitutes in HCFC foaming and refrigerant fields. The paper introduced an outline of the 1st Meeting of countries which concluded the Framework Convention on Climate Change held in 1995. According to the report on the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection of the Netherlands, the amount of emission of fluorine containing greenhouse effect gas (in CO2 conversion) reached 8-14% of all the amount of greenhouse effect gas emitted in 1990 unless the control is reinforced. An outline of the TEWI-3 project was introduced which is useful for comparing effects of substitution technologies on global warming. 14 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Gas crisis in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The gas crisis in Europe is getting more evident. Basing his discussion on BP's annual statistical review of world energy, 2002, the author concludes that an increasing number of the major European consumers of natural gas may acquire a supply- and safety problem and become more dependent on imported gas for operating power stations. This is going to be most dramatic for France, Germany and Italy. Great Britain have gas reserves that will last for about seven years. Spain is an interesting ''phenomenon'' in the European gas market; they have trebled their gas consumption during the last decade. Europe's dependence on a high production rate on the Norwegian Shelf has become stronger from year to year

  3. U.S. gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that U.S. gas producers won't see much price relief in 1991, barring a Persian Gulf war that interrupts crude supply which might be replaced by gas on short notice. Besides the current supply surplus, natural gas futures have added yet another dimension to the process of setting gas prices. Spectators (read speculators) having no intention of ever buying one cu ft of gas now have a hand in setting the forward price of gas. That doesn't necessarily mean something bad; it simply means that there is a new game with new rules and new players. All things considered, look for an average spot price of $1.70 this year. Exploration should pick up modestly, but production from conventional sources is expected to decline slightly in the '90s. Technological developments that enhance deliverability and reduce finding costs will moderate the decline, but not halt it

  4. The gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part proposes an overview of the current situation of the gas market and predictions regarding gas consumption and turnovers of gas producers and dealers, indication of important recent events, and a dashboard of the sector activity. A second part proposes an annual report on trends and on the competition context. It describes the activity structure (sector organisations, gas types, main customers, heating modes in French housing, tariff offers), indicates the main determining factors for the sector activity, describes the context (temperature evolution, thermal electricity production, production of the chemical industry, housing stock, natural gas consumption), analyses the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators), describes the sector economic structure (upstream sector, gas supply), and gives an overview of actors: historical suppliers, alternate suppliers, highlights of the sector, company rankings, and financial performance

  5. OPEC and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, A.M.; Shahbudaghlou, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of OPEC Member Countries in the natural gas industry in the past, present and future. It notes a tenfold increase in marketed production and a fourfold rise in re-injection since 1970. Collectively, Members now hold 41 per cent of the world's proven gas reserves and account for 20 per cent of exports. Individually, four of these countries hold position 2-5 in the world gas reserve rankings. Within OPEC, however, there remains an emphasis of oil over gas, not least because of oil's favourable position with regard to revenue-generation and profitability. As global demand continues on its upward growth curve in a more environmentally aware world, OPEC's gas horizons will widen. OPEC's strong reserve base will give its Members an undeniable role to play on the future global gas stage. However, these countries will give priority to domestic usage, particularly re-injection schemes

  6. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  7. The 'new' gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Vornel

    2000-01-01

    The use of computer-aided 3-dimensional design tools to overcome problems associated with extraction of gas from unconventional gas deposits such as shale, sand and coal gas fields in landlocked nations is examined, and the economics of land based gas exploration in the USA, and the transport of the product to market are considered. The use of 3D design tools by the Pearl Development Company for providing engineering solutions for the recovery of natural gas liquids (NGL) for the Thunder Creek Gas Services company servicing the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and utilisation of the CADWorx/PIPE 3D piping design tool are reported. The benefits of the software package which allows easy visualisation of designs and produces 2D drawings from multi-discipline plant models are outlined

  8. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  9. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  10. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  11. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project. Technology assessment on coal gasification and liquefaction; 1975 nendo sekitan no gas ka ekika gijutsu no technology assessment seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research was intended to find the desirable direction of technological development, by discussing the effects of coal gasification/liquefaction technologies from every angle, for the purpose coping with the social demand for steadily and continuously obtaining clean energy. This year, the examination was conducted not only on the energy conversion technologies of coal gasification/liquefaction, but also on the impact generating from the entire supply system of coal energy from coal mine development to mining, transportation, storage and conversion to secondary energy. For this purpose, while the outline was grasped of coal resources in the world as well as each technology for the mining, transportation, storage, electric power generation by gasification, and high calorie gasification, a case study was made on the assumption that electric power generation and high calorie gasification were conducted by importing 1,000 tons of coal from overseas, extracting the impact on the basis of this case study. In addition, examination was made on the position of coal energy in the energy supply of the future, with an impact investigated on condition that about 300 million tons were imported equivalent to roughly 16% of energy supply in the year 2000 or about. (NEDO)

  12. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  13. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  14. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  15. Valve for gas centrifuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  16. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  17. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  18. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  19. Gas in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) can be thought of as the galactic atmosphere which fills the space between stars. When clouds within the ISM collapse, stars are born. When the stars die, they return their matter to the surrounding gas. Therefore the ISM plays a vital role in galactic evolution. The medium includes starlight, gas, dust, planets, comets, asteroids, fast moving charged particles (cosmic rays) and magnetic fields. The gas can be further divided into hot, warm and cold components, e...

  20. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  1. Gas ampoule-syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes disposable gas ampoule holding or containing a gas such as a radioactive gas, comprising: (a) a cylindrical glass tube which is adapted to hold the gas; (b) a layer of absorbent material which circumscribes and which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a) which absorbs the gas; (c) a plastic tube, which circumscribes and contacts absorbent material layer (b) and which is externally threaded on each of its end portions; (d) a cap, which is threaded onto a first end of plastic tube (c); (e) a cylindrical block, which is positioned in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) adjacent to cap (d), which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a), which is composed of a foamed material and which is impregnated with a gas adsorbent material; (f) a cylindrical plunger tip, which is located in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) in a gas-tight manner adjacent to cylindrical block (e); (g) an end stopper, which has a central cylindrical shaft that is positioned in the second end of cylindrical glass tube (a); and (h) a cap, which is threaded onto the second end of plastic tube (e). A combination of the disposable gas ampoule and syringe adapted to operably interface with the gas ampoule is also described

  2. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  3. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  5. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  6. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  7. Latin American gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the economic recovery that is underway in Latin America which remains one of the world's most important markets for natural gas which will need investment over the coming years. Forecasts of rising gas demand, the restructuring of the gas industry, estimates of the investments needed, Latin America's heavy use of hydroelectric power, market patterns for international gas trade in South America, and the construction of a Bolivia to Brazil pipeline are discussed. Overviews of the situations in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia are presented

  8. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  9. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  10. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  11. 2017 Gas Congress special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, Patrick; Ferrier, Jerome; Holleaux, Didier; Vivier, Laurent; Gattaz, Pierre; Delga, Carole; Carenco, Jean-Francois; Sadamori, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of 'Gaz d'Aujourd'hui' journal is entirely devoted to the 2017 Gas Congress proceedings. The congress was organized in 5 round tables and 12 workshops: Round table 1 - COP 21 2 years after, workshops 1-6: 1 - digital transformation: what are the challenges for the gas sector? 2 - Which actors and what policies to fight against energy insecurity? 3 - Natural gas development: what fiscal signs? 4 - Terrestrial transportation: current situation and prospects; 5 - Consumers' perception of gas; 6 - industrial uses; Round table 2 - Maritime and fluvial LNG perspectives; Round table 3 - Territories, the new decision-makers, workshops 7-12: 7 - What energy regulation for tomorrow? 8 - How to succeed in injecting more and more green gas? 9 - Digital, data and emerging technologies (drones, blockchain..): challenges and applications for gas networks? 10 - Underground storage: a promising infrastructure? 11 - Security of supply: what new cooperation? 12 - Power-to-gas: a new way of energy valorization; Round table 4 - Gas and electricity, winning synergies; Round table 5 - The Europe of gas

  12. Shake gas. Basic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  13. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  14. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1919-07-01

    and to the fact that it affects the skin, the eyes, the throat and lungs, as well as the digestive’ tract if’ food be eaten that has been exposed to...zfYx~r its firat uzje by the Germanic before tile first Allied mustard gas at- $ack took place, This was made by the Franch in the vicinity of Com...of bicarbonate of soda &Uxr and their eyes, ears, mouth and nasal pasa gee washed with the same, PROTECTING FOOD FROM MUSTARD GAS, ‘9 It was very

  15. Gas conditioning and gas balance in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisolia, C.; Bonnel, P.; Grosman, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Bardon, J.

    1990-01-01

    An accurate barometry is very helpful in analysing the plasma wall interaction processes in controlled fusion devices. In Tore Supra, residual gas analysis and various types of pressure gauges allow to monitor the various conditioning processes and the global particle balance. In this paper, measurements are described and analysis of two examples is given [fr

  16. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  17. Fission gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by failed fuel rods which device uses a filter adapted to pass coolant but to block passage of fission gas bubbles due to the surface tension of the bubbles. The coolant may be liquid metal. (author)

  18. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  19. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  20. Beyond the gas bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared

  1. 1962 : Bay City gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1962, a major natural gas export system from Alberta to San Francisco was brought online. The $300 million, 2,200 km Alberta and Southern system was expected to transport 584 million cubic feet daily in its first year of operation, more than one-third the total volume of gas sold by Canadian producers the previous year. The new gas export market also served to create more gas for the Canadian market because the incentive to serve a large export market also encouraged producers to explore for and develop more gas. The pipeline system started in the foothills belt 200 km northwest of Edmonton, and spanned through Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California. One month before its official opening, a gas line explosion occurred during pressure testing of a lateral line. The Alberta portion of the Alberta and Southern system was also used 2 decades later as a tie-in to the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline project. Other key events in 1962 included approval of the Great Canadian Oil Sands Limited; the manufacture of the first rock drill bits in western Canada; production of 90 million cubic feet of natural gas from 12 wells in Quebec; and, an increase in oil production from the Soviet Union. 1 tab., 1 fig

  2. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  3. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  4. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  5. GasAttack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQuillin, I.

    1998-01-01

    A recent Landfill Directive, which aims to reduce the amount of biodegradable materials being disposed of in landfill sites, must necessarily, it is argued, cause gas supply problems for the fledgling landfill gas industry in the United Kingdom. Prospects for the new industry over the next twenty years are explored in the light of this setback. (UK)

  6. Innovative gas offers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, O.; Mela, P.; Chatelain, F.

    2007-01-01

    New energy offers are progressively made available as the opening of gas market to competition becomes broader. How are organized the combined offers: gas, electricity, renewable energies and energy services? What are the marketing strategies implemented? Three participants at this round table present their offer and answer these questions. (J.S.)

