WorldWideScience

Sample records for hoi like-bradyrhizobium japonicum

  1. Prof. Il-Hoi Kim: a tribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Rony

    2016-10-11

    Prof. Il-Hoi Kim was born during the Korean War on 28 February 1952 in Buan, North Jeolla Province (South Korea), near the coast of the Yellow Sea whose tidal flats would become one of his favourite sampling grounds during his scientific career. From an early age he developed an intense interest in natural history in general and marine biology in particular. He obtained his B.Sc. in 1974 at the Department of Biology Education, Gongju National College of Education. Between 1974 and 1976 he was conscripted into the South Korean military during which he progressed to the rank of lieutenant of artillery in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). After his graduation in 1980 at the Department of Zoology, Seoul National University, Il-Hoi Kim moved to the Department of Biology, Gangneung-Wonju National University on the East Sea coast where he was first appointed lecturer (1981) before taking up the position of assistant professor (1983), associate professor (1987) and full professor (1993). In 1985 he had previously completed his Ph.D. dissertation on Korean barnacles at Seoul National University under the supervision of the late Prof. Hoon Soo Kim, a pioneer in marine invertebrate taxonomy and renowned as the father of carcinology in Korea.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistosoma_japon...icum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japon...icum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japon...icum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  3. A case study to determine if HOI-STEM courses influenced students' decisions toward continuing their studies in the HOI-STEM areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Richard R.

    The purpose of this study is to survey the experiences of the 9-12 grade students who have and have not been enrolled in an HOI-STEM curriculum in order to determine how/if enrollment in such a curriculum influences their choices toward continued study in STEM fields. The study found that indeed the students enrolled in the hands-on type of classes were excited about their education and the classes they enrolled in. The students who had not enrolled in HOI-STEM echoed the same sentiment. They may have been enrolled in art, or music, or social studies but they also reported that being able to interact with the curriculum, to be engaged in non-traditional hands-on activities enabled them to become more immersed in their education. The researcher can then report that the concept of "Hands On Integrated-Science Technology Engineering Math", (HOI-STEM), classes should be expanded and integrated into the curriculum for K-12 classes.

  4. Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    the extract of C. japonicum and its major constituents possess anti-tumor [1, 2], anti- diabetic [3], antioxidant ... Extraction and isolation of pectolinarigenin. The powdered air-dried aerial parts of C. japonicum (1 kg) .... Caspase 3 is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease family and a critical executioner of apoptosis ...

  5. CoralWatch Data Analysis at Hoi Ha Wan Marine Park, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A.; Hodgson, P.

    2015-12-01

    CoralWatch is a conservation organization that is based at the University of Queensland in Australia. Their development of the "Coral Health Chart" standardized the colour of corals for the further investigation of coral health and bleaching. The location of this project is in the NE part of Hong Kong in New Territories. The location faces ShenZhen, a heavily industrialized city, which is known for its pollution of the Pearl River. This area is protected by the Hong Kong Government and the WWF since 1996.Human activities have caused large amounts of greenhouse gasses to be released into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has caused the global temperature to rise and made ocean waters more acidic due to ocean respiration. The ocean is a carbon sink for mankind and the effect of severe acidification is negatively affecting marine life. The increase of temperature diminishes the amount of diversity of marine life; the decreasing acidity of the water has eliminated many species of shellfish and sea anemone; the increase of marine exploitation has decreased the diversity of marine life. The release of toxic waste, mainly mercury, waste and plastic products has also polluted the oceans which negatively impact coral reefs and endanger marine life.The data has been collected by observing the colours and discolouration (bleaching) of the corals of approximately 40 colonies per month. The species of coral in Hoi Ha Wan include, Favites flexuosa, Goniopora columna,Leptastrea purpurea, Lithophyllon undulatum, Pavona decussata. and Platygyra acuta (AFCD,1). The evaluation of four years of coralwatch data has shown the bleaching of hard boulder corals in Hoi Ha Wan, Hong Kong, has halted and the reefs are being to show signs of regeneration. Local marine biologists credited the improved situation of the corals to protected status of the area.

  6. Co-inoculation effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-inoculation effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Azospirillum sp. on competitive nodulation and rhizosphere eubacterial community structures of soybean under rhizobia-established soil conditions.

  7. A new serratene triterpenoid from Lycopodium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhang-Hua; Li, Wei; Tang, Gui-Hua; Yin, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the herbs of Lycopodium japonicum led to the isolation of a new serratene triterpenoid, 3α,21α-dihydroxy-16-oxoserrat-14-en-24-yl p-coumarate (1), together with two known ones, lycernuic ketone C (2) and tohogenol (3). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS. The 13 C NMR data of tohogenol was first reported.

  8. Rutaceae sampled from Germany, Malta, and Mallorca (Spain) are associated with AMF clustering with Glomus hoi Berch & Trappe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, M; Weber, H Chr; Imhof, S

    2008-07-01

    Six Rutaceae species collected from natural habitats (Malta, Mallorca (Spain), and Tenerife (Spain)) and the Botanical Garden in Marburg were examined with respect to mycorrhizal structures and fungal identity. All species have the same gross colonization pattern of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with distinct intracellular and intercellular phases but show remarkable differences in details, especially in terms of the extent of the intracellular phase. The associated AM fungi, identified using molecular methods, cluster together with Glomus hoi Berch & Trappe, although the plants were collected from very distant locations.

  9. Gibberellin oxidase activities in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Constanza; Baginsky, Cecilia; Hedden, Peter; Gong, Fan; Carú, Margarita; Rojas, María Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids isolated from root nodules of soybean (Glycine max.) plants converted the gibberellin (GA) precursor [(14)C1]GA12 into several products identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as [(14)C1]GA24, [(14)C1]GA9, [(14)C1]GA15, GA9 17-nor-16-one and unidentified products. The oxidation of GA12, catalyzed by the GA 20-oxidase, was present in symbiotic bacteroids from plants around flowering, but not in bacteroids from plants at either an early vegetative stage or at late growth stages. Expression of cps and ks genes, involved in ent-kaurene biosynthesis, was also demonstrated in bacteroids from soybean plants around flowering. Earlier precursors of the GA pathway, ent-[(14)C1]kaurenoic acid or [(14)C4]GA12-aldehyde, were efficiently utilized by B. japonicum bacteroids to give labelled GA9 plus intermediates partially oxidized at C-20, as well as GA9 17-nor-16-one and an unidentified product. No 3β or 13-hydroxylated [(14)C]GAs were detected in any of the incubations. Moreover the C19-GAs [(14)C1]GA4 or [(14)C1]GA20 were recovered unconverted upon incubation with the bacteroids which supports the absence of GA 3β-hydroxylase activity in B. japonicum. The bacterial 20-oxidase utilized the 13-hydroxylated substrates [(14)C1]GA53, [(14)C1]GA44 or [(14)C1]GA19, although with less efficiency than [(14)C1]GA12 to give [(14)C1]GA20 as final product, while the 3β-hydroxylated substrate [(14)C1]GA14 was converted to [(14)C1]GA4 to a very small extent. Endogenous GA9 and GA24 were identified by GC-MS in methanolic nodule extracts. These results suggest that B. japonicum bacteroids would synthesize GA9 under the symbiotic conditions present in soybean root nodules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hong; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Du, Xiaofeng; Pali, Gabor; Cai, Pengfei; Jones, Malcolm K; McManus, Donald P

    2016-06-10

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important metabolic enzyme of schistosomes present in the musculature and on the surface of the blood stage where it has been implicated in the modulation of glucose scavenging from mammalian host blood. As both a target for the antischistosomal drug metrifonate and as a potential vaccine candidate, AChE has been characterised in the schistosome species Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. bovis, but not in S. japonicum. Recently, using a schistosome protein microarray, a predicted S. japonicum acetylcholinesterase precursor was significantly targeted by protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that had acquired drug-induced resistance to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment. We report the full-length cDNA sequence and describe phylogenetic and molecular structural analysis to facilitate understanding of the biological function of AChE (SjAChE) in S. japonicum. The protein has high sequence identity (88 %) with the AChEs in S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. bovis and has 25 % sequence similarity with human AChE, suggestive of a highly specialised role for the enzyme in both parasite and host. We immunolocalized SjAChE and demonstrated its presence on the surface of adult worms and schistosomula, as well as its lower expression in parenchymal regions. The relatively abundance of AChE activity (90 %) present on the surface of adult S. japonicum when compared with that reported in other schistosomes suggests SjAChE may be a more effective drug or immunological target against this species. We also demonstrate that the classical inhibitor of AChE, BW285c51, inhibited AChE activity in tegumental extracts of paired worms, single males and single females by 59, 22 and 50 %, respectively, after 24 h incubation with 200 μM BW284c51. These results build on previous studies in other schistosome species indicating major differences in the enzyme between parasite and mammalian host, and provide

  11. [Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein from Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qin-Yan; Xue, Yan-Feng; Shen, Li

    2012-10-30

    To identify glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein of Schistosoma japonicum. Based on the gene sequence of Schistosoma mansoni GPI anchored protein Sm200 (GenBank Assess No: XM_002569560.1), bioinformatics analysis was performed to find out its homologous gene sequence in S. japonicum, then a selected partial coding sequence (SjGPIs, about 933 bp) from the homologous gene sequence were amplified, and cloned into PET-28a(+) vector. The recombinant plasmid pET-28a(+)SjGPIs were transformed into E. coli Top10 cells and induced with IPTG for protein expression. The recombinant protein SjGPIs was purified with Ni-NTA resin, and the purified recombinant SjGPIs protein was used as antigen to prepare antiserum in New Zealand rabbit. The antiserum was used to detect S. japonicum GPI-anchored protein. To identify a GPI-anchored protein, the detected protein were identified by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) digestion. White blood cells from S. japonicum-infected mice was examined whether they endocytosed GPI-anchored proteins by Western blotting. The homologous gene sequence of S. mansoni GPI Sm200 gene was found in S. japonicum genome. A 3 495 bp coding sequence was obtained, containing the complete C-terminal sequence. The selected gene sequence (SjGPIs) were amplified and the recombinant plasmid pET-28a(+)-SjGPIs was established. According to the analysis of C-terminal sequence, Western blotting and enzyme digestion of PI-PLC, a GPI-anchored protein was present in S. japonicum tegument (about 1M(r)200000), named SjGPI200. The protein was detected in white blood cells of infected mice. SjGPI200 protein exists in S. japonicum, and anchored to parasite tegument via GPI.

  12. Exploring molecular variation in Schistosoma japonicum in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Neil D.; Chan, Kok-Gan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Min Chong, Teik; Ee, Robson; Mohandas, Namitha; Koehler, Anson V.; Lim, Yan-Lue; Hofmann, Andreas; Jex, Aaron R.; Qian, Baozhen; Chilton, Neil B.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; McManus, Donald P.; Tan, Patrick; Webster, Bonnie L.; Rollinson, David; Gasser, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. The main disease-causing agents, Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium, are blood flukes that have complex life cycles involving a snail intermediate host. In Asia, S. japonicum causes hepatointestinal disease (schistosomiasis japonica) and is challenging to control due to a broad distribution of its snail hosts and range of animal reservoir hosts. In China, extensive efforts have been underway to control this parasite, but genetic variability in S. japonicum populations could represent an obstacle to eliminating schistosomiasis japonica. Although a draft genome sequence is available for S. japonicum, there has been no previous study of molecular variation in this parasite on a genome-wide scale. In this study, we conducted the first deep genomic exploration of seven S. japonicum populations from mainland China, constructed phylogenies using mitochondrial and nuclear genomic data sets, and established considerable variation between some of the populations in genes inferred to be linked to key cellular processes and/or pathogen-host interactions. Based on the findings from this study, we propose that verifying intraspecific conservation in vaccine or drug target candidates is an important first step toward developing effective vaccines and chemotherapies against schistosomiasis. PMID:26621075

  13. A link between arabinose utilization and oxalotrophy in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marion; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Ahrens, Christian H; Omasits, Ulrich; Schneider, Kathrin; Danza, Francesco; Padhi, Barnali; Murset, Valérie; Braissant, Olivier; Vorholt, Julia A; Hennecke, Hauke; Pessi, Gabriella

    2014-04-01

    Rhizobia have a versatile catabolism that allows them to compete successfully with other microorganisms for nutrients in the soil and in the rhizosphere of their respective host plants. In this study, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 was found to be able to utilize oxalate as the sole carbon source. A proteome analysis of cells grown in minimal medium containing arabinose suggested that oxalate oxidation extends the arabinose degradation branch via glycolaldehyde. A mutant of the key pathway genes oxc (for oxalyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase) and frc (for formyl-coenzyme A transferase) was constructed and shown to be (i) impaired in growth on arabinose and (ii) unable to grow on oxalate. Oxalate was detected in roots and, at elevated levels, in root nodules of four different B. japonicum host plants. Mixed-inoculation experiments with wild-type and oxc-frc mutant cells revealed that oxalotrophy might be a beneficial trait of B. japonicum at some stage during legume root nodule colonization.

  14. Potential human health risk from consumption of metallic elements-contaminated benthic mollusks from Don Hoi Lot sandbar, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidkhan, Kraisiri; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Amnart; Poapolathep, Saranya; Tanhan, Phanwimol

    2017-04-15

    Environmental pollutants have raised more concerns for human health risk, especially via consumption of contaminated food. Terrestrial as well as aquatic animals are capable of bioaccumulation a variety of toxic substances including metallic elements. With increasing anthropogenic activities along the coastal areas, living organisms have more chances to be exposed to released contaminants. In this study, seven metallic elements (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in sediments and water from Don Hoi Lot sandbar, Samutsongkharm province, Thailand. Potential human health risks via the consumption of two benthic bivalves Solen corneus (Larmarck, 1818) and Meretrix meretrix (Linnaeus, 1758) were also estimated using the target hazard quotients (THQs). The variations of metallic element concentrations were apparent between wet and dry season. Fe was the predominate metallic element in the sediment and the remaining were Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cu>Cd. Whereas metallic element concentrations in water were Pb>Ni>Fe>Zn>Cu>Mn>Cd. PCA analysis confirmed that the contaminations of these metallic elements were from Mae Klong river surface water. Most Pb THQ values in both S. corneus and M. meretrix were >1 indicating that human health risk is of concern. However, the sum of THQs of an individual metallic element should also be considered since multiple metallic elements exposure is so common. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-equilibrium plasma prevention of Schistosoma japonicum transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Quan; Wang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2016-10-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatment. We investigated the use of physical non-equilibrium plasma generated at atmospheric pressure using custom-made dielectric barrier discharge reactor to kill S. japonicum cercariae. Survival rate decreased with treatment time and applied power. Plasmas generated in O2 and air gas discharges were more effective in killing S. japonicum cercariae than that generated in He, which is directly related to the mechanism by which cercariae are inactivated. Reactive oxygen species, such as O atoms, abundant in O2 plasma and NO in air plasma play a major role in killing of S. japonicum cercariae via oxidation mechanisms. Similar level of efficacy is also shown for a gliding arc discharge plasma jet generated in ambient air, a system that may be more appropriate for scale-up and integration into existing water treatment processes.

  16. Identification of pH tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were isolated from the root nodules of soybean cultivar PK 472 collected from Adaptive Trial Centre, Bundi, India. All the isolates were authenticated through plant assay test in germination pouches. Growth of the isolated strains on different pH levels was observed and three strains ...

  17. Identification of pH tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Eight strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were isolated from the root nodules of soybean cultivar PK. 472 collected from Adaptive Trial Centre, Bundi, India. All the isolates were authenticated through plant assay test in germination pouches. Growth of the isolated strains on different pH levels was observed and three ...

  18. [Content of rare earth elements in wild Hypericum japonicum Thunb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-Lin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Tian, Zhi-Huan

    2009-06-01

    Rare earth elements are important nutritional elements for human health, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements. Fifteen rare earth elements in wild hypericum japonicum Thunb were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Tm, Lu and Y ranged from 6 ng x g(-1) x DW to 14 522 ng x g(-1) x DW, and among them the concentrations of La, Ce and Nd were higher than 2 000 ng x g(-1) x DW. Compared with the concentration of rare earth elements in rice, corn, wheat and barley, the total concentration of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb was much higher, which could be the mechanism of curative effect of hypericum japonicum Thunb on liverish diseases. The character of elements and the content of rare earth elements in soil should be responsible for the difference, but the distributive mechanism of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb should be further studied.

  19. In vitro cultivation of Schistosoma japonicum-parasites and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Dong, Hui-Fen; Grevelding, Christoph G; Hu, Min

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious parasitic zoonosis caused by blood-dwelling flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Understanding functions of genes and proteins of this parasite is important for uncovering this pathogen's complex biology, which will provide valuable information to design new strategies for schistosomiasis control. Effective applications of molecular tools reported to investigate schistosome gene function, such as inhibitor studies and transgenesis, rely on the developments of in vitro cultivation system of this parasite and cells. Besides the in vitro culture studies dealing with Schistosoma mansoni, there are also numerous excellent studies about the in vitro cultivation of Schistosoma japonicum, which were performed by Chinese researchers and published in Chinese journals. Nearly every stage of the life-cycle of S. japonicum, including miracidia, mother sporocysts, cercariae, schistosomula, and egg-laying adult worms, was employed for developing in vitro cultivation methods, being accompanied by the introduction of several media and supplements that helped to improve culture conditions. It was not only possible to generate mother sporocysts from miracidia in vitro, but also to obtain adult worms from cercariae through in vitro cultivation. The main obstacles to complete the life cycle of S. japonicum in the lab are the transition from mother sporocysts to cercariae, and the production of fertilized and completely developed eggs by adult worms generated in vitro. With regard to cells from S. japonicum, besides established isolation protocols and morphological observations, media optimizations were conducted by using different chemical reagents, biological supplements and physical treatment. Among these, mutagens like N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and the addition of extracellular matrix were found to be able to induce mitogenic activities. Although enzyme activities or the level of silver-stained nucleolar region associated protein in cultured cells

  20. Application of earthworm humus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Gómez Machado; Marta Travieso Torres; Luis Antonio Tamayo López; Yoannia Gretel Pupo Blanco

    2017-01-01

    The experiment was developed in the Granma University's productive area, with the objective of evaluating the alone and combined earthworm humus application effect with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on G7R-315 variety soybean cultivation. Six treatments were evaluated: T1 Control, T2 B. japonicum, T3 earthworm humus (6 t ha-1), T4 B. japonicum + earthworm humus (6 t ha-1), T5 earthworm humus (8 t ha-1), T6 B. japonicum + earthworm humus (8 t ha-1) on a brown soil. A randomized block design was use...

  1. Two New Bioactive α-Pyrones from Hypericum japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linzhen Hu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum japonicum (Guttiferae, a type of annual or perennial herb, has been historically applied to cure infectious hepatitis, acute and chronic hepatitis, gastrointestinal disorder, and internal hemorrhage. In our successive studies on the genus Hypericum, two new α-pyrones termed japopyrones A and B (1 and 2 were isolated from H. japonicum. Their structures and absolute configurations were established by the comprehensive analyses of spectroscopic data, the application of the Single-crystal X-ray diffraction structural analysis, and the experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra. Bioactivity screenings suggested that compound 2 possessed the potential inhibition efficacy on lytic replication of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV with an IC50 29.46 μM and a selective index of higher than 6.79, respectively.

  2. A New Lycopodine-type Alkaloid from Lycopodium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Zhu, Yuquan; Peng, Wei; Zhan, Rui; Chen, Yegao

    2016-10-01

    A new lycopodine-type alkaloid, 12β-hydroxy-acetylfawcettiine N-oxide (1), together with seven known analogues, acetyllycoposerramine M (2), lycopodine (3), lycoclavine (4), diphaladine A (5), lycoposerramine K (6), 11β-hydroxy-12-epilycodoline (7) and fawcettiine (8), were isolated from Lycopodium japonicum. Their structures were established by mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The isolated alkaloids were assayed for their inhibition activities against acetylcholinesterase, but no inhibitory activities for the compounds were detected.

  3. Non-equilibrium plasma prevention of Schistosoma japonicum transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Xing-Quan Wang; Feng-Peng Wang; Wei Chen; Jun Huang; Kateryna Bazaka; Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatmen...

  4. Hyperjapones A-E, Terpenoid Polymethylated Acylphloroglucinols from Hypericum japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Wei; Li, Yan-Ping; Su, Jia; Ma, Wei-Guang; Xu, Gang

    2016-04-15

    Hyperjapones A-E (1-5), novel terpenoid polymethylated acylphloroglucinols (TPAPs) with unusual architectures, were characterized from Hypericum japonicum. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic data and X-ray diffractions. Compound 1 was obtained as a racemic mixture and was separated by a column coated with cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) after attempts with various chiral materials. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited moderate antitumor activities in vitro.

  5. Salmonella typhimurium Infection Reduces Schistosoma japonicum Worm Burden in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyang Zhu; Lu Chen; Junfang Wu; Huiru Tang; Yulan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Coinfection of microorganisms is a common phenomenon in humans and animals. In order to further our understanding of the progress of coinfection and the possible interaction between different pathogens, we have built a coinfection mouse model with Schistosoma japonicum and Salmonella typhimurium, and used this model to investigate the systemic metabolic and immune responses using NMR-based metabonomics and immunological techniques. Our results show that Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) infe...

  6. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activities in Ganoderma neo-japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Park, Ha-Na; Cho, Doo-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Ganoderma to produce extracellular enzymes, including β-glucosidase, cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, xylanase, protease, amylase, and ligninase was tested in chromogenic media. β-glucosidase showed the highest activity, among the eight tested enzymes. In particular, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed significantly stronger activity for β-glucosidase than that of the other enzymes. Two Ganoderma lucidum isolates showed moderate activity for avicelase; however, Ganoderma neo-japonic...

  7. A Review of Schistosomiasis in Indonesia with Reference to Schistosoma Japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Liat, Lim Boo; M. Sudomo

    1987-01-01

    Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  8. A REVIEW OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN INDONESIA WITH REFERENCE TO SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Boo Liat; M. Sudomo

    2012-01-01

    Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  9. Cytokine mRNA profiles in pigs exposed prenatally and postnatally to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, Michala E.; Johansen, Maria V.; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The pig is a natural host for Schistosoma japonicum and a useful animal model of human infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the differences between the cytokine profiles in prenatally or postnatally S. japonicum exposed pigs. Seven prenatally exposed pigs, 7 postnatally exposed...

  10. Succinate Dehydrogenase (Sdh) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is Closely Related to Mitochondrial Sdh

    OpenAIRE

    Westenberg, David J.; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    1999-01-01

    The sdhCDAB operon, encoding succinate dehydrogenase, was cloned from the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Sdh from B. japonicum is phylogenetically related to Sdh from mitochondria. This is the first example of a mitochondrion-like Sdh functionally expressed in Escherichia coli.

  11. Application of earthworm humus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gómez Machado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was developed in the Granma University's productive area, with the objective of evaluating the alone and combined earthworm humus application effect with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on G7R-315 variety soybean cultivation. Six treatments were evaluated: T1 Control, T2 B. japonicum, T3 earthworm humus (6 t ha-1, T4 B. japonicum + earthworm humus (6 t ha-1, T5 earthworm humus (8 t ha-1, T6 B. japonicum + earthworm humus (8 t ha-1 on a brown soil. A randomized block design was used with three replicas. The evaluated variables were: number per plant leguminous; weigh from 100 seeds and agricultural yield. The data obtained were processed by double classification variance analysis, applied a Turkey's multivariate statistical analysis. It was found that treatments that included the earthworm humus, the evaluated variables shown superior significantly results and it differed of the control treatment and to the aloneB. japonicum application.

  12. Cloning and characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong You

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes depend for growth and development on host hormonal signals, which may include the insulin signalling pathway. We cloned and assessed the function of two insulin receptors from Schistosoma japonicum in order to shed light on their role in schistosome biology.We isolated, from S. japonicum, insulin receptors 1 (SjIR-1 and 2 (SjIR-2 sharing close sequence identity to their S. mansoni homologues (SmIR-1 and SmIR-2. SjIR-1 is located on the tegument basal membrane and the internal epithelium of adult worms, whereas SjIR-2 is located in the parenchyma of males and the vitelline tissue of females. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SjIR-2 and SmIR-2 are close to Echinococcus multilocularis insulin receptor (EmIR, suggesting that SjIR-2, SmIR-2 and EmIR share similar roles in growth and development in the three taxa. Structure homology modelling recovered the conserved structure between the SjIRs and Homo sapiens IR (HIR implying a common predicted binding mechanism in the ligand domain and the same downstream signal transduction processing in the tyrosine kinase domain as in HIR. Two-hybrid analysis was used to confirm that the ligand domains of SjIR-1 and SjIR-2 contain the insulin binding site. Incubation of adult worms in vitro, both with a specific insulin receptor inhibitor and anti-SjIRs antibodies, resulted in a significant decrease in worm glucose levels, suggesting again the same function for SjIRs in regulating glucose uptake as described for mammalian cells.Adult worms of S. japonicum possess insulin receptors that can specifically bind to insulin, indicating that the parasite can utilize host insulin for development and growth by sharing the same pathway as mammalian cells in regulating glucose uptake. A complete understanding of the role of SjIRs in the biology of S. japonicum may result in their use as new targets for drug and vaccine development against schistosomiasis.

  13. Comparative Study of Transcriptome Profiles of Mouse Livers and Skins Infected by Fork-Tailed or Non-Fork-Tailed Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; He, Jun-Jun; Hu, Shuang; Chang, Hua; Xiang, Xun; Yang, Jian-Fa; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) is a worldwide spread pathogen which penetrates host skin and then induces several diseases in infected host, such as fibrosis, formation of granulomas, hepatocirrhosis, and hepatomegaly. In present study, for the first time, transcriptomic profiles of mouse livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were analyzed by using RNA-seq. The present findings demonstrated that transcriptomic landscapes of livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were different. S. japonicum has great influence on hepatic metabolic processes. Fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria upregulated hepatic metabolic processes, while non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria downregulated hepatic metabolic processes. For the metabolism process or the metabolism enzyme expressional change, the pharmacokinetics of host could be changed during S. japonicum infection, regardless the biotypes of S. japonicum cercariae. The changes of infected skins focused on upregulation of immune response. During the S. japonicum skin infection period, fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection induced stronger immune response comparing with that immune response triggered by non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria. The transcription factor enrichment analysis showed that Irf7, Stat1 and Stat2 could play important roles in gene regulation during fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection.

  14. Comparative Study of Transcriptome Profiles of Mouse Livers and Skins Infected by Fork-Tailed or Non-Fork-Tailed Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum is a worldwide spread pathogen which penetrates host skin and then induces several diseases in infected host, such as fibrosis, formation of granulomas, hepatocirrhosis, and hepatomegaly. In present study, for the first time, transcriptomic profiles of mouse livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were analyzed by using RNA-seq. The present findings demonstrated that transcriptomic landscapes of livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were different. S. japonicum has great influence on hepatic metabolic processes. Fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria upregulated hepatic metabolic processes, while non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria downregulated hepatic metabolic processes. For the metabolism process or the metabolism enzyme expressional change, the pharmacokinetics of host could be changed during S. japonicum infection, regardless the biotypes of S. japonicum cercariae. The changes of infected skins focused on upregulation of immune response. During the S. japonicum skin infection period, fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection induced stronger immune response comparing with that immune response triggered by non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria. The transcription factor enrichment analysis showed that Irf7, Stat1 and Stat2 could play important roles in gene regulation during fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection.

  15. Respon Pertumbunan Tanaman Kedelai terhadap Bradyrhizobium japonicum Toleran Masam dan Pemberian Pupuk di Tanah Masam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Triadiati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of acid tolerant rhizobacteria such as Bradyrhizobium japonicum is one effort for increasing soybeanproductivity in acid soil. B. japonicum is a N-fixing bacteria that can promote soybean growth through symbiosis with thehost plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth and production of soybean var. Wilis inoculated by B.japonicum and NPK inorganic fertilizer application in acid soil. Two isolates of B. japonicum that were BJ 11(19 and BJ11(wt were used as inoculant for soybean. BJ 11(19 was resulted by transposons mutagenesis, whereas BJ 11(wt is a wild type of bacteria. Both isolates of B. japonicum were acid tolerant. Soybean was inoculated with BJ 11(19 and BJ 11(wtcombined with compost and nitrogen fertilizer (with two rates. The field experiment was conducted at Cikabayan, Darmaga,in a randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and 3 replicates. The results showed that application of the acidtolerant B. japonicum BJ 11(wt, compost, and nitrogen fertilizer (10 g m-2 increased the plant height, dry weight of shootsand roots, nodule number, dry weight of nodules, nitrogenase activity, number of pod and seed, seed weight, and nitrogencontent of seeds in acid soil.Keywords: acid soil, acid tolerant rhizobia, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, compost, nitrogen fertilizer

  16. Congenital infection with Schistosoma japonicum but not with Schistosoma bovis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M V; lburg, T; Morad, J; Ornbjerg, N

    2002-04-01

    The present study investigated whether Schistosoma japonicum or Schistosoma bois could establish prenatally in lambs. Three ewes were exposed to S. japonicum by intramuscular injection of cercariae, and 3 ewes were exposed to S. bovis cercariae using the leg-emerging technique approximately 2 mo before delivery, and 1 age-matched pregnant ewe served as an uninfected control. The study lasted 18-20 wk after infection, which was 8-9 wk after delivery. All 6 exposed ewes became infected with either S. bovis or S. japonicum. Eight lambs were borne by the 7 ewes, of which 1 (S. bovis exposed) was dead and 1 (S. japonicum exposed) died at delivery. Of the 3 S. japonicum-exposed lambs, 2 were found infected. Four lambs born of S. bovis-exposed ewes were negative. Despite having no worms, these 4 S. bovis-exposed lambs as well as the 1 negative S. japonicum-exposed lamb had, in contrast to the nonexposed control lamb, few, but distinct, liver granulomas dominated by eosinophils and giant cells with large central necrotic areas but with no remnants of eggs or worms. Hence, congenital infection was demonstrated in S. japonicum-infected lambs, but not in S. bovis-infected ones.

  17. Role of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Trichoderma spp. in the control of root rot disease of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment of soybean with Bndyrhizobium japonicum, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii significantly controlled the infection of 30-day-old seedlingsby Maerophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. In 60-day-old plants Trichoderma spp.. and B. japonicum inhibited the grouth of R. solani and Fusarium spp., whereas the use of B. japonicum (TAL-102 with T. harzianum. T. viride, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii controlled the infection by M. phaseolina. Greater grain yield was recorded when B. japonium (TAI-102 was used with T. hamatum.

  18. Soybean Lectin Enhances Biofilm Formation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the Absence of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Pérez-Giménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean lectin (SBL purified from soybean seeds by affinity chromatography strongly bound to Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 cell surface. This lectin enhanced biofilm formation by B. japonicum in a concentration-dependent manner. Presence of galactose during biofilm formation had different effects in the presence or absence of SBL. Biofilms were completely inhibited in the presence of both SBL and galactose, while in the absence of SBL, galactose was less inhibitory. SBL was very stable, since its agglutinating activity of B. japonicum cells as well as of human group A+ erythrocytes was resistant to preincubation for one week at 60°C. Hence, we propose that plant remnants might constitute a source of this lectin, which might remain active in soil and thus favor B. japonicum biofilm formation in the interval between soybean crop seasons.

  19. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Yang, Xiaowei; Li, Yong; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Xu, Zhipeng; He, Lei; Xue, Xue; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Henry; Li, Carrie J; Hsu, Hsiang-Ting; Kong, Wenjun; Liu, Feng; Tripathi, Prem B; Yu, Michelle S; Chang, Jason; Zhou, Liang; Su, Chuan

    2014-05-01

    Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL) on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  20. A REVIEW OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN INDONESIA WITH REFERENCE TO SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  1. Biology and Control of Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in The People's Republic of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Z.J.; Ge, J; Dai, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is a severe parasitic disease in The People's Republic of China and imposed considerable burden on human and domestic animal health and socioeconomic development. The significant achievement in schistosomiasis control has been made in last 60years. ....... Oncomelania hupensis as the only intermediate host of S. japonicum plays a key role in disease transmission. The habitat complexity of the snails challenges to effective control. In this review we share the experiences in control and research of O. hupensis....

  2. A specific indel marker for the Philippines Schistosoma japonicum revealed by analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Chen, Fen; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Blair, David; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, near-complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences for Schistosoma japonicum from different regions in the Philippines and Japan were amplified and sequenced. Comparisons among S. japonicum from the Philippines, Japan, and China revealed a geographically based length difference in mt genomes, but the mt genomic organization and gene arrangement were the same. Sequence differences among samples from the Philippines and all samples from the three endemic areas were 0.57-2.12 and 0.76-3.85 %, respectively. The most variable part of the mt genome was the non-coding region. In the coding portion of the genome, protein-coding genes varied more than rRNA genes and tRNAs. The near-complete mt genome sequences for Philippine specimens were identical in length (14,091 bp) which was 4 bp longer than those of S. japonicum samples from Japan and China. This indel provides a unique genetic marker for S. japonicum samples from the Philippines. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated amino acids of 12 protein-coding genes showed that samples of S. japonicum clustered according to their geographical origins. The identified mitochondrial indel marker will be useful for tracing the source of S. japonicum infection in humans and animals in Southeast Asia.

  3. Schistosoma japonicum: immunological characterization and detection of circulating polysaccharide antigens from adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Z L; Deelder, A M

    1983-04-01

    The antigenic constituents of a trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble fraction of adult Schistosoma japonicum were studied with immunoelectrophoresis, and compared with those of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight TCA-soluble antigens of S. japonicum were demonstrated, five of which showed immunological identity with S. mansoni antigens. Of the eight antigens, five antigens with anodic motility were found as circulating antigens in S. japonicum-infected hamster and rabbit sera; the major circulating antigen was the circulating anodic antigen (CAA). Two other antigens, with cathodic motility, including the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA), were demonstrable as circulating antigens in S. mansoni infections, but not in S. japonicum infections. Most of the circulating antigens were shown to be gut-associated. Only one antigen, line 2, which was not demonstrable as circulating antigen and which was present in the parenchyma of the worms, was found to be specific for S. japonicum. Using an ELISA for the detection of CAA in the sera of S. japonicum-infected rabbits, a lower detection level of 100 ng CAA/ml serum was achieved. Moreover, at 7-8 weeks after infection, a direct relationship between worm burden and CAA level was demonstrated.

  4. Identification and use of actinomycetes for enhanced nodulation of soybean co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, A K; Klubek, B; Varsa, E C

    2003-08-01

    The utilization of actinomycetes as potential soybean (Glycine max (L.)) co-inoculants was evaluated. Soil samples from Carbondale and Belleville, Ill., were used to inoculate pre-germinated soybean plants to determine antibiotic sensitivity in the native Bradyrhizobium japonicum population. Sensitivity was in the order kanamycin > tetracycline > oxytetracycline > rifampicin > neomycin. Antagonism by five actinomycete cultures toward seven test strains of B. japonicum was also assessed. The ranking average inhibition (across all seven B. japonicum strains) by these actino mycetes was Streptomyces kanamyceticus = Streptomyces coeruleoprunus > Streptomyces rimosus > Streptomyces sp. > Amy colatopsis mediterranei. Ten antibiotic combinations were used to isolate antibiotic-resistant mutants of B. japonicum I-110 and 3I1B-110 via successive cycles of mutation. Eighty-one antibiotic-resistant strains were isolated and tested for symbiotic competency; nine of which were selected for further characterization in a greenhouse pot study. Few differences in nodule number were caused by these treatments. Nodule occupancy varied from 0% to 18.3% when antibiotic-resistant strains of B. japonicum were used as the sole inoculants. However, when three mutant strains of B. japonicum were co-inoculated with S. kanamyceticus, significant increases in nodule occupancy (up to 55%) occurred. Increases in shoot nitrogen composition (27.1%-40.9%) were also caused by co-inoculation with S. kanamyceticus.

  5. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase as a novel drug target: evidence from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiJun Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern affecting billions of people around the world. Currently, praziquantel is the only drug of choice for treatment of human schistosomiasis. The emergence of drug resistance to praziquantel in schistosomes makes the development of novel drugs an urgent task. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR enzymes in Schistosoma mansoni and some other platyhelminths have been identified as alternative targets. The present study was designed to confirm the existense and the potential value of TGR as a target for development of novel antischistosomal agents in Schistosoma japonicum, a platyhelminth endemic in Asia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After cloning the S. japonicum TGR (SjTGR gene, the recombinant SjTGR selenoprotein was purified and characterized in enzymatic assays as a multifunctional enzyme with thioredoxin reductase (TrxR, glutathione reductase (GR and glutaredoxin (Grx activities. Immunological and bioinformatic analyses confirmed that instead of having separate TrxR and GR proteins in mammalian, S. japonicum only encodes TGR, which performs the functions of both enzymes and plays a critical role in maintaining the redox balance in this parasite. These results were in good agreement with previous findings in Schistosoma mansoni and some other platyhelminths. Auranofin, a known inhibitor against TGR, caused fatal toxicity in S. japonicum adult worms in vitro and reduced worm and egg burdens in S. japonicum infected mice. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our study confirms that a multifunctional enzyme SjTGR selenoprotein, instead of separate TrxR and GR enzymes, exists in S. japonicum. Furthermore, TGR may be a potential target for development of novel agents against schistosomes. This assumption is strengthened by our demonstration that the SjTGR is an essential enzyme for maintaining the thiol-disulfide redox homeostasis of S. japonicum.

  6. Transmission dynamics of Schistosoma japonicum in the lakes and marshlands of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in China, with over one million people infected and another 40 million living in areas at risk of infection. Unlike the disease caused by S. mansoni and S. haematobium, schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonosis, involving a number of different mammalian species as reservoir hosts. As a result of a number of published reports from China, it has long been considered that bovines, particularly water buffaloes, play a major role in human S. japonicum transmission there, and a drug-based intervention study (1998-2003 around the Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province provided proof of concept that water buffaloes are, indeed, major reservoirs of human infection in this setting.In this study we incorporated recently obtained epidemiological information to model the steady-state S. japonicum transmission as well as the impact of the removal of S. japonicum transmission attributable to water buffaloes on human infection rates across six different endemic scenarios within three villages in the Dongting (Hunan and Poyang (Jiangxi lakes of southern China. Similar results were obtained for all scenarios. Steady-state S. japonicum infection rates remained constant and human prevalence and incidence were predicted to fall considerably over time. The model showed that the contribution of S. japonicum water buffalo transmission to human infection ranged from 39.1% to 99.1% and predicted that the removal of water buffalo transmission would reduce parasite reproductive rates below 1. This indicates that without the contribution of water buffaloes, S. japonicum transmission is interrupted and unsustainable. These scenarios are generalizable to other endemic villages in the lake and marshland areas of China where a similar cycle of snail infection and infection/reinfection of humans and bovines occurs.Along with previous epidemiological data, our findings strongly support water buffaloes as an important component of the

  7. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-07-27

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species.

  8. Genetic diversity and selection of three nuclear genes in Schistosoma japonicum populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqi; Yin, Mingbo; Wu, Qunfeng; McManus, Donald P; Blair, David; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Bin; Mo, Xiaojin; Feng, Zheng; Hu, Wei

    2017-02-17

    The blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum still causes severe disease in China, the Philippines and Indonesia. Although there have been some studies the molecular epidemiology of this persistent and harmful parasite, few have explored the possibility and implications of selection in S. japonicum populations. We analyzed diversity and looked for evidence of selection at three nuclear genes (SjIpp2, SjFabp and SjT22.6) in 13 S. japonicum populations. SjT22.6 was found to exhibit high nucleotide diversity and was under positive selection in the mountainous region of mainland China. As a tegumental protein, its secondary and tertiary structure differed between S. japonicum strains from the mountainous and lakes regions. In contrast, SjIpp2 and SjFabp had relatively low levels of nucleotide diversity and did not show significant departure from neutrality. As a tegument-associated antigen-encoding gene of S. japonicum, SjT22.6 has high nucleotide diversity and appears to be under positive selection in the mountainous region of mainland China.