  7. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  8. Electric Engines to Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental pollution and specially air pollution, it is produced in a wide range by exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, those which are used to generate energy. Direct use of fossil combustibles as petroleum derivatives and coal produces large quantities of harmful elements to ecology equilibrium. Whit the objective of reducing this pollutant load has been development thermoelectric plants whit turbine to gas or to steam, those which are moved by internal combustion engines. Gas engines can burn most of available gases, as both solid waste and wastewater treatment plants biogas, propane gas, oil-liquefied gas or natural gas. These gases are an alternative and clean energy source, and its efficiency in internal combustion engines is highest compared whit other combustibles as gasoline-motor or diesel

  9. Having the last gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, N P; Phillips, P S; Hall, R [Nene College of Higher Education, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    Millions of visitors to the 1985 International Garden Festival in Liverpool were probably unaware that the landscape gardens they had come to enjoy were on top of approximately 10m t of domestic rubbish. Nor were they aware that this rubbish was generating a methane-rich gas that had necessitated installing a special extraction system to remove it from the site. At first this gas - landfill gas - was simply flared (burnt), but once it was realised that extraction would be need for at least 15 years it was decided to use the gas to generate electricity. This development is a good example of the potential, especially in the developed world, for using landfill gas produced in refuse tips as an additional and versatile energy source. This potential is analysed and the problems of exploitation examined. (2 figures). (author)

  10. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  11. Gas information campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, D.

    The second Federal German experts' meeting on Gas Consulting from 2nd to 5th June 1981 in Saarbruecken documents the importance attached by the gas industry to a qualified energy consulting. The consumers are informed of natural gas by country-wide and regional PR- and marketing activities. This information is the basis for sales promotion measures in the regional and local sphere. All communicative measures end with the consulting. It is the most important sales-political instrument which helps the supply companies to win interested and informed customers. The action gas consulting shows possibilities of how to effect an advisory service in cooperation between Information on Natural Gas and local suppliers.

  12. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  13. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  14. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  15. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  16. Emergency gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taruishi, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the reduction of radioactive substances released out of reactor buildings irrespective of the aging change in the buildings. Constitution: There are provided an exhaust gas flow channel for cleaning contaminated airs within a reactor building by way of a series of filters and exhausting the cleaned airs by means of exhaust fans to the outside and a gas recycling flow channel having a cooler in connection with the exhaust gas flow channel at a position downstream of the exhaust fans for returning the cleaned airs in the exhaust gas flow channel to the inside of the reactor buildings. The pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the reactor buildings is made constant by controlling the air flow channel within the gas recycling flow channel by a flow control valve. The airs cleaned by the series of the filters are recycled to the inside of the buildings to decrease the radioactive substance within the buildings. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  18. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  19. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  20. Fiscal 1993 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1993, the 2nd in December 1993, and the 3rd in March 1994, when fiscal 1993 research and development programs and results were reported and discussed. Reported and discussed at the 2nd meeting were the compilation of brown coal liquefaction technology development project results, evaluation report on the same, hydrorefining of oil from brown coal and the research and development of application technologies for the same, and an environmental safety evaluation test on the same. In selecting a standard coal for the operation of the 150 ton/day pilot plant, PSU (process supporting unit)-aided studies were made on the analytical values presented by coals, yield of the liquid, yield of the liquefaction residue, yield of the generated gas, amount of the hydrogen consumed, coal oil properties, liquefaction residue properties, operationality, etc. On-site investigations were conducted also in Indonesia, and a conclusion was reached that Tanito Harum coal would be the most suitable for the pilot plant. Concerning the liquefaction catalyst for the pilot plant, a report was given on a comparison made between the activity of a synthetic iron sulfide and that of natural pyrite. (NEDO)

  1. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  2. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  3. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  4. Natural gas : nirvana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-01-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  5. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  6. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  7. Russian gas in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas output in Russia fell by 3.5% in 1993. This followed decades of rapid growth in production reaching a peak in 1991 and a minor fall in 1993. Gas consumption also peaked in 1991 and fell by 5% over the two following years. The major cause of the decline in consumption is the fall in electricity demand which has accompanied the economic recession. Gas has accounted for about 60% of the reduction in fuel consumption by power stations. Gas consumption by industrial and municipal boilers has also dropped steeply although household and other municipal consumption has increased. The fall in demand does not wholely account for the fall in production, however. Apart from Yamburg, all operational gas fields have now reached the stage of declining production. Government officials are talking tentatively of 1997 as the turning point for the Russian economy and following this, the demand for gas will rise again. It is not certain, however, that the industry will be able to meet the increased demand which is anticipated. Most of the increased production will have to come from new fields in the Yamal Peninsular the development of which is proceeding much more slowly than planned. In the longer term, possibly in the early years of the next century, the Shtokmanovsk gasfield in the Barents Sea may be developed. Other aspects of the Russian gas industry briefly covered are reserves, financing of exploratory drilling, investment, intra-CIS trade and exports and privatisation of the state owned company Garyprom. (UK)

  8. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, A; Fujii, O; Nakamoto, H

    1970-03-09

    Counter currents in the rotary drum of a centrifugal gas separator are produced by providing, at either end of the drum in the vicinity of the circumferential and central positions, respectively, outflow and inflow holes with a communicating passage external to the drum there between whereby gaseous counter currents are caused to flow within the drum and travel through the passage which is provided with gas flow adjustment means. Furthermore, the space defined by the stationary portion of the passage and the rotor drum is additionally provided with a screw pump or throttling device at either its stationary side or drum side or both in order to produce a radially directed gas flow therewithin. A gas mixture is axially admitted into the drum while centrifugal force and a cooling element provided therebelow cause an increase in gas pressure along and a gaseous flow toward the wall member, whereupon the comparatively high pressured circumferentially distributed gas is extracted from the outlet holes, flows through the external gas passage and back into the lower pressured drum core through the inlet holes, thus producing the desired counter currents. The gases thus separated are withdrawn along axially provided discharge pipes. Accordingly, this invention permits heating elements which were formerly used to produce thermal convection currents to be disposed of and allows the length of the rotor drum to be more efficiently utilized to enhance separation efficiency.

  9. Kara-Kum gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudz, A.

    1975-05-01

    Natural gas from the Shatlyk gas field in the Kara Kum Desert, Turkmenia, U.S.S.R., will soon be available to the European section of the U.S.S.R. with the recent completion of the 291-mi Shatlyk-Khiva gas pipeline and the completion of all associated production units by the end of the year. The gas field, with explored reserves of (1.5 trillion m/sup 3/), is expected to be producing (100 million m/sup 3//day) at the end of 1975. Diagonal profiling was used in the exploration stage to reduce the number of boreholes required from 16 to 11, saving about $6.7 million (5 million rubles) and cutting the exploration time by almost 2 y. Most of the boreholes, drilled within the contour of the gas-bearing structure, can be used for gas production. The gas, produced at 2352 psi and 205/sup 0/F, is cooled to 113/sup 0/F, stripped of condensate and moisture, metered, and treated before transmission.

  10. Repowering with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of combined-cycle repowering with natural gas as one possible solution to the impending dilemma facing electric utilities - tight capacity margins in the 1990s and the inordinate expense of traditional powerplants. Combined-cycle repowering refers to the production of electricity through the integration of new and used equipment at an existing site, with the final equipment configuration resembling a new gas-fired combined-cycle unit (i.e., gas turbine, waste heat recovery unit and steam turbine/generator). Through the utilization of improved waste heat recovery and gas-fired equipment, repowering provides both additional capacity and increased generating efficiency. Three modes of repowering are considered: (1) peak turbine repowering refers to the addition of a steam turbine and heat recovery unit to an existing gas turbine, with the efficiency improvement allowing the unit to convert from peaking to baseload operation; (2) heat recovery repowering is the replacement of an old coal boiler with a gas turbine and heat recovery unit, leaving the existing steam turbine in place; and (3) boiler repowering, in which the exhaust from a new gas turbine is fed into an existing coal boiler, replacing existing forced-draft fans and air heaters. These three options are compared with the option of adding new coal-fired boilers on the basis of economics, energy efficiency and environmental impacts

  11. Gas supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: When injecting gas during plasma discharge, to prevent erronous operation of the piezoelectric valves due to vibrations and to inject gas into the vacuum vessel by accurately controlling gas flow. Constitution: The piezoelectric valve designed to control the flow of gas when charging vacuum vessels is installed between the vacuum vessel and the gas cylinder and a pulse voltage generator to control the valve (open/close) and the reverse voltage generator to apply a reverse current to the valve element are also provided. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric element, the piezoelectric element bends. However, when the polarity is changed, the direction of the bend is also reversed. The seat portion is pressed in proportion to the degree of bending. When gas is injected while plasma is being discharged, the gap created, due to vibrations, between the piezoelectric element and the sealing material is prevented by the application of a reverse current. This allows precise control of the gas injection volume as well as the injection interval. This assures maintenance of precise test conditions when testing thermonuclear devices. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  14. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  15. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  16. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  17. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2014-01-01

    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  18. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  19. Opening up to gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Orla

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the growing number of gas-fired generation projects in Eastern Europe, and the need for the different countries who wish to join the European Union to approximate their laws with EU legislation which requires the opening up of each member's gas market. Projects in Poland, Croatia, Turkey, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia are considered, and project financing, the financial backing provided by the European Bank for Restructuring and Development (EBRD), and the anticipated growth in gas are discussed. (uk)

  20. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  1. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  2. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. Gas migration from oil and gas fields and associated hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.E.; Endres, B.L.; Robertson Jr, J.O.; Chilingar, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The migration of gas from oil and gas formations to the surface is a problem that greatly affects those surface areas where human activity exists. Underground gas storage facilities and oil fields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Experience has shown that the migration of gas to the surface creates a serious potential risk of explosion, fires, noxious odors and potential emissions of carcinogenic chemicals. These risks must be seriously examined for all oil and gas operations located in urban areas. This paper presents the mechanics of gas migration, paths of migration and a review of a few of the risks that should be considered when operating a gas facility in an urban area. The gas can migrate in a continuous or discontinuous stream through porous, water-filled media to the surface. The primary force in this migration of gas is the difference between specific weights of gas and water

  4. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  5. Reducing the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Ryan, David; Anthony, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas is viewed by many as a global energy game-changer. However, serious concerns exist that shale gas generates more greenhouse gas emissions than does coal. In this work the related published data are reviewed and a reassessment is made. It is shown that the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas is less than that of coal over long term if the higher power generation efficiency of shale gas is taken into account. In short term, the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas can be lowered to the level of that of coal if methane emissions are kept low using existing technologies. Further reducing the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas by storing CO 2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs is also discussed, with the conclusion that more CO 2 than the equivalent CO 2 emitted by the extracted shale gas could be stored in the reservoirs at significantly reduced cost. - Highlights: ► The long-term greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas is smaller than that of coal. ► Carbon capture and storage should be considered for fossil fuels including shale gas. ► Depleted shale gas fields could store more CO 2 than the equivalent emissions. ► Linking shale gas development with CO 2 storage could largely reduce the total cost.

  6. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  7. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  8. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  9. Ole for Spanish gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Spain is a new gas market in Europe. Relative to other EC countries, gas use is still low at 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) or around 6 percent of total primary energy demand (TPED) in 1992 against an EC average of almost 20 percent. The historic reasons for this are Spain's lack of major domestic gas fields and the ready existence of alternative energy sources in the form of coal and hydroelectric power. But gas use is now growing fast, having more than quadrupled since 1980 and with usage predicted to double again in volume terms, rising to 12 percent of TPED by 2000. Only the low population density, which adds to distribution costs, is likely to stop Spain reaching the EC average. (author)

  10. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  11. Gas in Europe: supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  12. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  13. Gas breakdown in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Pogutse, O.P.; Yurchenko, Eh.I.

    1975-01-01

    The initial stage of the charge development in a tokomak is considered theoretically. It is supposed that all electrons produced in neutral gas ionisation process are in the regime of an almost continuous acceleration. The production time of a given electron density is calculated as a function of the neutral gas density and of parameters of the vortex electric field. The mechanism of plasma escape on walls is considered. It is shown that the escaping time is defined by a specific inertial flow of plasma and depends on whether chamber walls are metal or dielectric. The criterion of the gas breakdown in a toroidal system is formulated. The developed theory is shown to explain a strong dependence of the breakdown on the gas initial density [ru

  14. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  15. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  16. INFORMATION FOR GAS USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested : to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible, to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact Gas.Store@cern.ch by e-mail or call 72265. Thank you for your co-operation.

  17. Information for gas users

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested: - to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible - to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact "Gas store" by e-mail. Thank you for your co-operation. Logistics Group SPL Division

  18. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  19. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  20. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  1. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  2. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierre-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. I.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others

  3. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierrez-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. L.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm 3 with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm 3 for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others remained

  4. Gas chromatography in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, S. O.; Dimandja, J. M.; Kojiro, D. R.; Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    Gas chromatography has proven to be a very useful analytical technique for in situ analysis of extraterrestrial environments as demonstrated by its successful operation on spacecraft missions to Mars and Venus. The technique is also one of the six scientific instruments aboard the Huygens probe to explore Titan's atmosphere and surface. A review of gas chromatography in previous space missions and some recent developments in the current environment of fiscal constraints and payload size limitations are presented.

  5. Gas dynamic laser device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas dynamic laser device is provided with an expansion chamber arranged between a heating chamber for the CO-gas and the resonance chamber. The expansion chamber is initially evacuated for producing a rarefaction wave. Between the heating chamber and the expansion chamber there are arranged rapid release means such as a valve or a diaphragm. Pressure recovering means are connected to the other side of the resonance chamber

  6. Controlled humidity gas circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable circulator capable of regulating the humidity of a gas stream over a wide range of humidity is described. An optical dew-point hygrometer is used as a feedback element to control the addition or removal of water vapor. Typical regulation of the gas is to a dew-point temperature of +- 0.2 0 C and to an accuracy limited by the dew-point hygrometer

  7. Gas gun dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The mechanics and thermodynamics of one- and two-stage gas guns are developed. Very high projectile muzzle speed can be obtained by the two-stage version. The physics of simple gas guns, such as air rifles, is accessible to undergraduates and the same level of presentation is used here to understand more complex designs. Numerical solutions to the equations of motion are shown, along with insightful analytic approximations. (paper)

  8. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  9. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  10. Global gas company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a detailed assessment of 60 of the top gas companies form around the world, analysing them according to their internal dynamics and in relation to their competitors. It devotes each chapter to an individual company, providing invaluable insight into the organisation's operational background, financial performance and strategic goals. Using the most up-to-date information available, Global Gas Company Profiles allows you to make detailed analysis of each company's performance and future direction. (author)

  11. Gas from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, H

    1943-01-01

    Various efforts to produce fuel gas from waste materials by fermentation are reviewed. Although the thermal yield appears to be attractive (60%) in the formation of CH/sub 4/ + CO/sub 2/ from cellulose the process requires very large equipment owing to the slowness of the reaction. From 1 ton of waste, a daily production of 1 m/sup 2/ of gas (7700 cal) is obtained for 50 days.

  12. The Italian gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2004-01-01

    The first meeting of the French gas association (AFG) of the year 2004 was devoted to the Italian gas market. Two experts of this market were invited: A. Ferrari, general director of the Italian gas and electricity regulation authority, and D. Dispenza, vice-general director of Eni Division Gas and Power. This conference was the occasion to compare the French and Italian gas industries. France and Italy have a border in common and also a series of common structural characteristics: the dependence with respect to foreign supplies, the position of the public company, the sensitiveness with respect to the security of supplies, to the role of storage and to the public utility. The French and Italian decisions are inter-dependent. The liberalization taking place with an unpredictable rate, it is necessary for the gas industry to anticipate its effects. When the political, legal and regulatory decisions are enforced, the initiative comes back to the hands of the industry. In this context, the trend of the transfrontier industries becomes particularly important for the regulatory authority. (J.S.)

  13. Gas strategies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch-Prigent, L.

    1992-01-01

    The different factors affecting gas supply and demand in Europe are examined and the strategies considered necessary to ensure a successful European gas market in the 21st century are outlined. A number of conclusions are drawn. Even though a significant rise in the total demand for gas in Europe is forecast, there are enough sources to cover this demand. However, to think that this gas will be available at cheap conditions is an illusion. These sources are located further and further away which means that their costs will increase. Given the risks inherent in exploring, producing, transporting and marketing these reserves, all the concerned parties must be allowed an acceptable rate of return on their investment. The environmental positive assets inherent in natural gas will guarantee the industry a bright future if they can be fully exploited. New regulations must not hinder the development of new markets or the construction of new infrastructures. The transit directive already permits the softening of the rules regarding transportation; but in order for it to come into real effect there must be gas available on the market. (author)

  14. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster's operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently ∼4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased

  15. Retained gas inventory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Gas volume data derived from four different analytical methods were collected and analyzed for comparison to volumes originally used in the technical basis for the Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). The original volumes came from Hodgson (1996) listed in the reference section of this document. Hodgson (1996) screened all 177 single and double-shell tanks for the presence of trapped gas in waste via two analytical methods: Surface Level Rise (SLR), and Barometric Pressure Effect (BPE). More recent gas volume projections have been calculated using different analytical techniques along with updates to the parameters used as input to the SLR and BPE models. Gas volumes derived from new analytical instruments include those as measured by the Void Fraction Instrument (VFI) and Retained Gas Sampler (RGS). The results of this comparison demonstrate that the original retained gas volumes of Hodgson (1996) used as a technical basis in developing the BIO were conservative, and were conservative from a safety analysis standpoint. These results represent only comparisons to the original reported volumes using the limited set of newly acquired data that is available

  16. Balance of plan gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An increment of 10% is observed, in the supply of the gas propane in 1996 being generated big expectations in the initiation of the Natural Gas program, these achievements in those that comes participating the private sector actively, have given to the plan gas a dynamics peculiar to the investments fundamentally in the exploration areas, production, transport and distribution, being configured in the country a transition phase for the use of this resource, characterized by the change from a state manager to a state regulator that even reflective holes and serious focus problems to allow a competitive handling of this industry. With the entrance in operation of the new platform in the Guajira at the end of 1998 and the production expectations in the opon Area, the possibilities are increased of gas supply for the short term, however in the medium and long term they think about queries before the uncertainty and opportune exploitation of the gas in the piedemonte llanero areas, for the recruiting problems that it is trusted, they will be overcome for benefit of the parts, with all the volume of proven and probable reserves of gas it shows a readiness for 35 years if they stay the production levels and it demands

  17. Cracked gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J; Schuster, H D; Gabler, R

    1976-11-17

    A small cracked-gas generator in a vehicle driven, in particular, by an air combustion engine has been proposed for the economic production of the gases necessary for low toxicity combustion from diesel fuel. This proceeds via catalytic crack-gasification and exploitation of residual heat from exhaust gases. This patent application foresees the insertion of one of the catalysts supporting the cracked-gas reaction in a container through which the reacting mixture for cracked-gas production flows in longitudinal direction. Further, air ducts are embedded in the catalyst through which exhaust gases and fresh air flow in counter direction to the cracked gas flow in the catalyst. The air vents are connected through heat conduction to the catalyst. A cracked gas constituting H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O can be produced from the air-fuel mixture using appropriate catalysts. By the addition of 5 to 25% of cracked gas to the volume of air drawn in by the combustion engine, a more favourable combustion can be achieved compared to that obtained under normal combustion conditions.

  18. Drilling of gas and condensed gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geranin, M P; Chao, P L; Lomonosov, V V

    1981-01-01

    Cementing of boreholes drilled into underground gas fields and the requirements imposed on the grouting mortar are reviewed. Results are set forth from a study of the insulation capacity of cementing mortar used to increase the quality of reinforcements of boreholes at PKhG. Data are presented on the properties of different grouting mortars for boreholes at PKhG, including those that may be used at low temperatures. Information is also provided on the use of light mortar containing a CaCl/sub 2/ additive, grouting mortar with furfuryl alcohol added, and expanding grouting mortars.

  19. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  20. Drill string gas data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.

    1998-05-12

    Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

  1. Gas from the wall socket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Dutch public utility (Obragas) introduces a new way to supply gas for their household clients in Helmond, Netherlands: the gas wall socket. The use of gas wall sockets must prevent the decrease of the market share for natural gas compared to the market share of electricity for households

  2. Gas Cylinder Safety, Course 9518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-27

    This course, Gas Cylinder Safety (#9518), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with handling, storing, using, and transporting gas cylinders. Standard components and markings of gas cylinders are also presented, as well as the process for the procurement, delivery, and return of gas cylinders at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  3. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  4. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the

  6. A comparative study of gas-gas miscibility processes in underground gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, M.M.; Schmitz, S. [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Intermixture of gases in underground gas reservoirs have had great weight for natural gas storage in UGS projects with substitution of cushion gas by inert gases or changing the stored gas quality or origin, as for the replacement of town gas by natural gas. It was also investigated during the last years for Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects. The actual importance of its mechanisms is discussed for the H{sub 2} storage in Power to Gas to Power projects (PGP). In these approaches miscibility of the injected gas with the gas in place in the reservoir plays an important role in the displacement process. The conditions and parameters for the gas-gas displacement and mixing have been investigated in previous projects, as e.g. the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with natural gas (CLEAN). Furthermore the miscibility process of town gas with natural gas and sauer gas with sweet gas were also previously measured and compared in laboratory. The objective of this work is to investigate the miscibility of H{sub 2} injection into natural gas reservoirs using a compositional and a black oil reservoir simulator. Three processes of convection, dispersion and diffusion are considered precisely. The effect of gas miscibility is studied for both simulators and the results are compared to find optimum miscibility parameters. The findings of this work could be helpful for further pilot and field case studies to predict and monitor the changes in gas composition and quality. In future this monitoring might become more important when PGP together with H{sub 2}-UGS, as storage technology, will help to successfully implement the change to an energy supply from more renewable sources. Similarly the method confirms the use of the black oil simulator as an alternative for gas-gas displacement and sequestration reservoir simulation in comparison to the compositional simulator. (orig.)