  9. Novel real-time PCr for detection of Schistosoma japonicum in stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, T; Simonsen, G S; Haaheim, H; Hjelmevoll, S O; Vennervald, B J; Johansen, M V

    2006-03-01

    Chemotherapy has been used on a large scale in countries where the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum is endemic. This has led to a lower intensity of infections and consequently lower diagnostic values of commonly used diagnostic tests like serology and Kato-Katz stool smear. We designed a novel real-time PCR method for detection of S. japonicum in stool samples. Further, we evaluated different versions of an inexpensive, non-commercial extraction method, ROSE, as well as the commercial QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. PCR primer sequences were designed targeting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase I gene. Bovine serum albumin was added to the DNA extracts and SYBR Green was used for detection. The PCR method was evaluated with non-infected stool samples spiked with S. japonicum eggs. It demonstrated high sensitivity, even in samples containing a single egg. The two extraction methods were equally effective. The PCR was specific for S. japonicum when tested against other Schistosoma species, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and Taenia sp. We conclude that this novel real-time PCR, in combination with either ROSE or QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit extraction, is a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosing S. japonicum in human stool samples.

  10. A piezoelectric immunosensor using hybrid self-assembled monolayers for detection of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasite Schistosoma japonicum causes schistosomiasis disease, which threatens human life and hampers economic and social development in some Asian countries. An important lesson learned from efforts to reduce the occurrence of schistosomiasis is that the diagnostic approach must be altered as further progress is made towards the control and ultimate elimination of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mixed self-assembled monolayer membrane (mixed SAM technology, a mixture of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA and mercaptoethanol (ME was self-assembled on the surface of quartz crystals by gold-sulphur-bonds. Soluble egg antigens (SEA of S. japonicum were then cross-linked to the quartz crystal using a special coupling agent. As compared with the traditional single self-assembled monolayer immobilization method, S. japonicum antigen (SjAg immobilization using mixed self-assembled monolayers exhibits much greater immunoreactivity. Under optimal experimental conditions, the detection range is 1:1500 to 1:60 (infected rabbit serum dilution ratios. We measured several infected rabbit serum samples with varying S. japonicum antibody (SjAb concentrations using both immunosensor and ELISA techniques and then produced a correlation analysis. The correlation coefficients reached 0.973. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a new, simple, sensitive, and reusable piezoelectric immunosensor that directly detects SjAb in the serum. This method may represent an alternative to the current diagnostic methods for S. japonicum infection in the clinical laboratory or for analysis outside the laboratory.

  11. An insight into the genetic variation of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China using DNA microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Jaya; Qian, Bao Zhen; Mcvean, Gilean; Webster, Joanne P

    2005-03-01

    This study presents the first microsatellite investigation into the level of genetic variation among Schistosoma japonicum from different geographical origins. S. japonicum isolates were obtained from seven endemic provinces across mainland China: Zhejiang (Jiashan County), Anhui (Guichi County), Jiangxi (Yongxiu County), Hubei (Wuhan County), Hunan (Yueyang area), Sichuan 1 (Maoshan County), Sichuan 2 (Tianquan County), Yunnan (Dali County), and also one province in the Philippines (Sorsogon). DNA from 20 individuals from each origin were screened against 11 recently isolated and characterized S. japonicum microsatellites, and a set of nine loci were selected based on their polymorphic information content. High levels of polymorphism were obtained between and within population samples, with Chinese and Philippine strains appearing to follow different lineages, and with distinct branching between provinces. Moreover, across mainland China, genotype clustering appeared to be related to habitat type and/or intermediate host morph. These results highlight the suitability of microsatellites for population genetic studies of S. japonicum and suggest that there may be different strains of S. japonicum circulating in mainland China.

  12. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  13. Cross-sectional associations between intensity of animal and human infection with Schistosoma japonicum in Western Samar province, Philippines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGarvey, Stephen T.; Carabin, Hélène; Batalong, Ernesto Jr.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the association between the intensity of animal infection with Schistosoma japonicum and human infection in Western Samar province, the Philippines......To estimate the association between the intensity of animal infection with Schistosoma japonicum and human infection in Western Samar province, the Philippines...

  14. In vivo and in vitro activity of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linnaeus) against Schistosoma japonicum cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kang; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Leibo

    2017-01-01

    The activity of garlic oil extract against Schistosoma japonicum cercariae was evaluated. The in vitro and in vivo cercaricidal activities against S. japonicum larvae were determined. Exposure to ≥ 10-6 (v/v) garlic emulsions for 30 min led to 100% cercariae mortality; pre-exposure treatment with ≥ 10-4 (v/v) garlic emulsions showed 100% preventive efficacy against S. japonicum infection, while pre-treatment with 10-5 and 10-6 (v/v) emulsions achieved 20%-40% preventive efficacy and 35.2%-63.6% worm burden reduction. Garlic oil extract has activity against S. japonicum larvae and a promising preventive efficacy against S. japonicum infection.

  15. Evolutionary Instability of Symbiotic Function in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Joel L.; Russell, James E.; Hollowell, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial mutualists are often acquired from the environment by eukaryotic hosts. However, both theory and empirical work suggest that this bacterial lifestyle is evolutionarily unstable. Bacterial evolution outside of the host is predicted to favor traits that promote an independent lifestyle in the environment at a cost to symbiotic function. Consistent with these predictions, environmentally-acquired bacterial mutualists often lose symbiotic function over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate the evolutionary erosion of symbiotic traits in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, a nodulating root symbiont of legumes. Building on a previous published phylogeny we infer loss events of nodulation capability in a natural population of Bradyrhizobium, potentially driven by mutation or deletion of symbiosis loci. Subsequently, we experimentally evolved representative strains from the symbiont population under host-free in vitro conditions to examine potential drivers of these loss events. Among Bradyrhizobium genotypes that evolved significant increases in fitness in vitro, two exhibited reduced symbiotic quality, but no experimentally evolved strain lost nodulation capability or evolved any fixed changes at six sequenced loci. Our results are consistent with trade-offs between symbiotic quality and fitness in a host free environment. However, the drivers of loss-of-nodulation events in natural Bradyrhizobium populations remain unknown. PMID:22073160

  16. Bioakumulasi Logam Berat oleh Beberapa Galur Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADE NOOR SYAMSUDIN

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal utilization in industry and agriculture have caused an environmental problem to existing life. Bioaccumulation is made up by a concentration of certain chemical compounds in living tissues. The objective of this research was to reveal the ability of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs of heavy metal Bradyrhizobium japonicum tolerant strains in accumulating heavy metals. The strains used were BDG 10, KDR 10, and KDR 15. The ability of each strains on heavy metal accumulation of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cd were quantitatively determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The result showed that each strains has its own capacity to accumulate heavy metals. Accumulation of Cu (0.100, Pb (0.320, and Cd (0.048 ppm/mg dry weight by KDR 10 seem higher than BDG 10 and KDR 15. The highest accumulation of Zn and Ni was shown by KDR 15 in which the value were 0.360 and 0.165 ppm/mg dry weight, respectively and the least accumulation of all heavy metal studied was shown by BDG 10.

  17. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: implications for transmission and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found

  18. Evolutionary and biomedical implications of a Schistosoma japonicum complementary DNA resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Yan, Qing; Shen, Da-Kang; Liu, Feng; Zhu, Zhi-Dong; Song, Huai-Dong; Xu, Xiang-Ru; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Rong, Yi-Ping; Zeng, Ling-Chun; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ju-Jun; Xu, Xue-Nian; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Xiang-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Qin; Brindley, Paul J; McManus, Donald P; Xue, Chun-Liang; Feng, Zheng; Chen, Zhu; Han, Ze-Guang

    2003-10-01

    Schistosoma japonicum causes schistosomiasis in humans and livestock in the Asia-Pacific region. Knowledge of the genome of this parasite should improve understanding of schistosome-host interactions, biomedical aspects of schistosomiasis and invertebrate evolution. We assigned 43,707 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from adult S. japonicum and their eggs to 13,131 gene clusters. Of these, 35% shared no similarity with known genes and 75% had not been reported previously in schistosomes. Notably, S. japonicum encoded mammalian-like receptors for insulin, progesterone, cytokines and neuropeptides, suggesting that host hormones, or endogenous parasite homologs, could orchestrate schistosome development and maturation and that schistosomes modulate anti-parasite immune responses through inhibitors, molecular mimicry and other evasion strategies.

  19. Development of chiral praziquantel analogues as potential drug candidates with activity to juvenile Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Dong, LanLan; Hu, Changyan; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Chunhua; Xia, Chaoming; Sun, Dequn

    2014-09-01

    A series of chiral praziquantel analogues were synthesized and evaluated against Schistosoma japonicum both in vitro and in vivo. All compounds exhibited low to considerable good activity in vivo. Remarkably, worm reduction rate of R-3 was 60.0% at a single oral dose of 200mg/kg against juvenile stage of Schistosoma japonicum. The target compounds displayed in vivo antischistosomal activity against both Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni. Furthermore, all R-isomers displayed stronger antischistosomal activity than S-isomers in vivo, indicating R-isomers were the active enantiomers, while S-isomers were less active ones. This structure activity relationship (SAR) could have important implications in further drug development for schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrosequencing for rapid molecular identification of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mekongi eggs and cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Limpanont, Yanin; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Tourtip, Somjintana; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis, which is caused by Schistosoma japonicum and S. mekongi, is a chronic and dangerous widespread disease affecting several countries in Asia. Differentiation between S. japonicum and S. mekongi eggs and/or cercariae via microscopic examination is difficult due to morphological similarities. It is important to identify these etiological agents isolated from animals and humans at the species or genotype level. In this study, a pyrosequencing assay designed to detect S. japonicum and S. mekongi DNA in fecal samples and infected snails was developed and evaluated as an alternative tool to diagnose schistosomiasis. New primers targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene were designated for specific amplification. S. japonicum and S. mekongi were identified using a 43-nucleotide pattern of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and were differentiated using 7 nucleotides within this region. S. japonicum and S. mekongi-infected snails and fecal samples derived from infected mice and rats were differentially detected within a short period of time. The analytical sensitivity of the method enabled the identification of as little as a single cercaria artificially introduced into a pool of 10 non-infected snails and 2 eggs inoculated in 100mg of non-infected fecal sample. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of the assay, identical samples were also analyzed via microscopy and Sanger sequencing. The pyrosequencing technique was found to be superior to the microscopy method and more rapid than the Sanger sequencing method. These results suggest that the pyrosequencing assay is rapid, simple, sensitive and accurate in identifying S. japonicum and S. mekongi in intermediate hosts and fecal samples of the final host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SjTPdb: integrated transcriptome and proteome database and analysis platform for Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhi-Qin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma japonicum is one of the three major blood fluke species, the etiological agents of schistosomiasis which remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. In recent years, enormous amounts of both transcriptomic and proteomic data of schistosomes have become available, providing information on gene expression profiles for developmental stages and tissues of S. japonicum. Here, we establish a public searchable database, termed SjTPdb, with integrated transcriptomic and proteomic data of S. japonicum, to enable more efficient access and utility of these data and to facilitate the study of schistosome biology, physiology and evolution. Description All the available ESTs, EST clusters, and the proteomic dataset of S. japonicum are deposited in SjTPdb. The core of the database is the 8,420 S. japonicum proteins translated from the EST clusters, which are well annotated for sequence similarity, structural features, functional ontology, genomic variations and expression patterns across developmental stages and tissues including the tegument and eggshell of this flatworm. The data can be queried by simple text search, BLAST search, search based on developmental stage of the life cycle, and an integrated search for more specific information. A PHP-based web interface allows users to browse and query SjTPdb, and moreover to switch to external databases by the following embedded links. Conclusion SjTPdb is the first schistosome database with detailed annotations for schistosome proteins. It is also the first integrated database of both transcriptome and proteome of S. japonicum, providing a comprehensive data resource and research platform to facilitate functional genomics of schistosome. SjTPdb is available from URL: http://function.chgc.sh.cn/sj-proteome/index.htm.

  2. Complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yuri L; Yura, Kei; Shindo, Miyuki; Kusakabe, Rie; Hayashi, Keiko; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Lampreys are eel-like jawless fishes evolutionarily positioned between invertebrates and vertebrates, and have been used as model organisms to explore vertebrate evolution. In this study we determined the complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the Japanese river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum, using next-generation sequencers. The sequence was 16,272 bp in length. The gene content and order were identical to those of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, which has been the reference among lamprey species. However, the sequence similarity was less than 90%, suggesting the need for the whole-genome sequencing of L. japonicum.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and risk evaluation of DNA vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei; Lu, Ming-Bo; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    DNA plasmid immunization is a novel approach of preventive and therapeutic vaccine. More than 100 DNA vaccines have been on preclinical or clinical phase trials, and four kinds of DNA vaccines for livestock have been approved by USDA, CFIA, and APVMA. Schistosomiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease, and vaccine immunization is supposed to be a promising approach to control the health crisis. On the basis of former preclinical studies, we further focused on the pharmacokinetics and risk evaluation of DNA vaccine in vivo. In the present study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) report gene was fused with Schistosoma japonicum 23 kDa transmembrane protein antigen gene (Sj23) and constructed into DNA vaccine pVIVO2-Sj23.EGFP. After intramuscularly injecting 100 μg of purified DNA vaccine plasmid to immunizate BALB/c mice, we studied the tissue distribution of DNA plasmid and expressed Sj23.EGFP antigen, the persistence time of elicited antibodies, and the risk of DNA vaccine transferred into intestinal microorganisms. The results showed that DNA vaccine plasmid could be distributed into all tissues of the body after injection; however, only few organs including the injected muscle were detected DNA vaccine at postimmunization until the 100 days by PCR technology; the detection of green fluorescence protein displayed that DNA vaccine could be expressed in almost every tissue and organs; the ELISA assay indicated the immune antibody against Sj23 could persist over 70 days; and the DNA vaccine transferring intestinal flora results was negative. The results indicated that the DNA vaccine has systemic protection and long-lasting effectivity and is safe to intestinal flora.

  4. Induction of species-specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of rats to ultra-violet attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloney, N.A.; Webbe, G.; Hinchcliffe, P.

    1987-02-01

    Single percutaneous immunizations of Fischer rats with 1000 ultra-violet attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae induced 52-88% resistance to challenge 4 weeks later. Increasing this to 3 immunizations induced 90% resistance to challenge, and this level of protection remained undiminished for up to 40 weeks after vaccination. Rats vaccinated with gamma-irradiated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to challenge with S. mansoni but not S. japonicum. Similarly rats vaccinated with u.v.-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae were not resistant to heterologous challenge. Thus irradiated vaccines are species-specific in both permissive and non-permissive hosts.

  5. Plant recognition of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nod factors. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant had three objectives: (1) isolate and identify the unique nod factor metabolites made by different wild-type B. japonicum strains; (2) investigate the biological activity of these unique nod factors, especially as it relates to host range; and (3) initiate studies to define the mechanism of plant recognition of the nod factors. This report summarizes the results of this research.

  6. [Susceptibilities of Oncomelania hupensis snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia from different hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Wang, Tian-Ping; Wang, Qi-Zhi; Lv, Da-Bing; Yin, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Li; Wang, Zhen-Li; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Le-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    To understand the susceptibilities of Oncomelania hupensis snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia from different hosts. The Schistosoma japonicum eggs from different hosts, such as rabbits, cattle and mice were collected. These eggs were incubated for miracidia, respectively. Each snail from the same site was exposed to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma japonicum from different hosts. The infected snails were fed in the laboratory for two months. Then all the snails were dissected and observed under the dissecting microscope in order to know the infection rate of snails. In the experiment group, the infection rates of snails infected with miracidia from rabbits, cattle and mice were 1.42%, 8.67% and 19.87%, respectively, the mortality rates were 29.5%, 13.5% and 24.5%, respectively. However, the infection rates of snails in the control group were 2.63%, 2.02% and 11.66%, respectively, and the mortality rates were 24.0%, 49.5% and 18.5%, respectively. The susceptibilities of Oncomelania snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia from 3 kinds of hosts are significantly different.

  7. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  8. Characterization of a novel vaccine candidate and serine proteinase inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum (Sj serpin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yutao; Liu, Shuxian; Song, Guangcheng; Xu, Yixin; Dissous, Colette

    2005-07-15

    Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) represent an important superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that regulate proteolytic events active in a variety of physiological functions. Immunological screening of a Schistosoma japonicum adult worm cDNA expression library with sera of Microtus fortis, a naturally resistant vertebrate host, has identified one clone that encoded for a sequence homologous to those of the serpin superfamily. The full-length sequence encoding S. japonicum serpin (Sj serpin) was amplified from adult worm cDNA by using 5'-RACE-PCR and subsequently cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET28c. The full-length Sj serpin fusion-protein with his-tag was expressed in E. coli, purified by affinity chromatography and used to immunize New Zealand white rabbits. Sj serpin is located on the tegument in S. japonicum adult worms. C57BL/6 mice immunized with Sj serpin induced the production of high levels of specific IgE and IgG1 subclass antibodies as well as a marked IL-4 response. Lymphocyte surface marker analysis revealed proliferation of CD19 expressing B cells, indicating a predominant Th2-type response to Sj serpin. Immunized mice developed moderate protection against infection of S. japonicum as demonstrated by a 36 and 39% reduction in the recovery of adult worms and eggs, respectively. These data suggested a role for Sj serpin as a vaccine candidate or as a novel target for anti-schistosome drugs.

  9. Modeling the Dynamics and Control of Transmission of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mekongi in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIKAWA, Hirofumi; Ohmae, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model for transmission of schistosomes is useful to predict effects of various control measures on suppression of these parasites. This review focuses on epidemiological and environmental factors in Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi infections and recent advances in mathematical models of Schistosoma transmission.

  10. Carriers in electron transport from molecular hydrogen to oxygen in Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisbrenner, G; Evans, H J

    1982-03-01

    An investigation has been conducted to identify electron transport carriers that participate in the oxidation of H2 by H2 uptake-positive strains of Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids. We have observed that the reduced form of dibromothymoquinone at a concentration of 0.2 mM strongly inhibited H2 uptake, endogenous respiration, and C2H2 reduction by bacteroid suspensions. Reduced dibromothymoquinone, however, failed to inhibit the transfer of electrons from H2 to methylene blue under anaerobic conditions, indicating that the hydrogenase per se is insensitive to this inhibitor. Metronidazole, at 1 mM, affected rates of H2 uptake and endogenous respiration only slightly, but strongly inhibited C2H2 reduction. Evidence for H2-dependent cytochrome reduction in an H2 uptake-positive strain of R. japonicum bacteroids is presented. In kinetic studies, the rates of reduction of the type b and c cytochromes in the presence of H2 were shown to be severalfold higher than the rates due to endogenous respiration alone. With hydrogenase-deficient mutants of R. japonicum, no measurable effect of H2 on cytochrome reduction was observed. Our results indicate that ubiquinone and cytochromes of types b and c are involved in the oxyhydrogen reaction in R. japonicum.

  11. Preface: Recent Developments in Taxonomy and Biodiversity of Symbiotic Copepoda (Crustacea)-A Volume in Celebration of the Career of Prof. Il-Hoi Kim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Rony

    2016-10-11

    Symbiosis is one of the most successful modes of life displayed by aquatic organisms, as measured by the number of times it evolved and how many symbiotic species are presently in existence. Among the Crustacea copepods utilize an extraordinary range of hosts, occurring on virtually every phylum of marine macroinvertebrates and, jointly with the monogeneans, are the most speciose group of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes (Rhode 2005). Several species have a major impact on global finfish and shellfish aquaculture, causing significant effects on farm production, economic viability and sustainability (Shinn et al. 2015). Parasitism by copepods on other metazoans has evolved independently numerous times in the evolutionary history of animal life on Earth and has led to an exceptional diversity in morphologies, physiologies, life-strategies and habitat preferences of its members. Reflecting the diversity of hosts, copepods show an amazing variety of adaptations which secure infection of and survival on the hosts. Since the first descriptions of parasitic copepods occurring on fish by Linnaeus (1758) and the first report of a copepod utilizing an invertebrate host by Say (1818) (Clausidium caudatum (Say, 1818)) the number of described symbiotic copepods has seen a steady increase over a 200-yr period, culminating in a total of 5,306 valid species recognized today. About 38% of all described copepod species utilize either vertebrate (2,450 spp.) or invertebrate hosts (2,856 spp.), however, many host groups have not been thoroughly examined, and for this reason even approximate estimates of true species numbers are futile. Plotting the proposal of new species by decade (Fig. 1) shows a sharp rise since 1950 with 67% of the species having been described in the preceding 65 years. This period of exceptionally rapid progress can be attributed to a number of highly prolific investigators such as Arthur Humes, Il-Hoi Kim, Ju-shey Ho and Jan Stock who, single-handedly or

  12. Nested-PCR assay for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infection in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; He, Chuan-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Fu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhu, Chuan-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping; Tong, Lai-Bao; Zhou, De-Bao; Zha, Li; Hong, Yang; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

    2017-04-13

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a common zoonosis. Domestic animals are the primary source of infection and play an important role in disease transmission. The prevalence and infectivity of this disease in domestic animals in China have significantly decreased and, for this reason, diagnostics with a higher sensitivity have become increasingly necessary. It was reported that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods could be used to detect schistosome infection in humans and animals and presented a high sensitivity and specificity. The present study aimed to develop a PCR-based method for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infection in domestic animals. A specific nested-PCR assay was developed to detect S. japonicum infection in domestic animals via amplification of a 231-bp DNA fragment of retrotransposon SjR2. The developed assay was first used in sera and dry blood filter paper (DBFP) from goats and buffaloes at different time points of infection. Then, 78 DBFPs from 39 artificially-infected bovines at 14 and 28 days post-infection and 42 DBFPs from schistosome-negative bovines from the city of Huangshan in the Anhui province were used to evaluate the diagnostic validity. Furthermore, this assay was used to detect S. japonicum infection in domestic animals in Dongzhi and Wangjiang counties. The expected PCR product was detected in eggs and adult worms of S. japonicum and blood samples from S. japonicum-infected goats and water buffaloes, but not from Fasciola and Haemonchus contortus worms. The nested-PCR assay could detect the target S. japonicum DNA in DBFPs from goats and buffaloes after day 3 post-infection. The sensitivity in buffaloes at 14 and 28 days post-infection was 92.30% (36/39) and 100% (39/39), respectively. The specificity was 97.60% (41/42). The positivity rates in Dongzhi and Wangjiang counties were 6.00% and 8.00% in bovines and 22.00% and 16.67% in goats, respectively. The positivity rates in goats in both counties were higher than those

  13. Genome-wide identification of Schistosoma japonicum microRNAs using a deep-sequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent and serious parasitic diseases worldwide. Schistosoma japonicum is one of important pathogens of this disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation in animals. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs in a given organism is a critical step to facilitating our understanding of genome organization, genome biology, evolution, and posttranscriptional regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced two small RNA libraries prepared from different stages of the life cycle of S. japonicum, immature schistosomula and mature pairing adults, through a deep DNA sequencing approach, which yielded approximately 12 million high-quality short sequence reads containing a total of approximately 2 million non-redundant tags. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we identified 176 new S. japonicum miRNAs, of which some exhibited a differential pattern of expression between the two stages. Although 21 S. japonicum miRNAs are orthologs of known miRNAs within the metazoans, some nucleotides at many positions of Schistosoma miRNAs, such as miR-8, let-7, miR-10, miR-31, miR-92, miR-124, and miR-125, are indeed significantly distinct from other bilaterian orthologs. In addition, both miR-71 and some miR-2 family members in tandem are found to be clustered in a reversal direction model on two genomic loci, and two pairs of novel S. japonicum miRNAs were derived from sense and antisense DNA strands at the same genomic loci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The collection of S. japonicum miRNAs could be used as a new platform to study the genomic structure, gene regulation and networks, evolutionary processes, development, and host-parasite interactions. Some S. japonicum miRNAs and their clusters could represent the ancestral forms of the conserved orthologues and a model for the genesis of novel miRNAs.

  14. Functions of the Vasa gene in Schistosoma japonicum as assessed by RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siyu; Zhu, Lulu; Liu, Fengchun; Liu, Quan; Shao, Yanjing; Hua, Mengqing; Ding, Han; Shao, Wei; Du, Yinan; Hou, Xin; Ren, Cuiping; Liu, Miao; Shen, Jijia

    2018-01-05

    Vasa, an enzyme belonging to the helicase family, contributes to the regulation of reproductive system development in many species. Thus, we hypothesized that the Vasa3 gene may function in the reproductive system of the parasite Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum), which is a major causative agent of schistosomiasis. It is a severe disease globally affecting humans and animals. To test this hypothesis, we firstly conducted whole mount in situ hybridization analyses and found that the S. japonicum Vasa3 (SjVasa3) gene was expressed mainly in the reproductive organs. We then explored the reproductive functions of Vasa3 in S. japonicum using RNA interference (RNAi) techniques. Coupled schistosomes collected from mice 28days post infection (dpi) were transfected three times with SjVasa3-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and cultured in vitro for up to 10days. As measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blot analysis, levels of SjVasa3 mRNA and protein in Vasa siRNA treated worms were significantly reduced compared with untreated and scrambled siRNA treated worms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images showed markedly siRNA induced changes in the morphology of the reproductive organs, especially in the female ovary, vitellarium and the male testes. SjVasa3 gene silencing also significantly reduced egg production. These data demonstrate that SjVasa3 is essential in reproductive organ development and egg production in S. japonicum, and could be a potential target for developing novel compounds to treat schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells...

  16. Evaluation of recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase ELISA test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shih-Yi; Lee, Kin-Mu; Tsaihong, John Chin; Cheng, Po-Ching; Fan, Ping-Chin

    2008-12-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) is an ubiquitous enzyme essential for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the Calvin cycle. It has been demonstrated to induce immune responses and to be useful in the immunodiagnosis of malaria. In this study, FBPA was cloned from the adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum and tested as an antigen for the diagnosis of S. japonicum infection in water buffaloes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on the sera from 32 infected water buffaloes and 20 negative controls using the recombinant FBPA protein or soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) as an antigen. The OD cut-off values were determined to be 0.57 with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity for the FBPA ELISA and 1.13 with 93.8% specificity and 95.0% sensitivity for the SWAP ELISA. These findings indicate that the recombinant FBPA of S. japonicum should be an useful diagnostic tool for the detection of antibodies against S. japonicum.

  17. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis. In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.

  18. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Kang, Min; Song, Kai; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2017-02-08

    Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis). In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha) in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.

  19. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  20. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-12-12

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa.

  1. Characteristics of IL-17 induction by Schistosoma japonicum infection in C57BL/6 mouse liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianhui; Luo, Xueping; Xie, Hongyan; Gao, Zhiyan; Fang, Huilong; Huang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a severe tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm Schistosoma japonicum. Among the most serious pathological effects of S. japonicum infection are hepatic lesions (cirrhosis and fibrosis) and portal hypertension. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and infectious conditions, including schistosomiasis. We infected C57BL/6 mice with S. japonicum and isolated lymphocytes from the liver to identify cell subsets with high IL-17 expression and release using flow cytometry and ELISA. Expression and release of IL-17 was significantly higher in hepatic lymphocytes from infected mice compared with control mice in response to both non-specific stimulation with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody plus/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody and PMA plus ionomycin. We then compared IL-17 expression in three hepatic T-cell subsets, T helper, natural killer T and γδT cells, to determine the major source of IL-17 during infection. Interleukin-17 was induced in all three subsets by PMA + ionomycin, but γδT lymphocytes exhibited the largest increase in expression. We then established a mouse model to further investigate the role of IL-17 in granulomatous and fibrosing inflammation against parasite eggs. Reducing IL-17 activity using anti-IL-17A antibodies decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells and collagen deposition in the livers of infected C57BL/6 mice. The serum levels of soluble egg antigen (IL) -specific IgGs were enhanced by anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody blockade, suggesting that IL-17 normally serves to suppress this humoral response. These findings suggest that γδT cells are the most IL-17-producing cells and that IL-17 contributes to granulomatous inflammatory and fibrosing reactions in S. japonicum-infected C57BL/6 mouse liver. PMID:23551262

  2. Atmospheric nitrogen uptake by soyabean cultivars in combination with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. P Botha

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted, using three soyabean (Giycinc max (L. Merrill cultivars (Forrest, Prima and A5409 inoculated at planting, with no (0 and two Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (WB1 and WB74. The objectives were to investigate the effect of cultivar-rhizobial strain combinations on biomass and N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa and to compare the atmospheric N uptake determined by the isolope technique, with the conventional method.

  3. Repeated Schistosoma japonicum infection following treatment in two cohorts: evidence for host susceptibility to helminthiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Carlton

    Full Text Available In light of multinational efforts to reduce helminthiasis, we evaluated whether there exist high-risk subpopulations for helminth infection. Such individuals are not only at risk of morbidity, but may be important parasite reservoirs and appropriate targets for disease control interventions.We followed two longitudinal cohorts in Sichuan, China to determine whether there exist persistent human reservoirs for the water-borne helminth, Schistosoma japonicum, in areas where treatment is ongoing. Participants were tested for S. japonicum infection at enrollment and two follow-up points. All infections were promptly treated with praziquantel. We estimated the ratio of the observed to expected proportion of the population with two consecutive infections at follow-up. The expected proportion was estimated using a prevalence-based model and, as highly exposed individuals may be most likely to be repeatedly infected, a second model that accounted for exposure using a data adaptive, machine learning algorithm. Using the prevalence-based model, there were 1.5 and 5.8 times more individuals with two consecutive infections than expected in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001 in both cohorts. When we accounted for exposure, the ratio was 1.3 (p = 0.013 and 2.1 (p<0.001 in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively.We found clustering of infections within a limited number of hosts that was not fully explained by host exposure. This suggests some hosts may be particularly susceptible to S. japonicum infection, or that uncured infections persist despite treatment. We propose an explanatory model that suggests that as cercarial exposure declines, so too does the size of the vulnerable subpopulation. In low-prevalence settings, interventions targeting individuals with a history of S. japonicum infection may efficiently advance disease control efforts.

  4. Kerentanan Schistosoma japonicum terhadap Praziquantel di Napu dan Lindu, Sulawesi Tengah Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Nurwidayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis in Indonesia are found in Napu, Lindu and Bada highland, Central Sulawesi. This disease was caused by Trematode worm, Schistosoma japonicum. Schistosomiasis still a public health problem which its prevalence increase every year. The large scale treatment by mass chemotherapy using praziquantel was done to reduce the prevalence of schistosomiasis since 1980’s. The objective of this research was to identify the development of resistance in Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in endemic areas. Field study was conducted in endemic areas Napu and Lindu in April –November 2011. All of the 80 stool-positive subjects in Napu and 60 stool-positive subjects in Lindu, were treated with a single dose of 60 mg/kg of praziquantel. On three, six, nine, and 12 weeks after treatment, all of the subjects were examined again using the same stool examination. The results showed that on three weeks examination after treatment, stool-negative results were found in all subjects which represents a 100% parasitological cure rate. All stool samples were re-examined six, nine, and 12 weeks after the first treatment and no stool-positive subjects were found. The results indicate that there was no evidence for reduced susceptibility of S.japonicum to praziquantel despite its extensive use in the endemic areas of Napu and Lindu for more than 20 years.

  5. Comparative analysis of codon usage pattern and its influencing factors in Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Gulshana A; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-12-20

    Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum are considered as the major parasites of human which cause various life threatening diseases such as schistomiasis and ascariasis. The codon usage bias (CUB) is known as the phenomenon of more usage of a specific codon than the other synonymous codons for an amino acid. The factors that influence the codon usage bias are mutation pressure, natural selection, gene expression, gene length, GC content, RNA stability, recombination rates, codon position etc. Here we had used various bioinformatic tools and statistical analyses to understand the compositional features, expression level and codon usage bias in the genes of these two species.After estimating the effective number of codon (ENC) in both the species, codon usage bias was found to be low and gene expression was high. The nucleobase A and T were used most often than C and G. From neutrality plot and correspondence analysis it was found that both natural selection and mutation pressure played an important role in shaping the codon usage pattern of both species. Moreover, natural selection played a major role while mutation pressure played a minor role in shaping the codon usage bias in S. japonicum and A.suum. This is the first report on the codon usage biology in S. japonicum and A.suum, and the factors influencing their codon usage bias. These results are expected to be useful for genetic engineering and evolutionary studies.

  6. Cysteine protease inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum - A parasite-derived negative immunoregulatory factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; He, Baohua; Hou, Wei; He, Li

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that cysteine protease inhibitors from some parasites have immunosuppressive effects on the host. We previously have cloned a novel cysteine protease inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum and purified its recombinant version (protein named rSj-C). Its possible inhibitory effect on the host immune response has not been described.This study shows that rSj-C inhibits lysosomal cysteine protease of murine dendritic cells (DCs). After DCs were incubated with rSj-C and then with soluble adult worm antigen (AWA) of S. japonicum, the mean fluorescence intensity of MHC class II antigens on the surface of DCs decreased significantly by flow cytometry. These results indirectly proved that rSj-C can suppress exogenous-antigen presentation by DCs. The flow cytometric assay revealed that in comparison with control groups, the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells among CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells of Schistosom-infected mice increased significantly 8 weeks after the infected mice were injected with rSj-C (p ˂ 0.05). Additionally, the expression levels of cytokines IL-4 and TGF-β produced by T cells increased significantly as compared with these levels in the normal group (p ˂ 0.05). These results clearly show that the cysteine protease inhibitor from S. japonicum is a new parasite-derived immunosuppressive factor.

  7. [Killing effect of sodium abietate on adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Bo; Liu, Hong-Jun; Wang, Ben-Jing; Zhou, Xia; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chen-Chen; Gong, Wei; Zhu-Ge, Hong-Xiang

    2011-06-01

    To observe the killing effect of sodium abietate on adult male and female worms of Schistosoma japonicum in vitro. The mice infected with cercariae of S. japonicum were sacrificed and perfused five weeks later, the adult worms obtained by the portal perfusion method, were cultivated in DMEM medium containing different concentrations of sodium abietate for 3 days, except the controls, then the worms were observed for the death and motility reducing. The worms were stained by hydrochloric acid carmine for the detection of the changes, and the protein of the worms was detected by using the ultraviolet ray-absorption and Bradford method. After the treatment of sodium abietate, the mortality and motility reducing rate of adult worms were higher significantly than the controls; the effect of sodium abietate on male worms was more obvious than on female worms. The male worms' intestinal canal enlarged and appeared black or brown bands or spots after the treatment. The contents of the intestine of female worms were distributed asymmetrically, and the shape of some worms' ovaries was anomalism and the coloring was asymmetrical. Compared with the control group, the protein of adult male and female worms were reduced (P worms of S. japonicum in vitro. It may affect the protein metabolism of the worms.

  8. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  9. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  10. New Perspectives on Host-Parasite Interplay by Comparative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay.

  11. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4(+) Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  12. New perspectives on host-parasite interplay by comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay.

  13. Photosynthesis, nitrogen allocation and specific leaf area in invasive Eupatorium adenophorum and native Eupatorium japonicum grown at different irradiances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Long

    2008-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying biological invasions are still not well elucidated. In this study, ecophysiological traits of invasive Eupatorium adenophorum and native E. japonicum were compared at 10 irradiances in field. I hypothesized that the invader may allocate a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen (N) to photosynthesis and have higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate (P(max)) and specific leaf area (SLA) than E. japonicum. The invader had a significantly higher ability to acclimate to high irradiance than E. japonicum, while it showed a similar shade-tolerant ability. The invader indeed allocated a higher fraction of leaf N to photosynthesis than E. japonicum, which, with its high leaf N content (N(A)), resulted in a higher N content in photosynthesis (N(P)), contributing to its higher biochemical capacity for photosynthesis and P(max). However, the invader had a significantly lower SLA than E. japonicum, contributing to its higher P(max) but increasing its area-based leaf construction cost. The abilities to acclimate to a wider range of irradiance and to allocate a higher fraction of leaf N to photosynthesis, and the higher P(max), N(A), N(P) and leaf area ratio may contribute to the invasion of the invader. High SLA is not always necessary for invasive species.

  14. Functional characterization of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum modA and modB genes involved in molybdenum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María J; Tresierra-Ayala, Alvaro; Talbi, Chouhra; Bedmar, Eulogio J

    2006-01-01

    A modABC gene cluster that encodes an ABC-type, high-affinity molybdate transporter from Bradyrhizobium japonicum has been isolated and characterized. B. japonicum modA and modB mutant strains were unable to grow aerobically or anaerobically with nitrate as nitrogen source or as respiratory substrate, respectively, and lacked nitrate reductase activity. The nitrogen-fixing ability of the mod mutants in symbiotic association with soybean plants grown in a Mo-deficient mineral solution was severely impaired. Addition of molybdate to the bacterial growth medium or to the plant mineral solution fully restored the wild-type phenotype. Because the amount of molybdate required for suppression of the mutant phenotype either under free-living or under symbiotic conditions was dependent on sulphate concentration, it is likely that a sulphate transporter is also involved in Mo uptake in B. japonicum. The promoter region of the modABC genes has been characterized by primer extension. Reverse transcription and expression of a transcriptional fusion, P(modA)-lacZ, was detected only in a B. japonicum modA mutant grown in a medium without molybdate supplementation. These findings indicate that transcription of the B. japonicum modABC genes is repressed by molybdate.

  15. The effect of colostrum on pigs pre-natally or post-natally exposed to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, M.E.; Johansen, M.V.; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A responses, in groups of pigs pre-natally, pre-natally + post-natally or post-natally exposed to S. japonicum. Results suggest that pre-natal exposure and immune colostrum did not affect the establishment of a post-natal challenge infection. However, immune colostrum seemed to increase the levels of septal......Pre-natal infection of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs may prove to be a useful model in shedding light on human pre-natal schistosomiasis. This study describes the effects of immune colostrum on worm burdens, tissue egg counts, liver pathology and crude worm or egg antigen-specific IgG and Ig...... fibrosis in pre-natally exposed pigs. These findings indicate that further investigations will prove valuable, elucidating the influence of the parasitological and immunological status of the sow, on pre-natally exposed pigs, and on the ability of these pigs to develop resistance against S. japonicum later...

  16. Molecular differentiation of Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi by real-time PCR with high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Limpanont, Yanin; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Human schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi is a chronic and debilitating helminthic disease still prevalent in several countries of Asia. Due to morphological similarities of cercariae and eggs of these 2 species, microscopic differentiation is difficult. High resolution melting (HRM) real-time PCR is developed as an alternative tool for the detection and differentiation of these 2 species. A primer pair was designed for targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene to generate PCR products of 156 base pairs for both species. The melting points of S. japonicum and S. mekongi PCR products were 84.5±0.07℃ and 85.7±0.07℃, respectively. The method permits amplification from a single cercaria or an egg. The HRM real-time PCR is a rapid and simple tool for differentiation of S. japonicum and S. mekongi in the intermediate and final hosts.