  7. Natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many electric utilities and industrial boiler fuel users have invested in dual fuel use capability which has allowed them to choose between natural gas, residual fuel oil, and in some instances, coal as boiler fuels. The immediate reason for this investment was the need for security of supply. Wellhead regulation of natural gas prices had resulted in shortages during the 1970s. Because many industrial users were given lowest priority in pipeline curtailments, these shortages affected most severely boiler fuel consumption of natural gas. In addition, foreign supply disruptions during the 1970s called into question the ready availability of oil. Many boiler fuel users of oil responded by increasing their ability to diversify to other sources of energy. Even though widespread investment in dual fuel use capability by boiler fuel users was initially motivated by a need for security of supply, perhaps the most important consequence of this investment was greater substitutability between natural gas and resid and a more competitive boiler fuel market. By the early 1980s, most boiler fuel users were able to switch from one fuel to another and often did for savings measured in pennies per MMBtu. Boiler fuel consumption became the marginal use of both natural gas and resid, with coal a looming threat on the horizon to both fuels

  8. Natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of establishing realistic options for deregulation in the natural gas industry, this paper first considers the structural evolution of this industry and evidences how it differs from the petroleum industry with which it exhibits some essential characteristics in common. This comparison is made in order to stress that, contrary to popular belief, that which is without doubt good for the petroleum industry is not necessarily so also for the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with separate analyses of the natural gas markets in the principal industrialized countries. Arguments are provided to show that the 'soft' deregulation option for the natural gas industry is not feasible, and that 'total' deregulation instead, backed by the passing of a suitable package of anti-trust laws 'unbundling' the industry's four major activities, i.e., production, storage, primary and secondary distribution, is the preferable option. The old concept of guaranteed supplies for minor users of natural gas should give way to the laws of supply and demand governing inter-fuel competition ensured through the strict supervision of vigilance committees

  9. Canadian gas resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  10. Gas turbine electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masaaki; Yuhara, Tetsuo.

    1993-01-01

    When troubles are caused to a boundary of a gas turbine electric generator, there is a danger that water as an operation medium for secondary circuits leaks to primary circuits, to stop a plant and the plant itself can not resume. Then in the present invention, helium gases are used as the operation medium not only for the primary circuits but also for the secondary circuits, to provide so-called a direct cycle gas turbine system. Further, the operation media of the primary and secondary circuits are recycled by a compressor driven by a primary circuit gas turbine, and the turbine/compressor is supported by helium gas bearings. Then, problems of leakage of oil and water from the bearings or the secondary circuits can be solved, further, the cooling device in the secondary circuit is constituted as a triple-walled tube structure by way of helium gas, to prevent direct leakage of coolants into the reactor core even if cracks are formed to pipes. (N.H.)

  11. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  12. Growth through gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, G.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on the strategies used by Texaco Global Gas and Power in their international marketing and business development. The company is a fully integrated mid-stream company with natural gas sales of 3.6 billion cubic feet per day and operating revenues of $3.6 billion. The company operates 1,116 miles of interstate gas pipelines and owns a dominant NGL export facility in Washington. They also generate 2223 MW of electric power. An additional 2428 MW are currently under development. In Colombia, Texaco supplies 90 per cent of the marketed gas. In Trinidad and Tobago, Texaco is in a 50/50 joint venture in the Dolphin field. Texaco also has a significant downstream presence in Brazil and is pursuing opportunities of the Gas Apertura in Venezuela. Key to the company's success are a defined strategy, dedication to the market place, alliances based on common interests and complimentary strengths, acceptance of greater risk and regionally based solutions. The bulk of the paper is devoted to describing the company's priorities and strategies in each of the Latin American countries. 5 figs

  13. Offshore gas comes ashore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W J

    1968-12-21

    The equivalent of 25% of present energy consumption is supplied by natural gas, but there is still much more work to be accomplished. Only 3 yr ago, the names West Sole, Leman Bank, Indefatigable, and Hewett were only significant to the North Sea fisherman as the names of proved fishing grounds. Now they are household words to almost everyone in the gas industry, if not the population at large. The estimate of the recoverable reserves from these 4 fields is under continuous review but the current figure is of the order of 25 million Mcf, sufficient to maintain an average withdrawal rate of 2,300 Mcfd for 30 yr. On shore, work is at present in progress on the development of the Lockton gas field in N. Yorkshire which has now proved to be capable of supplying about 1,000 Mcfd. The processes used and the plant installed off shore and at a terminal for gas treating vary according to the composition of the gas and the design philosophy of the operator. A flow sheet for a typical operation is given.

  14. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Palo Alto, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  15. Methane gas from cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The Khadi and Village Industries Commission offers a gobar gas (methane gas) production scheme. The gas plant, available in sizes of 60 to 3000 cu ft, requires only low maintenance expenditures. The cow dung, which is at present being wasted or burned as domestic fuel, can be used for manufacturing methane for fuel gas. The residue will be a good fertilizer for increasing food production. There are now about 4000 gobar gas plants in India.

  16. Gas, the energy for transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigenet, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The author describes gas as the less polluting fossil energy. He outlines that new gas fields have been discovered, notably non conventional gas fields. He notices that whatever conventional or not conventional, a gas field produces methane, and that there is therefore no difference for the end user. However, he notices that reserve assessments by the IAE are a matter of discussion, and that hydraulic fracturing has resulted in important environmental and human damages. Anyway, gas will be needed to face energy demand

  17. Arab oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This review explains the situation of petroleum products and gas in Arab countries. Several kinds of difficulties are exposed: too many projects, concurrence of other producers like Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Russian Federation, will be rude. New exporters (Iran, Venezuela, Nigeria, even Alaska) will appear and will want a part of market and western countries will probably diversify their tradesmen. An other point is that producers overestimate future growth of worldwide demand or underestimate the impact of more expansive gas price on this demand. Inversely if this one is too low, several projects, would not be profitable. The last point is in the concurrence between gas and petroleum products, which needs a consistent policy

  18. Gas converter. Gaswandler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, A

    1984-09-27

    A gas converter is proposed for carbonisation gas containing hydrocarbons, consisting of a bricked shaft, which has a free combustion chamber and a solid bed of bulk grainy material with partly burnt hot carbonisation gases flowing through it as the lower boundary of this combustion chamber, in the upper part of which a hot reaction zone at about 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C is formed and which has a cracked gas extraction below the solid bed and an ash outlet. The solid bed is arranged at an angle to the vertical. The shaft has a solid material outlet for the bed material no longer capable of taking part in the reaction on the wall going obliquely downwards and a solid material inlet for new bulk bed material on the opposite wall going obliquely upwards.

  19. Gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Bayly, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas detection system provides for the effective detection of gas leaks over a large area. It includes a laser which has a laser line corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. A He-Xe laser scans a number of retroreflectors which are strategically located around a D 2 O plant to detect H 2 S leaks. The reflected beam is focused by a telescope, filtered, and passed into an infrared detector. The laser may be made to emit two frequencies, one of which corresponds with an H 2 S absorption line; or it may be modulated on and off the H 2 S absorption line. The relative amplitude of the absorbed light will be a measure of the H 2 S present

  20. Colorimetric gas dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnaughey, P.W.; McKee, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    A gas dosimeter comprises a stack of porous sheets, impregnated with a reagent that changes color on contact with the gas to be determined, contained in a housing which has an opening to expose one end of the stack to the atmosphere to be tested. The gas to be determined penetrates by diffusion the layers of porous sheets, causing the sheets in the stack to change color sequentially from the end of the stack exposed to the atmosphere. The degree of penetration through the layers of porous sheets is a function of dosage exposure. The housing may be transparent with each superposed sheet in the stack being larger than the adjacent underlying sheet, so that each sheet is visible through the housing endwall

  1. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  2. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandrish, G.

    1979-10-01

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  3. Radioactive gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki; Okazaki, Akira; Kumagaya, Koji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of a gas processing system which has hitherto been much complicated by the recyclic use of molecular sieve regeneration gas, by enabling to release the regeneration gas to outside in a once-through manner. Constitution: The system comprises a cooler for receiving and cooling gases to be processed containing radioactive rare gases, moisture-removing pipelines each connected in parallel to the exit of the cooler and having switching valves and a moisture removing column disposed between the valves and a charcoal absorber in communication with the moisture removing pipelines. Pipelines for flowing regeneration heating gases are separately connected to the moisture removing columns, and molecular sieve is charged in the moisture removing column by the amount depending on the types of the radioactive rare gases. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Biological flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H.; Wijte, G.; Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P.; Hartog, H.A.J. den [Paper B.V. Blak (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    A new biological flue gas desulfurization process (BIO-FGD) producing sulphur as a by-product was invented by Paques BV and Hoogens Technical Services in 1993. Sulphur dioxide is absorbed from flue gas using a combination of a sodium based scrubber and two biological reactors, an anaerobic and an aerobic biological reactor. The article describes the process and its evaluation in a pilot plant at 2 MW scale, designed to remove 6 kg/hr SO{sub 2} of the 2 million m{sup 3}/hr of flue gas produced at the 600 MW coal fired power station Amer-8 situated in Geertruidenberg in the south of the Netherlands. Research so far has proved the process works successfully and at low cost. A second pilot plant due to start-up in May 1995 will provide data on scale up and further information on sulphur recovery. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Town gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastos, G.J.; Johnson, G.M.; Schapot, R.M.; Velez, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Town gas plant sites are receiving increasing attention from the utility industry and regulatory communities. This attention has been prompted by greater environmental awareness of impacts due to past disposal practices and the understanding that gas plant wastes contain a wide range of chemical constituents that have persisted in the environment. This paper discusses the history of the town gas plant industry, the various processes utilized and the resultant by-products and wastes. Potential problem areas relating to these sites as well as potential approaches to site characterization are addressed. Included are recommendations for the phasing of site investigations and the use of relatively inexpensive and rapid field screening techniques to identify contamination

  6. Gas recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.B.; Lewis, W.W.; Edmiston, A.; Klauser, G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to decontaminate a gas stream containing radioactive krypton, a preliminary step of removing oxygen and oxides of nitrogen by catalytic reaction with hydrogen is performed. The gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to remove sequentially water, CO 2 and xenon therefrom. The gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery plant wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column by contact with a reflux liquid in a packed section of the column. The liquid and vapour collecting at the bottom of the column is passed to a separator in which the liquid is separated from the vapour. The liquid is partially evaporated in a vessel to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mole % or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. (author)

  7. Method of gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltner, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    In order to separate a mixture of gases having widely different partial pressures at a given temperature, a chamber is employed. A batch of gas mixture is passed into the chamber. The walls of the chamber are cooled by a refrigerant which passes through coils in heat exchange relationship with the walls. By this means the temperature of the chamber is cooled to a temperature (and held at such temperature until equilibrium is reached) at which all the components of the gas mixture have changed state, at least one being solidified and at least one liquefied. The liquid constituents are removed first. Then the chamber is warmed to facilitate removal of the previously solidified constituents. In an example, the gas mixture comprises nitrogen, argon, krypton and xenon, and the walls of the chamber are cooled by liquid nitrogen, the argon and nitrogen being liquefied and the xenon and krypton being solidified. (author)

  8. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  9. 78 FR 11638 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... corporate name change from MichCon to DTE Gas, and pursuant to section 284.123 of the Commissions... Gas Company (DTE Gas) filed to institute a name change to both itself from MichCon to DTE Gas and to...

  10. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  11. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  12. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  13. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  14. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  15. Gas dynamic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.J.; Jewell, N.T.

    1975-01-01

    In a high powered laser system it is proposed that combustion gases be bled off from a gas turbine engine and their composition adjusted by burning extra fuel in the bleed gases or adding extra substances. Suitable aerodynamic expansion produces a population inversion resulting in laser action in the CO 2 species. Alternatively, bleed gases may be taken from the high pressure compressor of the gas turbine engine and an appropriate fuel burned therein. If required, other adjustments may also be made to the composition and the resulting gaseous mixture subjected to aerodynamic expansion to induce laser action as before. (auth)

  16. Special feature - Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, David.

    1995-01-01

    In an introduction to a series of articles about the United Kingdom gas industry, the author criticises Government policy as being too full of assertions, yet lacking in substance. Despite agreeing with the proposition that free markets lead to the best allocation of resources and the best deal for consumers, the author argues that evidence for such assertions must be made public if citizens are to have any confidence in them. It is claimed that gas should be the subject of a Review, such as the coal and nuclear industries have recently undergone, in order to demonstrate its central importance to the United Kingdom power supply. (UK)

  17. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  18. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  19. Gas tungsten arc welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable grinder, co-axial with the electrode, is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds. The specification also discloses means for loading of the cladding with fuel pellets and for placement of reflectors, gas capsules and end caps. Gravity feed conveyor and inerting means are also described. (author)

  20. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  1. Elements of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Liepmann, H W

    2001-01-01

    The increasing importance of concepts from compressible fluid flow theory for aeronautical applications makes the republication of this first-rate text particularly timely. Intended mainly for aeronautics students, the text will also be helpful to practicing engineers and scientists who work on problems involving the aerodynamics of compressible fluids. Covering the general principles of gas dynamics to provide a working understanding of the essentials of gas flow, the contents of this book form the foundation for a study of the specialized literature and should give the necessary background

  2. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  3. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 1/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 1/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test of the motor-operated valve, individual test of the gasification furnace circulation water pump, individual test of the motor for the same, individual test of the SGC (syngas cooler) circulation water pump, individual test of the coal feeder rotary valve, individual test of the foreign matters extraction rotary valve, individual test of the foreign matters classifier, individual test of the char feeder rotary valve, individual test of the slag conveyer, individual test of the slag vibrator, individual test of the slag crusher, individual test of the slag separation tank exhaust blower, individual test of the slag separator water pump, test of gasification furnace interlocking, verification test of alert for the same, test of gasification furnace system pressure rise, test of oxygen line ventilation, test of comprehensive purge master sequence, verification test of distribution performance of the distributor, test on char system rock hopper pressure application and pressure release, test of pneumatic actuator valve loop, actual operational test of the soot blower, and an individual test of the receiving conveyer. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 3/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 3/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test operation of the expansion turbine in the air separation facility, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the expansion turbine in the same, test operation of the oxygen compressor in the same, test operation of the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the high pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, performance verification test for the air separation facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage normal pressure coal hopper purge master in the gasification facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage initial coal loading master in the same, sequence test for char system rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for gasification furnace light oil leak check master in the same, sequence test for coal rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for upper/lower coal rock hopper coal reception master in the same, sequence test for slag hopper quenching operation master in the same, and sequence test for gasification steam drum water filling master in the same. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 2/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 2/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include an individual test of the receiving pit hopper vibrator, individual test of the pulverized coal related rotary valve, individual test of the pretreatment compressed air fan, individual test of the coal pulverizer lubricating device, individual test of the coal pulverizer pressure device, individual test of the coal pulverizer, individual test of the coal pulverizer motor, individual test of the coal feeder, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan motor, test of capacity for pulverized coal, individual test of the pulverized coal conveyer blower, test of the sequence of the same, test of pulverizer inert clearing, individual test of the pretreatment condensed water pump in the coal pretreatment device, test of airborne conveyance in the same, verification test of inter-hopper transfer in the same, test of coal pulverization in the same, test operation of the raw material air/low pressure nitrogen compressor in the air separation facility, test operation of the raw material air freezer in the same, and a test operation of the MS adsorber/MS regeneration electric heater. (NEDO)

  6. Northwest Asia - gas market outlook: LNG vs. pipeline gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keun Wook Paik

    1996-01-01

    The share of natural gas in Northeast Asia's energy mix is quite low despite that the region currently dominates the world LNG trade. In the long term, the region's rapid expansion of gas demand in the coming decades looks very likely, but the LNG dominance in the region's gas market will collapse in parallel with the introduction of a long distance pipeline gas. The most likely timing of pipeline gas introduction in Northeast Asian gas market seems to be during the second half of the next decade. (Author)

  7. FY 1998 annual report on the survey and research on methodology for estimating reduced amounts of greenhouse effect gas emissions; Onshitsu koka gas haishutsu sakugenryo santei hoho ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Although introduction of Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have been adopted in the COP3, the details of how to set up the baseline for calculating the emission reduction amounts have not been established. This survey/research project has sorted out various concept menus for setting the baseline, verify each menu, and positively propose the methodology in an international arena, in which merits and demerits involved in simplified approaches, which try to simplify the works for setting the baseline, are analyzed, and their effectiveness is investigated. At the same time, both FCCC AIJ and NEDO AIJ projects are analyzed, to understand characteristics of baseline-setting method adopted by each project. There are many project types, to which direct application of any simplified approach is difficult. It is therefore realistic to analyze the situations case by case for the time being, and pursue for possibility of standardization of the baseline-setting methods after sufficient experience and data are accumulated to allow classification of the projects by common features. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1991. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Verification test on reliability of ceramic members); 1991 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ceramic buzai no shinraisei kakusho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    Development has been advanced on a test method to verify reliability of ceramics members being the basic material. Specifically, discussions were given on 1) the creep fracture verification test method, and 2) non-destructive test methods applied to different parts of the CGT. In Item 1, tension creep rupture tests were given on three kinds of candidate materials (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) used in the rotors in the atmosphere and the rated temperature zone. The fatigue resistance coefficient and the stress coefficient from several hours to 1,000 hours were calculated from the analysis of rupture time relative to temperatures and load stresses and elongation of the test pieces. It was verified that the test results can be put into order by using coefficients derived by test temperatures. The temperature was centered around 1,200 degrees C, and the load stress was varied from several ten to several hundred MPa. In Item 2, development was made on a theory to quantify the ultrasonic effective beam diameter by using the reflective echo heights, making it possible to make the ultrasonic flaw detection method into a theorem. Defects with sizes from 70 to 200 {mu} m can be estimated with error rates from 10 to 20%. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1989. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Regenerative single-shaft axial-flow turbine for cogeneration); 1989 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Cogeneration yo saisei ichijikushiki jikuryu turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    With an objective to research and develop a 300-kW class regenerative single-shaft axial-flow turbine having inlet temperature of 1,350 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher, activities were performed in the following three fields: 1) heat resistant ceramic members, 2) elementary technologies, and 3) studies on design, prototype fabrication, and operation. In Item 1, a mass production technology was discussed on stator blades and heat transfer pipes for a heat exchanger as the component manufacturing technology, and injection molding conditions were studied and mechanical strength measurement was performed on rotor blades of a separate type axial-flow turbine. In addition, a molding condition producing no cracks was discovered in an integrated type axial-flow turbine whose embedded section has a tapered shape, and the mass production technology was discussed. With regard to the bonding technology, preliminary discussions were given on bonding agents under a prerequisite that a bonding agent shall be used. In Item 2, detailed discussions were launched on the turbine, combustor, heat exchanger, and compressor, including shape decision on the turbine, for example, by using aerodynamic analysis, In Item 3, the basic design was performed following the conceptual design, and a metallic turbine was designed. (NEDO)

  10. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  11. The gas sector in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas in Canada represents 29% of the primary energy and 42% of the energy used in the industrial sector. The biggest users are the manufacturing industries for which the low cost of natural gas and the quality of products resulting from its use represent a serious advantage in a more and more competitive market. This document takes stock of the situation of natural gas and gas-related technologies in Quebec. The first part recalls the historical evolution of the gas distribution network in Quebec and its present day situation. Then, some technical-economical data about the consumption of natural gas in Quebec are presented according to the sectors of use. The third part treats of the R and D activities linked with the gas sector, in particular the activities of the two main research organizations: the technical centre of natural gas and the research group in gas technologies of the Polytechnique school of Montreal. (J.S.)

  12. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  13. Gas Tank for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lorenz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the development of a highly efficient pressure vessel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG in integral design is described. The pressure vessel can be customized in an optimal available installation space and thus means that the suitable for everyday use of existing modified cars or trucks can be increased.

  14. Gas-retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-07-10

    A vertical retort for the continuous distillation of coal, peat, shale, lignite, etc., is provided with a perforated gas withdrawal pipe in the upper part. The central part is surrounded by a heating-flue, and the lower part is provided with a conical discharging-screw mounted in a rotary water-pan.

  15. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  16. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. The future needs Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2000-01-01

    Colombia requires increasing its reserves, to export and to attract investment for this industry. A stable legal mark and rules of game clears they are the road to incentives the exploration and this way to develop the great gas potential of the country, prices and market, the key variables

  18. Venezuelan gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) is an international energy corporation wholly owned by the Republic of Venezuela. The steady expansion of PDVSA's natural gas infrastructure in Venezuela and the strong performance of its subsidiaries, has contributed to its operational and marketing flexibility, thus allowing it to evolve froma simple exporter of crude oil and refined products to an important supplier of Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) to the world's major energy markets. Corpoven one of PDVSA's affiliated Companies will in 1994 produce an incremental volume of 45 thousand barrels per day of natural gas liquids from the northern Monagas region. NGL exports are expected to increase from 175 thousand barrels day in 1994 to 232 thousand barrels day in 1988. At the end of 1992, another PDVSA subsidiary reached an agreement which calls for the exploitation of vast reserves of natural gas located in the Gulf of Paria, in northeastern Venezuela. The projected LNG production is in the order of 6 million tons per year. (author)

  19. Gas calorimeter workshop: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Gas calorimeters combining functions of energy measurement and fine tracking have become more and more popular in the past few years. They help identify muons, gammas, electrons, and hadrons within dense tracks from transverse and longitudinal shower development. Fine segmentation capability using pads and strips on the cathodes have made gas-sampling calorimeters very attractive for colliding-beam detectors where a large multiplicity of particles are detected in a projected geometry. Linearity, energy resolution, shower position resolution, multishower resolution, and calibration questions were discussed in detail at the workshop. Ease of energy calibration by monitoring radioactive sources, good gain uniformity, and gain stability obtained were among the topics of the speakers. There was a discussion session on the operation mode of wire chambers. Gas calorimeters have been used successfully at CERN, Cornell, Fermilab, and SLAC for experiments. Some of the results from those large-scale devices were reported. Future usage of gas-sampling calorimeters for colliding-beam experiments at Fermilab and CERN were discussed. Wire chambers using extruded conductive plastic tubes have made construction easy of pads and strips which can conveniently read out induced signals from the cathode. The results of extensive studies on such devices were discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 17 papers presented

  20. Noble gas absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method of removing a noble gas from air comprising the use of activated carbon filters in stages in which absorption and desorption steps in succession are conducted in order to increase the capacity of the filters is described. (U.S.)