  17. Survey of traditional Dai medicine reveals species confusion and potential safety concerns: a case study on Radix Clerodendri Japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bao-Zhong; Fang, Hai-Lan; Li, Xi-Wen; Huang, Lin-Fang; Ping, Wang; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2017-06-01

    The adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety. In the present study, we surveyed the species composition of commercial Radix Clerodendri Japonicum products using DNA barcoding as a supervisory method. A reference database for plant-material DNA-barcode was successfully constructed with 48 voucher samples from 12 Clerodendrum species. The database was used to identify 27 Radix Clerodendri Japonicum decoction piece samples purchased from drug stores and hospitals. The DNA sequencing results revealed that only 1 decoction piece (3.70%) was authentic C. japonicum, as recorded in the Dai Pharmacopeia, whereas the other samples were all adulterants, indicating a potential safety issue. The results indicate that decoction pieces that are available in the market have complex origins and that DNA barcoding is a suitable tool for regulation of Dai medicines. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Floral organ MADS-box genes in Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae): Implications for systematic evolution and bracts definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yupei; Wang, Yubing; Zhang, Dechun; Shen, Xiangling; Liu, Wen; Chen, Faju

    2017-01-01

    The dioecious relic Cercidiphyllum japonicum is one of two species of the sole genus Cercidiphyllum, with a tight inflorescence lacking an apparent perianth structure. In addition, its systematic place has been much debated and, so far researches have mainly focused on its morphology and chloroplast genes. In our investigation, we identified 10 floral organ identity genes, including four A-class, three B-class, two C-class and one D-class. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all ten genes are grouped with Saxifragales plants, which confirmed the phylogenetic place of C. japonicum. Expression patterns of those genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, with some variations that did not completely coincide with the ABCDE model, suggesting some subfunctionalization. As well, our research supported the idea that thebract actually is perianth according to our morphological and molecular analyses in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

  19. Produtividade da soja em resposta à aplicação de Molibdênio e inoculação com Bradyrhizobium japonicum Soybean yield in response to Molybdenum and Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloir Paulo Gris

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A soja em simbiose com Bradyrhizobium japonicum é capaz de ter a sua exigência de N satisfeita com a fixação biológica de N2 (FBN. Entretanto, a FBN é afetada pela deficiência Mo, visto que este nutriente faz parte da enzima nitrogenase responsável pelo processo. Foi realizado um experimento, em condição de campo, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, no município de Palotina, PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o tratamento de sementes com Mo, inoculação de B. japonicum e adubação foliar de Mo na produtividade da soja. Os tratamentos foram quatro doses de Mo (0, 40, 80 e 160 g ha-1 aplicadas em adubação foliar e tratamento com aplicação nas sementes de 40 g ha-1 de Mo, combinados com e sem inoculação com B. japonicum. Não foram observados efeitos estatísticos significativos do tratamento de sementes com Mo, inoculação de B. japonicum e adubação foliar de Mo na produtividade da soja. Não foram obtidas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos, obtendo-se tendência apra ganho de produtividade apenas com aplicação foliar de 80 g ha-1 de Mo e tratamento de sementes com 40 g ha-1.Soybean in symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum is able to satisfy its nitrogen (N2 demand with biological nitrogen fixation (BNF. However, BNF can be affected by molybdenium deficiency because this micronutrient is part of the nitrogenase enzyme responsible for the process. An experiment was conducted under field conditions on a Red Latosol (Oxisol in Palotina, state of Paraná, Brazil. The effects of seed treatments with Mo, B. japonicum inoculation as well as foliar Mo fertilization on soybean yield were evaluated. Four Mo rates (0, 40, 80 and 160 g ha-1 were applied as foliar fertilizer in two Mo application forms (without Mo, seed treatment with Mo 40 g ha-1 combined with and without B. japonicum inoculation. There were no significant effects of the seed treatments with Mo, inoculation with B. japonicum and foliar Mo fertilization on

  20. Dynamics of Th17 cells and their role in Schistosoma japonicum infection in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current knowledge of immunological responses to schistosomiasis, a major tropical helminthic disease, is insufficient, and a better understanding of these responses would support vaccine development or therapies to control granuloma-associated immunopathology. CD4(+ T cells play critical roles in both host immune responses against parasitic infection and immunopathology in schistosomiasis. The induction of T helper (Th1, Th2 and T regulatory (Treg cells and their roles in schistosome infections are well-illustrated. However, little in vivo data are available on the dynamics of Th17 cells, another important CD4(+ T cell subset, after Schistosoma japonicum infection or whether these cells and their defining IL-17 cytokine mediate host protective responses early in infection. METHODOLOGY: Levels of Th17 and the other three CD4(+ T cell subpopulations and the cytokines related to induction or repression of Th17 cell generation in different stages of S. japonicum infection were observed. Contrary to reported in vitro studies, our results showed that the Th17 cells were induced along with the Th1, Th2, Treg cells and the IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in S. japonicum infected mice. The results also suggested that S. japonicum egg antigens but not adult worm antigens preferentially induced Th17 cell generation. Furthermore, decreasing IL-17 with a neutralizing anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody (mAb increased schistosome-specific antibody levels and partial protection against S. japonicum infection in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to report the dynamics of Th17 cells during S. japonicum infection and indicate that Th17 cell differentiation results from the integrated impact of inducing and suppressive factors promoted by the parasite. Importantly, our findings suggest that lower IL-17 levels may result in favorable host protective responses. This study significantly contributes to the understanding of immunity to schistosomiasis and

  1. Dynamics of Th17 cells and their role in Schistosoma japonicum infection in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoyun; He, Lei; Chi, Ying; Zhou, Sha; Hoellwarth, Jason; Zhang, Cui; Zhu, Jifeng; Wu, Calvin; Dhesi, Shawn; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Feng; Su, Chuan

    2011-11-01

    The current knowledge of immunological responses to schistosomiasis, a major tropical helminthic disease, is insufficient, and a better understanding of these responses would support vaccine development or therapies to control granuloma-associated immunopathology. CD4(+) T cells play critical roles in both host immune responses against parasitic infection and immunopathology in schistosomiasis. The induction of T helper (Th)1, Th2 and T regulatory (Treg) cells and their roles in schistosome infections are well-illustrated. However, little in vivo data are available on the dynamics of Th17 cells, another important CD4(+) T cell subset, after Schistosoma japonicum infection or whether these cells and their defining IL-17 cytokine mediate host protective responses early in infection. Levels of Th17 and the other three CD4(+) T cell subpopulations and the cytokines related to induction or repression of Th17 cell generation in different stages of S. japonicum infection were observed. Contrary to reported in vitro studies, our results showed that the Th17 cells were induced along with the Th1, Th2, Treg cells and the IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in S. japonicum infected mice. The results also suggested that S. japonicum egg antigens but not adult worm antigens preferentially induced Th17 cell generation. Furthermore, decreasing IL-17 with a neutralizing anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody (mAb) increased schistosome-specific antibody levels and partial protection against S. japonicum infection in mice. Our study is the first to report the dynamics of Th17 cells during S. japonicum infection and indicate that Th17 cell differentiation results from the integrated impact of inducing and suppressive factors promoted by the parasite. Importantly, our findings suggest that lower IL-17 levels may result in favorable host protective responses. This study significantly contributes to the understanding of immunity to schistosomiasis and may aid in developing interventions to protect hosts

  2. Pengaruh ketiadaan inang terhadap tanggap reproduksi Trichogrammatoidea armigera Nagaraja dan Trichogramma japonicum Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatoidea) dan implikasinya terhadap penerimaan inang

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Rohmani; Damayanti Buchori; Adha Sari

    2017-01-01

    Trichogrammatoidea armigera and Trichogramma japonicum are polyphagous egg parastioids, that are important as natural enemies. The objective of this research was to study the effect of host deprivation on reproductive capacity of T. armigera and T. japonicum. This study consists of 8 treatments, host deprivation : 0 hour, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 48 hours. Host were replaced every 24 hours. Results showed there are difference with respect of how the two parasitoids res...

  3. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex, environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination ≥20° or on less precipitous slopes of >5° above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Proteome-Wide Lysine Acetylation in Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a devastating parasitic disease caused by tremotodes of the genus Schistosoma. Eggs produced by sexually mature schistosomes are the causative agents of for pathogenesis and transmission. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of schistosome development and sexual maturation would facilitate the prevention and control of schistosomiasis. Acetylation of lysine is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification playing keys role in many biological processes including development in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To investigate the impacts of lysine acetylation on Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum development and sexual maturation, we used immunoaffinity-based acetyllysine peptide enrichment combined with mass spectrometry (MS, to perform the first comparative analysis of proteome-wide lysine acetylation in both female and male, juvenile (18 days post infection, 18 dpi and adult (28 dpi schistosome samples. In total, we identified 874 unique acetylated sites in 494 acetylated proteins. The four samples shared 47 acetylated sites and 46 proteins. More acetylated sites and proteins shared by both females and males were identified in 28 dpi adults (189 and 143, respectively than in 18 dpi schistosomula (76 and 59, respectively. More stage-unique acetylated sites and proteins were also identified in 28 dpi adults (494 and 210, respectively than in 18 dpi schistosomula (73 and 44, respectively. Functional annotation showed that in different developmental stages and genders, a number of proteins involving in muscle movement, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, environmental stress resistance, antioxidation, etc., displayed distinct acetylation profiles, which was in accordance with the changes of their biological functions during schistosome development, suggesting that lysine acetylation modification exerted important regulatory roles in schistosome development. Taken together, our data provided the first

  5. Oxygen-dependent catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebo, L A; Nielsen, S V; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Examination of this catabolism in strain 110 by in vivo experiments has revealed an enzymatic activity catalyzing the degradation of IAA and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid. The activity requires...... addition of the substrates for induction and is oxygen dependent. The highest activity is obtained when the concentration of inducer is 0.2 mM. Spectrophotometric data are consistent with the suggestion that the indole ring is broken during degradation of IAA. We hypothesize that the enzyme catalyzes...

  6. Identification and functional characterisation of a Schistosoma japonicum insulin-like peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofeng; McManus, Donald P; Cai, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; You, Hong

    2017-04-14

    Previous studies have shown that insulin receptors in schistosomes, triggered by host insulin, play an important role in parasite growth, development and fecundity by regulating glucose metabolism. However, limited information is available on the recently identified endogenous insulin-like peptide (ILP) in blood flukes. We isolated ILPs from Schistosoma japonicum (SjILP) and S. recognised (SmILP) and present results of their molecular and structural analysis. SjILP shares 63% amino acid identity with SmILP, but only 18% identity with human insulin. There is high cross immunological reactivity between the S. japonicum and S. mansoni ILPs as observed in western blots using an anti-SjILP polyclonal antibody. ADP binding/hydrolysis ability was observed in both SjILP and SmILP, but not in human insulin, suggesting a parasite-specific role for ILP compared with host insulin. Protein binding assays using the Octet-RED system showed SjILP binds S. japonicum IRs (SjIR1 and SjIR2) strongly. An anti-phospho antibody against extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) recognised a 44-kDa target band in an extract of adult worms after stimulation by rSjILP in vitro, suggesting an important role for SjILP in activating SjIRs and in regulating downstream signal transduction. Immunolocalisation showed SjILP is located on the tegument and the underlying musculature, similar to that observed for SjIR1, but it is also present throughout the parenchyma of males and in the vitelline cells of females, the same locations as SjIR2 described in an earlier published study of ours. The same localisation of SjILP and the SjIRs is suggestive of an interaction between the insulin-like peptide and the IRs. In addition to binding host insulin, schistosomes also can express their own endogenous ILPs, which can activate the parasite insulin signal pathway, thereby playing a critical role in worm growth, development and fertility. These findings shed new light on ILPs in schistosomes, providing

  7. Identification of Host Insulin Binding Sites on Schistosoma japonicum Insulin Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Stephenson

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors (SjIRs have been identified as encouraging vaccine candidates. Interrupting or blocking the binding between host insulin and the schistosome insulin receptors (IRs may result in reduced glucose uptake leading to starvation and stunting of worms with a reduction in egg output. To further understand how schistosomes are able to exploit host insulin for development and growth, and whether these parasites and their mammalian hosts compete for the same insulin source, we identified insulin binding sites on the SjIRs. Based on sequence analysis and the predicted antigenic structure of the primary sequences of the SjIRs, we designed nine and eleven peptide analogues from SjIR-1 and SjIR-2, respectively. Using the Octet RED system, we identified analogues derived from SjIR-1 (10 and SjIR-2 (20, 21 and 22 with insulin-binding sequences specific for S. japonicum. Nevertheless, the human insulin receptor (HIR may compete with the SjIRs in binding human insulin in other positions which are important for HIR binding to insulin. However, no binding occurred between insulin and parasite analogues derived from SjIR-1 (2, 7 and 8 and SjIR-2 (14, 16 and 18 at the same locations as HIR sequences which have been shown to have strong insulin binding affinities. Importantly, we found two analogues (1 and 3, derived from SjIR-1, and two analogues (13 and 15 derived from SjIR-2, were responsible for the major insulin binding affinity in S. japonicum. These peptide analogues were shown to have more than 10 times (in KD value stronger binding capacity for human insulin compared with peptides derived from the HIR in the same sequence positions. Paradoxically, analogues 1, 3, 13 and 15 do not appear to contain major antigenic determinants which resulted in poor antibody responses to native S. japonicum protein. This argues against their future development as peptide-vaccine candidates.

  8. Characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis mekongi: a morphological comparison between Schistosoma mekongi and S. japonicum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, M; Kirinoki, M; Shimizu, K; Kato-Hayashi, N; Chigusa, Y; Kitikoon, V; Pongsasakulchoti, P; Matsuda, H

    2010-10-01

    A histopathological study was performed to clarify the characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mekongi infection in comparison with S. japonicum infection. Mice were exposed to S. mekongi (Laotian strain) and S. japonicum (Japanese strain) cercariae, and were dissected at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-exposure. In the liver, granulomas in S. mekongi infection were cellular, initially organized with foam cells, and continuously appeared in the intralobular area, while granulomas in S. japonicum infection were fibrous and did not continuously appear in the intralobular area. Portal fibrosis was not seen in S. mekongi infection, but was commonly seen in S. japonicum infection in the later weeks. Granulomas in the small intestine were seen mainly in the submucosa with foam cells in S. mekongi infection and without foam cells in S. japonicum infection. The lung granulomas contained mainly histiocytes in both S. mekongi and S. japonicum infection. The absence of portal fibrosis in S. mekongi infection allows schistosome eggs to infiltrate into the intralobular area continuously, which can be what lies behind the ultrasonographic differences; the echogenic network pattern as was seen in S. japonicum infection, has not been noted in S. mekongi infection.

  9. Induction of specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of mice to ultraviolet attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloney, N.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Webbe, G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, St. Albans (UK). Winches Farm Field Station)

    1985-01-01

    Mice can be partially protected against Schistosoma japonicum by prior exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated infections which fail to survive to the adult stage and produce no overt pathology in the host. Optimum resistance was induced by parasites exposed to 40 seconds of UV, significantly lower levels of resistance being stimulated by both shorter and longer exposures. No consistent relationship between the degree of resistance induced and the number of irradiated cercariae given could be demonstrated and equivocal results were obtained when comparing the efficacy of single and multiple vaccinations. Vaccinations with UV-attenuated cercariae given intraperitoneally (i.p.) were as efficacious as those given percutaneously but mice were as or more resistant to challenges given by the i.p. route, the possible reasons are discussed. There was no observed delay in the migration of the challenge, vaccinated mice being as resistant when perfused 6 or 3.5 weeks after challenge. Vaccination was species specific since mice exposed to either UV-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae or gamma-attenuated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to homologous but not heterologous challenge.

  10. Occurrence of Rust on Peucedanum japonicum Caused by Puccinia jogashimensis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sug-Ju Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During July to November 2014, severe rust infection was consistently found on Peucedanum japonicum growing farm in Yeosu, Korea. The rust was observed mainly on lower leaf surfaces. Symptoms of typical plants included yellow-orange rust pustules were observed on the petiole and leaf surface with small yellowish to chlorotic lesions on the upper surface. No symptom was observed on flowers. Uredinia were occurred amphigenous on leaf surface, and occasionally caulicolous, scattered or loosely aggregate, rounded to oblong, 0.4 to 4 mm in diameter, covered by epidermis, then naked, surrounded by ruptured epidermis, pulverulent, and brown. Urediniospores were ovate-ellipsoid, ellipsoid or subglobose, light brown, 20 to 45 ×15 to 35 µm, walls 2 to 4 µm thick. The resulting sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession No. KT778808, KT778809, and KT778810, respectively. Since this was the first accession of 28S sequence Puccinia jogashimensis, there was no exact match in GenBank nucleotide database. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA, the fungus was identified as P. jogashimensis. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report on the occurrence of P. jogashimensis on P. japonicum in Korea.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Soybean Symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain USDA6T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobukazu Uchiike

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain USDA6T was determined. The genome of USDA6T is a single circular chromosome of 9,207,384 bp. The genome size is similar to that of the genome of another soybean symbiont, B. japonicum USDA110 (9,105,828 bp. Comparison of the whole-genome sequences of USDA6T and USDA110 showed colinearity of major regions in the two genomes, although a large inversion exists between them. A significantly high level of sequence conservation was detected in three regions on each genome. The gene constitution and nucleotide sequence features in these three regions indicate that they may have been derived from a symbiosis island. An ancestral, large symbiosis island, approximately 860 kb in total size, appears to have been split into these three regions by unknown large-scale genome rearrangements. The two integration events responsible for this appear to have taken place independently, but through comparable mechanisms, in both genomes.

  12. Manganese is required for oxidative metabolism in unstressed Bradyrhizobium japonicum cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohle, Thomas H.; O’Brian, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of Mn2+ transport mutants indicate that manganese is essential for unstressed growth in some bacterial species, but is required primarily for induced stress responses in others. A Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant defective in the high affinity Mn2+ transporter gene mntH has a severe growth phenotype under manganese limitation, suggesting a requirement for the metal under unstressed growth. Here, we found that activities of superoxide dismutase and the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase were deficient in an mntH strain grown under manganese limitation. We identified pykM as the only pyruvate kinase-encoding gene based on deficiency in activity of a pykM mutant, rescue of the growth phenotype with pyruvate, and pyruvate kinase activity of purified recombinant PykM. PykM is unusual in that it required Mn2+ rather than Mg2+ for high activity, and that neither fructose 1,6-bisphosphate nor AMP was a positive allosteric effector. The mntH-dependent superoxide dismutase is encoded by sodM, the only expressed superoxide dismutase-encoding gene under unstressed growth conditions. An mntH mutant grew more slowly on pyruvate under manganese-limited conditions than did a pykM sodM double mutant, implying additional manganese-dependent processes. The findings implicate roles for manganese in key steps in unstressed oxidative metabolism in B. japonicum. PMID:22463793

  13. Intra- and interspecies transfer and expression of Rhizobium japonicum hydrogen uptake genes and autotrophic growth capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, G R; Cantrell, M A; Hanus, F J; Russell, S A; Haddad, K R; Evans, H J

    1985-05-01

    Cosmids containing hydrogen uptake genes have previously been isolated in this laboratory. Four new cosmids that contain additional hup gene(s) have now been identified by conjugal transfer of a Rhizobium japonicum 122DES gene bank into a Tn5-generated Hup(-) mutant and screening for the acquisition of Hup activity. The newly isolated cosmids, pHU50-pHU53, contain part of the previously isolated pHU1 but extend as far as 20 kilobases beyond its border. pHU52 complements five of six Hup(-) mutants and confers activity on several Hup(-) wild-type R. japonicum strains in the free-living state and where tested in nodules. Transconjugants obtained from interspecies transfer of pHU52 to Rhizobium meliloti 102F28, 102F32, and 102F51 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 128C53 showed hydrogen-dependent methyleneblue reduction, performed the oxyhydrogen reaction, and showed hydrogen-dependent autotrophic growth by virtue of the introduced genes. The identity of the presumptive transconjugants was confirmed by antibiotic-resistance profiles and by plant nodulation tests.

  14. Spatial distribution of human Schistosoma japonicum infections in the Dongting Lake Region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Raso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to spatially model the effect of demographic, reservoir hosts and environmental factors on human Schistosoma japonicum infection prevalence in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China and to determine the potential of each indicator in targeting schistosomiasis control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional serological, coprological and demographic data were obtained from the 2004 nationwide periodic epidemiologic survey for Hunan Province. Environmental data were downloaded from the USGS EROS data centre. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed for spatial analysis of the infection prevalence among study participants. A total of 47,139 participants from 47 administrative villages were selected. Age, sex and occupation of residents and the presence of infected buffaloes and environmental factors, i.e. NDVI, distance to the lake and endemic type of setting, were significantly associated with S. japonicum infection prevalence. After taking into account spatial correlation, however, only demographic factors (age, sex and occupation and the presence of infected buffaloes remained significant indicators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long established demographic factors, as well presence of host reservoirs rather than environmental factors are driving human transmission. Findings of this work can be used for epidemiologic surveillance and for the future planning of interventions in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province.

  15. Identification and characterization of microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs in Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Heng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small endogenous non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs such as small interfering RNA (siRNA, microRNA and other small RNA transcripts are derived from distinct loci in the genome and play critical roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms in plants and metazoa. They are approximately 22 nucleotides long; regulate mRNA stability through perfect or imperfect match to the targets. The biological activities of sncRNAs have been related to many biological events, from resistance to microbe infections to cellular differentiation. The development of the zoonotic parasite Schistosoma japonicum parasite includes multiple steps of morphological alterations and biological differentiations, which provide a unique model for studies on the functions of small RNAs. Characterization of the genome-wide transcription of the sncRNAs will be a major step in understanding of the parasite biology. The objective of this study is to investigate the transcriptional profile and potential function of the small non-coding RNAs in the development of S. japanicum. Results The endogenous siRNAs were found mainly derived from transposable elements (TE or transposons and the natural antisense transcripts (NAT. In contrast to other organisms, the TE-derived siRNAs in S. japonicum were more predominant than other sncRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs. Further, there were distinct length and 3'end variations in the sncRNAs, which were associated with the developmental differentiation of the parasite. Among the identified miRNA transcripts, there were 38 unique to S. japonicum and 16 that belonged to 13 miRNA families are common to other metazoan lineages. These miRNAs were either ubiquitously expressed, or they exhibited specific expression patterns related to the developmental stages or sex. Genes that encoded miRNAs are mainly located in clusters within the genome of S. japonicum. However, genes within one cluster could be differentially transcribed, which suggested

  16. Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of Schistosoma japonicum prevalence data in the absence of a diagnostic 'gold' standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Hong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spatial modeling is increasingly utilized to elucidate relationships between demographic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, and infectious disease prevalence data. However, there is a paucity of studies focusing on spatio-temporal modeling that take into account the uncertainty of diagnostic techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained Schistosoma japonicum prevalence data, based on a standardized indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, from annual reports from 114 schistosome-endemic villages in Dangtu County, southeastern part of the People's Republic of China, for the period 1995 to 2004. Environmental data were extracted from satellite images. Socioeconomic data were available from village registries. We used Bayesian spatio-temporal models, accounting for the sensitivity and specificity of the IHA test via an equation derived from the law of total probability, to relate the observed with the 'true' prevalence. The risk of S. japonicum was positively associated with the mean land surface temperature, and negatively correlated with the mean normalized difference vegetation index and distance to the nearest water body. There was no significant association between S. japonicum and socioeconomic status of the villages surveyed. The spatial correlation structures of the observed S. japonicum seroprevalence and the estimated infection prevalence differed from one year to another. Variance estimates based on a model adjusted for the diagnostic error were larger than unadjusted models. The generated prediction map for 2005 showed that most of the former and current infections occur in close proximity to the Yangtze River. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Bayesian spatial-temporal modeling incorporating diagnostic uncertainty is a suitable approach for risk mapping S. japonicum prevalence data. The Yangtze River and its tributaries govern schistosomiasis transmission in Dangtu County, but spatial correlation needs to be taken

  17. Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of Schistosoma japonicum prevalence data in the absence of a diagnostic 'gold' standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Vounatsou, Penelope; Chen, Zhao; Utzinger, Jürg; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Wu, Xiao-Hua

    2008-06-11

    Spatial modeling is increasingly utilized to elucidate relationships between demographic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, and infectious disease prevalence data. However, there is a paucity of studies focusing on spatio-temporal modeling that take into account the uncertainty of diagnostic techniques. We obtained Schistosoma japonicum prevalence data, based on a standardized indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), from annual reports from 114 schistosome-endemic villages in Dangtu County, southeastern part of the People's Republic of China, for the period 1995 to 2004. Environmental data were extracted from satellite images. Socioeconomic data were available from village registries. We used Bayesian spatio-temporal models, accounting for the sensitivity and specificity of the IHA test via an equation derived from the law of total probability, to relate the observed with the 'true' prevalence. The risk of S. japonicum was positively associated with the mean land surface temperature, and negatively correlated with the mean normalized difference vegetation index and distance to the nearest water body. There was no significant association between S. japonicum and socioeconomic status of the villages surveyed. The spatial correlation structures of the observed S. japonicum seroprevalence and the estimated infection prevalence differed from one year to another. Variance estimates based on a model adjusted for the diagnostic error were larger than unadjusted models. The generated prediction map for 2005 showed that most of the former and current infections occur in close proximity to the Yangtze River. Bayesian spatial-temporal modeling incorporating diagnostic uncertainty is a suitable approach for risk mapping S. japonicum prevalence data. The Yangtze River and its tributaries govern schistosomiasis transmission in Dangtu County, but spatial correlation needs to be taken into consideration when making risk prediction at small scales.

  18. Effects of Cu on the content of chlorophylls and secondary metabolites in the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen Stereocaulon japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Hara, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Kiminori

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Cu and Cu-hyperaccumulator lichens is important for their application in monitoring and assessing heavy metal pollution. We investigated the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen Stereocaulon japonicum at several Cu-polluted and control sites in Japan, and found the lichen to be widely distributed. Its concentrations of Cu, chlorophylls, and secondary metabolites, chlorophyll-related indices, and absorption spectra were measured, and we observed negative effects of Cu on these concentrations and indices. For highly Cu-polluted samples (>100ppm dry weight), however, we found significant linear correlations between Cu and chlorophyll concentrations. This can be considered as the response of the photobiont in S. japonicum to Cu stress. In highly Cu-polluted samples the chlorophyll-related indices and concentration of total secondary metabolites were almost constant regardless of Cu concentration. This suggests that the increase in chlorophyll concentration with the increase in Cu concentration enhances photosynthetic productivity per unit biomass, which will allow the production of extra structure and energy for maintaining the chlorophyll-related indices under Cu stress. The relationship between the increase in chlorophyll concentration of S. japonicum and the decrease in secondary metabolite concentration of the lichen can be explained by considering the balance of carbohydrates in the lichen. We found that a spectral index A372-A394 can be a useful index of the concentrations of Cu and total secondary metabolites in S. japonicum. These findings show the adjustment of the content of chlorophylls and secondary metabolites in S. japonicum to Cu stress, and provide a better understanding of the relationship between Cu and the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunization of pigs against infection with Schistosoma japonicum using ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.-E.; Jiang, C.-F.; Han, J.-J.; Li, Y.-L. (Tongji Medical Univ., Wuhan (China). Dept. of Parasitology); Ruppel, A. (Institute for Tropical Hygiene, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1993-06-01

    Since pigs are important in the zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China, a veterinary vaccine might contribute to the control of the disease in humans. Pigs were immunized with three doses each of 10 000 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum attenuated with ultraviolet light (400 [mu]Watt.min/cm[sup 2]). The experiment was performed with portable irradiation equipment in a rural area of the Hubei Province (P.R. China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given 2.5 or 6 months after the last immunization, and age-matched naive pigs were challenged as a control. Immunized pigs developed about 90% resistance against the challenge. The liver egg load of these animals was reduced by over 90%. Less than 0.01% of the immunizing cercariae developed to adult parasites and the vaccination had no apparent adverse influence on the pig's health. (Author).

  20. Pararosaniline pamoate (CI-403-A) in the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesigan, T P; Banzon, T C; Santos, A T; Noseñas, J; Zabala, R G

    1967-01-01

    Trials have been carried out, first on a relatively small scale among patients in Manila and later on a larger scale among domiciliary patients in an area of endemic schistosomiasis in Leyte Province, Philippines, with various dosage schedules of pararosaniline pamoate (CI-403-A) to determine that drug's efficacy and optimum dosage against Schistosoma japonicum infection.Given orally in gelatin capsules, the drug was well tolerated even in children, with few side-effects, and was both curative and suppressive when administered in a maximum dosage of 35-40 mg/kg body-weight per day for as many as 52 days spread over a total treatment period of 203 days.The authors recommend its use for mass treatment, especially among schoolchildren, in combination with other established schistosomiasis control measures-health education, environmental sanitation, and snail control.

  1. [Effect of plant growth regulators on physiological activity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, N O; Tytova, L V; Tantsiurenko, O V; Antypchuk, A F

    2005-01-01

    Influence of plant growth regulators Ivin, Emistim C, Eney and Agrostimulin on the biomass production and exopolymers synthesis of soybean nodule bacteria, which have contrasting symbiotic properties, and glutamine synthetase activity of their cell-free extracts were studied. It was shown that the processes of the biomass and exopolymers accumulation had an opposite direction. Of all preparations only Ivin and Agrostimulin intensificol growth activity of the microorganisms under study. The level of glutamine synthetase activity and this enzymatic reaction specificity to the bivalent metal ions were determined by the special features of Bradyrhizobium strains and nature of the plant growth regulators. Only in the presence of Eney the increase of glutamine synthetase activity of both cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum was established.

  2. System analysis of salt and osmotic stress induced proteins in Nostoc muscorum and Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kaithwas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the proteome response of the two diazotrophic organism’s viz. Nostoc muscorum and Bradyrhizobium japonicum exposed to salt (NaCl and osmotic (sucrose stresses was compared. Out of the total over expressed proteins; we have selected only three over expressed proteins viz. GroEL chaperonin, nitrogenase Mo-Fe protein and argininosuccinate synthase for further analysis, and then we analyzed the amino acid frequencies of all the three over expressed proteins. That led to the conclusion that amino acids e.g. alanine, glycine and valine that were energetically cheaper to produce were showing higher frequencies. This study would help in tracing the phylogenetic relationship between protein families.

  3. Oxyleghemoglobin-mediated Hydrogen Oxidation by Rhizobium japonicum USDA 122 DES Bacteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, D W; Albrecht, S L; Russell, S A; Ching, T; Evans, H J

    1980-04-01

    Oxyleghemoglobin was used to supply low concentrations of O(2) to H(2)-oxidizing bacteroids from Rhizobium japonicum USDA 122 DES. The H(2) oxidation system of these bacteroids was capable of effectively utilizing O(2) at the low concentrations of O(2) expected to be found in soybean nodules. Apparent K(m) values of approximately 10 nanomolar O(2) have been calculated for the oxyhydrogen reaction. These values include the K(m) values for both H(2) oxidation and endogenous substrate oxidation. Even in the presence of oxyleghemoglobin, H(2) additions stimulated C(2)H(2) reduction, reduced the rate of endogenous respiration and maintained the ATP contents of bacteroids. In our reconstituted oxyleghemoglobin and bacteriod system, we estimate that the H(2) oxidation system is capable of recycling all of the H(2) evolved during the N(2) fixation process.

  4. Oxyleghemoglobin-mediated Hydrogen Oxidation by Rhizobium japonicum USDA 122 DES Bacteroids 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, David W.; Albrecht, Steve L.; Russell, Sterling A.; Ching, Temay; Evans, Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    Oxyleghemoglobin was used to supply low concentrations of O2 to H2-oxidizing bacteroids from Rhizobium japonicum USDA 122 DES. The H2 oxidation system of these bacteroids was capable of effectively utilizing O2 at the low concentrations of O2 expected to be found in soybean nodules. Apparent Km values of approximately 10 nanomolar O2 have been calculated for the oxyhydrogen reaction. These values include the Km values for both H2 oxidation and endogenous substrate oxidation. Even in the presence of oxyleghemoglobin, H2 additions stimulated C2H2 reduction, reduced the rate of endogenous respiration and maintained the ATP contents of bacteroids. In our reconstituted oxyleghemoglobin and bacteriod system, we estimate that the H2 oxidation system is capable of recycling all of the H2 evolved during the N2 fixation process. PMID:16661247

  5. Quinone oxidoreductase 2 is involved in haustorium development of the parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Juliane K; Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2017-07-03

    The family Orobanchaceae includes many parasitic plant species. Parasitic plants invade host vascular tissues and form organs called haustoria, which are used to obtain water and nutrients. Haustorium formation is initiated by host-derived chemicals including quinones and flavonoids. Two types of quinone oxidoreductase (QR) are involved in signal transduction leading to haustorium formation; QR1 mediates single-electron transfers and QR2 mediates 2-electron transfers. In the facultative parasite Triphysaria versicolor, QR1 is involved in haustorium induction signaling, while this role is played by QR2 in the model plant Phtheirospermum japonicum. Our results suggest that there is functional diversification in haustorium signaling molecules among different species of the Orobanchaceae.

  6. [Activities of treg cells stimulated by soluble adult worm antigen and egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Cui; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Yong; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Xue, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Kong, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Sha; Liu, Feng; Su, Chuan

    2013-04-01

    To observe and compare the effects of soluble adult worm antigen (SWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum on the induction of Treg cells and the suppressive activity of Treg cells. Splenocytes were prepared from mice treated with PBS, SWA, and SEA, respectively, and then the proportions of Treg cells and the levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta in Treg cells were determined by FACS. The purified Treg cells from the mice treated as above-mentioned were detected for their immunosuppressive activities by incorporation of [3H] thymidine for the final 16 h of culture. Compared to SWA, SEA induced the higher proportion of Treg cells with a stronger suppressive activity, which produced the higher levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta (P < 0.05). SEA significantly induces Treg cells and enhances their immunosuppressive activity.

  7. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeamama, Amara E; McGarvey, Stephen T; Hogan, Joseph; Lapane, Kate L; Bellinger, David C; Acosta, Luz P; Leenstra, Tjalling; Olveda, Remigio M; Kurtis, Jonathan D; Friedman, Jennifer F

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i) treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii) spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species, and (iii) ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children. Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured), >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected) months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), verbal fluency (VF), and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT). Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections. Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02) and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03) scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all Ptest independent of schistosome infection. Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura declines were independently associated with improvements in WRAML memory scores as was the joint

  8. Discovery of a haem uptake system in the soil bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, A; Hennecke, H; Fischer, H M

    2001-08-01

    In Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of soybeans, we have identified a haem uptake system, Hmu, that comprises a cluster of nine open reading frames. Predicted products of these genes include: HmuR, a TonB-dependent haem receptor in the outer membrane; HmuT, a periplasmic haem-binding protein; and HmuUV, an ABC transporter in the inner membrane. Furthermore, we identified homologues of ExbBD and TonB, that are required for energy transduction from the inner to the outer membrane. Mutant analysis and complementation tests indicated that HmuR and the ExbBD-TonB system, but not the HmuTUV transporter, are essential for haem uptake or haem acquisition from haemoglobin and leghaemoglobin. The TonB system seems to be specific for haem uptake as it is dispensable for siderophore uptake. Therefore, we propose the existence of a second TonB homologue functioning in the uptake of Fe-chelates. When tested on soybean host plants, hmuT-hmuR and exbD-tonB mutants exhibited wild-type symbiotic properties. Thus, haem uptake is not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation but it may enable B. japonicum to have access to alternative iron sources in its non-symbiotic state. Transcript analysis and expression studies with lacZ fusions showed that expression of hmuT and hmuR is induced under low iron supply. The same was observed in fur and irr mutant backgrounds although maximal induction levels were decreased. We conclude either that both regulators, Fur and Irr, independently mediate transcriptional control by iron or that a yet unknown iron regulatory system activates gene expression under iron deprivation. An A/T-rich cis-acting element, located in the promoter region of the divergently transcribed hmuTUV and hmuR genes, is possibly required for this type of iron control.

  9. Intake of Erythrocytes Required for Reproductive Development of Female Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Liu, Xiufeng; Xu, Bin; Chai, Riyi; Zhou, Pan; Ju, Chuan; Sun, Jun; Brindley, Paul J.; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs), ATP and hypoxanthine) on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi) from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi) from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi) from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well-defined components

  10. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Soybean Root Hairs Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tran H.; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Clauss, Therese RW; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Hixson, Kim K.; Libault, Marc; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Yang, Feng; Yao, Qiuming; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T.; Stacey, Gary

    2012-11-11

    Root hairs are single hair-forming cells on roots that function to increase root surface area, enhancing water and nutrient uptake. In leguminous plants, root hairs also play a critical role as the site of infection by symbiotic nitrogen fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a novel organ, the nodule. The initial steps in the rhizobia-root hair infection process are known to involve specific receptor kinases and subsequent kinase cascades. Here, we characterize the phosphoproteome of the root hairs and the corresponding stripped roots (i.e., roots from which root hairs were removed) during rhizobial colonization and infection to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of root hair cell biology. We chose soybean (Glycine max L.), one of the most important crop plants in the legume family, for this study because of its larger root size, which permits isolation of sufficient root hair material for phosphoproteomic analysis. Phosphopeptides derived from root hairs and stripped roots, mock inoculated or inoculated with the soybean-specific rhizobium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, were labeled with the isobaric tag 8-plex ITRAQ, enriched using Ni-NTA magnetic beads and subjected to nRPLC-MS/MS analysis using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD strategy. A total of 1,625 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1,659 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1,126 soybean phosphoproteins. Among them, 273 phosphopeptides corresponding to 240 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly regulated (>1.5 fold abundance change) in response to inoculation with B. japonicum. The data reveal unique features of the soybean root hair phosphoproteome, including root hair and stripped root-specific phosphorylation suggesting a complex network of kinase-substrate and phosphatase-substrate interactions in response to rhizobial inoculation.

  11. Intake of Erythrocytes Required for Reproductive Development of Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jipeng Wang

    Full Text Available The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs, ATP and hypoxanthine on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well

  12. [Preliminary study on establishing an animal model of neuroschistosomiasis by direct injection of Schistosoma japonicum eggs through skull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Lu, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Dan; Wu, Ming-Can; Chen, Shi-Jie; Li, Jun-Chuan; Wang, Peng

    2013-02-01

    To establish an experimental model of neuroschistosomiasis and investigate the model establishment factors. Rabbits were used for the animal model and Schistosoma japonicum eggs (1 mg/ml) were directly injected into the brain by two ways of a bone drill or needle. The symptoms were observed and in the first and second week and later, the rabbits' brains were removed for pathological examinations. One to two weeks after the injection of schistosome eggs, the rabbits had various neurological symptoms such as loss of appetite, hemiparesis, seizure, etc. The pathological analysis showed the schistosome egg granuloma inflammatory reaction among 90% rabbits. This new method of direct injection of S. japonicum eggs through skull into the brain provides a good and easy animal model of neuroschistosomiasis.

  13. A comparative study of the vitelline cell in Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, D A; Popiel, I; Shaw, J R

    1982-04-01

    A comparison is given of the ultrastructure of the vitelline cell in Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mattheei. Four stages in development of the vitelline cell have been categorized as follows: Stage 1, the undifferentiated cell; Stage 2, the developing cell showing the beginning of synthetic activity; Stage 3, the developing cell showing active protein synthesis; Stage 4, the fully mature vitelline cell. These stages in development have been defined morphologically and Stages 1, 2 and 3 are very similar in all 4 species. Lipid is present in the Stage 4 cells of all species but appears earlier at Stage 3 in S. haematobium and S. mattheei. There are several differences as to the intercellular inclusions of the Stage 4 cells, the most marked of these being the absence of calcareous corpuscles from S. japonicum as compared with the other 3 species.

  14. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianmei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information for the vaccine design and its delivery procedure. Results The worm length (p p p + T cells was higher in yellow cattle, while the percentage of CD8+ T cells was higher in water buffalo from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. The CD4/CD8 ratios were decreased in both species after challenge with schistosomes. Comparing with water buffalo, the IFN-γ level was higher and decreased significantly, while the IL-4 level was lower and increased gradually in yellow cattle from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. Conclusions In this study, we confirmed that yellow cattle were more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo, and more serious pathological damage was observed in infected yellow cattle. Immunological analysis suggested that CD4+ T cells might be an integral component of the immune response and might associate with worm development in yellow cattle. A shift from Th1 to Th2 type polarized immunity was only shown clearly in schistosome-infected yellow cattle, but no shift in water buffalo. The results provide valuable information for increased understanding of host-schistosome interactions, and for control of schistosomiasis.

  15. Inconsistent protective efficacy and marked polymorphism limits the value of Schistosoma japonicum tetraspanin-2 as a vaccine target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin 2 (Sm-TSP-2 has been shown to be strongly recognized by IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies from individuals putatively resistant to schistosome infection, but not chronically infected people, and to induce high levels of protection against challenge infection in the murine model of schistosomiasis. Amplification by PCR of homologous sequences from male and female S. japonicum worms showed the presence of 7 different clusters or subclasses of S. japonicum TSP-2. We determined the protective efficacy of one subclass - Sj-TSP-2e. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following the alignment of 211 cDNAs, we identified 7 clusters encoding S. japonicum TSP-2 (Sj-TSP-2 based on sequence variation in the large extracellular loop (LEL region with differing frequency of transcription in male and female worms. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed elevated expression of Sj-TSP-2 in adult worms compared with other life cycle stages. We expressed in E. coli the LEL region of one of the clusters which exhibited a high frequency of transcription in female worms, and showed the purified recombinant protein (Sj-TSP-2e was recognised by 43.1% of sera obtained from confirmed schistosomiasis japonica patients. Vaccination of mice with the recombinant protein induced high levels of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, but no consistent protective efficacy against challenge infection was elicited in three independent trials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The highly polymorphic nature of the Sj-TSP-2 gene at the transcriptional level may limit the value of Sj-TSP-2 as a target for future S. japonicum vaccine development.

  16. Low Sensitivity of the Formol-Ethyl Acetate Sedimentation Concentration Technique in Low-Intensity Schistosoma japonicum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, Tore; Simonsen, Gunnar S.; Wang, Tianping; Lu, Dabing; Haukland, Hanne H.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Johansen, Maria V.