  1. New King Gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feine, Paul.

    1997-01-01

    After describing how the natural gas market in the US has developed over the past 20 years under deregulation, the influence of the future market from political aspects is discussed. In particular the likely standards to be set by the Environmental Protection Agency on emissions from power plants and industry will be key. (UK)

  2. Opec's fratricidal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.

    1997-01-01

    The growing dependence of the world economy on natural gas has presented political problems to the OPEC states in terms of how to handle such exports within the oil quotes agreed between members. The impact in terms of relative gain or loss is presented for eleven OPEC members. (UK)

  3. Workshop on Gas Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    Effect of pressure on gas permeability. In Fish … Different channels or splice variants at different depth.  HRE (hypoxia-response elements): which...proteins unexpectedly have HREs . HIF-1.  Shear stress:  expression of NOS  Are different splice variants used under different conditions?  Size

  4. Gas compression infrared generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular gas is compressed in a quasi-adiabatic manner to produce pulsed radiation during each compressor cycle when the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, and part of the energy is recovered during the expansion phase, as defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,751,666; characterized by use of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston as a compressor

  5. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of 1,2,3-oxadithiolan 2-oxide and thiiran 1-oxide have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry (f.v.t.–f.i.m.s.) technique in the temperature range from 1 043 to 1 404 K. The reactions are rationalized in terms of sulp...

  6. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono–thiolo rea...

  7. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  8. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Selective gas exhaustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yoichi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method capable of evacuating gases at an exhaustion rate which varies depending on the kind of gases. For example, in a thermonuclear experimental device, a hydrogen gas exhaustion rate is determined to 0 and an exhaustion rate for other impure gases is made greater. Namely, a baffle plate is cooled to a temperature to a level at which the vapor pressure of gases to evacuate a baffle plate is required in a pump incorporating a baffle plate, for example, a cryopump or a sorption pump. In this case, the level of the vapor pressure required for evacuating the exhaustion gas ingredients is 1 x 10 -8 Torr or less, preferably, 1 x 10 -9 Torr. In a thermonuclear experimental device, a gas having a lower boiling point next to hydrogen is neon, but neon is scarcely present in natural world. Nitrogen has a lower boiling point next thereto, and if the temperature is lowered to such a level that the vapor pressure for evacuating gases such as nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon or methane having a boiling point at or lower than nitrogen is required. Then, evacuation rate sufficient for gases other than hydrogen gas can be obtained. (I.S.)

  10. IXM gas sampling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingel, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ion Exchange Modules (IXMs) are used at the 105-KE and -KW Fuel Storage Basins to control radionuclide concentrations in the water. A potential safety concern relates to production of hydrogen gas by radiolysis of the water trapped in the ion exchange media of spent IXMs. This document provides a procedure for sampling the gases in the head space of the IXM

  11. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  12. Chrysant zonder gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, M.G.M.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Knaap, van der E.; Veld, de Paul

    2015-01-01

    The most relevant options that can decrease the heat demand on Chrysanthemum are calculated on their saving potential. With the joint options, a gas consumption of less than 10 m3/m2.year can be realized. The main bottlenecks are the increased risk of fungal diseases and the low net present value of

  13. Financing landfill gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

  14. Marketing of Frigg gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, W R

    1976-01-01

    The marketing of Frigg gas is of particular interest, being the first major supplementary source of supply since the original development and major expansion of the natural gas industry. The timing of arrival is highly significant following a unique series of events - world energy crisis, upsurge of fuel prices, the deliberate restriction of gas sales to match available supply, and a major economic recession during which national energy usage has actually fallen. After such unprecedented changes, the future energy scene is far from clear. It is certain, however, that the marketing of Frigg gas will have to take into account the social, economic, and political changes that are occurring in the United Kingdom as manifested in an increasing interest in energy prices. Notwithstanding the uncertainties, the industry's broadly based strategy of market-related pricing in the premium sectors, which has served its customers and the economy as a whole to advantage over the past few years, will be extended to make the maximum use of a valuable indigenous resource.

  15. Fission gas in thoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah, E-mail: n.kuganathan@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ghosh, Partha S. [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Galvin, Conor O.T. [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arya, Ashok K. [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dutta, Bijon K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Trombay, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Dey, Gautam K. [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Grimes, Robin W. [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    The fission gases Xe and Kr, formed during normal reactor operation, are known to degrade fuel performance, particularly at high burn-up. Using first-principles density functional theory together with a dispersion correction (DFT + D), in ThO{sub 2} we calculate the energetics of neutral and charged point defects, the di-vacancy (DV), different neutral tri-vacancies (NTV), the charged tetravacancy (CTV) defect cluster geometries and their interaction with Xe and Kr. The most favourable incorporation point defect site for Xe or Kr in defective ThO{sub 2} is the fully charged thorium vacancy. The lowest energy NTV in larger supercells of ThO{sub 2} is NTV3, however, a single Xe atom is most stable when accommodated within a NTV1. The di-vacancy (DV) is a significantly less favoured incorporation site than the NTV1 but the CTV offers about the same incorporation energy. Incorporation of a second gas atom in a NTV is a high energy process and more unfavourable than accommodation within an existing Th vacancy. The bi-NTV (BNTV) cluster geometry studied will accommodate one or two gas atoms with low incorporation energies but the addition of a third gas atom incurs a high energy penalty. The tri-NTV cluster (TNTV) forms a larger space which accommodates three gas atoms but again there is a penalty to accommodate a fourth gas atom. By considering the energy to form the defect sites, solution energies were generated showing that in ThO{sub 2−x} the most favourable solution equilibrium site is the NTV1 while in ThO{sub 2} it is the DV. - Highlights: • We have considered Xe and Kr in point defects and defect clusters (neutral and charged) using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with a dispersion correction. • The most favourable charge state for a point defect (vacancy or interstitial) is that with full ionic charge and we have found that in all cases gas atoms occupy the fully charged vacancy sites. • The number of fission gas atoms accommodated in ThO{sub 2} is

  16. Gas pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Cavalca, F.; Latronico, L.; Massai, M.M.; Minuti, M.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.

    2007-01-01

    With the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), the class of micro-pattern gas detectors has reached a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics. To obtain this goal, three generations of application-specific integrated circuit of increased complexity and improved functionality has been designed and fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technology. This implementation has allowed manufacturing a monolithic device, which realizes, at the same time, the pixelized charge-collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics of a GPD. A big step forward in terms of size and performances has been obtained in the last version of the 0.18 μm CMOS analog chip, where over a large active area of 15x15 mm 2 a very high channel density (470 pixels/mm 2 ) has been reached. On the top metal layer of the chip, 105,600 hexagonal pixels at 50 μm pitch have been patterned. The chip has customable self-trigger capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way, by limiting the output signal to only those pixels belonging to the region of interest, it is possible to reduce significantly the read-out time and data volume. In-depth tests performed on a GPD built up by coupling this device to a fine pitch (50 μm) gas electron multiplier are reported. Matching of the gas amplification and read-out pitch has let to obtain optimal results. A possible application of this detector for X-ray polarimetry of astronomical sources is discussed

  17. Gas centrifuge purge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  18. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Who's afraid of natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in our electricity systems provoked by natural gas power generation technology are paving the way for large-scale renewables use in the future. Natural gas and gas turbines are now such a cheap and easy option for electricity generation that they appear to cast a pall over renewables. The market share of gas-fired generation continues expanding inexorably. Its cost continues to fall, setting renewables an ever more demanding competitive target. Nevertheless, paradoxical though this may sound, natural gas is actually the natural ally of renewables. Despite the fierce competitive challenge it represents, natural gas may even be the most important single factor shaping a bright future for renewables. (author)

  20. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Gas supply and Yorkshire Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Yorkshire Electricity, among other independent suppliers of gas, now competes for a share of the United Kingdom gas market, previously monopolised by British Gas. The experience of this successful electric utility company, expanding into the industrial and domestic gas supply market is described in the article. The company`s involvement stems partly from the fact that significant volumes of gas are landed at three terminals within its franchise area. The company will also seek to use subsidaries to generate electric power from gas turbine power plants and explore the possibilities of developing combined heat and power (CHP) plants where appropriate. (UK)

  2. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  3. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines......Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  4. Hot fuel gas dedusting after sorbent-based gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Advanced power generation technologies, such as Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), require gas cleaning at high temperatures in order to meet environmental standards and to achieve high thermal efficiencies. The primary hot gas filtration process, which removes particulates from the cooled raw fuel gas at up to 600{degree}C is the first stage of gas cleaning prior to desulphurization and ammonia removal processes. The dust concentration in the fuel gas downstream of the sorbent processes would be much lower than for the hot gas filtration stage and would have a lower sulphur content and possibly reduced chlorine concentration. The main aim of this project is to define the requirements for a hot gas filter for dedusting fuel gas under these conditions, and to identify a substantially simpler and more cost effective solution using ceramic or metal barrier filters.

  5. Solid gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that to evaluate which are the stable phases under high gas pressure conditions, a solid-gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure (HIP phase diagram) has been proposed by the author. The variables of the diagram are temperature, reactant gas partial pressure and total gas pressure. Up to the present time the diagrams have been constructed using isobaric conditions. In this work, the stable phases for a real HIP process were evaluated assuming an isochoric condition. To understand the effect of the total gas pressure on stability is of primary importance. Two possibilities were considered and evaluated, those are: the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, or it only affects the fugacity values. The results of this work indicate that the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, and in turn also affects the fugacity values

  6. Green gas. Gas of natural gas quality from biomass. Update of the 2004 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welink, Jan-Henk; Dumont, M.; Kwant, K.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 a study was published on green gas. Green gas is defined as a gaseous energy carrier from renewable biomass with a similar quality as natural gas. As a result of new developments in the field of co-digestion/fermentation the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs asked it's agency SenterNovem to update the 2004 study. The aim of the update is (1) to gain insight into operational aspects of green gas projects, e.g. reliability, efficiency and maintenance aspects; (2) stimulate the production of green gas, taking into account the economics of green gas projects, calculation of the financial gap of green gas production, efficient use of biogas (conversion to electricity or directly input into the natural gas distribution systems, and aspects with regard to commercialization and the market; and (3) the potential of green gas [nl

  7. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  8. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Dahl, M.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1999-01-01

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples

  9. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  10. Gas retorts: gas manufacture, process for distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J

    1874-05-23

    In apparatus for distilling shale, coal, etc. for making oil and gas, tubular retorts are supported horizontally in a chamber by plates from a brick setting and are heated partly by jets of gas from a pipe supplied through a cock from a gas holder, and partly by the waste gases from a furnace, which heats gas retorts placed in a chamber, air being supplied beneath the grate by a fan.

  11. The challenge of implementing green gas into the gas supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain a more mature share in the future energy supply, green gas supply chains face some interesting challenges. In this thesis green gas supply chains, based on codigestion of cow manure and maize, are considered. The produced biogas is upgraded to natural gas quality and injected into

  12. A Gas Target with a Tritium Gas Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1963-12-15

    A detailed description is given of a simple tritium gas target and its tritium gas filling system, and how to put it into operation. By using the T (p,n) He reaction the gas target has been employed for production of monoenergetic fast neutrons of well defined energy and high intensity. The target has been operated successfully for a long time.

  13. An Ideal Gas Law Simulator for Atmospheric Gas Molecules ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ideal gas law which is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas that allows us to gain useful insights into the behavior of most real gases at low densities was utilized in this work to conceptualize, design and develop the ideal gas law simulator in a 3 dimensional space using Microsoft Visual Studio, Microsoft ...

  14. Gas-particle interactions in dense gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of heterogeneous flow structures in gas-particle flows seriously affects gas¿solid contacting and transport processes in dense gas-fluidized beds. A computational study, using a discrete particle method based on Molecular Dynamics techniques, has been carried out to explore the

  15. Gas-ion laser with gas pressure maintenance means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    A gas-ion laser is described including means to maintain the ionizable gas in the laser cavity at a rather constant pressure over an extended period of time to significantly increase the useful life of the gas-ion laser. The gas laser includes a gas makeup system having a high pressure source or storage container and a regulating valve. The valve has a permeable solid state orifice member through which the gas flows from the high pressure source to the laser cavity to replenish the gas in the laser cavity and maintain the gas pressure in the cavity rather constant. The permeable orifice member is selected from a solid state material having a permeability that is variable in relation to the magnitude of the energy applied to the orifice member. The gas-ion laser has a valve operating means such as a heater for varying the applied energy such as thermal energy to the member to regulate the gas flow. Additionally, the gas-ion laser has a valve control means that is responsive to the gas pressure in the laser cavity for controlling the valve control means to maintain the pressure at a desired level. (U.S.)

  16. A miniaturized optical gas sensor for natural gas analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of domestic reserves and the growing use of sustainable resources forces a transition from the locally produced natural gas with a well-known composition toward the ‘new’ gas with a more flexible composition in the Netherlands. For safe combustion and proper billing, the natural gas

  17. Gas Composition Sensor for Natural Gas and Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Sweelsen, J.; Blokland, H.

    2016-01-01

    The calorific value of energetic gasses is an important parameter in the quality assessment of gas steams, and can be calculated from the chemical composition of the gas. An array of capacitive sensor electrodes was developed, each functionalized with a gas responsive coating to measure the

  18. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  19. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  20. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  1. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  2. Detector module for gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radioactive source detector module for use in a gas monitor. It is adapted to contain the source and other detector components to allow sealed coupling of those components with other portions of the gas monitor. It is particularly concerned with the use of radioactive materials used as electron sources in gas monitors. The module is used to detect changes in electron flow caused by partial absorption of the electron capture gas flowing between two electrodes. The assembly includes a gas flow source, a gas receiver and an electronic assembly for receiving a signal from the detector. The radioactive source and electrodes are housed so that they are connected to the gas flow source so as to prevent accidental or undesired disconnection. It is designed so that the detector module may be removed or replaced into the gas monitor assemblies by untrained personnel so as to prevent exposure to the radioactive material. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  3. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  5. The Jarvis gas release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manocha, J.

    1992-01-01

    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  6. FY 1974 report. Study on hydrogen combustion technology; 1974 nendo suiso nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    In the use of hydrogen as fuel, there is the problem on NOx emission. The amount of NOx emission is not as much as in the use of coal or oil, but is more than in the use of natural gas or town gas. However, it can be said that hydrogen is an ideal fuel if considered that it does not emit other air pollutants such as CO, HC and soot/dust which are usually associated with hydrocarbon base gas fuels, and also that hydrogen forms a circulation system which is ecologically sound. The flame of hydrogen is non-luminous, but the flame temperature is high. The formation of NOx depends strongly upon the flame temperature, and therefore, in the design of hydrogen burner, it is necessary to well mix it with air and to avoid the production of the local high temperature region. Further, when using hydrogen to large boiler, the combustion technology to control NOx reduction is needed. About the hydrogen flame, the matter to be noticed is an experimental result that NOx reduction was observed by adding trace ammonia to hydrogen gas. If this method can be successful, NOx can be reduced with no increase in fuel consumption. It leads to hydrogen's reaching a position of clean energy. (NEDO)

  7. Multiplex gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  8. Radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a technology review conducted to identify and organize the range of options for measuring radon in soil gas as a means to evaluate radon exposure potential in buildings. The main focus of the review includes identifying the following: Measurement of objectives - the specific parameter(s) that each technology is designed to measure( e.g., soil gas concentration, flux density, etc.); Equipment needs -commercial availability of systems and/or components, specifications for fabricated components; Procedural information - documented elements of field and laboratory methodology and quality assurance; Underlying assumptions - conceptual and mathematical models utilized to convert analytical outcomes to estimators of radon. Basic technologies and field data were examined from a generic perspective (e.g., the common denominators of passive detectors, hollow sampling probes, flux monitors)( as well as specific configurations developed by individual investigators (e.g., sample volume, depth) to develop the basis for separating analytical uncertainties form sampling uncertainties

  9. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  10. Shale gas - uncertain destiny?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines that, even if it would be allowed, the exploitation of shale gas in France would need ten years to start, and no one can say what would be our needs then and what would be the situation of the gas market at that time. Even if the government decided to forbid hydraulic fracturing, there could be some opportunity for experimentation with a search for alternative technology. The article notices that risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and extraction of non conventional hydrocarbons, i.e. water pollution and consumption and land use, are variously perceived in different European countries (Germany, Romania, Poland) where important American actors are present (Chevron, Exxon) to exploit shale gases. In the USA, the economic profitability seems in fact to rapidly decrease

  11. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  12. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  13. Biological (flue) gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [PAQUES, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar CV, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Groep BV, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Biotechnological research has been carried out to find new micro-organisms and processes to make useful products, and to reveal new ways and biotechnological mechanisms to produce elemental sulfur in waste water treatment. Biotechnological development work has been carried out and the first commercial installation (on 300 m{sup 3}/hr scale) to produce sulfur from polluted waste water was started up in 1992. The importance of this recent research and development in the area of waste water treatment was recognized. In an intensive cooperation between Hoogovens Technical Services and PACQUES the concept for a totally new Biological Flue Gas Desulfurization process (BIO-FGD), producing sulfur as by-product, was invented. It consists of the combination of a sodium scrubber with two biological reactors resulting in a very attractive new concept for a gas cleaning process. A description of the process is given and the pilot plant results are outlined. 4 figs., 5 refs.

  14. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To easily and reliably detect the consumption of a sputtered cathode in a radioactive gas storage device using ion injection method. Constitution: Inert gases are sealed to the inside of a cathode. As the device is operated, the cathode is consumed and, if it is scraped to some extent, inert gases in the cathode gases are blown out to increase the inner pressure of the device. The pressure elevation is detected by a pressure detector connected with a gas introduction pipe or discharge pipe. Further, since the discharge current in the inside is increased along with the elevation of the pressure, it is possible to detect the increase of the electrical current. In this way, the consumption of the cathode can be recognized by detecting the elevation in the pressure or increase in the current. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  16. Flue Gas Desulphurization Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Halhouli, K.A.; Abu-Ashur, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization process are discussed. These processes can be grouped into non-regenerable systems and regenerable systems. The non-regenerable systems produce a product which is either disposed of as waste or sold as a by-product e.g. lime/limestone process. While in the regenerable systems, e.g. Wellman-Lord process, the SO 2 is regenerated from the sorbent(sodium sulphite), which is returned to absorb more SO 2 . Also a newer technology for flue gas desulphurization is discussed. The Ispra process uses bromine as oxidant, producing HBr, from which bromine is regenerated by electrolysis. The only by-products of this process are sulphuric acid and hydrogen, which are both valuable products, and no waste products are produced. Suggested modifications on the process are made based on experimental investigations to improve the efficiency of the process and to reduce its costs

  17. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  18. MOCVD waste gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelen, A. van; Bink, P.H.M.; Giling, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    A large scale production of GaAs based solar cells with MOCVD will give rise to a considerable use of arsine. Therefore a gas treatment system is needed to convert the waste gases into less toxic compounds. In this study seven different gas treatment systems for MOCVD are compared by quantifying the environmental aspects. The systems are divided in wet systems, adsorption systems and thermal systems. The smallest amount of waste is produced by adsorption and thermal systems. Adsorption systems use the smallest amount of energy. The amount of primary materials used for the equipment varies per system. All systems are safe, but adsorption systems are simplest. At the moment, adsorption systems are probably the best choice from an environmental point of view. Nevertheless thermal systems have some potential advantages which make them interesting for the future

  19. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Business co-operation with various foreign partners has begun to develop intensively as a result of the restructuring that is now progressing in the Soviet Union. This is particularly the case with the enterprises and organisations dealing with oil and gas production, all of them component parts of the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the USSR. Owing to the enormous territorial expanse of this country, and also to the rather considerable volume of oil produced, the scheme of organisation of this Ministry is complicated and versatile. This Directory lists all the enterprises and organisations that are component parts of the Ministry, their postal addresses, their telephone numbers and the names of their departmental heads. (author)

  20. Measuring Dark Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Heiles, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    It is now well known that a substantial fraction of Galactic molecular gas cannot be traced by CO emission. The thus dubbed CO dark molecular gas (DMG) occupy a large volume of ISM with intermediate extinction, where CO is either not self-shielded and/or subthermally excited. We explore the utilities of simple hydrides, such OH, CH, etc., in tracing DMG. We mapped and modeled the transition zone cross a cloud boundary and derived emperical OH abundance and DMG distribution formulae. We also obtained absorption measurements of various species using Arecibo, VLA, ATCA, and ALMA. The absorption technique has the potential to provide systematic quantification of DMG in the next few years.

  1. Gas Dispatching and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoettker, R.; Spiecker, U.

    1995-01-01

    Activities in large dispatch centres are usually divided into volume planning and contract management as well as grid control. Volume planning and contract management require high-performance computers for contractual and technical optimisation models, for contract handling models and communication with partner companies. For grid control, the use of computers for SCADA systems and for grid simulation and optimisation has become a fundamental requirement. In 1992, Ruhrgas replaced the hardware by a modern hardware concept featuring a fault-tolerant process computer for SCADA system interface processing. The work-place computers were substituted by sophisticated workstations integrated into a computer network and an X-Windows user interface based on the MOTIF standard was introduced. Effective cooperation between the dispatch centres of European gas companies is of paramount importance. One example of good cooperation is the contractual and physical handling of North Sea gas supplies at Emden. 4 figs

  2. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Oil and gas in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The oil and gas industry in Bolivia is discussed. Typically, the hydrocarbon production of the Bolivian fields is made up of very light oil and natural gas, both of very good quality with no deleterious contaminants. About 80% of the production comes from gas condensate fields. At present, the proven gas reserves are more than 6 trillion cubic feet that have been available for the last 10 years, notwithstanding the fact that 200 million cubic feet per day are exported

  6. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  8. Gas suppliers meeting market opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verberg, G.H.B.; Jaidah, N.K.; Eriksen, R.; Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas, with its environmental advantages, will increase its development in the residential, professional and transportation markets. It will ensure the transition during the progressive implementation of more sustainable energy sources. This paper discusses some possible impacts of the deregulation on the future gas market (investments, risk management, competition, contracts). It is followed by a round table about the expectations of some gas producers (Qatar, Sweden) in front of the development of the European gas market (LNG projects, financing, contracts). (J.S.)