    2009-01-01

    Background The endemic countries are in a diagnostic dilemma concerning Schistosoma japonicum with increasing difficulties in diagnosing the infected individuals. The formol-ethyl acetate sedimentation concentration technique is preferred by many clinical microbiology laboratories for the detection of parasites in stool samples. It is potentially more sensitive than the diagnostic methods traditionally used. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the technique for detection of low-intensity S. japonicum infections in 106 stool samples from China and used a commercial kit, Parasep Midi Faecal Parasite Concentrator. One stool sample and one serum sample were collected from each person. As reference standard we used persons positive by indirect hemagglutination in serum and positive by Kato-Katz thick smear microscopy (three slides from a single stool), and/or the hatching test. We found the sedimentation technique to have a sensitivity of only 28.6% and specificity of 97.4%. Conclusion/Significance This study indicates that the sedimentation technique has little to offer in the diagnosis of low-intensity S. japonicum infections, at least when only a single stool sample is examined. PMID:19238192

  17. Practical application of methanol-mediated mutualistic symbiosis between Methylobacterium species and a roof greening moss, Racomitrium japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tani

    Full Text Available Bryophytes, or mosses, are considered the most maintenance-free materials for roof greening. Racomitrium species are most often used due to their high tolerance to desiccation. Because they grow slowly, a technology for forcing their growth is desired. We succeeded in the efficient production of R. japonicum in liquid culture. The structure of the microbial community is crucial to stabilize the culture. A culture-independent technique revealed that the cultures contain methylotrophic bacteria. Using yeast cells that fluoresce in the presence of methanol, methanol emission from the moss was confirmed, suggesting that it is an important carbon and energy source for the bacteria. We isolated Methylobacterium species from the liquid culture and studied their characteristics. The isolates were able to strongly promote the growth of some mosses including R. japonicum and seed plants, but the plant-microbe combination was important, since growth promotion was not uniform across species. One of the isolates, strain 22A, was cultivated with R. japonicum in liquid culture and in a field experiment, resulting in strong growth promotion. Mutualistic symbiosis can thus be utilized for industrial moss production.

  18. Practical application of methanol-mediated mutualistic symbiosis between Methylobacterium species and a roof greening moss, Racomitrium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Takai, Yuichiro; Suzukawa, Ikko; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    Bryophytes, or mosses, are considered the most maintenance-free materials for roof greening. Racomitrium species are most often used due to their high tolerance to desiccation. Because they grow slowly, a technology for forcing their growth is desired. We succeeded in the efficient production of R. japonicum in liquid culture. The structure of the microbial community is crucial to stabilize the culture. A culture-independent technique revealed that the cultures contain methylotrophic bacteria. Using yeast cells that fluoresce in the presence of methanol, methanol emission from the moss was confirmed, suggesting that it is an important carbon and energy source for the bacteria. We isolated Methylobacterium species from the liquid culture and studied their characteristics. The isolates were able to strongly promote the growth of some mosses including R. japonicum and seed plants, but the plant-microbe combination was important, since growth promotion was not uniform across species. One of the isolates, strain 22A, was cultivated with R. japonicum in liquid culture and in a field experiment, resulting in strong growth promotion. Mutualistic symbiosis can thus be utilized for industrial moss production.

  19. Pengaruh ketiadaan inang terhadap tanggap reproduksi Trichogrammatoidea armigera Nagaraja dan Trichogramma japonicum Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatoidea dan implikasinya terhadap penerimaan inang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Rohmani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichogrammatoidea armigera and Trichogramma japonicum are polyphagous egg parastioids, that are important as natural enemies. The objective of this research was to study the effect of host deprivation on reproductive capacity of T. armigera and T. japonicum. This study consists of 8 treatments, host deprivation : 0 hour, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 48 hours. Host were replaced every 24 hours. Results showed there are difference with respect of how the two parasitoids respond to the treatment. Deprivation of host for 3 hours in T. armigera resulted in the increase of egg production and parasitism rate. After 12 and 24 hours of not encountering any hosts, the numbers of eggs produced drastically decreased. Treatment on T. japonicum resulted in the reaction of fecundity and parasitism rate overall. Forty eight hours of host deprivation resulted in death of both parasitoids species within 2 days. None of the parasitoids seems to produce any egg.

  20. Variation in the frequency and extent of hybridization between Leucosceptrum japonicum and L. stellipilum (Lamiaceae) in the Central Japanese Mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Maki, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the frequency and extent of hybridization among mixed populations located in the same contact zone provide natural laboratories for the study of extrinsic reproductive isolation maintaining species integrity. In this study, we examined the pattern of hybridization between L. japonicum and L. stellipilum among mixed populations in different localities of a contact zone. The genetic structures from three sympatric populations and six mixed populations in the hybrid zone, and five reference populations far from the contact zone, were characterized using 10 neutral nuclear microsatellite markers. Evidence from genetic distance-based clustering analysis, the frequency distribution of admixture proportion values, and the hybrid category assignment approaches indicated that the frequency and extent of hybridization varied considerably among populations in the contact zone between L. japonicum and L. stellipilum. One likely explanation is that variation in exogenous (ecological) selection among populations might contribute to differences in frequency and extent of hybridization. The present study will facilitate future research exploring the evolution of reproductive isolation between L. japonicum and L. stellipilum.

  1. The inhibitory effect against collagen-induced arthritis by Schistosoma japonicum infection is infection stage-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi FengLi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long-term existing schistosome infection can aid in maintaining immuno-homeostasis, thus providing protection against various types of autoimmune diseases to the infected host. Such benefits have often been associated with acute or egg stage infection and with the egg-induced Th2 response. However, since schistosome infection undergoes different stages, each associated with a specific induction of Th responses, the requirements for the ability of the different stages of schistosome infection to protect against autoimmune disease has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to study whether different stages of schistosome infection offer unique protection in collagen-induced arthritis and its mechanisms. Results Arthritis susceptible strain DBA/1 male mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum for either 2 weeks resulting in early stage infection or for 7 weeks resulting in acute or egg stage infection. Following Schistosoma japonicum infection, collagen II was administered to induce collagen-induced arthritis, an animal model for human rheumatoid arthritis. Infection by Schistosoma japonicum significantly reduced the severity and the incidence of experimental autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis. However, this beneficial effect can only be provided by a pre-established acute stage of infection but not by a pre-established early stage of the infection. The protection against collagen-induced arthritis correlated with reduced levels of anti-collagen II IgG, especially the subclass of IgG2a. Moreover, in protected mice increased levels of IL-4 were present at the time of collagen II injection together with sustained higher IL-4 levels during the course of arthritis development. In contrast, in unprotected mice minimal levels of IL-4 were present at the initial stage of collagen II challenge together with lack of IL-4 induction following Schistosoma japonicum infection. Conclusion The protective effect against

  2. Influence of Schistosoma japonicum programmed cell death protein 10 on the growth and development of schistosomula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan Ru; Huang, Wen Ling; Tang, Chun Lian; Liu, Rong; Zhao, Qin Ping; Ming, Zhen Ping; Dong, Hui Fen

    2018-01-18

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is among the most serious endemic zoonoses in China. To study interactions between schistosomula, the pre-adult juvenile stage, and hosts, it is important to study the functions of key genes involved in schistosomula growth and development. Programmed cell death protein 10 (pcdp10) is an important apoptosis-related gene with various biological functions. This study described the molecular characterization of S. japonicum PCDP10 (SjPCDP10) and evaluated its functions in schistosomula. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot were used to detect Sjpcdp10 mRNA and protein levels, respectively, at different developmental stages. Immunolocalization was performed to determine SjPCDP10 expression in the parasite. RNA interference (RNAi) experiments were used to assess gene functions associated with SjPCDP10 in schistosomula growth and development. Real-time qPCR revealed that Sjpcdp10 was expressed during all investigated developmental stages and upregulated during schistosomula growth and development. Histochemical localization showed that SjPCDP10 was mainly distributed in the teguments of schistosomula in all investigated stages and part of the parenchymal area of 14-, 18-, and 21-day-old schistosomula. Following Sjpcdp10 knockdown by RNAi, the lengths, widths, areas, and volumes of schistosomula were significantly lower than those in the control group. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the body surfaces of schistosomula subjected to RNAi were seriously damaged, with few tegumental spines and sensory papillae. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the teguments of Sjpcdp10-knockdown schistosomula were incomplete, the number of layers was reduced, and the thickness decreased significantly as compared with those in the control group. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling results showed that the rate of apoptosis in Sjpcdp10-knockdown

  3. SjTat-TPI facilitates adaptive T-cell responses and reduces hepatic pathology during Schistosoma japonicum infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyue; Luo, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Yuxiao; Yang, Bingya; Hou, Min; Xu, Zhipeng; Yu, Chuanxin; Chen, Yingying; Chen, Lin; Ji, Minjun

    2015-12-30

    Schistosomiasis is a kind of parasitic zoonoses which causes serious damage to public health and social development. China is one of the countries most affected by Schistosoma japonicum and an effective vaccine is still needed. In this study, we adopted Tat-mediated protein transduction technology to investigate the impact of different antigen presented approaches on host's immune response and the potential protection against Schistosoma japonicum infection. We successfully constructed the recombinant S. japonicum triosephosphate isomerase, Tat-TPI, as a vaccine candidate. Whether injected with Tat-TPI in foot pad or vaccinated with Tat-TPI in the back subcutaneously for three times, the draining popliteal lymph nodes and spleen both developed a stronger CD8(+)T response (Tc1) in mice. Not only that, but it also helped CD4(+)T cells to produce more IFN-γ than TPI immunisation. In addition, it could boost IgG production, especially IgG1 subclass. Most importantly, Tat-TPI immunisation led to the significant smaller area of a single egg granuloma in the livers as compared with TPI-vaccinated or control groups. However, the anti-infection efficiency induced by Tat-TPI was still restricted. This study indicated that immunisation with Tat-fused TPI could contribute to enhance CD4(+)T-cell response and decrease hepatic egg granulomatous area after S. japonicum infection though it did not achieve our expected protection against Schistosoma japonicum infection. The optimal vaccine strategy warrants further research.

  4. Genetic diversity and structure of Schistosoma japonicum within two marshland villages of Anhui, China, prior to schistosome transmission control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huan; Lu, Da-Bing; Gao, Yu-Meng; Deng, Yao; Li, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by the genus Schistosoma and affected more than 250 million people worldwide. Schistosoma japonicum was once seriously endemic in China and nearly 60 years of efforts has seen great success in disease control. However, due to its zoonotic nature and complex life cycle, the schistosomiasis transmission control and final elimination would require, besides an intersectoral approach, deep understanding of population genetics of the parasite. We therefore performed a snail survey in two marshland villages of Anhui province of China and collected S. japonicum cercariae from infected snails. By using the recent developed microsatellite panel comprising seven loci, we genotyped the sampled parasites and analyzed the population genetic diversity and structure. The results showed much lower infection prevalence of S. japonicum in snails and low infected snail density in either marshland village. Through population genetic analyses, a considerable genetic diversity of parasites was revealed, whereas a small number of clusters were inferred and the sign of bottleneck effect was detected in each village. For the first time in S. japonicum in two villages, we provided estimates of effective population sizes with two different approaches. The results indicated that the parasite in two villages could eventually be eradicated with the ongoing integral control measures, but with potential risk of reinvasion of immigrant parasites through the Yangtze River. Such would be of great importance in assessment of the effects of ongoing control measures and prediction of the transmission capability for S. japonicum, thus guiding decisions on the choice of further control work.

  5. [Effect of ICOS signaling on CD154/CD40 expressions in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cai, Ru; Xia, Chao-ming

    2015-08-01

    To explore the effect of ICOS signaling on the CD154/CD40 expressions and immunopathology in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. ICOS transgenic (ICOS-Tg) mice and wildtype FVB/NJ mice were used as experimental schistosomiasis models. The expressions of CD154 and CD40 on splenocytes and on inflammatory cells around granulomatous infiltration of the liver in the mice infected with S. japonicuin were detected by flow cytometry and im- munohistochemical staining. HE staining was applied to observe the changes on the granulomatous of the mice liver. Compared with the wildtype FVB/NJ mice, the expressions of CD154 on CD4 T splenocytes and of CD40 on CD19' B splenocytes in the ICOS-Tg mice significantly increased in 12 and 16 weeks post-infection (all P CD154 on inflammatory cells around granulomatous infiltration in the liver of the ICOS-Tg mice were significantly higher than those of the wildtype FVB/NJ mice in 7, 12, 16 and 20 weeks post-infection (all P CD154/CD40 expressions, and may play an important role in the hepatic egg granuloma formation of schistosomiasis.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Roots Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain CPAC 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adalgisa R; Rodrigues, Elisete P; Batista, Jesiane Ss; Gomes, Douglas F; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    This research intended to analyze the expression pattern of proteins in roots of the Brazilian soybean cultivar Conquista when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. At ten days after bacterial inoculation, whole-cell proteins were extracted from roots and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Comparative analysis revealed significant changes in the intensity of 37 spots due to the inoculation (17 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated proteins), identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Identified proteins were associated with COG functional categories of information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and also in the "poorly characterized" and "not in COG" categories. Among the up-regulated proteins, we identified sucrose synthase (nodulin-100), β-tubulin, rubisco activase, glutathione-S-transferase, a putative heat-shock 70-kDa protein, pyridine nucleotide-disulphideoxidoreductase and a putative transposase. Proteomic analysis allowed for the identification of some putative symbiotic functions and confirmed the main biological processes triggered in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soybean.

  7. Chemical constituents from the fruits of Ligustrum japonicum and their inhibitory effects on T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Quynh-Mai Thi; Lee, Hyun-Su; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2017-09-01

    A previously undescribed nor-dammarane, 3β,20,23-trihydroxy-24,25,26,27-tetranordammarane; three previously undescribed secoiridoid glycosides, ligujaponosides A-B, and iso-oleonuzhenide; and twenty three known compounds, were isolated from the fruits of Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR, and HRMS. The isolated compounds were screened for immunosuppressive effects on T activated cells by evaluating interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Among them, sesamin inhibited IL-2 production in Jurkat T cells with an IC50 value of 38 ± 2 μM. In addition, sesamin inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/A23187-stimulated T cells. Therefore, sesamin was demonstrated to inhibit T cell activation via regulation of MAPK phosphorylation pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutualistic co-evolution of type III effector genes in Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Kimbrel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two diametric paradigms have been proposed to model the molecular co-evolution of microbial mutualists and their eukaryotic hosts. In one, mutualist and host exhibit an antagonistic arms race and each partner evolves rapidly to maximize their own fitness from the interaction at potential expense of the other. In the opposing model, conflicts between mutualist and host are largely resolved and the interaction is characterized by evolutionary stasis. We tested these opposing frameworks in two lineages of mutualistic rhizobia, Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. To examine genes demonstrably important for host-interactions we coupled the mining of genome sequences to a comprehensive functional screen for type III effector genes, which are necessary for many Gram-negative pathogens to infect their hosts. We demonstrate that the rhizobial type III effector genes exhibit a surprisingly high degree of conservation in content and sequence that is in contrast to those of a well characterized plant pathogenic species. This type III effector gene conservation is particularly striking in the context of the relatively high genome-wide diversity of rhizobia. The evolution of rhizobial type III effectors is inconsistent with the molecular arms race paradigm. Instead, our results reveal that these loci are relatively static in rhizobial lineages and suggest that fitness conflicts between rhizobia mutualists and their host plants have been largely resolved.

  9. Helminth Protein Vaccine Induced Follicular T Helper Cell for Enhancement of Humoral Immunity against Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein vaccines combined with adjuvants have been widely used to induce immune responses, especially the humoral immune response, against molecular targets including parasites. Follicular T helper (Tfh cells are the specialized providers of B-cell help, however, the induction of Tfh cells in protein vaccination has been rarely studied. Here, we report that the Schistosoma japonicum recombinant protein (SjGST-32 combined with tacrolimus (FK506 augmented the induction of Tfh cells, which expressed the canonical markers CXCR5, BCL6, and IL-21, and enhanced the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the expression of IL-21R on germinal center (GC B cells and memory B cells increased in immunized mice, which indicated that IL-21 from the induced Tfh cells interacted with IL-21R for activation of B cells and maintenance of long-lived humoral immunity. Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Evaluating Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy in Patients with Chronic Hepatic Schistosomiasis Japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Mei, Lihong; Qiang, Jinwei; Ju, Shuai; Zhao, Shuhui

    2016-12-01

    Portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE) is classified as type B hepatic encephalopathy. Portal-systemic shunting rather than liver dysfunction is the main cause of PSE in chronic hepatic schistosomiasis japonicum (HSJ) patients. Owing to lack of detectable evidence of intrinsic liver disease, chronic HSJ patients with PSE are frequently clinically undetected or misdiagnosed, especially chronic HSJ patients with covert PSE (subclinical encephalopathy). In this study, we investigated whether magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) could be a useful tool for diagnosing PSE in chronic HSJ patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and MRS were performed in 41 chronic HSJ patients with suspected PSE and in 21 age-matched controls. The T1 signal intensity index (T1SI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were obtained in the Globus pallidus. Liver function was also investigated via serum ammonia and liver function tests. Higher T1SI and ADC values, increased lactate and glutamine levels, and decreased myo-inositol were found in the bilateral Globus pallidus in chronic HSJ patients with PSE. No significantly abnormal serum ammonia or liver function tests were observed in chronic HSJ patients with PSE. On the basis of these findings, we propose a diagnostic procedure for PSE in chronic HSJ patients. This study reveals that MRS can be useful for diagnosing PSE in chronic HSJ patients.

  11. Chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection reduces immune response to vaccine against hepatitis B in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and schistosomiasis are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, and co-infections of both are frequent in these areas. The immunomodulation reported to be induced by schistosome infections might restrict immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV leading to more severe viral infection. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control and prevent HBV infection, but there is evidence for a reduced immune response to the vaccine in patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection can inhibit the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV vaccine and lead to lower production of anti-HBs antibodies, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2. After deworming with Praziquantel (PZQ, the level of anti-HBs antibodies gradually increased and the Th2-biased profile slowly tapered. At 16 weeks after deworming, the levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1/Th2 cytokines returned to the normal levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the preexisting Th2-dominated immune profile in the host infected with the parasite may down-regulate levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1 cytokines. To improve the efficacy of HBV vaccination in schistosome infected humans it may be valuable to treat them with praziquantel (PZQ some time prior to HBV vaccination.

  12. Antischistosomal activity of hederacochiside C against Schistosoma japonicum harbored in experimentally infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nai-Xin; Zhu, Yuan-Jian; Zhao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Zhuge, Hong-Xiang; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2017-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether hederacochiside C (HSC) possesses antischistosomal effects and anti-inflammatory response activities in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice. Different concentrations of HSC were administrated to the mice infected by schistosomula or adult worm by intravenous injection twice a day for five consecutive days. The total worm burden, female worm burden, and the egg burden in liver of mice treated with 400 mg/kg HSC were fewer than those in non-treated ones. Murine immune responses following HSC treatment were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results indicated that 200 mg/kg HSC could reduce the expression of IgG, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 in comparison to infected group, exhibiting best immunomodulatory effects. In addition, scanning electron microscopical examination revealed that male worms treated with HSC lost their normal surface architecture since its surface showed extensive swelling, erosion, and peeling in tegumental regions. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in histopathological investigations, and 200 mg/kg HSC treatment could reduce the size of granulomatous inflammatory infiltrations in the liver which was reflected in nearly normalization of liver architecture. These results suggested that HSC had potential antischistosomal activity and provided a basis for subsequent experimental.

  13. Tissue specific profiling of females of Schistosoma japonicum by integrated laser microdissection microscopy and microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey N Gobert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The functions of many schistosome gene products remain to be characterized. A major step towards elucidating function of these genes would be in defining their sites of expression. This goal is rendered difficult to achieve by the generally small size of the parasites and the lack of a body cavity, which precludes analysis of transcriptional profiles of the tissues in isolation.Here, we describe a combined laser microdissection microscopy (LMM and microarray analysis approach to expedite tissue specific profiling and gene atlasing for tissues of adult female Schistosoma japonicum. This approach helps to solve the gene characterization "bottle-neck" brought about by acoelomy and the size of these parasites. Complementary RNA obtained after isolation from gastrodermis (parasite gut mucosa, vitelline glands and ovary by LMM were subjected to microarray analyses, resulting in identification of 147 genes upregulated in the gastrodermis, 4,149 genes in the ovary and 2,553 in the vitellaria.This work will help to shed light on the molecular pathobiology of this debilitating human parasite and aid in the discovery of new targets for the development of anti-schistosome vaccines and drugs.

  14. A Microtus fortis protein, serum albumin, is a novel inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05. We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05 in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis.

  15. Homology-based annotation of non-coding RNAs in the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Clara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomes are trematode parasites of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are considered the most important of the human helminth parasites in terms of morbidity and mortality. Draft genome sequences are now available for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA plays a crucial role in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis, and pathogenesis. The genome-wide annotation of ncRNAs is a non-trivial task unless well-annotated genomes of closely related species are already available. Results A homology search for structured ncRNA in the genome of S. mansoni resulted in 23 types of ncRNAs with conserved primary and secondary structure. Among these, we identified rRNA, snRNA, SL RNA, SRP, tRNAs and RNase P, and also possibly MRP and 7SK RNAs. In addition, we confirmed five miRNAs that have recently been reported in S. japonicum and found two additional homologs of known miRNAs. The tRNA complement of S. mansoni is comparable to that of the free-living planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, although for some amino acids differences of more than a factor of two are observed: Leu, Ser, and His are overrepresented, while Cys, Meth, and Ile are underrepresented in S. mansoni. On the other hand, the number of tRNAs in the genome of S. japonicum is reduced by more than a factor of four. Both schistosomes have a complete set of minor spliceosomal snRNAs. Several ncRNAs that are expected to exist in the S. mansoni genome were not found, among them the telomerase RNA, vault RNAs, and Y RNAs. Conclusion The ncRNA sequences and structures presented here represent the most complete dataset of ncRNA from any lophotrochozoan reported so far. This data set provides an important reference for further analysis of the genomes of schistosomes and indeed eukaryotic genomes at large.

  16. Real-time PCR demonstrates high prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines: implications for surveillance and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines has a population of approximately 103 million people, of which 6.7 million live in schistosomiasis-endemic areas with 1.8 million people being at risk of infection with Schistosoma japonicum. Although the country-wide prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines is relatively low, the prevalence of schistosomiasis can be high, approaching 65% in some endemic areas. Of the currently available microscopy-based diagnostic techniques for detecting schistosome infections in the Philippines and elsewhere, most exhibit varying diagnostic performances, with the Kato-Katz (KK method having particularly poor sensitivity for detecting low intensity infections. This suggests that the actual prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica may be much higher than previous reports have indicated.Six barangay (villages were selected to determine the prevalence of S. japonicum in humans in the municipality of Palapag, Northern Samar. Fecal samples were collected from 560 humans and examined by the KK method and a validated real-time PCR (qPCR assay. A high S. japonicum prevalence (90.2% was revealed using qPCR whereas the KK method indicated a lower prevalence (22.9%. The geometric mean eggs per gram (GMEPG determined by the qPCR was 36.5 and 11.5 by the KK. These results, particularly those obtained by the qPCR, indicate that the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this region of the Philippines is much higher than historically reported.Despite being more expensive, qPCR can complement the KK procedure, particularly for surveillance and monitoring of areas where extensive schistosomiasis control has led to low prevalence and intensity infections and where schistosomiasis elimination is on the horizon, as for example in southern China.

  17. Polysaccharide-based bioflocculant template of a diazotrophic Bradyrhizobium japonicum 36 for controlled assembly of AgCl nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Bakhtiyor A; Pattaeva, Mohichehra A; Yili, Abulimiti; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2016-08-01

    A simple and green method was developed for the biosynthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles, free from silver nanoparticles, using polysaccharide-based bioflocculant of a diazotrophic rhizobacteria Bradyrhizobium japonicum 36 strain. The synthesized silver chloride nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, XRD, FT-IR and TEM. The concentration-dependent and controllable method for silver chloride nanoparticles was developed. The biosynthesized silver chloride nanoparticles exhibited strong antimicrobial activity towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The synthesized silver chloride nanoparticles can be exploited as a promising new biocide bionanocomposite against pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The RIO protein kinase-encoding gene Sj-riok-2 is involved in key reproductive processes in Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; He, Xin; Grevelding, Christoph G; Ye, Qing; Li, Ying; Gasser, Robin B; Dissous, Colette; Mughal, Mudassar N; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Hu, Min

    2017-12-12

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is caused by eggs whose production is the consequence of the pairing of schistosomes and the subsequent sexual maturation of the female. Previous studies have demonstrated that protein kinases are involved in processes leading to the male-induced differentiation of the female gonads, ovary and vitellarium. Right open reading frame protein kinase 2 (RIOK-2) is a member of the atypical kinase family and shown in other organisms to be responsible for ribosomal RNA biogenesis and cell-cycle progression, as well as involves in nematode development. However, nothing is known about its functions in any trematode including schistosome. We isolated and characterized the riok-2 gene from S. japonicum, and detected the transcriptional profiles of Sj-riok-2 by using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sj-riok-2 was performed, mitotic activities were detected by EdU incorporation assay and morphological changes on organs were observed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In silico analyses of the amino acid sequence of Sj-RIOK-2 revealed typical features of this class of kinases including a winged helix (wHTH) domain and a RIO kinase domain. Sj-riok-2 is transcribed in different developmental stages of S. japonicum, with a higher abundance in adult females and eggs. Localization studies showed that Sj-riok-2 was mainly transcribed in female reproductive organs. Experiments with adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrated that the transcriptional level of Sj-riok-2 was affected by pairing. Knocking down Sj-riok-2 by RNAi reduced cell proliferation in the vitellarium and caused the increased amount of mature oocytes in ovary and an accumulation of eggs within the uterus. Sj-riok-2 is involved in the reproductive development and maturation of female S. japonicum. Our

  19. Cultivos de Bradyrhizobium japonicum y Sinorhizobium melitoti en medios con hojas de Amaranthus cruentus, como aporte de factores de crecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Ronchi, Ana L.; Grassano, A. E.; Ripani, G.; Balatti, Antonio Pedro

    2003-01-01

    p.43-50 En este trabajo se estudió la obtención de suspensiones de Sinorhizobium meliloti y Bradyrhizobium japonicum, considerando el efecto de la harina de hoja de amaranto sobre el crecimiento celular en medios recomendados por distintos autores. Los experimentos se realizaron en erlenmeyers en agitador rotatorio a 250 rpm y 2,5 cm de excentricidad. Los estudios realizados permitieron establecer medios de cultivo para alcanzar concentraciones celulares del orden de 2 x 10¹° células viabl...

  20. Assessment of the diagnostic efficacy of enolase as an indication of active infection of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Xiao, Di; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Shuang; Yin, Xuren; Wang, Jie; Ke, Xuedan; Yu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a common zoonoses affecting humans. The atypical clinical symptoms, low morbidity, and low degree of infection impede diagnosis and assessment of epidemics. Detecting circulating antigens from adult worms in patients' body fluids should be diagnostically superior to examining eggs in feces. Herein, the excretory-secretory proteins of adult worms were analyzed by using 2-D protein electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The Schistosoma japonicum enolase (Sj enolase) was identified as the most abundant excretory-secretory antigen. Purified recombinant Sj enolase was prepared, and specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against it. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (sandwich ELISA) was established that used the monoclonal antibody as a capture antibody and the polyclonal antibody as a detection antibody. The linear detection range was 0.7-1000 ng/ml (minimum 700 pg/ml). Sj enolase could be detected in the sera of infected rabbits and disappeared rapidly postpraziquantel treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of this sandwich ELISA to detect field serum samples of schistosomiasis were 84.61 and 95.83 %, respectively. The cross-reaction rates for clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis were 3.33 and 5 %, respectively. This ELISA assay was used to test 45 matching sera of schistosomiasis patients before treatment and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months posttreatment. Among the sera, 88.89 % were positive before treatment. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpraziquantel treatment, 93.33, 97.78, 100, and 100 % tested negative, respectively. Therefore, Sj enolase can be used to indicate active Schistosoma infection, and detecting serum Sj enolase is important for diagnosis and evaluating treatment effect.

  1. Development of oral and branchial muscles in lancelet larvae of Branchiostoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kinya; Kaji, Takao; Morov, Arseniy R; Yonemura, Shigenobu

    2014-04-01

    The perforated pharynx has generally been regarded as a shared characteristic of chordates. However, there still remains phylogenetic ambiguity between the cilia-driven system in invertebrate chordates and the muscle-driven system in vertebrates. Giant larvae of the genus Asymmetron were reported to develop an orobranchial musculature similar to that of vertebrates more than 100 years ago. This discovery might represent an evolutionary link for the chordate branchial system, but few investigations of the lancelet orobranchial musculature have been completed since. We studied staged larvae of a Japanese population of Branchiostoma japonicum to characterize the developmental property of the orobranchial musculature. The larval mouth and the unpaired primary gills develop well-organized muscles. These muscles function only as obturators of the openings without antagonistic system. As the larval mouth enlarged posteriorly to the level of the ninth myomere, the oral musculature was fortified accordingly without segmental patterning. In contrast, the iterated branchial muscles coincided with the dorsal myomeric pattern before metamorphosis, but the pharynx was remodeled dynamically irrespective of the myomeric pattern during metamorphosis. The orobranchial musculature disappeared completely during metamorphosis, and adult muscles in the oral hood and velum, as well as on the pterygial coeloms developed independently. The lancelet orobranchial musculature is apparently a larval adaptation to prevent harmful intake. However, vestigial muscles appeared transiently with the secondary gill formation suggest a bilateral ancestral state of muscular gills, and a segmental pattern of developing branchial muscles without neural crest and placodal contributions is suggestive of a precursor of vertebrate branchiomeric pattern. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evidence for at least six Hox clusters in the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Tarang K.; Ravi, Vydianathan; Yamasaki, Shinichi; Lee, Alison P.; Lian, Michelle M.; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tohari, Sumanty; Yanai, Seiji; Tay, Alice; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2013-01-01

    Cyclostomes, comprising jawless vertebrates such as lampreys and hagfishes, are the sister group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and hence an important group for understanding the origin and diversity of vertebrates. In vertebrates and other metazoans, Hox genes determine cell fate along the anteroposterior axis of embryos and are implicated in driving morphological diversity. Invertebrates contain a single Hox cluster (either intact or fragmented), whereas elephant shark, coelacanth, and tetrapods contain four Hox clusters owing to two rounds of whole-genome duplication (“1R” and “2R”) during early vertebrate evolution. By contrast, most teleost fishes contain up to eight Hox clusters because of an additional “teleost-specific” genome duplication event. By sequencing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and the whole genome, here we provide evidence for at least six Hox clusters in the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). This suggests that the lamprey lineage has experienced an additional genome duplication after 1R and 2R. The relative age of lamprey and human paralogs supports this hypothesis. Compared with gnathostome Hox clusters, lamprey Hox clusters are unusually large. Several conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) were predicted in the Hox clusters of lamprey, elephant shark, and human. Transgenic zebrafish assay indicated the potential of CNEs to function as enhancers. Interestingly, CNEs in individual lamprey Hox clusters are frequently conserved in multiple Hox clusters in elephant shark and human, implying a many-to-many orthology relationship between lamprey and gnathostome Hox clusters. Such a relationship suggests that the first two rounds of genome duplication may have occurred independently in the lamprey and gnathostome lineages. PMID:24043829

  3. Characterization of the Runx Gene Family in a Jawless Vertebrate, the Japanese Lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Giselle Sek Suan; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Osato, Motomi; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2014-01-01

    The cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates), comprising lampreys and hagfishes, are the sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are hence an important group for the study of vertebrate evolution. In mammals, three Runx genes, Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3, encode transcription factors that are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation in major developmental pathways such as haematopoiesis, skeletogenesis and neurogenesis and are frequently associated with diseases. We describe here the characterization of Runx gene family members from a cyclostome, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). The Japanese lamprey contains three Runx genes, RunxA, RunxB, and RunxC. However, phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggest that they are not one-to-one orthologs of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3. The major protein domains and motifs found in gnathostome Runx proteins are highly conserved in the lamprey Runx proteins. Although all gnathostome Runx genes each contain two alternative promoters, P1 (distal) and P2 (proximal), only lamprey RunxB possesses the alternative promoters; lamprey RunxA and RunxC contain only P2 and P1 promoter, respectively. Furthermore, the three lamprey Runx genes give rise to fewer alternative isoforms than the three gnathostome Runx genes. The promoters of the lamprey Runx genes lack the tandem Runx-binding motifs that are highly conserved among the P1 promoters of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3 genes; instead these promoters contain dispersed single Runx-binding motifs. The 3′UTR of lamprey RunxB contains binding sites for miR-27 and miR-130b/301ab, which are conserved in mammalian Runx1 and Runx3, respectively. Overall, the Runx genes in lamprey seem to have experienced a different evolutionary trajectory from that of gnathostome Runx genes which are highly conserved all the way from cartilaginous fishes to mammals. PMID:25405766

  4. Characterization of the Runx gene family in a jawless vertebrate, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Sek Suan Nah

    Full Text Available The cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates, comprising lampreys and hagfishes, are the sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes and are hence an important group for the study of vertebrate evolution. In mammals, three Runx genes, Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3, encode transcription factors that are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation in major developmental pathways such as haematopoiesis, skeletogenesis and neurogenesis and are frequently associated with diseases. We describe here the characterization of Runx gene family members from a cyclostome, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum. The Japanese lamprey contains three Runx genes, RunxA, RunxB, and RunxC. However, phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggest that they are not one-to-one orthologs of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3. The major protein domains and motifs found in gnathostome Runx proteins are highly conserved in the lamprey Runx proteins. Although all gnathostome Runx genes each contain two alternative promoters, P1 (distal and P2 (proximal, only lamprey RunxB possesses the alternative promoters; lamprey RunxA and RunxC contain only P2 and P1 promoter, respectively. Furthermore, the three lamprey Runx genes give rise to fewer alternative isoforms than the three gnathostome Runx genes. The promoters of the lamprey Runx genes lack the tandem Runx-binding motifs that are highly conserved among the P1 promoters of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3 genes; instead these promoters contain dispersed single Runx-binding motifs. The 3'UTR of lamprey RunxB contains binding sites for miR-27 and miR-130b/301ab, which are conserved in mammalian Runx1 and Runx3, respectively. Overall, the Runx genes in lamprey seem to have experienced a different evolutionary trajectory from that of gnathostome Runx genes which are highly conserved all the way from cartilaginous fishes to mammals.

  5. Variable maturation and oviposition by female Schistosoma japonicum in mice: the effects of irradiation of the host prior to infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheever, A.W.; Duvall, R.H.

    1987-11-01

    The maturation of female Schistosoma japonicum was found to vary greatly within each of two Philippine strains of this parasite and some females did not contain uterine eggs 7 to 15 weeks after infection while others contained numerous eggs before the fifth week of infection. It was found that female worms containing less than 20 uterine eggs contributed little to the accumulation of eggs in the tissues of infected mice. Such worms also generally appeared to be immature. The variable rate of maturation of worms is likely to have profound effects on the immune reactions of mice as well as on the pathologic response to infection. Systematic delay in oviposition was serendipitously found in worms from mice which had been irradiated for other purposes prior to exposure to S. japonicum, and from the fourth to the sixth week after infection egg production by worms in irradiated mice lagged well behind that in intact mice. Seven to 10 weeks after infection these worms were laying normal numbers of eggs, as judged by egg passage per worm pair in the feces and the accumulation of eggs in the tissues. S. mansoni developed normally in irradiated mice.

  6. Single- or mixed-sex Schistosoma japonicum infections of intermediate host snails in hilly areas of Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui-Ping; Lu, Da-Bing; Shen, Lei; Shi, Tan; Gu, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Schistosomiasis japonicum is one of the most serious communicable diseases, and the transmission of the parasite is dependent of its complex life cycle on which many factors can have an impact. Multiple infections comprising both male and female schistosome within snail intermediate hosts, for example, would facilitate parasite transmission. However, no research on Schistosoma japonicum communities in field-collected Oncomelania hupensis hupensis in relation to schistosome sex has been reported. Therefore, snail survey was performed in a hilly region of Anhui, China, and single- or mixed-sex schistosome infections of snails were detected with final host mouse infection. A total of 8,563 snails were sampled in the field, and 67 were identified with schistosome infections. Of these infected snails, 46 were selected for final host infection. From this, 21 snails were infected with female schistosome, 23 with males and 2 with both males and females. More worms were recovered for snails with mixed-sex infections than with single-sex infection and for snails with male schistosome infection than with female infection (Psnails was significantly higher than would be expected if randomly distributed (Psnails was nearly equal and up to 95.65 % (44/46) of infected snails were single-sex infection. Schistosome infections in snails collected from the hilly area of Anhui Province were not randomly distributed but over-dispersed.

  7. Expression profile of the Schistosoma japonicum degradome reveals differential protease expression patterns and potential anti-schistosomal intervention targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Cai, Pengfei; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Zhou, Xiaosu; Wu, Chuang; Wang, Heng; Chen, Qijun

    2014-10-01

    Blood fluke proteases play pivotal roles in the processes of invasion, nutrition acquisition, immune evasion, and other host-parasite interactions. Hundreds of genes encoding putative proteases have been identified in the recently published schistosome genomes. However, the expression profiles of these proteases in Schistosoma species have not yet been systematically analyzed. We retrieved and culled the redundant protease sequences of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Echinococcus multilocularis, and Clonorchis sinensis from public databases utilizing bioinformatic approaches. The degradomes of the four parasitic organisms and Homo sapiens were then comparatively analyzed. A total of 262 S. japonicum protease sequences were obtained and the expression profiles generated using whole-genome microarray. Four main clusters of protease genes with different expression patterns were identified: proteases up-regulated in hepatic schistosomula and adult worms, egg-specific or predominantly expressed proteases, cercaria-specific or predominantly expressed proteases, and constantly expressed proteases. A subset of protease genes with different expression patterns were further validated using real-time quantitative PCR. The present study represents the most comprehensive analysis of a degradome in Schistosoma species to date. These results provide a firm foundation for future research on the specific function(s) of individual proteases and may help to refine anti-proteolytic strategies in blood flukes.

  8. Recombinant T2 RNase protein of Schistosoma japonicum inhibits expression of α-SMA in LX-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Wenxia; Feng, Jinrong; Zhu, Dandan; Chen, Jinling; Sun, Xiaolei; Lyu, Lei; Ju, Shaoqing; Duan, Yinong

    2016-10-01

    Recombinant T2 RNase glycoprotein, which showed a certain degree of homology to Omega-1 from Schistosoma mansoni eggs, was expressed in adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum, but not in eggs of S. japonicum. The direct biological role of the recombinant T2 RNase protein in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remains unknown. In the present study, the immortalized human HSC line (LX-2 cells) was treated with the recombinant T2 RNase protein at indicated concentrations for various time points in vitro. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Smad4 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the recombinant T2 RNase protein significantly diminished the expression levels of α-SMA and Smad4 in LX-2 cells. The upregulated expression levels of α-SMA and Smad4 by TGF-β1 in LX-2 cells were both suppressed by the recombinant T2 RNase protein. These data suggest that the recombinant T2 RNase protein may be a potential target of therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  9. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Peng, Jinbiao; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Liu, Juntao; Lin, Jiaojiao; Jin, Youxin; Davis, Richard E.; Cheng, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production. PMID:26871705

  10. [SDS-PAGE and EITB analysis of the protein components of different isolates of Schistosoma japonicum in China and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L; Liu, S; Xue, H; Zhang, Y; Li, H; Hu, Y; He, Y

    1999-01-01

    To make a supplementary observation on the protein components prepared from adult S. japonicum of 4 different isolates from Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Taiwan Provinces of China and Japan in origin and to observe antigen reactivity of the above-mentioned isolates together with adult worms from Anhwi, Hubei, Sichuan and Yunnan isolates against heterologous anti-Oncomelania h. hupensis (collected from Guangxi, China and Japan) sera by EITB. SDS-PAGE and EITB. SDS-PAGE showed that by Coomassie blue staining, male S. japonicum from Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Taiwan Provinces and Japan isolales revealed 7-17 bands while female worms revealed 1-6 bands. The protein patterns of Taiwan and Zhejiang male worm were similar, but slight difference could be seen above 81 kDa. By silver staining, male worms of the 4 isolates revealed 10-23 bands while female worms revealed 1-19 bands. Male worms from Japan not only showed less bands but also differed in their pattern as compared to those of other Chinese isolates. Results of EITB revealed that each of the 4 isolates had slightly different pattern but all of the tested isolates had common antigens with their heterologous snail hosts i.e., Oncomelania h. hupensis from Guangxi, China and Japan.