  9. Natural gas for baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steub, G.

    1983-11-01

    German bakers account for about 11% of the total supply of energy required in the small-shop industry, consuming 13.3 billion kWH. The trade thus represents an attractive group of consumers for the energy supply industry. It is shown at what time of the day the peak requirement for energy occurs in bakeries and what baking ovens and firing systems have been developed for use in bakeries relying on gas as a source of heat.

  10. Relativistic charged Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed

  11. Radioactive gas inhalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMon, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    An ''inhalator'', or more particularly an apparatus for permitting a patient to inhale a radioactive gas in order to provide a diagnostic test of the patient's lung area, is described. The disclosed apparatus provides a simple, trouble-free mechanism for achieving this result; and, furthermore, provides an improved testing method. Moreover, the disclosed apparatus has the capability of gradually introducing the test condition in a manner that makes it easy for the patient to become acclimated to it. (U.S.)

  12. Greenhouse gas strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Because the overall effects of climate change will likely be more pronounced in the North than in other parts of the country, the Government of the Northwest Territories considers it imperative to support global and local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Government support is manifested through a coordinating role played by senior government representatives in the development of the NWT Greenhouse Gas Strategy, and by participation on a multi-party working committee to identify and coordinate northern actions and to contribute a northern perspective to Canada's National Climate Change Implementation Strategy. This document outlines the NWT Government's goals and objectives regarding greenhouse gas emission reduction actions. These will include efforts to enhance awareness and understanding; demonstrate leadership by putting the Government's own house in order; encouraging action across sectors; promote technology development and innovation; invest in knowledge and building the foundation for informed future decisions. The strategy also outlines the challenges peculiar to the NWT, such as the high per person carbon dioxide emissions compared to the national average (30 tonnes per person per year as opposed to the national average of 21 tonnes per person per year) and the increasing economic activity in the Territories, most of which are resource-based and therefore energy-intensive. Appendices which form part of the greenhouse gas strategy document, provide details of the potential climate change impact in the NWT, a detailed explanation of the proposed measures, an emission forecast to 2004 from industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration, and a statement of the official position of the Government of the NWT on climate change

  13. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  14. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  15. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF 6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF 6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF 6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  16. Gas-Phase Thermolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge; Schaumann, Ernst

    1980-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolytic decomposition of three silylated thionocarboxylic acid derivatives (2b), (3), and (8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range from 783 to 1 404 K in order to elucidate its possible...... applicability as a route to thioketens. Only very minor amounts of the expected thioketens were found, whereas the corresponding ketens were obtained as the major products. A possible mechanism for keten formation is discussed....

  17. European gas oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1991-04-01

    The developments over the past five years of the bulk markets for gas oil in Europe are examined using advanced econometric techniques to study the related issues of pricing efficiency and hedge efficiency. The study attempts to preserve the fluctuations of the actual data as these provide insights into the process of price discovery. The markets studied include the spot, forward and futures markets and looks for evidence of differentiated markets. (UK)

  18. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing

  20. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The two major political events of 1991 produced a much less dramatic reaction in the global oil industry than might have been expected. The economic dislocation in the former USSR caused oil production to fall sharply but this was largely offset by a concurrent fall in demand. Within twelve months of the invasion of Kuwait, crude oil prices had returned to their pre-invasion level; there was no shortage of supply due to the ability of some producers to boost their output rapidly. Details are given of world oil production and developments in oil demand. Demand stagnated in 1991 due to mainly to the economic chaos in the former USSR and a slowdown in sales in the USA; this has produced problems for the future of the refining industry. By contrast, the outlook for the natural gas industry is much more buoyant. Most clean air or carbon emissions legislation is designed to promote the use of gas rather than other hydrocarbons. World gas production rose by 1.5% in 1991; details by production on a country by country basis are given. (UK)

  1. Gas fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardelli, H. da C.

    1976-03-01

    The equations of motion for both gas and particles in a gas fluidised system are stablished through general assumptions which are generally accepted on physical grounds. The resulting model is used to study the velocity fields of each phase in the case of an isolated bubble rising close to the flat distributor plate. A well posed problem results for the solution of Laplace's equation of the potential flow of the particles when consideration is given to the presence of the distributor as a boundary condition. The corresponding stream functions are also obtained which enable the drawing of the motion patterns using numerical techniques. The following two dimensional cases are analysed: S/b=1; S/b=1,5; S/b=2,5; S/b=5 and the limiting case S/b→αinfinite. The results for the interphase exchange between bubbles and particulate phases are applied to a gas fluidised bed reactor and its effect on the chemical conversion is studied for the simplest cases of piston flow and perfect mixing in the particulate phase [pt

  2. Of vacuum and gas

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A new LHCb programme is delving into uncharted waters for the LHC: exploring how protons interact with noble gases inside the machine pipe. While, at first glance, it may sound risky for the overall quality of the vacuum in the machine, the procedure is safe and potentially very rich in rewards. The results could uncover the high-energy helium-proton cross-section (with all the implications thereof), explore new boundaries of the quark-gluon plasma and much more.   As the beam passes through LHCb, interactions with neon gas allow the experiment to measure the full beam profile. In this diagram, beam 1 (blue) and beam 2 (red) are measured by the surrounding VELO detector. It all begins with luminosity. In 2011, LHCb set out to further improve its notoriously precise measurements of the beam profile, using the so-called Beam-Gas Imaging (BGI) method. BGI does exactly what it says on the tin: a small amount of gas is inserted into the vacuum, increasing the rate of collisions around the interaction ...

  3. Super gas saver secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, G.

    2001-02-01

    This book demonstrates how to save money by getting better fuel economy and increase automobile performance through hundreds of fuel saving tips and projects. The book gives practical advise to car drivers on how to reduce travel costs by more than 50 per cent. Conventional ways to save gas include adopting fuel saving habits such as shifting properly, accelerating smoothly, and going easy on the brakes. Some performance booster tips were also presented. These included tips such as turning off the alternator, using moth balls to boost the fuel octane rating, turning the air conditioner off and power boosting the power circuits. A total of 25 tips were provided. An entire section of the book was devoted to tips on making the carburetor more fuel efficient with air bleeds, gasoline preheaters, and fuel pressure regulators. Eagle Research's newly developed electrostatic gas saver was also presented. The final section of the book referred to the potential viability of using homemade fuels such as hydrogen, methane, alcohol and wood gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  5. Shale gas - Risks and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book aims at exploring all aspects of the shale gas issue: geological data, environmental impacts, financial aspects and economical impacts of shale gas exploitation. It compares the available information with the field reality and defeats the dogmatic mirages. The research and compilation work carried out by the author make this book a reference in the domain of shale gas exploitation

  6. Gas separation membranes current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are now widely accepted and employed as unit operation in industrial gas, chemical and allied industries. Following their successful commercialization in the late Seventies to recover hydrogen from ammonia purge gas streams, membrane-based systems have gained acceptance in a wide variety of applications

  7. Annual report 1978. [Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    In the 1978 annual reports of the Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW), the Bundesverband der deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft (BGW), and the Technische Vereinigung der Firmen im Gas- und Wasserfach e.V. (FIGAWA), the activities of organisations and Laender groups are dealt with, as well as tasks, work, and sales promotion measures.

  8. The European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagland, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  9. Gas processing industrial hygiene needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orsie, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Handling of gases and natural gas liquids provides many opportunities for workers to be exposed to adverse chemical and physical agents. A brief overview of common hazards found in the processing of gas and natural gas liquids is presented in this paper. Suggestions on how an employer can obtain assistance in evaluating his workplace are also presented.presented

  10. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  11. Wholesale gas market indicators - 4. Quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  12. Wholesale gas market indicators - December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  13. Wholesale gas market indicators - September 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The wholesale gas market indicators publication aims to provide general monitoring indicators about: wholesale gas prices, gas trade between France and neighboring countries, infrastructures availability and utilisation

  14. Natural gas is more than gas power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Through the Statpipe gas line at Karmoey, Norway supplies 20% of the natural gas on the European market. The pipeline is 'leaking' a little bit of gas to the local communities at Karmoey and Haugesund. These communities have replaced 65% of their oil consumption with natural gas, which is a fine contribution to a better environment. The supplier of the natural gas, Gasnor ASA in this case, claims an energy efficiency of 90% at the end user because the gas burns directly and the loss in the pipeline is minimal. The efficiency of natural gas utilisation is twice that of the planned gas power stations in West-Norway, subtracting the losses in the electrical network. Gasnor ASA competes with oil suppliers and, if necessary, with electric utilities. The county hospital at Haugesund is quoted as an example. The hospital has two large boilers with dual fuel burners. They have been using natural gas since 1998 because it was worth while both economically and environmentally. The use of natural gas in the transport sector would be very important, but the necessary infrastructure is very little developed. For instance, five diesel-powered ferries on the Boknafjord emit as much NOx as the planned gas power plant at Kaarstoe

  15. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  16. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  17. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at simplying gas-cooled nuclear reactors. For the cooling gas, the reactor is provided with a main circulation system comprising one or several energy conversion main groups such as gas turbines, and an auxiliary circulation system comprising at least one steam-generating boiler heated by the gas after its passage through the reactor core and adapted to feed a steam turbine with motive steam. The invention can be applied to reactors the main groups of which are direct-cycle gas turbines [fr

  18. Gas. The Energy of Possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz launches a campaign to introduce the general public to all the gas energy industry's advanced solutions for the future of energy. Gas takes on new forms through innovative and ambitious solutions that offer concrete applications in territories: producing biomethane from agricultural, industrial or domestic waste, transforming excess renewable electricity into storable renewable gas, using gas and biomethane for cleaner land transport and, in liquid form, cleaner sea transport. In support of this energy source, France can rely on its discreet and robust gas infrastructure to promote the growing dynamic and offer a response to major challenges, such as air quality, waste management and renewable energy storage

  19. Canadian gas - where's it headed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominy, D.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of gas transportation in Canada was described. The issue of what is needed and what can change in the current North American market for gas transportation was also discussed. The transportation values of natural gas from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) to New York, Chicago and California for 1993 to 1997 were reviewed. Export and domestic capacity additions and WCSB gas completions were also outlined. The question of how much new capacity is needed, where the gas will come from, and where will it go, was also discussed

  20. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.