  11. Multiple vaccinations with UV- attenuated cercariae in pig enhance protective immunity against Schistosoma japonicum infection as compared to single vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dandan; Tian, Fang; Wu, Haiwei; Gao, Yanan; Wu, Jingjiao; Zhang, Donghui; Ji, Minjun; McManus, Donald P; Driguez, Patrick; Wu, Guanling

    2011-06-10

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in the endemic areas of China, the Philippines, and Indonesia. To date, a vaccine has not been developed against this disease but immunization with UV-attenuated cercariae can induce a high level of protective immunity in Landrace/Yorkshire/Duroc crossbred pigs. To compare the efficacy of a single vaccination and multiple vaccinations with UV-attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae, two groups of pigs received either one or three exposures to 10,000 cercariae attenuated with 400 μw UV. Pigs with a single immunization had a 59.33% reduction in adult worm burden, a 89.87% reduction in hepatic eggs and a 86.27% reduction in fecal eggs at eight weeks post-challenge (P vaccinated groups were higher than in the infection-control group. Triple vaccinations resulted in higher levels of antibodies, especially IgG2, compared with a single vaccination and IFN-γ levels increased with repeated immunization with UV-irradiated cercariae. The high levels of protection against S. japonicum infection can be achieved with a UV-attenuated vaccine in pigs, and that three vaccinations were possibly more effective than a single vaccination. Moreover, triple vaccinations evoked a more vigorous IFN-γ response and a stronger antibody-mediated response, especially an increase in the levels of IgG2 antibodies.

  12. Culturable bacteria in hydroponic cultures of moss Racomitrium japonicum and their potential as biofertilizers for moss production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2011-07-01

    The use of Racomitrium japonicum, a drought resistant bryophyte used for roof-greening, is gradually increasing. However, its utilization is hampered by slow growth rate. Here we isolated culturable bacteria from hydroponic cultivation samples to identify isolates that could promote moss growth. Most of the isolates belonged to Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Duganella species. The isolates were biochemically characterized according to their type of interaction with plants, i.e., production of auxin, siderophores, or hydrogen cyanate, growth in the absence of an added nitrogen source, calcium phosphate solubilization, utilization of sugars, polymers, or aliphatic compounds, and antifungal activity. The isolates were applied to sterile protonemata and non-sterile adult gametophytes of R. japonicum to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Furthermore, we isolated fungi that inhibited moss growth. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure in hydroponic cultures is important to stabilize moss production and the isolates that promote moss growth have potential to be utilized as biofertilizers for moss production. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gonadal Morphology and Gametogenesis in Japanese Red Coral Corallium japonicum (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) Collected off Cape Ashizuri, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekida, Satoko; Iwasaki, Nozomu; Okuda, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    Colonies of the Japanese red coral Corallium japonicum Kishinouye, 1903 collected off Cape Ashizuri, Japan were gonochoric and produced gonads in siphonozooids annually, mainly during the spring season. Polyp anatomy, gonadal morphology and gametogenesis in this species were revealed by light and electron microscopy. A siphonozooid had a pharynx with a prominent siphonoglyph and eight mesenteries: two sulcal, two asulcal, and four lateral. A rudimentary retractor was found on one side of each mesoglea of these mesenteries. The retractor arrangement in the siphonozooid was reverse of what was described in the autozooids of octocorals. Gonads initiated as small protrusions on the mesenteries, except in the asulcal ones, and even at an incipient stage they were covered with a sac-shaped thin layer of mesoglea, which was continuous with the mesoglea of mesenteries. Gastrodermis enveloped the complete outer surface of the thin layer of mesoglea throughout gametogenesis in both oocytes and sperm cysts. Oocytes produced many microvilli on their cortical surfaces beneath the thin layer of mesoglea concomitantly with the accumulation of lipid globules in the cells, whereas in sperm cysts spermatocytes and spermatids increased in number without microvilli production, followed by synchronous spermiogenesis involving remarkable changes in the shape and position of organelles. Based on the comparison of patterns in gonadal development between octocorals including C. japonicum, hexacorals and scyphozoans, octocoral and stauromedusa species may be characterized by the fact that gametogenesis never occurs in the matrix of mesoglea, but rather exclusively within the thin sac of mesoglea surrounded by gastrodermis.

  14. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production.

  15. A cluster-randomised intervention trial against Schistosoma japonicum in the Peoples' Republic of China: bovine and human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Bovines, particularly water buffaloes, are thought to play a major role in the transmission of schistosomiasis to humans in China. Preliminary results (1998-2003 of a praziquantel (PZQ-based pilot intervention study we undertook provided proof of principle that water buffaloes are major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum in the Poyang Lake region, Jiangxi Province.Here we present the results of a cluster-randomised intervention trial (2004-2007 undertaken in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces, with increased power and more general applicability to the lake and marshlands regions of southern China. The trial involved four matched pairs of villages with one village within each pair randomly selected as a control (human PZQ treatment only, leaving the other as the intervention (human and bovine PZQ treatment. A sentinel cohort of people to be monitored for new infections for the duration of the study was selected from each village. Results showed that combined human and bovine chemotherapy with PZQ had a greater effect on human incidence than human PZQ treatment alone.The results from this study, supported by previous experimental evidence, confirms that bovines are the major reservoir host of human schistosomiasis in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, and reinforce the rationale for the development and deployment of a transmission blocking anti-S. japonicum vaccine targeting bovines.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000263291.

  16. Upregulated Expression of Cytotoxicity-Related Genes in IFN-γ Knockout Mice with Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotang Du

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that IFN-γ is important to the development of acquired resistance against murine schistosomiasis. However, the in vivo role of this immunoregulatory cytokine in helminth infection needs to be further investigated. In this study, parasite burden and host immune response were observed in IFN-γ knockout mice (IFNg KO infected with Schistosoma japonicum for 6 weeks. The results suggested that deficiency in IFN-γ led to decreased egg burden in mice, with low schistosome-specific IgG antibody response and enhanced activation of T cells during acute infection. Microarray and qRT-PCR data analyses showed significant upregulation of some cytotoxicity-related genes, including those from the granzyme family, tumor necrosis factor, Fas Ligand, and chemokines, in the spleen cells of IFNg KO mice. Furthermore, CD8+ cells instead of NK cells of IFNg KO mice exhibited increased transcription of cytotoxic genes compared with WT mice. Additionally, Schistosoma japonicum-specific egg antigen immunization also could activate CD8+ T cells to upregulate the expression of cytotoxic genes in IFNg KO mice. Our data suggest that IFN-γ is not always a positive regulator of immune responses. In certain situations, the disruption of IFN-γ signaling may up-regulate the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune responses to the parasite.

  17. Combined IL-12 Plasmid and Recombinant SjGST Enhance the Protective and Anti-pathology Effect of SjGST DNA Vaccine Against Schistosoma japonicum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Po-Ching; Lin, Ching-Nan; Peng, Shih-Yi; Kang, Tsung-Fu; Lee, Kin-Mu

    2016-01-01

    ...) has previously been reported to achieve a worm reduction rate of 42-44%. To improve the efficiency of the vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum, we immunized mice with a combination of pcDNA vector-encoded 26-kDa SjGST (pcDNA/SjGST...

  18. Whole-Genome Sequences of 14 Strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense and 1 Strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Isolated from Lupinus spp. in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekireb, Djamel; Crovadore, Julien; Brachmann, Andreas; Chablais, Romain; Cochard, Bastien; Lefort, François

    2017-07-20

    We report here the whole-genome sequences of 14 strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, isolated from root nodules of Lupinus microanthus and Lupinus angustifolius, and 1 strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum isolated from root nodules from Lupinus angustifolius in Algeria. These sequences add to the known diversity of this agronomically important genus. Copyright © 2017 Chekireb et al.

  19. Development of a Streptococcus gordonii vaccine strain expressing Schistosoma japonicum Sj-F1 and evaluation of using this strain for intranasal immunization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linqian; Liu, Wei; Yang, Ming; Peng, Dan; Chen, Liyu

    2013-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease. Currently, chemotherapy is the main effective method to treat schistosomiasis; however, it does not prevent reinfection. No effective vaccine is currently available to prevent schistosomiasis. Sj-F1 (GenBank accession number AY261995) is a novel gene that was discovered through screening adult Schistosoma japonicum worm cDNA library with female S. japonicum antigen-immunized sera. Streptococcus gordonii, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, has been a prime candidate in recent investigations toward developing a live oral vaccine vector. One of the approaches for the surface expression of heterologous antigens in S. gordonii is to surface-localize them with the M6 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we develop a recombinant S. gordonii strain that expresses the M6-Sj-F1 fusion protein on the bacterial surface. Intranasal immunization in mice with such M6-Sj-F1-expressing S. gordonii bacteria induced strong serum IgG, serum IgA, and saliva IgA against Sj-F1. The results of protective immunity against a challenge with cercariae of S. japonicum showed statistically significant protection following this treatment, with a worm reduction rate of 21.45% and an egg reduction rate of 34.77%. Our data indicate that the described M6-Sj-F1-expressing S. gordonii is highly immunogenic and can partially protect mice from challenge infection with S. japonicum. Intranasal immunization with recombinant S. gordonii may be an alternative to developing a novel S. japonicum vaccine in a safe, effective, and feasible way.

  20. Therapeutic effect of Schistosoma japonicum cystatin on bacterial sepsis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Wang, Shushu; Zhan, Bin; He, Wenxin; Chu, Liang; Qiu, Dapeng; Li, Nan; Wan, Yongkun; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xingzhi; Fang, Qiang; Shen, Jilong; Yang, Xiaodi

    2017-05-08

    Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of an infection and remains one of the leading causes of mortality in surgical patients. Bacteremia induces excessive inflammatory responses that result in multiple organ damage. Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived materials have been found to immunomodulate host immune system to reduce inflammation against some allergic or inflammatory diseases. Schistosoma japonicum cystatin (Sj-Cys) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that induces regulatory T-cells and a potential immunomodulatory. The effect of Sj-Cys on reducing sepsis inflammation and mortality was investigated. Sepsis was induced in BALB/c mice using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), followed by intraperitoneal injection of different doses (10, 25 or 50 μg) of recombinant Sj-Cys (rSj-Cys). The therapeutic effect of rSj-Cys on sepsis was evaluated by observing the survival rates of mice for 96 h after CLP and the pathological injury of liver, kidney and lung by measuring the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in sera and the tissue sections pathology, and the expression of MyD88 in liver, kidney and lung tissues. The immunological mechanism was investigated by examining pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) and IL-10 and TGF-β1 in mice sera and in culture of macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). rSj-Cys treatment provided significant therapeutic effects on CLP-induced sepsis in mice demonstrated with increased survival rates, alleviated overall disease severity and tissue injury of liver, kidney and lung. The rSj-Cys conferred therapeutic efficacy was associated with upregualted IL-10 and TGF-β1 cytokines and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β. MyD88 expression in liver, kidney and lung tissues of rSj-Cys-treated mice was reduced. In vitro assay with macrophages also showed that rSj-Cys inhibited the release of pro

  1. The anterior esophageal region of Schistosoma japonicum is a secretory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Hong; Stark, Meg; Vance, Gillian M; Cao, Jian Ping; Wilson, R Alan

    2014-12-10

    The esophagus of blood-feeding schistosomes has been largely neglected although its posterior portion was designated as a gland decades ago. However, we recently showed it plays a pivotal role in blood processing. It is clearly demarcated into anterior and posterior compartments, both surrounded by a mass of cell bodies. Feeding movies revealed that erythrocytes accumulate in the anterior compartment before entering the posterior, indicating that a distinct process is executed there. We therefore investigated ultrastructural aspects and possible functions of the anterior region. The heads of adult Schistosoma japonicum were detached and prepared for both transmission and scanning electron microscopy to define the detailed ultrastructure of the anterior esophagus. Cryosections of heads were also prepared for immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy to define the pattern of intrinsic host antibody binding in the anterior esophageal lining. The anterior syncytial lining of the esophagus is highly extended by long, thin corrugations of cytoplasm projecting towards the lumen. Strikingly in the male worm, the tips of the corrugations are further expanded by numerous threads of cytoplasm, producing a spaghetti-like appearance in the central lumen. Flattened, pitted cytoplasmic plates are interspersed in the tangled mass of threads. Abundant, morphologically distinct light vesicles of varied size and contents are manufactured in the cell bodies, from where they traffic through cytoplasmic connections to the corrugations and out to the tips. Clusters of vesicles accumulate in expanded tips in males, together with occasional mitochondria whilst females have more mitochondria but fewer vesicles. The membranous contents of light vesicles are secreted mainly from the tips, but also from the sides of the corrugations. They coat the surfaces and then form organised self-adherent membrane figures when shed into the lumen. Host antibody binds strongly in a characteristic pattern

  2. Recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick for rapid and visual detection of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kui; Xing, Weiwei; Yu, Xinling; Fu, Wenliang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zou, Minji; Luo, Zhihong; Xu, Donggang

    2016-08-31

    With the continuous decline in prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma japonicum infection in China, more accurate and sensitive methods suitable for field detection become much needed for schistosomiasis control. Here, a novel rapid and visual detection method based on the combination of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed to detect S. japonicum DNA in fecal samples. The LFD-RPA assay targeting SjR2 could detect 5 fg S. japonicum DNA, which was identical to qPCR and real-time RPA assay, and showed no cross-reaction with other parasites. The detection could be finished within 15-20 min at a wide temperature range (25-45 °C), and the results could be visualized by naked eye. The diagnostic validity of LFD-RPA assay was further assessed with 14 fecal samples of infected patients diagnosed by Kato-Katz method and 31 fecal samples of healthy persons, and compared with that of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELSIA) and Indirect Hemagglutination Assay (IHA). The LFD-RPA assay showed 92.68 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity and excellent diagnostic agreement with the gold standard Kato-Katz test (k = 0.947, Z = 6.36, P < 0.001), whereas ELISA showed 85.71 % sensitivity, 93.55 % specificity, and substantial diagnostic agreement (k = 0.793, Z = 5.31, P < 0.001), and IHA showed 78.57 % sensitivity, 83.87 % specificity, and moderate diagnostic agreement (k = 0.600, Z = 4.05, P < 0.001), indicating that the LFD-RPA was much better than the traditional methods. The LFD-RPA assay established by us is a sensitive, specific, rapid and convenient method for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, and shows a great potency in field application.

  3. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid...... chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2......-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Oct...

  4. DISTRIBUSI HABITAT Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, KEONG PERANTARA Schistosoma japonicum DI DATARAN TINGGI LINDU, KABUPATEN SIGI, SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwibowo Ambar Garjito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oncomelania hupensis lindoensissnail and its habitat has an important role in the transmission of schistosomiasis in Central Sulawesi, particularly in three isolated areas, Lindu valley, Napu valley and Bada valley. In a part of Schistosomiasis life cycle, inside the snail, Schistosoma japonicummiracidia will undergo a series of stages as sporocyst and cercaria. People are infected by cercaria, the infective stage of S. japonicum.This study were conducted to reconfirm the distribution of O. h. lindoensishabitats in Lindu valley area. The snails were searched and collected in the suspected habitat using ring-sample and man per minute methods by skilled staffs from VBDRU Donggala and Schistosomasis laboratory plus trained local people in the collections. Data on the distribution of snail habitats were recorded by using GPS. Snails and vegetation in the habitats were collected for further analysis in the laboratory. A total of 129 snail habitat were recorded in Lindu valley, consisting of 135 old foci and 1 new focus. In this area, a total of 61 foci are still active of snail habitats. Foci are distributed in several types of habitat, i.e. abandon rice fields, ditches, springs, dry farming, shrubs and forest. Each type habitat has a relative similar vegetation species. The infection rates of O. h. lindoensiswith cercariae in Anca, Tomado dan Puroo villages were 5.27%, 3.19% and 7.58% respectively. These results indicate that the Schistosomiasis transmission is still going on in Lindu valley.Keywords : Distribution, Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, Habitat, Schistosomiasis, Lindu Valley, Sulawesi TengahAbstrakKeberadaan keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis dan habitatnya mempunyai peranan penting terhadap terjadinya penularan Skistosomiasis di Sulawesi Tengah, khususnya di 3 daerah endemis yang cukup terisolasi, yaitu Dataran tinggi Lindu, Dataran Tinggi Napu dan Dataran Tinggi Bada. Di dalam keong tersebut, mirasidium Schistosoma

  5. Possible effects of the Three Gorges dam on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum on the Jiang Han plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X J; Wei, F H; Yang, X X; Dai, Y H; Yu, G Y; Chen, L Y; Su, Z M

    2000-06-01

    The Three Gorges dam, under construction on the Yangtze River in China, might affect the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum on the Jiang Han plain, which is downstream of the dam. To study this possibility, the prevalence of schistosomiasis was investigated in relation to a range of malacological, hydrological and meteorological factors. The general water level in the Yangzte over a year had a marked effect on the distribution of the intermediate host (Oncomelania hupensis) and the prevalence of human schistosomiasis in that year. Disease prevalence showed significant correlations with the density of the snail hosts, the level of the water table, annual rainfall, yearly evaporation, and altitude. Once the dam is complete, the flow of water downstream will probably be maintained at a level between those currently occurring in flood and dry weather, and this may have implications for schistosome transmission. Systematic monitoring is necessary to investigate the impact of the environmental changes brought about by the dam on transmission.

  6. Genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from the Philippines, Japan and China revealed by sequence analysis of three mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fen; Li, Juan; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined sequence variability in the mitochondrial (mt) protein-coding genes cytochrome b (cytb), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2 and 6 (nad2 and nad6) among 24 isolates of Schistosoma japonicum from different endemic regions in the Philippines, Japan and China. The complete cytb, nad2 and nad6 genes were amplified and sequenced separately from individual schistosome. Sequence variations for isolates from the Philippines were 0-0.5% for cytb, 0-0.6% for nad2, and 0-0.9% for nad6. Variation was 0-0.5%, 0.1-0.8%, 0-0.7% for corresponding genes for schistosome samples from mainland China. For worms in Japan, genetic variations were 0-0.2%, 0.1-0.2% and 0 for the three genes, respectively. Sequence variations were 0-1.0%, 0-1.8% and 0-1.1% for cytb, nad2 and nad6, respectively, among schistosome isolates from different geographical strains in the Philippines, Japan and China. Of the three countries, lowest sequence variations were found between isolates from mainland China and the Philippines and highest were detected between Japan and the Philippines in three mtDNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the combined sequences of cytb, nad2 and nad6 revealed that all isolates in the Philippines clustered together sistered to samples from Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces in China, while isolates from Yamanashi in Japan were in a solitary clade. These results demonstrated the usefulness of the combined three mtDNA sequences for studying genetic diversity and population structure among S. japonicum isolates from the Philippines, China and Japan.

  7. The nature and combination of subunits used in epitope-based Schistosoma japonicum vaccine formulations affect their efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in endemic countries and is caused by infections with any one of three primary schistosome species. Although there are no vaccines available to date, this strategy appears feasible since natural immunity develops in individuals suffering from repeated infection during a lifetime. Since vaccinations resulting in both Th1- and Th2-type responses have been shown to contribute to protective immunity, a vaccine formulation with the capacity for stimulating multiple arms of the immune response will likely be the most effective. Previously we developed partially protective, single Th- and B cell-epitope-based peptide-DNA dual vaccines (PDDV (T3-PDDV and B3-PDDV, respectively capable of eliciting immune responses against the Schistosoma japonicum 22.6 kDa tegument antigen (Sj22.6 and a 62 kDa fragment of myosin (Sj62, respectively. Results In this study, we developed PDDV cocktails containing multiple epitopes of S. japonicum from Sj22.6, Sj62 and Sj97 antigens by predicting cytotoxic, helper, and B-cell epitopes, and evaluated vaccine potential in vivo. Results showed that mice immunized with a single-epitope PDDV elicited either Tc, Th, or B cell responses, respectively, and mice immunized with either the T3- or B3- single-epitope PDDV formulation were partially protected against infection. However, mice immunized with a multicomponent (3 PDDV components formulation elicited variable immune responses that were less immunoprotective than single-epitope PDDV formulations. Conclusions Our data show that combining these different antigens did not result in a more effective vaccine formulation when compared to each component administered individually, and further suggest that immune interference resulting from immunizations with antigenically distinct vaccine targets may be an important consideration in the development of multicomponent vaccine preparations.

  8. Utilization of ELISA using thioredoxin peroxidase-1 and tandem repeat proteins for diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection among water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ma M Angeles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of animal reservoirs in Schistosoma japonicum infection has been a major obstacle in the control of schistosomiasis. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of control measures on animal reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis contributed to the decrease of human cases. Animal surveillance should therefore be included to strengthen and improve the capabilities of current serological tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1 and four tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj2TR, Sj4TR, Sj7TR were initially evaluated against human sera. The previous test showed high sensitivity and specificity for antibody detection against SjTPx-1 and Sj7TR. In this study, the immunodiagnostic potential of these recombinant proteins was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoassay on 50 water buffalo serum samples collected in Cagayan, the Philippines as compared with the soluble egg antigen (SEA. For specificity, 3 goat serum samples positive with Fasciola hepatica were used and among the antigens used, only SEA showed cross-reaction. Stool PCR targeting the S. japonicum 82 bp mitochondrial NAD 1 gene was done to confirm the true positives and served as the standard test. Twenty three samples were positive for stool PCR. SjTPx-1 and Sj1TR gave the highest sensitivity among the recombinant proteins tested for water buffalo samples with 82.61% and 78.26% respectively which were higher than that of SEA (69.57%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results prove that SjTPx-1 works both for humans and water buffaloes making it a good candidate antigen for zoonotic diagnosis. Sj1TR showed good results for water buffaloes and therefore can also be used as a possible candidate for detecting animal schistosome infection.

  9. Exosomes Derived from Dendritic Cells Treated with Schistosoma japonicum Soluble Egg Antigen Attenuate DSS-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–150 nm small membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular medium via cells that function as a mode of intercellular communication. Dendritic cell (DC-derived exosomes modulate immune responses and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, Schistosoma japonicum eggs show modulatory effects in a mouse model of colitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from DCs treated with S. japonicum soluble eggs antigen (SEA; SEA-treated DC exosomes would be useful for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Exosomes were purified from the supernatant of DCs treated or untreated with SEA and identified via transmission electron microscopy, western blotting and NanoSight. Acute colitis was induced via the administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in drinking water (5.0%, wt/vol. Treatment with exosomes was conducted via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.; 50 μg per mouse from day 0 to day 6. Clinical scores were calculated based on weight loss, stool type, and bleeding. Colon length was measured as an indirect marker of inflammation, and colon macroscopic characteristics were determined. Body weight loss and the disease activity index of DSS-induced colitis mice decreased significantly following treatment with SEA-treated DC exosomes. Moreover, the colon lengths of SEA-treated DC exosomes treated colitis mice improved, and their mean colon macroscopic scores decreased. In addition, histologic examinations and histological scores showed that SEA-treated DC exosomes prevented colon damage in acute DSS-induced colitis mice. These results indicate that SEA-treated DC exosomes attenuate the severity of acute DSS-induced colitis mice more effectively than DC exosomes. The current work suggests that SEA-treated DC exosomes may be useful as a new approach to treat IBD.

  10. A multivariate analysis of the relationship between work ability and S. japonicum infection in Dongting Lake Region, in China Análise multivariada da relação entre capacidade de trabalho e infecção por S. japonicum na região dos lagos de Dongting, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuesheng

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional case-control study on the association between the reduced work ability and S. japonicum infection was carried out in a moderate endemic area for schistosomiasis japonica in the southern part of Dongting lake in China. A total of 120 cases with reduced work ability and 240 controls paired to the case by age, sex, occupation and without reduced work ability, participated in the study. The mean age for individuals was 37.6 years old (21-60, the ratio of male: female was 60:40, the prevalence of S. japonicum in the individuals was 28.3%. The results obtained in this study showed that the infection of S. japonicum in case and control groups was 49.2% (59/120 and 17.9% (43/240, respectively. Odds ratio for reduced work ability among those who had schistosomiasis was 4.34 (95%, confidence interval was 2.58-7.34, and among those who had S. japonicum infection (egg per gram > 100 was up to 12.67 (95%, confidence interval was 3.64-46.39. After odds ratio was adjusted by multiple logistic regression, it was confirmed that heavier intensity of S. japonicum infection and splenomegaly due to S. japonicum infection were the main risk factors for reduced work ability in the population studied.Um estudo seccional de casos controles da associação entre a capacidade reduzida para o trabalho e a infecção por S. japonicum foi levada a efeito em região moderadamente endêmica para esquistossomose japônica na parte sul do lago Dongting, China. Um total de 120 casos com redução da capacidade de trabalho e 240 controles pareados no que diz respeito a idade, sexo, ocupação sem redução da capacidade de trabalho. A idade média dos pacientes foi 37,6 anos (21-60 e a relação masculino:feminino foi 60:40. A prevalência do S. japonicum foi de 28,3%. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo mostraram que a infecção nos casos e no grupo controle foi 49,2% (59/120 e 17,9% (43/240 respectivamente. A média para redução da capacidade de trabalho

  11. [Comparison of collagen fiber staining between Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining of hepatic specimens in mice with Schistosoma japonicum infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Ke; Zhang, Yu-Xia; Man, Su-Qin; Yu, Fa-Zhi; Shen, Ji-Jia

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of collagen fiber staining between Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining of hepatic specimens in mice with Schistosoma japonicum infection. A model of hepatic granuloma and fibrosis was established by infecting mice with S. japonicum cercariae, then the hepatic specimens were taken and Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining were performed. Eventually, the area of granuloma and fibrosis were measured by imaging analysis software. When the time of staining was 3-7 min, there was no significant difference of the fibrosis areas between the two methods (P > 0.05); when the time of staining was more than 10 min, the staining area showed by Masson's staining was significantly larger than that showed by Van-Gieson staining, and the difference was statistically significant (P Masson trichrome staining, therefore Van-Gieson staining is a better method to display collagen.

  12. Clinical Effects of Formulated Food of Peucedanum japonicum Extract and Saw Palmetto Extract in Male Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Shinji; Beppu, Masanori; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Miyazaki, Sayaka; Haruno, Akihiro; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2017-02-04

    To evaluate changes over time in subjective symptom scores and urination parameters before and after oral administration of formulated food containing a combination of Peucedanum japonicum (P. japonicum) extract and saw palmetto extract (SPE) in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study was conducted in an open label manner on male patients with untreated LUTS. The urination state of patients was evaluated before and after administration of food formulated with P. japonicum extract and SPE for 4 weeks, based on urodynamic parameters and subjective symptom scores (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS and IPSS-QOL], Overactive Bladder Symptom Score [OABSS], Overactive Bladder Questionnaire [OAB-q], and International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]). After the administration of food formulated with these extracts, the following results were obtained: (i) Subjective findings: The IPSS-QOL score improved significantly; both parameters related to nocturia, i.e., frequency of nighttime urination and OABSS-2, improved significantly; other ratings for subjective symptoms slightly improved. (ii) Objective findings: Residual urine volume decreased significantly, and blood prostate specific antigen (PSA) and urinary 8-OHdG levels decreased slightly after the treatment. (iii) Other findings: Blood pressure decreased slightly. No adverse drug reactions were reported. (iv) Patient impressions: 75% of patients gave a rating of "Good" or higher, with 15 out of 20 patients wanting to continue treatment after the end of 4-week administration period. Food formulated with P. japonicum extract and SPE may be useful to decrease frequency of nighttime urination and residual urine volume in male patients with LUTS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Iron regulation of gene expression in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum/soybean symbiosis. Final technical report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerinot, M.L.

    1996-02-08

    B.japonicum produces ALA in a reaction catalyzed by the product of the hemA gene. Expression of the gene is affected by iron availability. To address the question of how the 5 prime untranslated region of the hemA transcript is involved in iron regulation, evenly spaced 10bp deletions within the hemA leader region was constructed and effects on hemA-lacZ expression were determined.

  14. Genetic Structure Inferred from Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal RNA Sequence of Oncomelania quadrasi, the Intermediate Snail Host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Jarilla, Blanca; Leonardo, Alvin K.; Sunico, Louie S.; Leonardo, Lydia R.; Andrews, Ross H.; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Trevor N Petney; Kirinoki, Masashi; Kato-Hayashi, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Species and subspecies of the Oncomelania hupensis species complex are recognized as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma japonicum. Of these species and subspecies, O. quadrasi is distributed throughout the Philippines. This study used 12S ribosomal RNA sequences to explore the genetic structure of O. quadrasi populations in the Philippines. Three subspecies, O. h. hupensis, O. h. formosana, and O. h. chiui of this group were also examined. The phylogenetic tree and haplotypes network showed th...

  15. CD4+CD25+ Treg induction by an HSP60-derived peptide SJMHE1 from Schistosoma japonicum is TLR2 dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Sha; Chi, Ying; Wen, Xiaoyun; Hoellwarth, Jason; He, Lei; Liu, Feng; Wu, Calvin; Dhesi, Shawn; Zhao, Jiaqing; Hu, Wei; Su, Chuan

    2009-11-01

    Chronic schistosome infection results in the suppression of host immune responses, allowing long-term schistosome survival and restricting pathology. Current theories suggest that Treg play an important role in this regulation. However, the mechanism of Treg induction during schistosome infection is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism behind the induction of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells by Schistosoma japonicum HSP60 (SjHSP60)-derived peptide SJMHE1 as well as to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis for the induction of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells during S. japonicum infection. Mice immunized with SJMHE1 or spleen and LN cells from naïve mice pretreated with SJMHE1 in vitro all displayed an increase in CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cell populations. Release of IL-10 and TGF-beta by SJMHE1 stimulation may contribute to suppression. Adoptively transferred SJMHE1-induced CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Additionally, SJMHE1-treated APC were tolerogenic and induced CD4(+) cells to differentiate into suppressive CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg. Furthermore, our data support a role for TLR2 in SJMHE1-mediated CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg induction. These findings provide the basis for a more complete understanding of the S. japonicum-host interactions that contribute to host homeostatic mechanisms, preventing an excessive immune response.

  16. The dynamic changes of CD3e(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells in spleens and bone marrow of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Chen, Qingzhou; Hou, Wei; He, Li

    2017-03-01

    Schistosoma japonicum as a pathogeny requires dendritic cells to activate immune response. So, the research is to study the dynamic changes of CD3e(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells in mice infected with S. japonicum. Zero, 7, 28, 35, and 63 days were selected to study the variation of dendritic cells, and the proportions of CD3e(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells and CD86(+) mature dendritic cells in spleens and bone marrow were tested by flow cytometry. As a result, the variation trends of dendritic cells in spleen and bone marrow are similar as follows: the proportions of CD3e(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells increased first and then decreased from day 35, but the percentages of CD86(+) mature dendritic cells decreased from day 28 and increased in day 63. In vitro, cultured dendritic cells treated with SEA and SAWA were tested by flow cytometry, the variation trends of CD86 on dendritic cells are consistent with the results in days 28 and 63. Besides CD86, the expression of MHC-II also hints immune regulation. In conclusion, it is speculated that dendritic cells play a role of immune regulation through MHC-II and CD86 in S. japonicum infection. Immune regulation of dendritic cells is not only in favor of the survival of host and parasite but also can be used in the therapy for immune diseases.

  17. Eco-social determinants of Schistosoma japonicum infection supported by multi-level modelling in Eryuan county, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jia, Tie-Wu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Shi, Xue-Wen; Li, Hong-Jun; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains of considerable public health concern in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). The effectiveness of schistosomiasis control interventions are, among other factors, governed by the social-ecological context. However, eco-social determinants of schistosomiasis are poorly understood, particularly at the household or village levels. In the current study, residents in 26 villages of Eryuan county, Yunnan province, P.R. China, were screened for Schistosoma japonicum infection with a serological assay that was followed by stool examination for sero-positive individuals. Bayesian multilevel models with spatial random effects were employed to profile the S. japonicum infection risk based on known transmission sites of S. japonicum that are scattered across individual land parcels in this part of the country. The key risk factors identified with this approach were the absence of a sanitary stall house for livestock and presence of living and infected intermediate host snails in close proximity. We conclude that a spatially explicit Bayesian multilevel approach can deepen our understanding of eco-social determinants that govern schistosomiasis transmission at a small geographical scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Putative Type III Secretion System Effector Encoded by the MA20_12780 Gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 Causes Incompatibility with Rj4 Genotype Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Syougo; Okizaki, Kouhei; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2015-09-01

    The nodulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 is restricted by Rj4 genotype soybeans (Glycine max). To identify the genes responsible for this incompatibility, Tn5 mutants of B. japonicum Is-34 that were able to overcome this nodulation restriction were obtained. Analysis of the Tn5 mutants revealed that Tn5 was inserted into a region containing the MA20_12780 gene. In addition, direct disruption of this gene using marker exchange overcame the nodulation restriction by Rj4 genotype soybeans. The MA20_12780 gene has a tts box motif in its upstream region, indicating a possibility that this gene encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein. Bioinformatic characterization revealed that the MA20_12780 protein contains the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease domain of the C48 peptidase (ubiquitin-like protease 1 [Ulp1]) family. The results of the present study indicate that a putative T3SS effector encoded by the MA20_12780 gene causes the incompatibility with Rj4 genotype soybeans, and they suggest the possibility that the nodulation restriction of B. japonicum Is-34 may be due to Rj4 genotype soybeans recognizing the putative T3SS effector (MA20_12780 protein) as a virulence factor. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. [Preliminary observation on the effect of mefloquine against egg granuloma formation in the liver of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Chao-Wei

    2013-04-01

    To explore whether mefloquine possesses the effect on granuloma formation induced by Schistosoma japonicum eggs. Seventeen out of twenty-eight mice infected with 20 S. japonicum cercariae for 35 days were treated orally with mefloquine at a single dose of 200 mg/kg, and groups of 2-3 mice were sacrificed at various intervals post-treatment. The livers removed from each group of mice were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. While the remained 11 untreated mice divided into 6 groups (1-2 mice per group) were sacrificed at the same time periods as groups of mice treated with mefloquine, and their livers served as untreated corresponding controls. The granulomas with single egg in the center were counted and their diameters were measured using an ocular micrometer. The liver tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Foot's or Mallory's methods for observation on histopathological alteration of egg granulomas, and on the appearance of reticular and collagen fibers within the granulomas. After infected mice were treated with mefloquine for 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days, i.e., 38, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days post-infection, the mean diameters of granuloma with single egg measured in the liver tissues section were (161 +/- 19), (175 +/- 13), (195 +/- 9), (171 +/- 40), (180 +/- 13), and (145 +/- 25) microm, respectively, and each of them was significantly lower than that of its corresponding control group of (189 +/- 18), (197 +/- 11), (211 +/- 12), (208 +/- 19), (203 +/- 16), and (207 +/- 36) microm (P granuloma were sustained to 14-21 d post treatment (49-56 d post infection), which was significantly different from the corresponding control groups that all the eggs were surrounded by fibroblasts at 42 d post infection. Up to 28-35 d post treatment (63-70 d post infection), the boundary of egg granulomas distributed in the liver tissues of mefloquine treated groups was nearer in comparison to the corresponding control groups. Further observation on the reticular

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on target cells. The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods We developed a green method for the synthesis of water-soluble AgNPs by treating silver ions with hot aqueous extract of the mycelia of G. neo-japonicum. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using a series of assays: such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase 3, DNA laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results showed a strong resonance centered on the surface of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs were single-crystalline, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs (1–10 μg/mL) for 24 hours revealed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase 3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion The results indicate that AgNPs possess cytotoxic effects with apoptotic features and suggest that the reactive oxygen species generated by

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on target cells. The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. We developed a green method for the synthesis of water-soluble AgNPs by treating silver ions with hot aqueous extract of the mycelia of G. neo-japonicum. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using a series of assays: such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase 3, DNA laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results showed a strong resonance centered on the surface of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs were single-crystalline, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs (1-10 μg/mL) for 24 hours revealed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase 3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. The results indicate that AgNPs possess cytotoxic effects with apoptotic features and suggest that the reactive oxygen species generated by AgNPs have a significant role in

  2. Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in nodulation in soybean roots inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain CPAC 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gesiele Almeida Barros de; Batista, Jesiane Stefânia Silva; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Nascimento, Leandro Costa do; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-03-06

    Biological nitrogen fixation in root nodules is a process of great importance to crops of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], as it may provide the bulk of the plant's needs for nitrogen. Legume nodulation involves several complex steps and, although studied for many decades, much remains to be understood. This research aimed at analyzing the global expression of genes in soybean roots of a Brazilian cultivar (Conquista) inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. To achieve this, we used the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique combined with Illumina sequencing. The subtractive library (non-inoculated x inoculated) of soybean roots resulted in 3,210 differentially expressed transcripts at 10 days after inoculation were studied. The data were grouped according to the ontologies of the molecular functions and biological processes. Several classes of genes were confirmed as related to N2 fixation and others were reported for the first time. During nodule formation, a higher percentage of genes were related to primary metabolism, cell-wall modifications and the antioxidant defense system. Putative symbiotic functions were attributed to some of these genes for the first time.

  3. Pteryxin: a coumarin in Peucedanum japonicum Thunb leaves exerts antiobesity activity through modulation of adipogenic gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugara, Ruwani N; Inafuku, Masashi; Takara, Kensaku; Iwasaki, Hironori; Oku, Hirosuke

    2014-10-01

    Partially purified hexane phase (HP) of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb (PJT) was identified as an antiobesity candidate. However, the compound responsible for the antiobesity activity remained unknown. Thus, in this study we isolated the active compound, to determine the mechanisms related to antiobesity activity in vitro. The HP was fractionated, and the effect on the triacylglycerol (TG) content was evaluated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes. On the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, the structure of the active compound was identified as pteryxin, a known compound in PJT. However, to our knowledge, its biological activities against obesity have not been reported previously. The dose-dependent effect on the TG content, and the gene expressions related to adipogenesis, fatty acid catabolism, energy expenditure, lipolysis, and lipogenesis due to pteryxin (10, 15, and 20 μg/mL) were examined in vitro. Pteryxin dose dependently suppressed TG content in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes (by 52.7%, 53.8%, and 57.4%, respectively; P 0.05) were up-regulated due to pteryxin. Our study demonstrated that pteryxin in PJT plays the key role in regulating the lipid metabolism-related gene network and improving energy production in vitro. Thus, the results suggest pteryxin as a new natural compound to be used as an antiobesity drug in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predominant populations of indigenous soybean-nodulating Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains obtained from organic farming systems in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongphatcharachai, M; Staley, C; Wang, P; Moncada, K M; Sheaffer, C C; Sadowsky, M J

    2015-05-01

    Bradyrhizobium from organic fields in Minnesota were isolated and genotyped to assess diversity of soybean-bradyrhizobia in organic farming systems that can be used to improve soybean productivity. Soil samples were collected from 25 organic fields in Minnesota during May to July 2012. Soybean (cv. Lambert) was used as a host to trap indigenous bradyrhizobia in each sample. Genetic diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains (n=733) was determined using the horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique and the soybean-bradyrhizobia were classified into 79 different genotypes. Of these, 15 dominant genotypes were found and were highly similar (>92% fingerprint similarity) to serotypes USDA 127 (40.4%), USDA 4 (31.8%) and USDA 123 (15.5%), which were the three main populations of soybean-bradyrhizobia in organic fields. Bradyrhizobium japonicum serogroup USDA 4 strains were found to make up a previously unrecognized, predominant rhizobial population in the organic farming soils examined. The relative abundance of strain USDA 4 was negatively correlated with that of USDA 127 and this relationship may be influenced by the levels of NO3 -N and other soil edaphic factors. The local community of bradyrhizobia can be affected by applying inoculant bacteria to organic fields. Based on these results, soybean production in organic farms may be improved by displacing strains similar to USDA 4 with those better at nitrogen fixation and competitive ability than indigenous strains. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. SjE16.7 activates macrophages and promotes Schistosoma japonicum egg-induced granuloma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Wu, Chenyun; Chen, Qing; Wu, Jianhua; Yang, Yang; Guo, Xiaokui; Chen, Guangjie; Wang, Zhaojun

    2015-09-01

    SjE16.7 is an egg-specific protein from Schistosoma japonicum that recruits neutrophils and initiates an inflammatory granuloma response in host tissue. However, since macrophages are known to be important regulators of egg granuloma formation we investigated the effect of SjE16.7 on this cell type. Here we report that SjE16.7 is a potent macrophage activator, inducing macrophage chemotaxis and stimulating cytokine production. Treatment of murine primary macrophages with SjE16.7 resulted in upregulation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-6 and TNF-α), as well as phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Moreover, SjE16.7 treatment increased MHC Class II expression on the surface of macrophages. Importantly, in vivo blockade of SjE16.7 significantly reduced egg-induced pathology, as a result of decreased leucocyte infiltration and reduced granuloma size. Our results suggest that SjE16.7 is an important pathogenic factor and a potential treatment target for this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of (L)-3-hydroxykynurenine O-sulfate in the buccal gland secretion of the parasitic lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Shoji; Ito, Naoko; Hasegawa, Mai; Uchiumi, Toshio; Hase, Sumihiro

    2012-12-01

    Parasitic lampreys are known to secrete proteins having anticoagulant and vasodilator activities from the buccal glands during feeding on their host's blood. However, small molecules in the secretion have never been explored in detail. We examined the secretion of Japanese liver lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) for small molecules and found an intensely fluorescent substance upon gel filtration. After purification by anion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC, structure of the compound was determined to be L-3-hydroxykynurenine O-sulfate by NMR- and UV-spectrometry, complemented with enzymatic and chemical degradation. In vertebrates, the sulfate ester of 3-hydroxykynurenine is a compound that has been regarded as a urinary metabolite of tryptophan but not reported from normal tissues to date. Although the function of this molecule in the buccal glands remains to be elucidated, it is remarkable that the same substance was described in 1960s from two species of blood-sucking insects, Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans, suggesting its potential role in blood-feeding.

  7. Oral delivery of the Sj23LHD-GST antigen by Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system protects against Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and oral vaccine delivery system would be benefit for prevention of this disease. Although attenuated salmonella has been used as an antigen expression vector for oral vaccine development, the membrane-bound vacuoles in which bacteria reside hinders the presentation of expressed heterologous antigens to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. The present work used an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain VNP20009 to secretory expression of Sj23LHDGST bivalent antigen from Schistosoma japonicum and tested the protective efficacy against S. japonicum infection in orally immunized mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoters (nirB or pagC were used to express the antigen (Sj23LHDGST and the Salmonella type III or α-hemolysin secretion system was employed to secrete it. The immunoblotting analysis and fluorescent microscopy revealed that the antigen was effectively expressed and delivered to the cytosol of macrophages in vitro. Among recombinant vaccine strains, an engineered VNP20009 which expressed the antigen by nirB promoter and secreted it through type III secretion system (nirB-sopE(1-104-Sj23LHD-GST efficiently protected against S. japonicum infection in a mouse model. This strain elicited a predominantly IgG(2a antibody response and a markedly increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this strain caused T cell activation as evidenced by significantly increased expression of CD44 and CD69. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral delivery of antigen by nirB-driven Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system is a novel, safe, inexpensive, efficient and convenient approach for schistosome vaccine development.

  8. [Dynamic alteration of CD154/CD40 and its effects on Th1/Th2 polarization in inducible co-stimulator ligand knockout mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Xia, Chao-ming

    2015-12-18

    To analyze effect on the CD154-CD40 signaling pathway and Th1/Th2 polarization by deficient inducible co-stimulator (ICOS)-ICOS ligand (ICOSL) signaling in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. ICOSL knockout (ICOSL-KO) mice and wild-type C57BL/6J mice were used as experimental Schistosomiasis model infected with Schistosoma japonicum. The expressions of CD154 and CD40 on splenocytes and on inflammatory cells around granulomatous infiltration of liver in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum were analyzed by flow cytometry,immunohistochemical staining, respectively, on the day before infection (0 week)and at the end of 4, 7, 12, 16 and 20 weeks post-infection. The splenocytes of the mice were stimulated with soluble egg antigen(SEA) for 72 hours, then the concentrations of interferon gamma(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the culture supernatants were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The levels of SEA-specific antibodies of IgG and IgG1 and IgG2a were measured in the mice sera by ELISA. The granulomatous pathology in the mice liver was dynamically observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Compared with the wild-type C57BL/6J mice, the expressions of CD154 on CD4+ T splenocytes [(18.62 ± 4.76)% vs.(27.91 ± 3.94)%, (22.44 ± 4.67)% vs.(40.86 ± 5.21)%, (25.50 ± 6.81)% vs.(43.81 ± 8.41)%, (20.22 ± 5.28)% vs.(40.95 ± 7.34)%, (17.87 ± 4.59)% vs.(33.16 ± 6.31)%, all PCD154[(0.319 ± 0.066) vs.(0.488 ± 0.086), (0.389 ± 0.067) vs.(0.596 ± 0.082), (0.378 ± 0.064) vs.(0.543 ± 0.072), (0.348 ± 0.069) vs.(0.523 ± 0.076), all PCD154 and CD40 and impairment of Th2 immune response in the ICOSL-KO mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, accompanying with notedly reduced hepatic granulomatous pathology. The ICOS-ICOSL signaling has a regulatory effect on CD154-CD40 signaling pathway, and may play an important role in the hepatic egg granuloma formation of Schistosomiasis.

  9. An investigation into the potential effects of infrapopulation structure and other sources of sampling error, on population genetic studies of the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guan-Nan; Liu, Liang; He, Hong-Bin; Attwood, Stephen W

    2016-03-21

    Schistosoma japonicum remains a major challenge to human and animal health. Earlier microsatellite-based studies reported possible definitive-host-specific private alleles within S. japonicum, opening the possibility that different definitive hosts might harbour different parasite strains. Previous investigations have also detected near-identical multilocus genotypes in populations of adult worms - possibly the result of mutations occurring during the asexual (intramolluscan) phase of clonal expansion. Research has also revealed extensive deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Proportions (HWP) and conflicting results among studies. The present study was performed to examine some of the potential effects of infrapopulation structure on microsatellite-based studies of the transmission ecology of S. japonicum. Potential sources of bias considered included organotropic distribution of worms, non-random mating and corrections for clonal expansion. Stool samples from naturally infected hosts were used to infect snails in the laboratory and thereby expose mice. 274 individual worms were typed at seven microsatellite loci. Removal of individuals bearing duplicate MLGs (as a correction for presumed clonal expansion) had an impact on both HWP and organotropic genetic differentiation. The study found no evidence that heterozygote deficiencies were caused by a Wahlund effect. Female-male pairings appeared to be random and there was no evidence for mate choice by heterozygosity. There was some indication that excess heterozygosity, induced by clonal expansion, can offset heterozygote deficiencies caused by small population size or populations fragmented by parasite control efforts. The view is supported that miracidia are preferable to adult worms in investigations into host-specific parasite lineages. Where adults must be used, extreme care should be taken with regard to sampling if infrapopulations of small animals are compared with those of larger animals; this is because of

  10. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the

  11. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Xiaosu; Piao, Xianyu; Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource for screening anti

  12. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date.Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98 genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research.This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource

  13. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50) at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA. PMID:22942699

  14. Isojacareubin from the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum: potent antibacterial and synergistic effects on clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC(50)/MBC(50)) at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI(50)) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log(10)CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  15. Schistosoma japonicum HSP60-derived peptide SJMHE1 suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Jun; Liang, Yong; Ni, Hongchang; Shi, Liang; Xu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Yuepeng; Su, Yuting; Mou, Xiao; Chen, Deyu; Mao, Chaoming

    2016-03-12

    Parasite-derived molecules with immunomodulatory properties, which have been optimised during host-parasite co-evolution, exhibit potential applications as novel immunotherapeutics. We have previously demonstrated that Schistosoma japonicum HSP60-derived peptide SJMHE1 induces CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and that adoptively transferred SJMHE1-induced CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. However, multiple concerns regarding this method render this treatment unsuitable. To gain further insights into the potential effects of SJMHE1, we used ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH and evaluated the effect of SJMHE1 on DTH mice. BALB/c mice were sensitised with OVA alone or combined with SJMHE1 and then challenged with OVA to induce DTH. We first analysed the potential effects of SJMHE1 by measuring DTH responses, T-cell responses, cytokine secretion, and Treg proportions. We then evaluated the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cells during DTH and Treg generation to identify the mechanism by which SJMHE1 suppresses DTH. SJMHE1 modulated the effector response against OVA-induced DTH and stimulated the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1 in immunised mice through a mechanism involving CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. SJMHE1-induced CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs expressed high levels of CTLA-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1, which substantially contributed to the suppressive activity during DTH. The administration of SJMHE1 to DTH in mice led to the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs from CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cells in the periphery, which inhibited DTH responses. Our study proves that the parasite-driven peptide suppresses DTH in mice, which may confer a new option for inflammation treatment.

  16. Effects of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum waaL (rfaL Gene on Hydrophobicity, Motility, Stress Tolerance, and Symbiotic Relationship with Soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Gu Noh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We cloned and sequenced the waaL (rfaL gene from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which infects soybean and forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean roots. waaL has been extensively studied in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS biosynthesis of enteric bacteria, but little is known about its function in (bradyrhizobial LPS architecture. To characterize its role as O-antigen ligase in the LPS biosynthesis pathway, we constructed a waaL knock-out mutant and its complemented strain named JS015 and CS015, respectively. LPS analysis showed that an LPS structure of JS015 is deficient in O-antigen as compared to that of the wild type and complemented strain CS015, suggesting that WaaL ligates the O-antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide to form a complete LPS. JS015 also revealed increased cell surface hydrophobicity, but it showed decreased motility in soft agar plates. In addition to the alteration in cell surface properties, disruption of the waaL gene caused increased sensitivity of JS015 to hydrogen peroxide, osmotic pressure, and novobiocin. Specifically, plant tests revealed that JS015 failed to nodulate the host plant soybean, indicating that the rhizobial waaL gene is responsible for the establishment of a symbiotic relationship between soybean and B. japonicum.

  17. Optimisation of a droplet digital PCR assay for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection: A duplex approach with DNA binding dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, Kosala G; Gordon, Catherine A; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Cai, Pengfei; McManus, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronically debilitating helminth infection with a significant socio-economic and public health impact. Accurate diagnostics play a pivotal role in achieving current schistosomiasis control and elimination goals. However, many of the current diagnostic procedures, which rely on detection of schistosome eggs, have major limitations including lack of accuracy and the inability to detect pre-patent infections. DNA-based detection methods provide a viable alternative to the current tests commonly used for schistosomiasis diagnosis. Here we describe the optimisation of a novel droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) duplex assay for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection which provides improved detection sensitivity and specificity. The assay involves the amplification of two specific and abundant target gene sequences in S. japonicum; a retrotransposon (SjR2) and a portion of a mitochondrial gene (nad1). The assay detected target sequences in different sources of schistosome DNA isolated from adult worms, schistosomules and eggs, and exhibits a high level of specificity, thereby representing an ideal tool for the detection of low levels of parasite DNA in different clinical samples including parasite cell free DNA in the host circulation and other bodily fluids. Moreover, being quantitative, the assay can be used to determine parasite infection intensity and, could provide an important tool for the detection of low intensity infections in low prevalence schistosomiasis-endemic areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene Gun Bombardment with DNA-Coated Golden Particles Enhanced the Protective Effect of a DNA Vaccine Based on Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase of Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma species, remains an important parasitic zoonosis. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTGR plays an important role in the development of the parasite and for its survival. Here we present a recombinant plasmid DNA vaccine, pVAX1/SjTGR, to estimate its protection against S. japonicum in BALB/c mice. The DNA vaccine administrated by particle bombardment induced higher protection than by intramuscular injection. All animals vaccinated with pVAX1/SjTGR developed significant specific anti-SjTGR antibodies than control groups. Moreover, animals immunized by gene gun exhibited a splenocyte proliferative response, with an increase in IFN-γ and IL-4. The recombinant plasmid administrated by gene gun achieved a medium protective efficacy of 27.83–38.83% ( of worm reduction and 40.38–44.51% ( of liver egg count reduction. It suggests that different modes of administering a DNA vaccine can influence the protective efficacy induced by the vaccine. Interestingly, from the enzymatic activity results, we found that worms obtained from pVAX1/SjTGR-vaccinated animals expressed lower enzymatic activity than the control group and the antibodies weakened the enzymatic activity of SjTGR in vitro, too. It implies that the high-level antibodies may contribute to the protective effects.

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles on the basis of low and high molar mass exopolysaccharides of Bradyrhizobium japonicum 36 and its antimicrobial activity against some pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Bakhtiyor; Rustamova, Nigora; Yili, Abulimiti; Zhao, Hai-Qing; Aisa, Haji A

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized on the basis of exopolysaccharides (low and high molar mass) of diazotrophic Bradyrhizobium japonicum 36 strain. The synthesis of SNPs was carried out by direct reduction of silver nitrate with ethanol-insoluble (high molar mass, HMW) and ethanol-soluble (low molar mass, LMW) fractions of exopolysaccharides (EPS), produced by diazotrophic strain B. japonicum 36. SNPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SNPs synthesized on the basis of LMW EPS absorbed radiation in the visible regions of 420 nm, whereas SNPs based on the HMW EPS have a wavelength maximum at 450 nm because of the strong SPR transition. Moreover, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the SNPs were examined in vitro against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. SNPs synthesized on the basis of LMW EPS were active than those synthesized on the basis of HMW EPS. Besides, UV-visible spectroscopic evaluation confirmed that SNPs synthesized on the basis of LMW EPS were far more stable than those obtained on the basis of HMW EPS.

  20. Enhancement of protective efficacy through adenoviral vectored vaccine priming and protein boosting strategy encoding triosephosphate isomerase (SjTPI) against Schistosoma japonicum in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yang; Wang, Xiaoting; Tang, Jianxia; Zhao, Song; Xing, Yuntian; Dai, Jianrong; Jin, Xiaolin; Zhu, Yinchang

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease; developing transmission blocking veterinary vaccines are urgently needed for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in China. Heterologous prime-boost strategy, a novel vaccination approach, is more effective in enhancing vaccine efficacy against multiple pathogens. In the present study, we established a novel heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy, the rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming and rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting strategy, and evaluated its protective efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum in mice. Adenoviral vectored vaccine (rAdV-SjTPI.opt) and recombinant protein vaccine (rSjTPI) were prepared and used in different combinations as vaccines in a mouse model. The specific immune responses and protective efficacies were evaluated. Furthermore, the longevity of protective efficacy was also determined. Results showed that the rAdV-SjTPI.opt priming-rSjTPI boosting strategy elicited higher levels of specific IgG responses and broad-spectrum specific cellular immune responses. The protective efficacy could reach up to nearly 70% and 50% of protection could be observed at 10 weeks after the last immunization in mice. The rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming-rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting vaccination strategy is a novel, highly efficient, and stable approach to developing vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infections in China.

  1. Enhancement of protective efficacy through adenoviral vectored vaccine priming and protein boosting strategy encoding triosephosphate isomerase (SjTPI against Schistosoma japonicum in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dai

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease; developing transmission blocking veterinary vaccines are urgently needed for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in China. Heterologous prime-boost strategy, a novel vaccination approach, is more effective in enhancing vaccine efficacy against multiple pathogens. In the present study, we established a novel heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy, the rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming and rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting strategy, and evaluated its protective efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum in mice.Adenoviral vectored vaccine (rAdV-SjTPI.opt and recombinant protein vaccine (rSjTPI were prepared and used in different combinations as vaccines in a mouse model. The specific immune responses and protective efficacies were evaluated. Furthermore, the longevity of protective efficacy was also determined. Results showed that the rAdV-SjTPI.opt priming-rSjTPI boosting strategy elicited higher levels of specific IgG responses and broad-spectrum specific cellular immune responses. The protective efficacy could reach up to nearly 70% and 50% of protection could be observed at 10 weeks after the last immunization in mice.The rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming-rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting vaccination strategy is a novel, highly efficient, and stable approach to developing vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infections in China.

  2. Effects of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum waaL (rfaL) Gene on Hydrophobicity, Motility, Stress Tolerance, and Symbiotic Relationship with Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jun-Gu; Jeon, Han-Eul; So, Jae-Seong; Chang, Woo-Suk

    2015-07-23

    We cloned and sequenced the waaL (rfaL) gene from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which infects soybean and forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean roots. waaL has been extensively studied in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis of enteric bacteria, but little is known about its function in (brady)rhizobial LPS architecture. To characterize its role as O-antigen ligase in the LPS biosynthesis pathway, we constructed a waaL knock-out mutant and its complemented strain named JS015 and CS015, respectively. LPS analysis showed that an LPS structure of JS015 is deficient in O-antigen as compared to that of the wild type and complemented strain CS015, suggesting that WaaL ligates the O-antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide to form a complete LPS. JS015 also revealed increased cell surface hydrophobicity, but it showed decreased motility in soft agar plates. In addition to the alteration in cell surface properties, disruption of the waaL gene caused increased sensitivity of JS015 to hydrogen peroxide, osmotic pressure, and novobiocin. Specifically, plant tests revealed that JS015 failed to nodulate the host plant soybean, indicating that the rhizobial waaL gene is responsible for the establishment of a symbiotic relationship between soybean and B. japonicum.

  3. Elucidation of the zinc-dependent regulation in Amycolatopsis japonicum enabled the identification of the ethylenediamine-disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Marius; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Stegmann, Evi

    2016-04-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis japonicum produces the complexing agent ethylenediamine-disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS), which is an isomer of the widely industrially applied ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA). In contrast to EDTA, [S,S]-EDDS is readily biodegradable and is therefore an alternative with a favourable environmental profile. Biotechnological production of [S,S]-EDDS, however, is not currently possible because its biosynthesis is inhibited by low-micromolar zinc concentrations. Here we illustrate the development of a new strategy for identifying a biosynthetic pathway that is based on the elucidation of transcriptional regulation and the screening for binding sites of the respective regulator that controls the [S,S]-EDDS biosynthesis genes. To achieve this, we identified the zinc uptake regulator Zur in A. japonicum and showed that it mediates the repression of the zinc uptake system ZnuABCAj . The Zur-binding motif, recognized by the zinc-bound Zur protein in the upstream region of znuABCAj , was used to screen the genome, leading to the identification of the aes genes. Transcriptional analysis and shift assays reveal specific zinc-responsive regulation of the aes genes by Zur, and gene inactivation shows their involvement in [S,S]-EDDS biosynthesis. Zur-mediated zinc repression of the [S,S]-EDDS biosynthesis genes is abolished in a Δzur mutant, which offers now the opportunity to develop a biotechnological process. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. LC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of seven flavonoids in rat plasma after oral administration of Cirsium japonicum DC. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Jia, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Qiaoyue; Yang, Haotian; Shi, He; Zhang, Lantong

    2014-12-02

    Cirsium japonicum DC., a Traditional Chinese Medicine, has the curative effect of antihemorrhagic and antitumor. Pharmacological studies prove that the curative effect may relate to the flavonoids. A simple and rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was first developed and validated for the quantification of seven flavonoids including pectolinarin, linarin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, diosmetin, acacetin and apigenin in rat plasma after oral administration of Cirsium japonicum DC. extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution by using a mixture of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8mL/min. A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ionization mode simultaneously. Samples were pre-treated by a single-step protein precipitation with methanol, and sulfamethoxazole was used as internal standard (IS). The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantization were 623.4/315.2 for pectolinarin, 593.3/285.1 for linarin, 315.3/300.2 for pectolinarigenin, 301.2/286.2 for hispidulin, 301.2/258.2 for diosmetin, 283.0/267.9 for acacetin, 269.0/117.0 for apigenin and 252.2/155.8 for IS. After oral administration of 6mL/kg Cirsium japonicum DC. extract in rats, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of pectolinarin, linarin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, diosmetin, acacetin and apigenin were 876.77±97.34ng/mL, 86.79±1.70ng/mL, 6.13±0.12ng/mL, 32.85±2.50ng/mL, 37.2±2.04ng/mL, 19.02±1.29ng/mL and 148.26±20.63ng/mL, respectively. The time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) was 5min for pectolinarin, linarin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, diosmetin, acacetin and 360min for apigenin. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD%) for seven compounds were less than 13.16% and 7.77% and the accuracy (RE

  5. Ecological Model to Predict Potential Habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Mountainous Regions, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Zhu

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis japonica is a parasitic disease that remains endemic in seven provinces in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China. One of the most important measures in the process of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China is control of Oncomelania hupensis, the unique intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Compared with plains/swamp and lake regions, the hilly/mountainous regions of schistosomiasis endemic areas are more complicated, which makes the snail survey difficult to conduct precisely and efficiently. There is a pressing call to identify the snail habitats of mountainous regions in an efficient and cost-effective manner.Twelve out of 56 administrative villages distributed with O. hupensis in Eryuan, Yunnan Province, were randomly selected to set up the ecological model. Thirty out of the rest of 78 villages (villages selected for building model were excluded from the villages for validation in Eryuan and 30 out of 89 villages in Midu, Yunnan Province were selected via a chessboard method for model validation, respectively. Nine-year-average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Land Surface Temperature (LST as well as Digital Elevation Model (DEM covering Eryuan and Midu were extracted from MODIS and ASTER satellite images, respectively. Slope, elevation and the distance from every village to its nearest stream were derived from DEM. Suitable survival environment conditions for snails were defined by comparing historical snail presence data and remote sensing derived images. According to the suitable conditions for snails, environment factors, i.e. NDVI, LST, elevation, slope and the distance from every village to its nearest stream, were integrated into an ecological niche model to predict O. hupensis potential habitats in Eryuan and Midu. The evaluation of the model was assessed by comparing the model prediction and field investigation. Then, the consistency rate of model validation was calculated in

  6. Specific anti-glycan antibodies are sustained during and after parasite clearance in Schistosoma japonicum-infected rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Y Michelle Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunity to Schistosoma infection requires many years of exposure, and multiple infections and treatments to develop. Unlike humans, rhesus macaques clear an established schistosome infection naturally at the same time acquiring immunity towards re-infection. In macaques, schistosome egg production decreases after 8 weeks post-infection and by week 22, physiological impairment of the worm caused by unclarified antibody-mediated processes is observed. Since strong antibody responses have been observed against schistosome glycan antigens in human and animal infections, we here investigate if anti-glycan antibodies are associated with immunity against schistosome infections in macaques.We used a microarray containing a large repertoire of glycoprotein- and glycolipid-derived glycans from different schistosome life stages to analyse anti-glycan serum IgG and IgM from S. japonicum-infected macaques during the course of infection and self-cure. We also used an in vitro schistosomula assay to investigate whether macaque sera containing anti-glycan antibodies can kill schistosomula.Antibody responses towards schistosome glycans at week 4 post-infection were dominated by IgM while IgG was high at week 8. The profound increase in IgG was observed mainly for antibodies towards a large subset of glycans that contain (multi-fucosylated terminal GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN, and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3GlcNAc (LeX motifs. In general, glycans with a higher degree of fucosylation gave rise to stronger antibody responses than non-fucosylated glycans. Interestingly, even though many IgG and IgM responses had declined by week 22 post-infection, IgG towards O-glycans with highly fucosylated LDN motifs remained. When incubating macaque serum with schistosomula in vitro, schistosomula death was positively correlated with the duration of infection of macaques; macaque serum taken 22 weeks post-infection caused most schistosomula to die, suggesting the presence of potentially

  7. Combined IL-12 Plasmid and Recombinant SjGST Enhance the Protective and Anti-pathology Effect of SjGST DNA Vaccine Against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ching Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is listed as one of most important tropical diseases and more than 200 million people are estimated to be infected. Development of a vaccine is thought to be the most effective way to control this disease. Recombinant 26-kDa glutathione S-transferase (rSjGST has previously been reported to achieve a worm reduction rate of 42-44%. To improve the efficiency of the vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum, we immunized mice with a combination of pcDNA vector-encoded 26-kDa SjGST (pcDNA/SjGST, IL-12 expressing-plasmid (pIL-12, and rSjGST. Co-vaccination with pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST led to a reduction in worm burden, hepatic egg burden, and the size of liver tissue granulomas than that in the untreated infection controls. In addition, we detected high levels of specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a against the rSjGST antigen in infected mice vaccinated with this combination of pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST. Moreover, high expression levels of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, were also detected in this group, without diminished levels of IL-12, INF-γ, and TNF-α cytokines that are related to parasite killing. In conclusion, we have developed a new vaccination regimen against S. japonicum infection and shown that co-immunization with pcDNA/SjGST vaccine, pIL-12, and rSjGST has significant anti-parasite, anti-hepatic egg and anti-pathology effects in mice. The efficacy of this vaccination method should be further validated in large animals such as water buffalo. This method may help to reduce the transmission of zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica.

  8. Recombinant Sj16 from Schistosoma japonicum contains a functional N-terminal nuclear localization signal necessary for nuclear translocation in dendritic cells and interleukin-10 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi; Yang, Fan; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Zheng, Huanqin; Fung, Mingchiu; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-12-01

    Sj16 is a Schistosoma japonicum-derived protein (16 kDa in molecular weight) that has been identified as an immune modulation molecule, but the mechanisms of modulation of immune responses are not known. In this report, we aimed to investigate the host immune regulation mechanism by recombinant Sj16 (rSj16) and thus illuminate the molecular mechanism of immune evasion by S. japonicum. The effect of rSj16 and rSj16 mutants on the biology of dendritic cells (DCs) was assessed by examining DC maturation, cytokine production, and expression of surface markers by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that rSj16 significantly stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 production and inhibited LPS-induced bone marrow-derived dendrite cell (BMDC) maturation in a dose-dependent manner. By using antibody neutralization experiments and IL-10-deficient (knockout) mice, we confirmed that the inhibitory effect of rSj16 on LPS-induced BMDCs is due to its induction of IL-10 production. To understand how rSj16 induces the production of IL-10, we analyzed the protein sequence and revealed two potential nuclear localization signals (NLS) in Sj16. The N-terminal NLS (NLS1) is both necessary and sufficient for translocation of rSj16 to the nucleus of BMDCs and is important for subsequent induction of IL-10 production and the inhibition of BMDC maturation by rSj16. The results of our study concluded that the ability of rSj16 to inhibit DC functions is IL-10 dependent which is operated by IL-10R signal pathway. This study also confirmed that NLS is an important domain associated with increased production of IL-10. Our findings will extend the current understanding on host-schistosome relationship and provide insight about bottleneck of parasitic control.

  9. Labeling of Carbon Pools in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae Bacteroids following Incubation of Intact Nodules with CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, S O; Streeter, J G

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the work reported here was to ascertain that the patterns of labeling seen in isolated bacteroids also occurred in bacteroids in intact nodules and to observe early metabolic events following exposure of intact nodules to (14)CO(2). Intact nodules of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ripley) inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Progress 9) inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae isolate 128C53 were detached and immediately fed (14)CO(2) for 1 to 6 min. Bacteroids were purified from these nodules in 5 to 7 min after the feeding period. In the cytosol from both soybean and pea nodules, malate had the highest radioactivity, followed by citrate and aspartate. In peas, asparagine labeling equaled that of aspartate. In B. japonicum bacteroids, malate was the most rapidly labeled compound, and the rate of glutamate labeling was 67% of the rate of malate labeling. Aspartate and alanine were the next most rapidly labeled compounds. R. leguminosarum bacteroids had very low amounts of (14)C and, after a 1-min feeding, malate contained 90% of the radioactivity in the organic acid fraction. Only a trace of activity was found in aspartate, whereas the rate of glutamate and alanine labeling approached that of malate after 6 min of feeding. Under the conditions studied, malate was the major form of labeled carbon supplied to both types of bacteroids. These results with intact nodules confirm our earlier results with isolated bacteroids, which showed that a significant proportion of provided labeled substrate, such as malate, is diverted to glutamate. This supports the conclusion that microaerobic conditions in nodules influence carbon metabolism in bacteroids.

  10. Combined IL-12 Plasmid and Recombinant SjGST Enhance the Protective and Anti-pathology Effect of SjGST DNA Vaccine Against Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Ching; Lin, Ching-Nan; Peng, Shih-Yi; Kang, Tsung-Fu; Lee, Kin-Mu

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is listed as one of most important tropical diseases and more than 200 million people are estimated to be infected. Development of a vaccine is thought to be the most effective way to control this disease. Recombinant 26-kDa glutathione S-transferase (rSjGST) has previously been reported to achieve a worm reduction rate of 42–44%. To improve the efficiency of the vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum, we immunized mice with a combination of pcDNA vector-encoded 26-kDa SjGST (pcDNA/SjGST), IL-12 expressing-plasmid (pIL-12), and rSjGST. Co-vaccination with pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST led to a reduction in worm burden, hepatic egg burden, and the size of liver tissue granulomas than that in the untreated infection controls. In addition, we detected high levels of specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a against the rSjGST antigen in infected mice vaccinated with this combination of pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST. Moreover, high expression levels of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, were also detected in this group, without diminished levels of IL-12, INF-γ, and TNF-α cytokines that are related to parasite killing. In conclusion, we have developed a new vaccination regimen against S. japonicum infection and shown that co-immunization with pcDNA/SjGST vaccine, pIL-12, and rSjGST has significant anti-parasite, anti-hepatic egg and anti-pathology effects in mice. The efficacy of this vaccination method should be further validated in large animals such as water buffalo. This method may help to reduce the transmission of zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica. PMID:26891172

  11. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project: effect of the water diversion pattern on transmission of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang You-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP is the largest national water conservancy project in China. However, the Eastern Route Project (ERP of SNWDP will refer to the habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of some factors relating to the water diversion pattern on the spread north of O. hupensis and transmission of S. japonicum. Methods Marked snails were attached to the floating debris, and then placed on the water surface, the passage of snails through water pumps was observed. Some marked living adult snails were placed under water in the 5 spots, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days later, their survival and transfer under water were investigated. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 juvenile snails, with a male: female ratio of about 1, were caged, 1 year later, their reproductions were calculated. Results The snails attached on the floating debris at 100-, 50- and 20-cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the big pump (with a diameter of 80 cm, could be absorbed into the pumps, with passing rates of 2.45%, 3.93% and 43.46%, respectively, compared with 72.07% and 91.00% for the snails at 20 cm and 10 cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the small pump (with a diameter of 20 cm. A total of 36,600 marked living snails were put into 5 ponds and ditches, with the water depths of 1-1.6 m, 15-120 days later, no marked ones were found along the ponds and ditches or in the straw packages. The juvenile snails did not reproduce until their density reached up to 8 snails (ratio of male: female of 1/0.16 m2. Conclusions During the construction of ERP of SNWDP, the risk of northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica will be decreased or eliminated as long as long-term reliable interventions for snail control are implemented.

  12. [Surveillance and forecast system of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province. VI. Detection technology of water infectivity based on enrichment of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae on water surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guo-li; Dai, Jian-rong; Xing, Yuan-tian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhen-kun; Zhao, Zheng-yang; Guo, Na; Sun, Le-ping; Liang, You-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    To explore the enrichment technique of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae on the water surface, so as to establish a new method combined with the existing technology to detect the cercarial infested water body quickly and sensitively. Soybean oil, gasoline, kerosene and isophorone were screened as expanding agents. The cercariae were enriched by the thrust of the expanding agents when diffusing on the water surface, and PE adsorption film and C-6 film were applied to seize them so as to determine the infectivity of the water quickly. The relationship between the dose of expanding agents and diffusion radius were explored. Gasoline, kerosene and isophorone were suitable expanding agents, and the diffusion effect of isophorone was the best. After the enrichment by the expanding agents, the detection rate of cercariae of the method seizing cercariae with the film significantly improved in the water. This new method could effectively improve the detection rate of the cercarial infested water and is suitable for the low-degree infested water.

  13. Novel T-cell epitopes on Schistosoma japonicum SjP40 protein and their preventive effect on allergic asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiling; Hu, Lizhi; Yang, Jing; Yang, Liang; Gao, Fei; Lu, Ping; Fan, Mengyu; Zhu, Yunjuan; Liu, Junyan; Chen, Lingling; Gupta, Shimpy; Yang, Xi; Liu, Peimei

    2016-05-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by Th2 cell immune responses. Currently, immunotherapies based on immune deviation are attractive, preventive, and therapeutic strategies for asthma. Many studies have shown that intracellular bacterial infections such as mycobacteria and their components can suppress asthmatic reactions by enhancing Th1 responses, while helminth infections and their proteins can inhibit allergic asthma via immune regulation. However, some helminth proteins such as SmP40, the major egg antigen of Schistosoma mansoni, are found as Th1 type antigens. Using a panel of overlapping peptides, we identified T-cell epitopes on SjP40 protein of Schistosoma japonicum, which can induce Th1 cytokine and inhibit the production of Th2 cytokines and airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. These results reveal a novel form of immune protective mechanism, which may play an important role in the modulating effect of helminth infection on allergic asthmatic reactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Expression of Animal Anti-Apoptotic Gene Ced-9 Enhances Tolerance during Glycine max L.–Bradyrhizobium japonicum Interaction under Saline Stress but Reduces Nodule Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Germán; Muñoz, Nacira; Melchiorre, Mariana; Sánchez, Federico; Lascano, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the expression of animal cell death suppressors in economically important plants conferred enhanced stress tolerance are not fully understood. In the present work, the effect of expression of animal antiapoptotic gene Ced-9 in soybean hairy roots was evaluated under root hairs and hairy roots death-inducing stress conditions given by i) Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation in presence of 50 mM NaCl, and ii) severe salt stress (150 mM NaCl), for 30 min and 3 h, respectively. We have determined that root hairs death induced by inoculation in presence of 50 mM NaCl showed characteristics of ordered process, with increased ROS generation, MDA and ATP levels, whereas the cell death induced by 150 mM NaCl treatment showed non-ordered or necrotic-like characteristics. The expression of Ced-9 inhibited or at least delayed root hairs death under these treatments. Hairy roots expressing Ced-9 had better homeostasis maintenance, preventing potassium release; increasing the ATP levels and controlling the oxidative damage avoiding the increase of reactive oxygen species production. Even when our results demonstrate a positive effect of animal cell death suppressors in plant cell ionic and redox homeostasis under cell death-inducing conditions, its expression, contrary to expectations, drastically inhibited nodule formation even under control conditions. PMID:25050789

  15. Low Transmission to Elimination: Rural Development as a Key Determinant of the End-Game Dynamics of Schistosoma japonicum in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Spear

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural development has been a critical component of China’s economic miracle since the start of economic reform in the early 1980s, both benefiting from and contributing to the nation’s rapid economic growth. This development has yielded substantial improvements of public health relevance, including contributing to major reductions in schistosomiasis prevalence. The history of schistosomiasis elimination in Japan suggests that development played a dominant causal role in that nation. We argue that it is highly probable that a similar story is playing out in at least some large regions of China. In particular, we summarize evidence from Sichuan Province which supports the case that economic development has led to improvements in rural irrigation and water supply which, together with changes in crop selection and agricultural mechanization, have all contributed to sustainable reductions in the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum. The two major factors that have experienced major reductions are the area of snail habitat and the degree of human exposure, both through a variety of mechanisms which differ by region and economic circumstance. However, hotspots of transmission remain. Overall, however, economic development in traditionally endemic areas has provided the resources to carry out projects that have had major beneficial impacts on disease transmission that are likely to be sustainable.

  16. Synthetic Lethality of the bfr and mbfA Genes Reveals a Functional Relationship between Iron Storage and Iron Export in Managing Stress Responses in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sankari

    Full Text Available An mbfA mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum defective in iron export is sensitive to short term exposure to high levels iron or H2O2. Here, we found that the mbfA strain grown in elevated iron media (100 μM became resistant to those treatments, suggesting a stress response adaptation. The bfr gene encodes the iron storage protein bacterioferritin, and its expression is derepressed by iron. An mbfA bfr double mutant showed a loss of stress adaptation, and had a severe growth phenotype in high iron media. Moreover, a bfrup allele in which bfr is constitutively derepressed conferred stress tolerance on an mbfA mutant without elevating the iron content in the growth media. The intracellular iron content of the mbfA bfr double mutant was substantially higher than that found in the wild type, even when grown in relatively low iron media (5 μM. Under that condition, iron-responsive gene expression was aberrant in the mbfA bfr strain. Moreover, the double mutant was sensitive to the iron-activated antibiotic streptonigrin. We conclude that MbfA and Bfr work in concert to manage iron and oxidative stresses. In addition, the need for iron detoxification is not limited to extreme environments, but is also required for normal cellular function.

  17. Impact of changing water levels and weather on Oncomelania hupensis hupensis populations, the snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, downstream of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Edmund Y W; Wu, Weiping; Liu, Hong-Yun; Chen, Hong-Gen; Hubbard, Alan; Holt, Ashley; Davis, George M

    2008-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that dams impact riverine ecosystems and human diseases. Poyang Lake, one of the largest schistosomiasis endemic environments in China, will change due to the construction of the Yangtze River Three Gorges Dam. We assess changes in Oncomelania hupensis hupensis, the snail host for Schistosoma japonicum, in response to changing water levels and weather from 1998 to 2002. In the 5 years following the major flooding of Poyang Lake in 1998, seasonal water levels have gradually decreased, concomitant with decreases in mean and variance of fall snail densities. Nonlinear relationships suggest that the highest spring density is associated with current, 2-, and 3-month prior temperatures of 18 degrees, 9.1 degrees, and 5.8 degrees C, while the highest fall density is associated with 2- and 3-month prior water levels of 17 and 18 m, respectively. This suggests that lower, more stable water levels downstream of the dam may result in a reduction in mean fall densities and their variance. However, additional data are needed to determine whether snail populations that are typically destroyed by seasonal floods may live longer in more stable environments created by the dam.

  18. Application of AM Fungi with Bradyrhizobium japonicum in improving growth, nutrient uptake and yield of Vigna radiata L. under saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Kadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted under polyhouse conditions, to evaluate the effect of two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (G. mosseae and A. laevis in combination with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on growth and nutrition of mungbean plant grown under different salt stress levels (4 dS m−1, 8dS m−1 and 12 dS m−1. It was found that under saline conditions, mycorrhizal fungi protect the host plant against the detrimental effect of salinity. The AM inoculated plants showed positive effects on plant growth, dry biomass production, chlorophyll content, mineral uptake, electrolyte leakage, proline, protein content and yield of mungbean plants in comparison to non-mycorrhizal ones but the extent of response varied with the increasing level of salinity. In general, the reduction in Na uptake along with associated increase in P, N, K, electrolyte leakage and high proline content were also found to be better in inoculated ones. The overall results demonstrate that the co-inoculation of microbes with AM fungi promotes salinity tolerance by enhancing nutrient acquisition especially phosphorus (P, producing plant growth hormones, improving rhizospheric and condition of soil by altering the physiological and biochemical properties of the mungbean plant.

  19. [Effects of soluble adult worm antigen and soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum on differentiation of CD4+ T cells of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Cui; Dong, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Yong; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Kong, Wen-Jun; Xue, Xue; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Sha; He, Lei; Liu, Feng; Su, Chuan

    2013-04-01

    To investigate and compare the different effects of soluble adult worm antigen (SWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum on the differentiation of the splenocytes and CD4+ T cells of mice. The splenocytes and CD4+ T cells were prepared from the spleens of mice immunized with SWA or SEA, or the splenocytes of normal mice were harvested and stimulated with SWA or SEA in vitro. Then, the proportions of IFN-gamma and IL-4-producing cells in splenocytes, and the proportions of Th1 and Th2 cells in CD4+ T cells were determined by FACS, respectively. Compared to the SWA stimulation group, the higher proportions of IL-4-producing cells in splenocytes and of Th1 cells in CD4+ T cells were observed under the SEA stimulation group (P < 0.05). Whereas SWA induced the significantly higher proportions of IFN-gamma producing cells in splenocytes and of Th2 cells in CD4+ T cells than those in the SEA stimulation group (P < 0.05). The significantly higher levels of Th1 cells are only observed under SWA induction, however, the differentiation of Th2 cells in response to SEA stimulation is significantly more than that in response to SWA stimulation.

  20. Schistosoma japonicum risk in Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China: identification of a spatio-temporal risk pattern along the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The risk for Schistosoma japonicum infection in Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China, was investigated by a mouse bioassay. Various investigations were conducted in the period 2009-2011 with the presentation here representing the summary of the results from 45-50 sites in the marshlands along the Yangtze River’s course through the province. Indices representing three aspects of the infection were collected to assess risk: (i the proportion of sentinel points where at least one mouse infection was recorded; (ii the proportion of infected mice at each of these sites; and (iii the average worm burdens. Directional distribution analysis and scan statistics were used to explore the spatio-temporal risk pattern. The spatial distribution was oriented along the Yangtze River and the directional distributions for the proportion of infected mice and mean worm burdens were similar for the positive sentinel sites. Four statistically significant clusters were detected in 2009, but only one in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Temporal windows for infection risk were seen in June and September. The study illustrates the utility of spatio-temporal analysis in assessing the risk for schistosomiasis. This approach should be useful with respect to surveillance and response that can be expected to be increasingly applied when moving from morbidity control to transmission control.

  1. Characterization of Schistosoma japonicum CP1412 protein as a novel member of the ribonuclease T2 molecule family with immune regulatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xue-Dan; Shen, Shuang; Song, Li-Jun; Yu, Chuan-Xin; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Hirayama, Kenji; Gao, Hong; Wang, Jie; Yin, Xuren; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Wei

    2017-02-17

    Schistosome infection typically induces a polarized Th2 type host immune response. As egg antigen molecules play key roles in this immunoregulatory process, clarifying their functions in schistosomiasis would facilitate the development of vaccine and immunotherapeutic methods. Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) CP1412 (GenBank: AY57074.1) has been identified as a new member of the RNase T2 family with immune regulatory functions. The expression plasmid Sj CP1412-pET28a was constructed and transformed into bacteria for production of recombinant Sj CP1412 protein (rSj CP1412) via IPTG induction. The RNase activity of Sj CP1412 was predicted by bioinformatic analysis and confirmed by digesting the yeast tRNA with rSj CP1412.C57BL/6j mice were immunized with rSj CP1412, and its immune regulatory effects in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Meanwhile, the relationship between the RNase activity of Sj CP1412 and its immune regulation was observed. Sj CP1412 was confirmed as a novel RNase T2 family protein with RNase activity. Immunoblotting and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated Sj CP1412 as a protein exclusively secreted/excreted from eggs, but not cercariae and adult worms. Stimulating RAW264.7 macrophages with rSj CP1412 raised the expression of CD206, Arg-1 and IL-10, which are related to M2 type macrophage differentiation. Stimulating dendritic cells (DCs) with rSjCP1412 failed to induce their maturation, and the recombinant protein also inhibited LPS-stimulated DC maturation. Depletion of Sj CP1412 from soluble egg antigen (SEA) impaired the ability of SEA to induce M2 type polarization of RAW264.7 macrophages. Immunizing mice with rSj CP1412 induced high antibody titers, increased serum IL-4 and TGF-β levels and splenic CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T cells, downregulated serum IFN-γ levels and alleviated the egg granuloma pathology of schistosome infection. In vitro stimulation by rSj CP1412 significantly increased CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T cell numbers in

  2. Análisis de la interacción soya-cepa (Bradyrhizobium japonicum x ambiente, en oxisoles de la Orinoquia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Rubén

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    La Orinoquia colombiana y en particular las sabanas de la altillanura, representa una vasta región con ventajas comparativas y competitivas para la producción de soya. La especie se asocia con bacterias del género Bradyrhizobium para suplir, parcial o totalmente, los requerimientos de nitrógeno. Esta asociación es variable y de alta especificidad huésped-rizobio. La investigación tuvo como propósito determinar la interacción existente entre variedades de soya, cepas del género Bradyrhizobium japonicum y ambiente, en oxisoles de la Orinoquia colombiana, para potenciar el efecto de la fijación biológica del nitrógeno (FBN, en la productividad del cultivo. Se evaluaron las variedades Soyica P-34, Orinoquia 3, C. Libertad 4, C. Taluma 5, C. Superior 6 y C. Sabana 7, con las cepas de B. japonicum ICA J-01, J-96, J-98, mezcla de J-01+J-96 y un control con fertilización con nitrógeno de 150 Kg h-1, en ocho de la Orinoquia. La interacción variedad-cepa-ambiente para la variable rendimiento de grano fue determinada mediante los modelos AMMI (Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction y SREG (Sites regression. El rendimiento de grano varió a través de los ambientes, y estuvo influenciado por el tipo de cepa y variedad de soya. Los biplot generados por los modelos AMMI y SREG permitieron identificar la localidad C.I. Libertad 2008A como el ambiente más discriminante y representativo. El ordenamiento de las variedades x cepa y la identificación de mega-ambientes fueron más consistentes con el modelo SREG (r=0.97, ≤ 0,01. En general, las variedades presentaron una respuesta positiva a las cepas J96, mezcla de J-01+J-96 y J98, y una respuesta negativa con J-01 y aplicación de N. Las variedades más estables productivas fueron C. Superior 6 y Orinoquia 3 con la cepa J96. En la interacción, se observó una consistente asociación (r=0

  3. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  4. Xiphinema japonicum n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidorinae) from the Rhizosphere of Japanese Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.), a Cryptic Species Related to Xiphinema bakeri Williams, 1961.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lirong; Ye, Weimin; Maria, Munawar; Pedram, Majid; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-12-01

    Xiphinema japonicum n. sp., isolated in Ningbo, China, from the rhizosphere of Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) imported from Japan is described. The new species belongs to Xiphinema non-americanum group 7 and is characterized by medium body length (3.0-3.7 mm), total stylet length 190-201 μm, vulva located anteriorly (V = 30.5%-35.3%), two equally developed female genital branches without uterine differentiation (no Z or pseudo-Z organ and/or spines in the uteri), short tail, convex-conoid with subdigitate peg in terminus, and absence of males. The species has four juvenile developmental stages (J1 was not found). The polytomous identification codes of the new species are (codes in parentheses are exceptions) A4-B4-C4-D5(4)-E2(3)-F3(4)-G2(3)-H2-I3-J4-K?-L1. Morphologically, the new species is mainly characterized by combination of the codes C4 and E2(3), making the species unique and different from other species in the genus. It is most similar to the North American species Xiphinema bakeri, herein considered as its cryptic species by the nature of high morphological similarity, but with significant differences in DNA sequences in nearly full length 18S, ITS1, 28S D2/D3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences. The second morphologically close species is Xiphinema setariae from which the new species could be separated based on morphological and molecular characters. Morphological comparisons with phylogenetically related species are also discussed.

  5. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  6. Expressão dos genes nodC, nodW e nopP em Bradyrhizobium japonicum estirpe CPAC 15 avaliada por RT-qPCR Expression of nodC, nodW and nopP genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15 strain evaluated by RT-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bortolan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão, por RT-qPCR, dos genes de nodulação nodC e nodW e do gene nopP da estirpe CPAC 15, que provavelmente atuam na infecção das raízes da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, a expressão dos genes foi avaliada nas células após a incubação com genisteína por 15 min, 1, 4 e 8 horas. Os resultados revelaram que os três genes apresentaram maior expressão imediatamente após o contato com o indutor (15 min. No segundo experimento, a bactéria foi cultivada na presença de indutores (genisteína ou exsudatos de sementes de soja por 48 horas. A expressão dos três genes foi maior na presença de genisteína, com valores de expressão para nodC, nodW e nopP superiores ao controle. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a funcionalidade dos três genes na estirpe CPAC 15, com ênfase para o nopP, cuja funcionalidade em Bradyrhizobium japonicum foi descrita pela primeira vez.The objective of this work was to evaluate, by RT-qPCR, the expression of the nodC and nodW nodulation genes and of the nopP gene of the CPAC 15 strain, which probably play a role in the infection of soybean roots. Two experiments were done. In the first, the gene expression was evaluated in cells after incubation with genistein for 15 min, 1, 4 and 8 hours. Results showed that the three genes showed higher expression immediately after contact with the inducer (15 min. In the second experiment, the bacterium was grown in the presence of inducers (genistein or soybean seed exudates for 48 hours. The expression of the three genes was greater when induced by genistein, and the expression of nodC, nodW and nopP had higher values than the control. The results confirm the functionality of the three genes in the CPAC 15 strain, with an emphasis on the nopP, whose functionality in Bradyrhizobium japonicum was described for the first time.

  7. SjCRT, a recombinant Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin, induces maturation of dendritic cells and a Th1-polarized immune response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that immunization of radiation-attenuated (RA schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula can induce high levels of protective immunity against schistosoma cercariae reinfection in many animals. Many studies have shown that the Th1 cellular immune response is crucial for the protective effect elicited by RA schistosomula. However, the molecular mechanism of this strong protective immunity remains unclear. Methods The expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin (SjCRT in RA and normal schistosoma-derived cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The effect of recombinant SjCRT (rSjCRT on mouse dendritic cells (DCs was determined by FACS, ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. We also analyzed the effects of SjCRT on the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with rSjCRT by detecting lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine profiles of splenocytes. Results We found that the expression level of SjCRT in the cells from RA larvae was significantly higher than that in cells from normal schistosomula at early stages of development (day 4. The results of effect of rSjCRT on mouse DCs showed that rSjCRT could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, and SjCRT bound to the surface of DCs through the CD91 receptor and could be engulfed by DCs. The results of activation of splenocytes from mice immunized with rSjCRT also demonstrate that rSjCRT can effectively stimulate the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes, elicit splenocytes from immunized mice to secrete high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4, and activate CD4+ T cells to produce high levels of IFN-γ. Conclusion SjCRT is one of the immunostimulatory molecules released from RA schistosomula cells, might play a crucial role in conferring a Th1-polarized immune response induced by RA cercariae/schistosomula in mice, and is a candidate molecule responsible for the high levels of protective immunity induced by RA schistosomula.

  8. Genetic Evidence of Contemporary Dispersal of the Intermediate Snail Host of Schistosoma japonicum: Movement of an NTD Host Is Facilitated by Land Use and Landscape Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Head

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While the dispersal of hosts and vectors-through active or passive movement-is known to facilitate the spread and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, little is known about the movement ecology of Oncomelania spp., intermediate snail host of the parasite Schistosoma japonicum, and its consequences for the spread of schistosomiasis in East and Southeast Asia. In China, despite intense control programs aimed at preventing schistosomiasis transmission, there is evidence in recent years of re-emergence and persistence of infection in some areas, as well as an increase in the spatial extent of the snail host. A quantitative understanding of the dispersal characteristics of the intermediate host can provide new insights into the spatial dynamics of transmission, and can assist public health officials in limiting the geographic spread of infection.Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni snails (n = 833 were sampled from 29 sites in Sichuan, China, genotyped, and analyzed using Bayesian assignment to estimate the rate of recent snail migration across sites. Landscape connectivity between each site pair was estimated using the geographic distance distributions derived from nine environmental models: Euclidean, topography, incline, wetness, land use, watershed, stream use, streams and channels, and stream velocity. Among sites, 14.4% to 32.8% of sampled snails were identified as recent migrants, with 20 sites comprising >20% migrants. Migration rates were generally low between sites, but at 8 sites, over 10% of the overall host population originated from one proximal site. Greater landscape connectivity was significantly associated with increased odds of migration, with the minimum path distance (as opposed to median or first quartile emerging as the strongest predictor across all environmental models. Models accounting for land use explained the largest proportion of the variance in migration rates between sites. A greater number of irrigation channels

  9. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptor beta from Schistosoma japonicum and assessment of its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunhui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormones (TH modulate growth, development and differentiation and metabolic processes by interacting with thyroid hormone receptors (THRs. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel thyroid hormone receptor beta encoding gene of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTHRβ and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice. Methods The full-length cDNA sequence of SjTHRβ, its gene organization, and its transcript levels were characterized, and the phylogenetic relationship between THR, RAR and RXR from other organisms were analysis, the ability of this protein binding to a conserved DNA core motif, and its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice were evaluated. Results The SjTHRβ cDNA was cloned, verified by 5’ and 3’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and shown to be polyadenylated at the 3’end, suggesting the transcript is full-length. SjTHRβ is homologous to THRs from other species and has a predicted conservative DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain that normally characterizes these receptors. A comparative quantitative PCR analysis showed that SjTHRβ was the highest expressed in 21d worms and the lowest in 7 d and 13 d schistosomula. The cDNA corresponding to DNA binding domain (SjTHRβ-DBD and ligand binding domain (SjTHRβ-LBD were cloned and subsequently expressed in E coli. The expressed proteins were used to immunize mice and generate specific serum against recombinant SjTHRβ (rSjTHRβ. Western blotting revealed that anti-rSjTHRβ-LBD serum recognized two protein bands in extracts from 21 d worm with molecular sizes of approximately 95 kDa and 72 kDa. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis showed that rSjTHRβ-DBD could bind to a conserved DNA core motif. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rSjTHRβ-LBD could induce partial protective efficacy(27.52% worm reduction and 29.50% liver eggs

  10. Characterization of a gene family encoding SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain proteins with lectin-like and heme-binding properties from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristus Chibunna Mbanefo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified a novel gene family dispersed in the genome of Schistosoma japonicum by retrotransposon-mediated gene duplication mechanism. Although many transcripts were identified, no homolog was readily identifiable from sequence information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we utilized structural homology modeling and biochemical methods to identify remote homologs, and characterized the gene products as SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain containing proteins. A common extracellular domain in this family was structurally similar to SEA-domain. SEA-domain is primarily a structural domain, known to assist or regulate binding to glycans. Recombinant proteins from three members of this gene family specifically interacted with glycosaminoglycans with high affinity, with potential implication in ligand acquisition and immune evasion. Similar approach was used to identify a heme-binding site on the SEA-domain. The heme-binding mode showed heme molecule inserted into a hydrophobic pocket, with heme iron putatively coordinated to two histidine axial ligands. Heme-binding properties were confirmed using biochemical assays and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, which showed high affinity heme-binding (K D = 1.605×10(-6 M and cognate spectroscopic attributes of hexa-coordinated heme iron. The native proteins were oligomers, antigenic, and are localized on adult worm teguments and gastrodermis; major host-parasite interfaces and site for heme detoxification and acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest potential role, at least in the nucleation step of heme crystallization (hemozoin formation, and as receptors for heme uptake. Survival strategies exploited by parasites, including heme homeostasis mechanism in hemoparasites, are paramount for successful parasitism. Thus, assessing prospects for application in disease intervention is warranted.

  11. Does Defection Matter The Impact of the Chieu Hoi Program in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    to Vietnam and drew upon his experiences from Malaya. Thompson’s theory incorporated the building a foundation of political support for the program...DURING A CRITICAL DECADE Persuasion is often more effectual than force. — Aesop, Greek slave and fable author (620 BC to 560 BC) Our area of...things–the principles, doctrines, theories , and ideology of Communism. The thing I object to among the Communists is that under their regime, the people

  12. NPP Grassland: Klong Hoi Khong, Thailand, 1984-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three data files in text format (.txt). One file contains monthly biomass measurements and Net Primary Productivity (NPP) estimates made...

  13. 78 FR 62694 - Hoi Y. Kam, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... 387; see also Jackson, 72 FR at 23853; John H. Kennedy, 71 FR 35705, 35709 (2006); Cuong Tron Tran, 63... one. Dewey C. MacKay, 75 FR 49956, 49973 (2010), pet. for rev. denied MacKay v. DEA, 664 F.3d 808... medical purpose. See Dewey C. MacKay, 75 FR 49956, 49977 (2010) (holding that DEA can revoke a...

  14. Sj-FABPc fatty-acid-binding protein of the human blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum: structural and functional characterization and unusual solvent exposure of a portal-proximal tryptophan residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M W; Scott, J C; Lo, S; Beauchamp, J; McManus, D P

    2000-07-01

    Sj-FABPc of the blood fluke of humans, Schistosoma japonicum, is a member of the FABP/P2/CRBP/CRABP family of beta-barrel cytosolic fatty-acid-binding and retinoid-binding proteins. Sj-FABPc has at least eight different variants encoded by a single-copy polymorphic gene. In fluorescence-based assays, recombinant Sj-FABPc was found to bind 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA), inducing a shift in peak fluorescence emission from 543 to 493 nm. A similar spectral change was observed in dansyl-amino-octanoic acid (in which the dansyl fluorophore is attached at the alpha-carbon rather than the omega-carbon of DAUDA), indicating that the ligand enters entirely into the binding site. Sj-FABPc also bound the naturally fluorescent cis-parinaric acid, as well as oleic acid and arachidonic acid, by competition, but not all-trans-retinol. Dissociation constants were, for cis-parinaric acid, K(d)=2.5+/-0.1 microM (mean+/-S.E.M.) and an apparent stoichiometry consistent with one binding site per molecule of Sj-FABPc and, for oleic acid, K(i) approximately 80 nM. A deletion mutant from which alpha-II was absent failed to bind ligand. Sj-FABPc modelled well to known structures of the protein family; an unusually solvent-exposed Trp side chain was evident adjacent to the presumptive portal through which ligand is thought to enter and leave. Intrinsic fluorescence analyses of Sj-FABPc and of the deletion mutant (from which Trp-27 is absent) confirmed the unusual disposition of this side chain. Virtually all members of the FABP/P2/CRBP/CRABP protein family have prominent hydrophobic side chains in this position, with the exception of liver FABP and ileal FABP, which instead have charged side chains. Liver FABP is known to be distinct from other members of the protein family in that it does not seem to contact membranes to collect and deposit its ligand. It is therefore postulated that the unusually positioned apolar side chains in Sj-FABPc and others in the family are important in

  15. Efeito do pH do solo rizosférico e não rizosférico de plantas de soja inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium japonicum na absorção de boro, cobre, ferro, manganês e zinco Effect of pH of rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil on boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc uptake by soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Humberto Souza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Alterações no pH da rizosfera de plantas fixadoras de N2 parecem exercer papel fundamental na absorção de micronutrientes que têm sua disponibilidade dependente de alterações da acidez do solo. Estudaram-se variações na absorção de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn durante o ciclo de crescimento e desenvolvimento da soja, induzidas pela fixação biológica de N2 e pelo pH inicial de amostras de dois solos (um LV argiloso e outro arenoso, em um ensaio conduzido em casa de vegetação. Essas amostras foram incubadas com doses de CaCO3 + MgCO3 (4:1 para elevar o pH (H2O a valores de 5,2, 5,6, 6,2 e 6,6 no solo argiloso e 5,3, 5,6, 5,9 e 6,3 no solo arenoso. Após 60 dias de incubação, essas amostras receberam 450 mg dm-3 de P e 120 mg dm-3 de K no solo. Sementes de soja (Glycine max (L Merrill, variedade Paranaíba, inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium japonicum, estirpes SEMIA 587 e SEMIA 5019, foram colocadas para germinar. Foram cultivadas quatro plantas por vaso (2,2 dm³ e colhidas aos 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 46 e 54 dias após a emergência. Determinaram-se o pH da rizosfera (pHr, o pH do solo entre raízes - não rizosférico (pHnr, os teores de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e de Zn na parte aérea e raiz, o N apenas na parte aérea, o número de nódulos e o peso da matéria seca de parte aérea, raiz e nódulos. Observou-se que as mudanças ocorridas no pHr e pHnr foram dependentes do pH inicial dos solos (pHs e da fixação biológica de N2. O acúmulo de B e de Fe na parte aérea não foi alterado pelos valores de pHr, modificados em função do pHs, exceto para o Fe no solo argiloso. Todavia, aumentos significativos no acúmulo destes nutrientes na parte aérea ocorreram com o aparecimento dos nódulos, a partir de 24 dias após a emergência. Para Cu, Mn e Zn, as diferenças apareceram sobretudo quanto ao pHs. O conteúdo de micronutrientes na planta revelou-se sensível a mudanças no pH rizosférico, principalmente após a nodulação.Changes in the p

  16. In vitro propagation of katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl5

    compared the effects of phytohormone for seed germination and plant regeneration of katsura tree. Shoot .... produce new shoots (percentage of shoot initiation was. 0.66%), while all media supplemented with PGRs .... This probably indicated that bacterial in the buds are dormant. This is in agreement with the previous ...

  17. hoIs body size at birth related to circadian salivary cortisol levels in adulthood? Results from a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Per E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease has during the last decades received interest as an explanation of chronic, e.g. cardiovascular, disease in adulthood stemming from fetal environmental conditions. Early programming and enduring dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, with cortisol as its end product, has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which birth weight influence later health status. However, the fetal origin of the adult cortisol regulation has been insufficiently studied. The present study aims to examine if body size at birth is related to circadian cortisol levels at 43 years. Methods Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study (n = 752, 74.5%. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at four times during one day at 43 years, and information on birth size was collected retrospectively from delivery records. Information on body mass during adolescence and adulthood and on health behavior, medication and medical conditions at 43 years was collected prospectively by questionnaire and examined as potential confounders. Participants born preterm or Results Across the normal spectrum, size at birth (birth weight and ponderal index was positively related to total (area under the curve, AUC and bedtime cortisol levels in the total sample. Results were more consistent in men than in women. Descriptively, participants born preterm or Conclusions These results are contradictory to previously reported negative associations between birth weight and adult cortisol levels, and thus tentatively question the assumption that only low birth weight predicts future physiological dysregulations.

  18. Origin of a novel protein-coding gene family with similar signal sequence in Schistosoma japonicum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mbanefo, Evaristus Chibunna; Chuanxin, Yu; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Shuaibu, Mohammed Nasir; Boamah, Daniel; Kirinoki, Masashi; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Osada, Yoshio; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    ...). To find the mechanism underlying the origination of these genes with similar core promoter regions and signal sequence, we adopted an integrated approach utilizing whole genome, transcriptome...

  19. Environ: E00579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00579 Processed aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug ... Aconitum japonicum, ...Aconitum [TAX:49188] ... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum japonicum tuberous root soaked in brine and coat with caustic lime (dried) ...

  20. Dicty_cDB: VFD143 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum phosphoglyce... 108 7e-23 FN315990_1( FN315990 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) TSA: Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC0... 108 7e-23 AY223444_1( AY223444 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum isolate Anhu... 108 7e-23 FN315993_1( FN315993 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLD883 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum phosphoglyce... 78 1e-13 FN315990_1( FN315990 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) TSA: Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC0... 78 1e-13 AY223444_1( AY223444 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum isolate Anhu... 78 1e-13 FN315993_1( FN315993 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum

  2. Nodulação e rendimento de soja co-infectada com Bacillus Subtilis e Bradyrhizobium Japonicum / Bradyrhizobium Elkanii Soybean nodulation and yield when co-inoculated with Bacillus Subtilis and Bradyrhizobium Japonicum / Bradyrhizobium Elkanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fernando de Araújo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O Bacillus subtilis pode favorecer o desempenho simbiótico do rizóbio, pelos efeitos na inibição de fitopatógenos ou pela exsudação de fitormônios. Com o objetivo de verificar a viabilidade da co-infecção de sementes de soja com Bradyrhizobium e Bacillus foram conduzidos três experimentos, no Paraná, em solos com população estabelecida de Bradyrhizobium, em que as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium SEMIA 5019 e SEMIA 5080 e suas variantes tolerantes aos metabólitos de Bacillus foram co-infectadas com duas estirpes de Bacillus (AP-3 e PRBS-1, ou seus metabólitos. Na safra 1993/94, em Londrina, o tratamento de co-inoculação de Bradyrhizobium com os metabólitos formulados de Bacillus incrementou, significativamente, em relação ao não-inoculado, o número de nódulos (59%, estádio V3, a ocupação dos nódulos pelas estirpes de Bradyrhizobium (76%, R2 e o rendimento de grãos (24%; em Ponta Grossa, esses incrementos foram de 60%, 145% e 22%, respectivamente. Nessa safra, em Londrina, a co-inoculação das variantes tolerantes com os metabólitos de Bacillus também aumentou o rendimento (26% e N total (17% dos grãos de soja e incrementos significativos foram constatados, na ocupação dos nódulos, pela co-inoculação das variantes tolerantes com as células de Bacillus (78%. Os resultados obtidos indicam a viabilidade da co-inoculação, em sementes de soja, de metabólitos brutos ou formulados ou, ainda, de células de Bacillus subtilis, para incrementar a contribuição do processo de fixação biológica do nitrogênio.Bacillus subtilis can improve rhizobial symbiotic performance by inhibiting plant pathogens or by the exudation of hormones. To verify the viability of co-inoculation of soybean seeds with Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, three experiments were performed, in the State of Paraná, Brazil, in soils with established population of Bradyrhizobium. The Bradyrhizobium strains SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 5080, and their natural variant strains tolerant to the metabolites of Bacillus were co-inoculated with two strains of Bacillus (AP-3 and PRBS-1, or their metabolites. In 1993/94, in Londrina, the co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium with formulated metabolites increased significantly, in relation to non-inoculated control, nodule number (59%, stage V3, nodule occupancy by Bradyrhizobium strains carried on the inoculant (76%, R2 and soybean yield (24%; in Ponta Grossa, these increases were of 60%, 145% and 22%, respectively. Also in Londrina, the co-inoculation of the variant strains with crude metabolites of Bacillus has also increased yield (26% and total N in grains (17% and increases were verified by the co-inoculation of the Bradyrhizobium variant strains with Bacillus cells (78%. Consequently, the results have shown the viability of co-inoculating soybean seeds with crude or formulated metabolites, or with cells of Bacillus subtilis, to increase the contribution of the biological nitrogen fixation process.

  3. Molluscicidal activities of medicinal plants from eastern China against Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum Atividades moluscicida de plantas medicinais do leste da China contra Oncomelania hupensis, o hospedeiro intermediário da Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-xing Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In a search for natural products that could be used to control schistosomiasis, nineteen extracts of eleven medicinal plants from eastern China have been tested for molluscicidal activity against snail Oncomelania hupensis. The n-butanol fraction of the fresh leaf from Buddleja lindleyana Fortune, Buddlejaceae, showed significant activity against the snails. Statistical analysis revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for the n-butanol fraction were 39.91 mg L-1 and 59.28 mg L-1 for 48 h, respectively. Otherwise, the LC50 values for the n-butanol fraction to zebrafish was 403.24 mg L-1 for 48 h. Therefore, the n-butanol fraction of the fresh leaf from B. lindleyana may be a potent and safe molluscicides.Na busca por produtos naturais que podem ser utilizados para controle da esquistossomose, dezenove extratos de onze plantas medicinais do leste da China foram testados para atividade moluscicida contra o caramujo Oncomelania hupensis. A fração n-butanol das folhas frescas de Buddleja lindleyana Fortune, Buddlejaceae, mostrou atividade significativa contra os caracóis. A análise estatística revelou que os valores de CL50 e CL90 para a fração n-butanol foram 39,91 mg L-1 e 59,28 mg L-1 por 48 h, respectivamente. Por outro lado, a CL50 para a fração n-butanol para peixe-zebra foi 403,24 mg L-1 por 48 h. Portanto, a fração n-butanol das folhas frescas de B. lindleyana poderá vir a ser um moluscicidas potente e seguro.

  4. Local immune responses of the Chinese water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum larvae: crucial insights for vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish E G McWilliam

    Full Text Available Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more effective vaccines.

  5. Photosynthetic adaptation of soybean due to varying effectiveness of N2 fixation by two distinct Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Yin, X.; Hungria, M.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Rhizobial N2 fixation is a costly biochemical process, which takes 6–14% of current photosynthate (C) from legumes, without compromising grain productivity. In addition to the effects of leaf N nutrition, rhizobial symbiosis could stimulate photosynthesis due to the removal of C sink limitation by

  6. Formation and Controlled Drug Release Using a Three-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel for Anti-Schistosoma Japonicum Cercariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel three-component supramolecular hydrogel based on riboflavin, melamine and amino acid derivatives were constructed for controlled release of pesticides, Niclosamide derivatives. The formation of hydrogel may be attributed to self-assemble via hydrogen bonding and π–π interaction, which have been researched via scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra. The rheological experiments showed that the hydrogel materials and drug-loaded hydrogel all demonstrated good mechanical strength and high stability. Further experimental results indicated that the drug-loaded hydrogels show large drug loadings, long-term release time and relatively higher efficiency to anti-cercariae in the water environment.

  7. Molluscicidal activities of medicinal plants from eastern China against Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-xing Han

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In a search for natural products that could be used to control schistosomiasis, nineteen extracts of eleven medicinal plants from eastern China have been tested for molluscicidal activity against snail Oncomelania hupensis. The n-butanol fraction of the fresh leaf from Buddleja lindleyana Fortune, Buddlejaceae, showed significant activity against the snails. Statistical analysis revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for the n-butanol fraction were 39.91 mg L-1 and 59.28 mg L-1 for 48 h, respectively. Otherwise, the LC50 values for the n-butanol fraction to zebrafish was 403.24 mg L-1 for 48 h. Therefore, the n-butanol fraction of the fresh leaf from B. lindleyana may be a potent and safe molluscicides.

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1 Jegadeesh Raman,2 Sri Nurestri Abd Malek,2 Priscilla A John,2 Sabaratnam Vikineswary2 1Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Mushroom Research Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on ta...

  9. ORF Alignment: NT_033779 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phila melanogaster] gb|AAF52798.2| CG3949-PA ... [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF20209.1| Hoi-polloi ... ... [Drosophila melanogaster] sp|Q9U3Z7|NHPX_DROME NHP2-like ... protein (Hoi-polloi protein)

  10. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 62, Number 2, February 1925

    Science.gov (United States)

    1925-02-01

    GREEN, C. A. C.__ . Manager and Editor CAPTAlS D. L. DUTTON, C. A. C. Assistant Editor Printed by HOI;STON PHIXTIXG AND PUBLISIIING HOI;SF:, Hampton, Va...question is to determine the most eco - nomical method of retaining that reserve in !In efficient condition. * * * * * * * * The reserves should be

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1326 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1326 emb|CAX75571.1| Transmembrane protein 118 [Schistosoma japonicum]... emb|CAX75572.1| Transmembrane protein 118 [Schistosoma japonicum] emb|CAX75574.1| Transmembrane protein 118 [Schistosoma japon...icum] emb|CAX75575.1| Transmembrane protein 118 [Schistosoma japonicum] CAX75571.1 0.36 27% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0199 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0199 emb|CAX76110.1| putative tubulin, beta, 2 [Schistosoma japonicum]... emb|CAX76111.1| putative tubulin, beta, 2 [Schistosoma japonicum] emb|CAX76112.1| putative tubulin, beta, 2 [Schistosoma japon...icum] emb|CAX76113.1| putative tubulin, beta, 2 [Schistosoma japonicum] emb|CAX76114.1| p...utative tubulin, beta, 2 [Schistosoma japonicum] emb|CAX76115.1| putative tubulin..., beta, 2 [Schistosoma japonicum] emb|CAX76116.1| putative tubulin, beta, 2 [Schistosoma japonicum] CAX76110.1 2e-31 82% ...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13988-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SJECDG02 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA seq... 36 0.16 2 ( BU769607 ) SJECGH07 SJE Schistosoma japonicum...SJEADF12 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA seq... 36 0.16 2 ( BU767943 ) SJEBEE09 SJE Schistosoma japonicum...SJEAPC08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA seq... 36 0.16 2 ( BU772583 ) SJEETF03 SJE Schistosoma japonicum...SJECWA01 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA seq... 36 0.16 2 ( BU774006 ) SJEGBG02 SJE Schistosoma japonicum...DQ076155 ) Schistosoma japonicum clone 42E5 unknown mRNA. 36 0.16 2 ( BU768246 ) SJEBHG10 SJE Schistosoma japonicum

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0421 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0421 ref|NP_066199.2| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Schistosoma japonicum...] gb|AAG13139.2| ATPase subunit 6 [Schistosoma japonicum] gb|AAL12132.1| ATPase subunit 6 [Schistosoma japon...icum] gb|AAL12140.1| ATPase subunit 6 [Schistosoma japonicum] gb|AAL12148.1| ATPase subunit 6 [Schistosoma japonicum] NP_066199.2 2.9 23% ...

  15. Zirconium and hafnium complexes containing N-alkyl substituted amine biphenolate ligands: coordination chemistry and living ring-opening polymerization catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lan-Chang; Lin, Sheng-Ta; Chien, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Tsz

    2013-07-07

    The coordination chemistry of zirconium and hafnium complexes containing the tridentate amine biphenolate ligands [RN(CH2-2-O-3,5-C6H2(tBu)2)2](2-) ([R-ONO](2-); R = tBu (1a), iPr (1b), nPr (1c)) featuring distinct N-alkyl substituents is described. Alcoholysis of Zr(OiPr)4(HOiPr) or Hf(OiPr)4(HOiPr) with H2[1a] in diethyl ether solutions at -35 °C generates the corresponding five-coordinate [1a]M(OiPr)2 (M = Zr (2a), Hf (3a)) in high isolated yield. Similar reactions employing H2[1b] produce six-coordinate [1b]M(OiPr)2(HOiPr) (M = Zr (2b·HOiPr), Hf (3b·HOiPr)) as an isopropanol adduct. Repetitive trituration of 2b·HOiPr and 3b·HOiPr with diethyl ether gives five-coordinate 2b and 3b, respectively. Treatment of M(OiPr)4(HOiPr) with H2[1c] under similar conditions affords six-coordinate [1c]M(OiPr)2(HOiPr) (M = Zr (2c·HOiPr), Hf (3c·HOiPr)), subsequent recrystallization of which from acetonitrile-diethyl ether solutions leads to acetonitrile adducts 2c·MeCN and 3c·MeCN. Reactivity studies of these zirconium and hafnium complexes revealed that they are all active catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. Among them, the N-isopropyl derived complexes are most reactive. Polymerizations catalyzed by 2b, 3b and 3c·MeCN were proved to be living. The X-ray structures of 2a·HOiPr, 2a·MeCN, 2c·HOiPr, 2c·MeCN, and 3c·MeCN are presented.

  16. Vapor complexation in the CsI-HoI 3 system up to 1300 K and the f ← f hypersensitive transition intensities of Ho(III) in different coordination geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, G. N.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.

    2007-04-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy is used in the temperature range 850-1300 K, to study the vapor species over molten HoI 3-CsI (1:1), molten CsI and solid HoI 3. Quantitative absorbance measurements are used to calculate the following enthalpies of transition: Δ Hsubl(HoI 3) = 271 ± 3 kJ mol -1, Δ Hvap. (CsHoI 4) = 155 ± 2 kJ mol -1 and Δ Hvap. (CsI) = 151 ± 2 kJ mol -1. The ligand field components of the 5G 6 ← 5I 8 hypersensitive transition of Ho(III) for the three different, all iodide, coordination geometries of HoI 3(g), CsHoI 4(g) and HoI 63- (in molten CsI) have been examined in detail. The molar absorptivities ( ɛ) and oscillator strengths ( f) increase as the coordination decreases from the "octahedral" HoI 63- ( ɛ = 65 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 99 × 10 -6) to the distorted tetrahedral HoI 4- ( ɛ = 235 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 290 × 10 -6) to the trigonal HoI 3 ( ɛ = 390 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 500 × 10 -6). The main factors affecting the hypersensitive transition intensities are the coordination number and symmetry and the ligand polarizability as well as the Boltzmann population effects on the ground state levels which are responsible for the appearance of "hot" bands in the spectra. A C2v symmetry is anticipated for the CsHoI 4(g) with the HoI 4- "tetrahedra" distorted towards a square planar symmetry leading to a structure with a pseudo-like inversion center.

  17. Deletion of the SACPD-C locus alters the symbiotic relationship between Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and soybean, resulting in elicitation of plant defense response and nodulation defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen int...

  18. Expressão dos genes nodC, nodW e nopP em Bradyrhizobium japonicum estirpe CPAC 15 avaliada por RT-qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    BORTOLAN, S.; Barcellos, F. G; MARCELINO, F. C.; HUNGRIA, M.

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão, por RT-qPCR, dos genes de nodulação nodC e nodW e do gene nopP da estirpe CPAC 15, que provavelmente atuam na infecção das raízes da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, a expressão dos genes foi avaliada nas células após a incubação com genisteína por 15 min, 1, 4 e 8 horas. Os resultados revelaram que os três genes apresentaram maior expressão imediatamente após o contato com o indutor (15 min). No segundo experimento, a b...

  19. A Schistosoma japonicum chimeric protein with a novel adjuvant induced a polarized Th1 immune response and protection against liver egg burdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xiangyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schitosomiasis japonica is still a significant public health problem in China. A protective vaccine for human or animal use represents an important strategy for long-term control of this disease. Due to the complex life cycle of schistosomes, different vaccine design approaches may be necessary, including polyvalent subunit vaccines. In this study, we constructed four chimeric proteins (designated SjGP-1~4 via fusion of Sj26GST and four individual paramyosin fragments. We tested these four proteins as vaccine candidates, and investigated the effect of deviating immune response on protection roles in mice. Methods The immunogencity and protection efficacy of chimeric proteins were evaluated in mice. Next, the chimeric protein SjGP-3 was selected and formulated in various adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206, IMS 1312 and ISA 70M. The titers of antigen-specific IgG, IgE and IgG subclass were measured. The effect of adjuvant on cytokine production and percentages of CD3+CD8-IFN-γ+ cells and CD3+CD8-IL-4+ cells were analyzed at different time points. Worm burdens and liver egg counts in different adjuvant groups were counted to evaluate the protection efficacy against cercarial challenge. Results Immunization of mice with chimeric proteins provided various levels of protection. Among the four proteins, SjGP-3 induced the highest level of protection, and showed enhanced protective efficacy compared with its individual component Sj26GST. Because of this, SjGP-3 was further formulated in various adjuvants to investigate the effect of adjuvant on immune deviation. The results revealed that SjGP-3 formulated in veterinary adjuvant ISA 70M induced a lasting polarized Th1 immune response, whereas the other adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206 and IMS 1312, generated a moderate mixed Th1/Th2 response after immunization but all except for IMS 1312 shifted to Th2 response after onset of eggs. More importantly, the SjGP-3/70M formulation induced a significant reduction in liver egg deposition at 47.0–50.3% and the number of liver eggs per female at 34.5–37.2% but less effect on worm burdens at only 17.3–23.1%, whereas no effect of the formulations with other adjuvants on the number of liver eggs per female was observed. Conclusion Construction of polyvalent subunit vaccine was capable to enhance immunogenicity and protection efficacy against schistosomiasis. There was correlation of the polarized Th1 response with reduction of liver egg burdens, supporting the immune deviation strategy for schistosomiasis japonica vaccine development.

  20. The Experimental Pathology of the Lake Lindu Strain of ’Schistosoma Japonicum’ in the Crab-Eating Macaque (Macaca Fascicularis) in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    34~ occordonce with the Principle. of tLaboatory Animal Care ettablish" by the Committee mi the Guide For Laborolry Ani-. maol Ptowurc~o, Notional Acaom ~y of...the monkey. The water bearing the crrloo was allowed to dry on the abomn of the monkey, and he wae allowed to recover In his cap . Animal A weIghd 4.5...klog1rns and was exposed to 2,005 ceroarloe per-cut•nsously on ApIl 30, 1976, while Animal B, weIghing 5.5 kilogram was exposed to 501 cercorli. per

  1. Conformational stability of pGEX-expressed Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase: a detoxification enzyme and fusion-protein affinity tag

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaplan, W; Hüsler, P; Klump, H; Erhardt, J; Sluis-Cremer, N; Dirr, H

    1997-01-01

    .... Size-exclusion HPLC (SEC-HPLC) and SDS-PAGE studies indicate that purification of the homodimeric protein under nonreducing conditions results in the reversible formation of significant amounts of 160-kDa and larger aggregates...

  2. Estimating the intensity of infection with Schistosoma japonicum in villagers of leyte, Philippines. Part I: a Bayesian cumulative logit model. The schistosomiasis transmission and ecology project (STEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabin, Hélène; Marshall, Clare M; Joseph, Lawrence; Riley, Steven; Olveda, Remigio; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2005-06-01

    Intensity profiles for helminths are used to describe population infection status, monitor effectiveness of control programs, and provide accurate data to validate transmission models. This study aims to accurately predict age/gender specific intensity profiles of endemic schistosomiasis japonica infection in the Philippines. Poor sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test and large heterogeneity in infection levels across villages complicate these predictions. Data from 1,989 individuals living in three endemic villages were analyzed with a Bayesian cumulative-logit model adjusting for nonproportional odds, variation between villages, and measurement error. The posterior uncertainty regarding the proportion of individuals in each egg category was high compared with that estimated using a model ignoring measurement error and villages' heterogeneity. The intensity profiles were very different in children less than 7 years old compared with older children and adults. This model could easily be adapted to other parasitic infections or outcomes where an analysis by category would be recommended.

  3. Protective effects of membrane-anchored and secreted DNA vaccines encoding fatty acid-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Tu

    Full Text Available In order to explore the high performance bivalent DNA-based vaccine against schistosomes, SjFABP and Sj26GST were selected and used to construct a vaccine. Two strategies were used to construct the bivalent DNA vaccine. In the first strategy, a plasmid encoding antigen in the secreted form was used, while in the other, a plasmid encoding a truncated form of SjFABP and Sj26GST targeted to the cell surface was used. Various parameters, including antibody and cytokine response, proliferation, histopathological examination, and characterization of T cell subsets were used to evaluate the type of immune response and the level of protection against challenge infection. Injection with secreted pIRES-sjFABP-sj26GST significantly increased the levels of antibody, splenocyte proliferation, and production of IFN-γ, compared with membrane-anchored groups. Analysis of splenic T cell subsets showed that the secreted vaccine significantly increased the percentage of CD3(+CD4(+ and CD3(+CD8(+ T cells. Liver immunopathology (size of liver granulomas was significantly reduced in the secreted group compared with the membrane-anchored groups. Moreover, challenge experiments showed that the worm and egg burdens were significantly reduced in animals immunized with recombinant vaccines. Most importantly, secreted Sj26GST-SjFABP markedly enhanced protection, by reducing worm and egg burdens by 31.8% and 24.78%, respectively, while the membrane-anchored group decreased worm and egg burdens by 24.80% and 18.80%, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that the secretory vaccine is more promising than the membrane-anchored vaccine, and provides support for the development and application of this vaccine.

  4. Deletion of the SACPD-C Locus Alters the Symbiotic Relationship Between Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and Soybean, Resulting in Elicitation of Plant Defense Response and Nodulation Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Alaswad, Alaa A; Oehrle, Nathan W; Gillman, Jason D

    2016-11-01

    Legumes form symbiotic associations with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia-encoded nitrogenase facilitates the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In-depth cytological investigation of nodule development in sacpd-c mutant lines M25 and MM106 revealed gross anatomical alteration in the sacpd-c mutants. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed ultrastructural alterations in the sacpd-c mutants that are typically associated with plant defense response to pathogens. In nodules of two sacpd-c mutants, the combined jasmonic acid (JA) species (JA and the isoleucine conjugate of JA) were found to be reduced and 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) levels were significantly higher relative to wild-type lines. Salicylic acid levels were not significantly different between genotypes, which is divergent from previous studies of sacpd mutant studies on vegetative tissues. Soybean nodule phytohormone profiles were very divergent from those of roots, and root profiles were found to be almost identical between mutant and wild-type genotypes. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were also found to be higher in nodules of sacpd-c mutants. PR-1 gene expression was extremely elevated in M25 and MM106, while the expression of nitrogenase was significantly reduced in these sacpd-c mutants, compared with the parent 'Bay'. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry analyses confirmed sacpd-c mutants also accumulated higher amounts of pathogenesis-related proteins in the nodules. Our study establishes a major role for SACPD-C activity as essential for proper maintenance of soybean nodule morphology and physiology and indicates that OPDA signaling is likely to be involved in attenuation of nodule biotic defense responses.

  5. Biomechanical properties of the terrestrial mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Pogonatum japonicum Sull. & Lesq. along altitudinal gradients in northern Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    During, H.J.; Verduyn, G.P.; Jägerbrand, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Altitudinal gradients along mountain slopes provide valuable opportunities to study variation in plant traits in response to changes in environmental conditions along such gradients. This study focused on biomechanical traits of two moss species, the more or less horizontally growing Pleurozium

  6. Labeling of carbon pools in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids in intact nodules following feedings of sup 14 CO sub 2 for periods of <= six minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, S.; Streeter, J. (Ohio State Univ., Wooster (United States))

    1991-05-01

    A system was established for isolation of bacteroids from soybean nodules in 5 min by centrifugation of crude brei through silicone oil in a microfuge. Using marker enzymes {Beta}-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (DH) and cytochrome C oxidase, it was found that bacteroids were not ruptured during isolation, that mitochondrial contamination was {<=} 2%, and that bacteroid recovery was {approx} 93%. About 40 {mu}Ci {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were supplied to 300 mg fresh wt of intact nodules to label the 4-carbon acid pools in the host cytoplasm of infected cells. Following incubations of 1 to 6 min label in the cytosol was largely in malate (MAL), as expected. Label in aspartate and citrate was about 20% that in MAL. {sup 14}C in succinate (SUC) was only {approx} 3% of that in MAL, and fumarate was essentially unlabeled indicating limited equilibration of label via fumarase and SUC DH. In bacteroids MAL was most rapidly labeled, but glutamate {sup 14}C was about 50% that in MAL; this is consistent with other results. Aspartate and alanine were labeled at a rate approx 10% that of MAL, and SUC, citrate and fumarate were slowly labeled. Results are consistent with 4-carbon acids (mainly malate) as the main source of reduced carbon for bacteroids.

  7. Dicty_cDB: SSL275 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum isolate Anhu... 67 2e-10 FN320364_1( FN320364 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) Schistosoma mansoni genome sequen... 67 2e-10 FN320365_1( FN320365 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum isolate Anhu... 67 2e-10 FN357373_14( FN357373 |pid:none) Schistosoma mansoni

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0199 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0199 emb|CAX75788.1| Tubulin beta-2C chain [Schistosoma japonicum] emb...|CAX75790.1| Tubulin beta-2C chain [Schistosoma japonicum] emb|CAX75791.1| Tubulin beta-2C chain [Schistosoma japonicum] CAX75788.1 2e-31 82% ...

  9. Dicty_cDB: CFG334 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BU776741 | ( L36833 ) phosphoglycerate kinase [Schistosoma mansoni], mRNA sequence. 68 1e-16 3 BU766685...BU766685 | ( L36833 ) phosphoglycerate kinase [Schistosoma mansoni], mRNA sequence. 68 2e-16 3 BU771972 |PGK_SCHMA...phosphoglycerate kinase [Schistosoma mansoni], mRNA sequence. 68 4e-16 3 AY309061 |AY309061.1 Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum phosphoglyce... 177 9e-44 FN315990_1( FN315990 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) TSA: Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC0... 177 9e-44 AY223444_1( AY223444 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum

  10. Dicty_cDB: SLI789 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 82 6e-20 3 BU724812 |BU724812.1 SJMBLB01 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 62 4e-18 4 M14438...78 3e-17 3 BU776741 |BU776741.1 SJEDCC02 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 62 8e-17 4 BU766685...BU766685 |BU766685.1 SJEAIG07 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 62 1e-16 4 dna update 2003...|pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum phosphoglyce... 162 3e-39 FN315990_1( FN315990 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) TSA: Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC0... 162 3e-39 AY223444_1( AY223444 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum

  11. Learning to Detect Human-Object Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Chao, Yu-Wei

    2017-02-17

    In this paper we study the problem of detecting human-object interactions (HOI) in static images, defined as predicting a human and an object bounding box with an interaction class label that connects them. HOI detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision as it provides semantic information about the interactions among the detected objects. We introduce HICO-DET, a new large benchmark for HOI detection, by augmenting the current HICO classification benchmark with instance annotations. We propose Human-Object Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (HO-RCNN), a novel DNN-based framework for HOI detection. At the core of our HO-RCNN is the Interaction Pattern, a novel DNN input that characterizes the spatial relations between two bounding boxes. We validate the effectiveness of our HO-RCNN using HICO-DET. Experiments demonstrate that our HO-RCNN, by exploiting human-object spatial relations through Interaction Patterns, significantly improves the performance of HOI detection over baseline approaches.

  12. Dicty_cDB: VFA234 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 74 2e-13 2 BU715686 |BU715686.1 SJMCHE04 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 58 3e-12 2 AX488918...64 3e-10 2 BU776741 |BU776741.1 SJEDCC02 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 50 4e-10 2 U25180...64 4e-10 2 BU766685 |BU766685.1 SJEAIG07 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 50 5e-10 2 BU771972...BU771972 |BU771972.1 SJEELA04 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 50 6e-10 2 dna update 2003...|pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum phosphoglyce... 68 9e-11 FN315990_1( FN315990 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSH842 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (bits) Value N BU716103 |BU716103.1 SJM2AKH06 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 50 0.018 1 BE123827...|BE123827.1 JAYB0091.GYL Schistosoma japonicum Lambda gt11 Express library Schistosoma japonicum cDNA clone...50 0.018 1 BU768563 |BU768563.1 SJEBVB08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 50 0.018 1 AX348725...(bits) Value AY223358_1( AY223358 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum clone ZZD974... 77 1e-13 EZ000063_1(...EZ000063_1( EZ000063 |pid:none) TSA: Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC0... 77 1e-13 EF148804_1( EF148804 |pid:none)

  14. Holmium dodecaiodidoiron-octahedro-hexaholmium, {FeHo6}I12Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Meyer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of {FeHo6}I12Ho were obtained during the reaction of HoI3 with metallic holmium and iron in a sealed tantalum container. The crystal structure consists of isolated holmium clusters encapsulating a single Fe atom, {FeHo6} (overline{3} symmetry. The rare earth metal atoms are surrounded by 12 edge-capping and six terminal iodide ligands that either connect the clusters to each other directly or via HoI6 octahedra (overline{3} symmetry.

  15. Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera ; Chrysomelidae) in the Campus and Agricultural Research Stations of Chiang Mai University, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, S.; Tayutivutukul, J; Nakamura, H.

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative surveys of leaf beetles were conducted at 5 survey sites (Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Staion, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb of Chiang Mai City) in Chiang Mai, Thailand using sweeping and beating methods from October 19th to October 30th, 2003. A total of 24 species of 8 subfamilies was collected from five survey sites ; 11 species, 3 species, 2 species, 11 species, 4 species from Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Station, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb...

  16. Evaluation of mammalian and intermediate host surveillance methods for detecting schistosomiasis reemergence in southwest China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlton, Elizabeth J; Bates, Michael N; Zhong, Bo; Seto, Edmund Y W; Spear, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    .... We tested humans, cows, water buffalo and the intermediate host snail, Oncomelania hupensis, for Schistosoma japonicum infection, assessed snail densities and extracted regional surveillance records...

  17. Dicty_cDB: VFE580 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BU776741 | ( L36833 ) phosphoglycerate kinase [Schistosoma mansoni], mRNA sequence. 62 2e-13 2 BU766685...BU766685 | ( L36833 ) phosphoglycerate kinase [Schistosoma mansoni], mRNA sequence. 62 2e-13 2 BU771972 |PGK_SCHMA...BU773106 | ( L36833 ) phosphoglycerate kinase [Schistosoma mansoni], mRNA sequence. 62 3e-13 2 dna update...|pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum phosphoglyce... 118 1e-25 FN315990_1( FN315990 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum...|pid:none) TSA: Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC0... 118 1e-25 AY223444_1( AY223444 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ator ... [Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110] ... Length = 225 ... Query: 42 ... ILIVEDDQETRNLVARYLRENSFNVGMAANGREMDR...YISQNRVDLIVLDLMLPGEDGLSL 101 ... ILIVEDDQETRNLVARYLRENSFNVGMAANGREMDR...YISQNRVDLIVLDLMLPGEDGLSL Sbjct: 1 ... ILIVEDDQETRNLVARYLRENSFNVGMAANGREMDRYISQNRVDLIVLDLMLPGEDGLSL

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y protein ... [Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110] ... Length = 108 ... Query: 208 DIAILHRASRFIDQN...LGRNDLSVATICREIGVSRSVLYRVFAPLAGVADYIRGRRLEAIH 267 ... DIAILHRASRFIDQNLGRND...LSVATICREIGVSRSVLYRVFAPLAGVADYIRGRRLEAIH Sbjct: 1 ... DIAILHRASRFIDQNLGRNDLSVATICREIGVSRSVLYRVFAPLAGVADYIRGRRLEAIH 60 ...

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... japonicum USDA 110] ... Length = 111 ... Query: 1 ... MIVRSLHDIEATDHFVDWGNSTSHRLLTDKDGMGFSICHTIVRANTVSL...LQYRNHLEACF 60 ... MIVRSLHDIEATDHFVDWGNSTSHRLLTDKDGMGFSICHTIVRANTVSLLQYRNH...LEACF Sbjct: 1 ... MIVRSLHDIEATDHFVDWGNSTSHRLLTDKDGMGFSICHTIVRANTVSLLQYRNHLEACF 60 ...

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d sensor ... and regulator [Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110] ... Length = 79 ... Query: 306 MAEQLARRSDYIATF...SAHLTHELKSPLTSIKGAAELLQDSVQGKSEDLTPAEQKTFIANI 365 ... MAEQLARRSDYIATF...SAHLTHELKSPLTSIKGAAELLQDSVQGKSEDLTPAEQKTFIANI Sbjct: 1 ... MAEQLARRSDYIATFSAHLTHELKSPLTSIKGAAELLQDSVQGKSEDLTPAEQKTFIANI 60 ...

  2. Using Rich Data on Comorbidities in Case-Control Study Design with Electronic Health Record Data Improves Control of Confounding in the Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenroth, Daniel; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol; Wei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, performs poorly in controlling confounding in the detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from administrative claims and electronic health record (EHR) data, resulting in biased estimates of the causal effects of drugs on health outcomes of interest (HOI) and inaccurate confidence intervals. Here we show that using rich data on comorbidities and automatic variable selection strategies for selecting confounders can better control confounding within a case-control study design and provide a more solid basis for inference regarding the causal effects of drugs on HOIs. Four HOIs are examined: acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, acute myocardial infarction and gastrointestinal ulcer hospitalization. For each of these HOIs we use a previously published reference set of positive and negative control drugs to evaluate the performance of our methods. Our methods have AUCs that are often substantially higher than the AUCs of a baseline method that only uses demographic characteristics for confounding control. Our methods also give confidence intervals for causal effect parameters that cover the expected no effect value substantially more often than this baseline method. The case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, can be used in the fairly typical setting of EHR databases without longitudinal information on patients. With our variable selection method, these databases can be more effectively used for the detection of ADRs.

  3. Remark on an infinite semipositone problem with indefinite weight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. G A Afrouzi1 S Shakeri1 N T Chung2. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran; Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Quang Binh University, 312 Ly Thuong Kiet, Dong Hoi, Quang Binh, Vietnam ...

  4. Providing Base Line Data for the Treatment of Mauritian Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    their medium to high strength wastewater so that they can comply with the existing environmental law. Since sugar cane factory effluent has been characterised as a non-toxic organic source of pollution (Wong Sak Hoi, 1994), a biological treatment system is desirable. The conventional aerobic wastewater treatment method ...

  5. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    so^hoi) was nie dog sterrewiggelaars. EDGAR J. GooDPSEBD stel inderdaad ook voor om magoi in die engels te vertaal met "astro logers"^). Om die bekende wyses uit die Ooste nou te vervang met,. „sterre-wiggelaars" of selfs „astroloë" skyn ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extracts of hemp leaf in IL-1β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent manner. The expressions of iNOS, COX-2 and IL-1β genes were significantly decreased by the hemp extracts. This effect was likely related to the amount of sesquiterpenoids and THC. The extract from Huai Hoi (HH) cultivar showed ...

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, foreign Military Review, No. 12, December 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-04

    length Bean Draft Power Cruising lange Crei Size Officers () Veaponi’ «MISSIONING Max Speed Speed 1 2 3 4 5 6 PEDA101. I DEDALO (HOI), 19... Serge yev)(pp 53-54) .....2 Australian Air Force (A. Nikolayev)(pp 33-3S). 3 American Aviation Communications System/Resources (M. Mikhov

  8. 75 FR 7358 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List: Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... rule adds the following ten persons to the Entity List: Hong Kong (1) ACTeam Logistics Ltd., Unit B1-B3... Kong; and (6) Tex-Co Logistics Ltd., GF Seapower Industrial Building 177, Hoi Bun Road, Kowloon, Hong... (1) Christine Sun, 7th Floor, Number 17, Zhonghua Rd., Sec 2, Xinzhuang City, Taipei, Taiwan; (2) In...

  9. Improving Moringa Growth by Using Autochthonous and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of AMF on growth of M. stenopetala and M. oleifera were evaluated using three native soil types, representative of Lake Victoria basin and a standard substrate. Autochthonous AMF was harnessed from the native soils while allochthonous AMF cocktail was acquired from culture banks of Glomus hoi, G. mosseae and ...

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Mechanics of Composites Review (12th) Held in Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio on 16-17 October 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    a PROCEDURE I 1. BEST FIT OF ONE OF 7 FUNCTIONAL FORMS: DRY - LINEARARABOLIC/ - INVERSE PARABOLIC - RAMBERG - OSGOOD - BILINEAR - PARABOLIC-LINEAR...PREDICTIONS -- 2D VS. "ODES5 By ABAQUS 2D SOLUTION (S HOD! -,HOI APPROACH t(64 EL/ 120 DOF) SLEN ENT S: 512 EL/32 6 6 DOT) Fig. 3 IMPROVED FINITE ELEMENT

  11. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, Missouri River, Fort Peck Lake, Montana. Volume II. Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Imonite and hematlte, with I to 2 per- Zircon 3 e carbonates dolomite and siderite, Zoisite P 1 percent apatite . 50 percent HOI-. Note - P - Present... mn n 1:.:NL--S .. . . .. ...... .i . . .. . . ....... .. - ---- - ............... ...i7§L.~ ~ . L . cj 7j.. .... ..... _ _ _ ....... ru

  12. A Comparison of Three Strategies for Scale Construction to Predict a Specific Behavioral Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.; Wood, James M.; Fiedler, Edna R.

    2011-01-01

    Using 65 items from a mental health screening questionnaire, the History Opinion Inventory-Revised (HOI-R), the present study compared three strategies of scale construction--(1) internal (based on factor analysis), (2) external (based on empirical performance) and (3) intuitive (based on clinicians' opinion)--to predict whether 203,595 U.S. Air…

  13. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHF830 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2...-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-0778 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-0778 ref|NP_066364.2| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Schistosoma japoni...cum] gb|AAG16772.2| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Schistosoma japonicum] NP_066364.2 0.004 28% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2610 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2610 ref|NP_066364.2| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Schistosoma japoni...cum] gb|AAG16772.2| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Schistosoma japonicum] NP_066364.2 9.9 26% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2064 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2064 ref|NP_066200.2| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Schistosoma japoni...cum] gb|AAG13140.2| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Schistosoma japonicum] NP_066200.2 0.001 27% ...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHD168 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHC422 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available histosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service4...3_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHI893 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H0...6_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHS126 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  2. Large-scale adverse effects related to treatment evidence standardization (LAERTES): an open scalable system for linking pharmacovigilance evidence sources with clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    Integrating multiple sources of pharmacovigilance evidence has the potential to advance the science of safety signal detection and evaluation. In this regard, there is a need for more research on how to integrate multiple disparate evidence sources while making the evidence computable from a knowledge representation perspective (i.e., semantic enrichment). Existing frameworks suggest well-promising outcomes for such integration but employ a rather limited number of sources. In particular, none have been specifically designed to support both regulatory and clinical use cases, nor have any been designed to add new resources and use cases through an open architecture. This paper discusses the architecture and functionality of a system called Large-scale Adverse Effects Related to Treatment Evidence Standardization (LAERTES) that aims to address these shortcomings. LAERTES provides a standardized, open, and scalable architecture for linking evidence sources relevant to the association of drugs with health outcomes of interest (HOIs). Standard terminologies are used to represent different entities. For example, drugs and HOIs are represented in RxNorm and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms respectively. At the time of this writing, six evidence sources have been loaded into the LAERTES evidence base and are accessible through prototype evidence exploration user interface and a set of Web application programming interface services. This system operates within a larger software stack provided by the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics clinical research framework, including the relational Common Data Model for observational patient data created by the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership. Elements of the Linked Data paradigm facilitate the systematic and scalable integration of relevant evidence sources. The prototype LAERTES system provides useful functionality while creating opportunities for further research. Future work will

  3. Dicty_cDB: VFA519 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (bits) Value N BU722212 |BU722212.1 SJMAEH02 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 8e-10 3 BU799415...BU799415 |BU799415.1 SJF2BNC08 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 1e-07 3 BU724315 |BU724315...|BU724315.1 SJMBFH01 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 2e-07 3 BU724139 |BU724139.1 SJMBDH10...SJMBDH10 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 3e-07 3 BU804312 |BU804312.1 SJFBJH04 SJF Schistosoma...54 3e-07 3 BU795008 |BU795008.1 SJF2DJG06 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 3e-07 3 BU795521

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03981-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DKEY-151G22 in ... 42 9.2 1 ( EZ000179 ) TSA: Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC01359 unknown mRNA. 42 9.2 1...AY811479 ) Schistosoma japonicum clone SJCHGC01360 unknown m... 42 9.2 1 ( AY223389 ) Schistosoma japonicum...T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRN... 42 9.2 1 ( CV696899 ) SJS_028_35.T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...T3 SJS Schistosoma japon... 42 9.2 1 ( CV690487 ) sjs7-005_A06_sjs7-005A06-T3 SJS Schistosoma japon....T3 SJS Schistosoma japon... 42 9.2 1 ( CV690243 ) sjs7-002_B06_sjs7-002B06-T3 SJS Schistosoma japon.

  5. Dicty_cDB: SSL630 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 559 0.0 5 BU799522 |BU799522.1 SJF2BWE06 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 0.013 2 BU775024...BU775024 |BU775024.1 SJEAXE04 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 0.014 2 BU725874 |BU725874...|BU725874.1 SJMCKH04 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 0.016 2 BU723480 |BU723480.1 SJMAWG09...SJMAWG09 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 0.016 2 BU802754 |BU802754.1 SJFAND06 SJF Schistosoma...46 0.017 2 BU803946 |BU803946.1 SJFBFA03 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 0.017 2 BU804471

  6. Dicty_cDB: SFE434 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 54 1e-09 3 BU799415 |BU799415.1 SJF2BNC08 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 2e-07 3 BU724315...BU724315 |BU724315.1 SJMBFH01 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 4e-07 3 BU724139 |BU724139...|BU724139.1 SJMBDH10 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 5e-07 3 BU804312 |BU804312.1 SJFBJH04...SJFBJH04 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 5e-07 3 BU795008 |BU795008.1 SJF2DJG06 SJF Schistosoma...54 5e-07 3 BU795746 |BU795746.1 SJF2DUG07 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 6e-07 2 BU793866

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFB266 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (bits) Value N BU722212 |BU722212.1 SJMAEH02 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 4e-10 3 BU799415...BU799415 |BU799415.1 SJF2BNC08 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 6e-08 3 BW275990 |BW275990...40 1e-07 4 BU724315 |BU724315.1 SJMBFH01 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 1e-07 3 BU724139...BU724139 |BU724139.1 SJMBDH10 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 1e-07 3 BU804312 |BU804312...|BU804312.1 SJFBJH04 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 1e-07 3 BU795008 |BU795008.1 SJF2DJG06

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSJ282 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 84 8e-13 1 BU775483 |BU775483.1 SJEBMG12 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 62 6e-08 2 BU721088...BU721088 |BU721088.1 SJM2BJE10 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 62 8e-08 2 BU720647 |BU720647...|BU720647.1 SJM2BEA02 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 62 8e-08 2 BU793570 |BU793570.1 SJF2BRB04...SJF2BRB04 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 62 8e-08 2 dna update 2003. 7.18 Homology vs Protein..... 40 0.018 AY223000_1( AY223000 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC06138 ... 40 0.024 AF440505_1(

  9. Dicty_cDB: SSH360 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (bits) Value N BU778714 |BU778714.1 SJEEGB08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 82 5e-12 1 BU793408...BU793408 |BU793408.1 SJF2BPD02 SJF Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 82 5e-12 1 BU772997 |BU772997...|BU772997.1 SJEFGB04 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 82 5e-12 1 BU771146 |BU771146.1 SJEDTG09...SJEDTG09 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 82 5e-12 1 BU776864 |BU776864.1 SJEDDE11 SJE Schistosoma...82 5e-12 1 BU774134 |BU774134.1 SJEGDG03 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 82 5e-12 1 BU803577

  10. [Studies on Cnidium fruits by stereological method and computer image analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L; Zhang, H; Zhou, H; Su, Z; Li, C

    1996-01-01

    The fruits, pollen grains, vascular bundles, stomata and endosperm cells of 4 Cnidium species were studied and determined by stereological method and computer image analysis technique. Statistical data were presented. In the volume of fruit and the area of vascular bundle, Cnidium dahuricum is the biggest, then C. salinum, C. japonicum and C. monnieri successively. In the volume of pollen grain,C. salinum is the biggest, followed by C. dahuricum, C. japonicum and C. monnieri in succession. In the volume of endosperm cell, C. dahuricum is also the biggest, and then C. japonicum, C. salinum and C. monnieri in order.

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHE841 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ice43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 ser...V688215 |CV688215.1 sjs2-16-2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 serv...vice30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001

  12. A Systems Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972. Volume 8. Casualties and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-18

    WTA, school, ete.. - is ccr.-p,, td . Th..re ratios are aversaed, cver all 70 docusent., and a K’itA factor o1" 1.93% of as-i•-’d -t-ren~tb per r~or.th...in. To attract re Hoi Chanh, the following actions are beine .oried’out with the GVJ. Chieu Hoi:’"inistry 1:l Gf ethe7 U.:S. Chieu - td . Pftgram...of cor.n1•ott +I"tha. The conecntrAtion of US XIA hev’ a1su reralnM tnchn.n.•gd except for the tcr provinces. Tiiri,, ur most sin.:. 3cat •; pro-Ainc

  13. Acquiring Information from Wider Scope to Improve Event Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    and automatically learned domain-relevant extraction patterns. Liu (2009) proposed the BEAR system, which tagged both the events and their roles...AAAI06 Workshop on Event Extraction and Synthesis. Boston, MA.   87   Steven C.H Hoi, Rong Jin and Michael R. Lyu. 2006. Large-scale text...Text Extraction and Mining Seokhwan Kim, Yu Song , Kyungduk Kim, Jeong-won Cha, and Gary Geunbae Lee. 2006. MMR-based active machine learning for

  14. Low-Loss Materials for Josephson Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-09

    Campbell, Y. Chen, Z. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, I.-C. Hoi, E. Jeffrey, C. Neill , P. J. J. O’Malley, J. Mutus, C. Quintana, P. Roushan, D. Sank, J...Mutus, Peter O’Malley, Charles Neill , Pedram Roushan, Daniel Sank, Amit Vainsencher, James Wenner, Theodore White, Andrew Cleland, John Martinis...Kelly, A. Megrant, A. Veitia, D. Sank, E. Jeffrey, T. White, J. Mutus, A. Fowler, B. Campbell, Y. Chen, Z. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, C. Neill , P

  15. Reduction of graphene oxide by resveratrol: a novel and simple biological method for the synthesis of an effective anticancer nanotherapeutic molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Gurunathan S; Han JW; Kim ES; Park JH; JH, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Eun Su Kim, Jung Hyun Park, Jin-Hoi Kim Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objective: Graphene represents a monolayer or a few layers of sp2-bonded carbon atoms with a honeycomb lattice structure. Unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of graphene have attracted great interest in various fields including electronics, energy, material industry, and medicine, where it is used for tissue engineer...

  16. A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    continues to be difficult, whether the density is a result of fibrocystic diseases or young age. Accurate detection of very small breast tumors (2...DAMD17-02-1-0461 TITLE: A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wai-Hoi...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0461

  17. Iran - What Strategic Importance to the Free World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Experimental Agricultural Station in Kermanshah , Iran , disclosed that Royal decrees of the Archaemedian Empire had been found which indicated that a field...April 1966 IRAN - WHAT STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE TO THE FREE WORLD By ite JESSE B. HOLLIS, JR. Colonel, Artillery StP&V 1966 iJ.S. Copy No...i Iran - What Strategic Importance to The Free World? by Colonsrl Jesse Benjamin Hoi 1 is, Jr. Artillery ’ i US Army War Co]lege Carlisle

  18. Environ: E00359 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00359 Aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Mesaconi...tine [CPD:C08698], Hypaconitine [CPD:C08688], Jesaconitine [CPD:C08692], Pseudoaconitine [CPD:C08704], Higen

  19. Dicty_cDB: VFA762 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kinase, complete cds. 54 2e-18 4 L36833 |L36833.1 Schistosoma mansoni (clone C5-1B3) phosphoglycerate kinase...50 4e-14 4 BU776741 |BU776741.1 SJEDCC02 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 58 6e-14 3 BU766685...BU766685 |BU766685.1 SJEAIG07 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 58 7e-14 3 BU771972 |BU771972...|BU771972.1 SJEELA04 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 58 9e-14 3 BU724812 |BU724812.1 SJMBLB01...SJMBLB01 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 58 1e-13 3 dna update 2003. 8.19 Homology vs Protein

  20. Transmission Risks of Schistosomiasis Japonica: Extraction from Back-propagation Artificial Neural Network and Logistic Regression Model: e2123

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun-Fang Xu; Jing Xu; Shi-Zhu Li; Tia-Wu Jia; Xi-Bao Huang; Hua-Ming Zhang; Mei Chen; Guo-Jing Yang; Shu-Jing Gao; Qing-Yun Wang; Xiao-Nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    ...) and logistic regression model in assessment of transmission risks of Schistosoma japonicum with epidemiological data collected from 2339 villagers from 1247 households in six villages of Jiangling County, P.R. China...

  1. Transmission risks of schistosomiasis japonica: extraction from back-propagation artificial neural network and logistic regression model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jun-Fang; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Jia, Tia-Wu; Huang, Xi-Bao; Zhang, Hua-Ming; Chen, Mei; Yang, Guo-Jing; Gao, Shu-Jing; Wang, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    ...) and logistic regression model in assessment of transmission risks of Schistosoma japonicum with epidemiological data collected from 2339 villagers from 1247 households in six villages of Jiangling County, P.R. China...

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHD841 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schis...tosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Sch

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHI325 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06..._sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G0

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHI290 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_s...js2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHC866 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-1...6-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-

  6. Dicty_cDB: SHC807 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHB841 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 9e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. ...56 9e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHQ712 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma... japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistoso

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHI279 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06..._sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G0

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHG332 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHI572 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schi...stosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Sc

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHD160 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-1...6-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  13. Dicty_cDB: SHK266 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 S...JS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHC203 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mR...NA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA,

  15. Dicty_cDB: SHD254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -16-2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHF162 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available js2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_...sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHF776 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sjs2-16-2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHJ191 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA... sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mR

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHA786 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mR...NA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, m

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHE533 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available soma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schist...osoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schi

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHI833 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06..._sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G0

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHE484 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2-16-2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHE173 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sj...s2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_s

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHG272 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H0...6_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHC378 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8215 |CV688215.1 sjs2-16-2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 servic

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHQ520 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06..._sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G0

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHI789 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B...11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-1

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHI635 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA se...quence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHJ369 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum c...DNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHC815 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available istosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Sc...histosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHA268 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -16-2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHJ176 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .1 sjs2-16-2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  13. The Role of Drosophila Merlin in the Control of Mitosis Exit and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    genome.wus erm-like Brugia malayi merlin-like 316.m00022 http://www.tigr.or Schistosoma japonicum JF2 AAB49033 http://www.nhm.a Taenia saginata myosin-like...value of 100. Although the ERM-like proteins have been identified in Taenia saginata , Schistosoma japonicum, Echinococcus granu- losus, and...like proteins of parasites Taenia saginata , Echinococcus granulo- sus, and Echinococcus multilocularis contain an Arg76 resi- due, which is also a basic

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHD812 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 105 4e-19 2 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 68 3e-10 2 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHR610 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHH893 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHB650 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHG508 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHI645 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHH781 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHE862 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHQ882 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHA558 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHB464 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHL350 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 52 2e-13 3 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 74 2e-13 2 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  6. Dicty_cDB: SHI182 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHJ890 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHE357 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHE818 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.002 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.002 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHD759 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHB747 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHH546 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHF627 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 52 1e-13 3 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 74 2e-13 2 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHA726 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  15. Dicty_cDB: SHD173 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 107 7e-20 2 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 70 4e-11 2 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHL308 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHI112 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHA264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHB339 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 56 9e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHS244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 117 8e-23 2 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum...mRNA sequence. 74 2e-13 2 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHC882 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.6 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.6 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.6 1 CV739266 |CV739266...|CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.6 1 CV581768 |CV581768.1...sjmi-1-002_E12_sjmi-1-002E12-T3 Schistosoma japonicum miracidium cDNA Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHE557 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.9 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.9 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.9 1 CV739266 |CV739266...|CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.9 1 CV581768 |CV581768.1...sjmi-1-002_E12_sjmi-1-002E12-T3 Schistosoma japonicum miracidium cDNA Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHK462 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.3 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.3 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.3 1 CV739266 |CV739266...|CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.3 1 CV581768 |CV581768.1...sjmi-1-002_E12_sjmi-1-002E12-T3 Schistosoma japonicum miracidium cDNA Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHA514 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.6 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.6 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.6 1 CV739266 |CV739266...|CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.6 1 CV581768 |CV581768.1...sjmi-1-002_E12_sjmi-1-002E12-T3 Schistosoma japonicum miracidium cDNA Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence

  5. Análisis de las alteraciones estructurales y/o regulatorias en los genes de nodulación y fijación de nitrógeno, en aislados de Bradyrhizobium japonicum que difieren en su capacidad de fijar nitrógeno

    OpenAIRE

    López, Silvina M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    La fijación biológica de nitrógeno (N) que consiste en la reducción de N2 atmosférico a NH3 realizada por algunos organismos procariotas, constituye el mayor aporte de nitrógeno a la biosfera. Entre estos organismos, los que fijan el nitrógeno asociándose simbióticamente con las plantas de la familia de las leguminosas son los que realizan el mayor aporte. Las interacciones bacteria-planta conducen a la formación de nódulos como parte de un proceso complejo, de numerosos intercambios de señal...

  6. [Construction of the female subtractive cDNA library and screening of the specific expressing genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-hai; Peng, Hong-juan; Chen, Xiao-guang; Shen, Shu-man

    2006-02-28

    To screen the Schistosoma japonicum female specific expressing genes. S. japonicum adult worms were collected from the rabbits' vein after six-week infection by affusing method. The adult worms were stabilized by RNA-later liquid, the male and female worms were carefully separated with nipper. The high quality total RNA was extracted and mRNA was obtained after purification. Double stranded cDNAs were synthesized after reverse transcription. Female subtractive (female as tester, male as driver) and male subtractive (male as tester, female as driver) cDNA libraries were constructed. The differentially expressed genes were further screened by dot-blot hybridization. The clones were selected and sequenced, which showed apparently higher signals when hybridizing with the female subtracting male probes, than those signals when hybridizing with the male subtracting female probes. The homology of these sequences was searched with BLAST program. The semi-quantitative PCR was applied to test the differential gene expression in female and male adult worms. Female subtracting male and male subtracting female cDNA libraries were constructed with SSH technique. After dot-blot hybridization, 50 clones were tested to be the potential female differentially expressed genes and were sequenced. 42 expressing sequence tags (ESTs) were received. After bioinformatics analysis, 17 fragments (about 40.5%) showed high identity with the S. japonicum egg-shell protein genes, 17 sequences (about 40.5%) were highly homologous to unknown S. japonicum genes and partly homologous to female specific 800 protein. 8 fragments (about 19.0%) showed high identity with other S. japonicum unknown genes. The fragments in clones of 577, 579, 668, 695, 720, and 708 were tested by RT-PCR to be the differentially expressed genes in female adult worms using S. japonicum actin gene as the internal standard. These fragments were highly homologous to S. japonicum egg shell protein gene AY222885, AY222895, AB

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHD826 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.7 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.7 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.7 1 CV682259 |CV682259...|CV682259.1 sjs6-009_H10_sjs6-009H10-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.7 1 CV739266...CV739266 |CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.7 1 CV581768 |CV581768

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHB195 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV682259 |CV682259...|CV682259.1 sjs6-009_H10_sjs6-009H10-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV739266...CV739266 |CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV581768 |CV581768

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHK869 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 4.0 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 4.0 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 4.0 1 CV739266 |CV739266...|CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 4.0 1 CV682259 |CV682259.1...1 sjs6-009_H10_sjs6-009H10-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 4.0 1 CV581768 |CV581768

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHD624 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV682259 |CV682259...|CV682259.1 sjs6-009_H10_sjs6-009H10-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV739266...CV739266 |CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.5 1 CV581768 |CV581768

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHE326 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 2.8 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 2.8 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 2.8 1 CV682259 |CV682259...|CV682259.1 sjs6-009_H10_sjs6-009H10-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 2.8 1 CV739266...CV739266 |CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 2.8 1 CV581768 |CV581768

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHB876 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.4 1 CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.4 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.4 1 CV739266 |CV739266...|CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.4 1 CV682259 |CV682259.1...1 sjs6-009_H10_sjs6-009H10-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.4 1 CV581768 |CV581768

  13. Dicty_cDB: SHH383 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 2 CV739266 |CV739266.1 SJAL_019_64.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.0 1 CV752175...|CV752175.1 SJL6-009_A06_SJL6-009A06-T3_039.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.0 1 CV682259...|CV682259.1 sjs6-009_H10_sjs6-009H10-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.0 1 CV739281...CV739281 |CV739281.1 SJAL_019_73.T3 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.0 1 CV752026 |CV752026...|CV752026.1 SJL6-007_B08_SJL6-007B08-T3_063.ab1 SJL Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 3.0 1 CV581768

  14. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  15. Auto-inhibition at a ligand-gated ion channel: a cross-talk between orthosteric and allosteric sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Qun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A ligand is believed to produce either positive or negative responses, or to block both of them. However, an indole compound was found to promote both positive and negative effects at the 5-HT3AB receptor, which displays a low level of spontaneous activity. The present study attempted to delineate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The spontaneously active V291S 5-HT3A receptor was used to explore the properties of 5-hydroxyindole (5-HoI) and 5-methoxyindole (5-MoI), structural analogues of 5-HT, either alone or in combination with orthosteric probes. KEY RESULTS Two types of efficacy switching were initiated by altering ligand structure and concentration. At lower concentrations, a subtle structural change at position 5 of the indole molecule resulted in opposite effects. 5-HoI apparently elicited partial allosteric inverse agonism, whereas 5-MoI induced allosteric agonism. Interestingly, at a higher concentration, these indoles produced distinct auto-inhibition, manifested as a switch from positive to negative effects. 5-HoI induced a transition from orthosteric agonism to allosteric inverse agonism, whereas 5-MoI produced a shift from allosteric agonism to orthosteric inverse agonism. The auto-inhibition appears to involve communication between orthosteric and allosteric sites of the active receptor conformation and/or between inactive and active conformations. An additive effect of orthosteric and allosteric inverse agonism and insensitivity of allosteric agonism to orthosteric antagonism were also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Together, the results suggest that the moiety at position 5 of the indole structure is a critical determinant of a ligand's properties at the 5-HT3A receptor, providing new insights into understanding ligand–receptor interactions. PMID:25176133

  16. A laboratory characterisation of inorganic iodine emissions from the sea surface: dependence on oceanic variables and parameterisation for global modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Martin, J.; MacDonald, S.; Chance, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Carpenter, L.; Plane, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive iodine compounds (IOx = I + IO) play a significant role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer, by causing ozone destruction and changing the HOx and NOx partitioning. The HOI and I2 fluxes produced from iodide solutions after reaction with O3 were measured by using the iodine oxide particle size distributions obtained from a differential mobility analyser. The effect of a number of relevant parameters including water temperature, salinity and organic compound concentration on the HOI and I2 fluxes were investigated. The results of these experiments and those reported previously (Carpenter et al., 2013) were then used to produce parameterised expressions for the HOI and I2 fluxes. The scarce concurrent measurements of sea surface iodide and temperature available in the literature were then used to parameterise the iodide concentration as a function of temperature, which enables inclusion in atmospheric models. The adapted expressions were then input into the Tropospheric HAlogen chemistry MOdel (THAMO) to compare with latitudinal MAX-DOAS measurements of IO and IOx performed during the HaloCAST-P cruise in the Eastern Pacific ocean (Mahajan et al., 2012), spanning a wide range of SST, wind speed and O3 mixing ratios. The modelled IO and IOx matches well with the observations when the predicted fluxes are lower, however, there is an over-prediction in the model at low wind speeds. The inorganic iodine flux contributions to IO and IOx are found to be comparable with or larger than the contribution of organoiodine compounds, and therefore its inclusion in atmospheric models is necessary to improve predictions of the influence of halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer.

  17. Design considerations in an active medical product safety monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Fireman, Bruce; Ryan, Patrick B; Maclure, Malcolm; Gerhard, Tobias; Toh, Sengwee; Rassen, Jeremy A; Nelson, Jennifer C; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Active medical product monitoring systems, such as the Sentinel System, will utilize electronic healthcare data captured during routine health care. Safety signals that arise from these data may be spurious because of chance or bias, particularly confounding bias, given the observational nature of the data. Applying appropriate monitoring designs can filter out many false-positive and false-negative associations from the outset. Designs can be classified by whether they produce estimates based on between-person or within-person comparisons. In deciding which approach is more suitable for a given monitoring scenario, stakeholders must consider the characteristics of the monitored product, characteristics of the health outcome of interest (HOI), and characteristics of the potential link between these. Specifically, three factors drive design decisions: (i) strength of within-person and between-person confounding; (ii) whether circumstances exist that may predispose to misclassification of exposure or misclassification of the timing of the HOI; and (iii) whether the exposure of interest is predominantly transient or sustained. Additional design considerations include whether to focus on new users, the availability of appropriate active comparators, the presence of an exposure time trend, and the measure of association of interest. When the key assumptions of self-controlled designs are fulfilled (i.e., lack of within-person, time-varying confounding; abrupt HOI onset; and transient exposure), within-person comparisons are preferred because they inherently avoid confounding by fixed factors. The cohort approach generally is preferred in other situations and particularly when timing of exposure or outcome is uncertain because cohort approaches are less vulnerable to biases resulting from misclassification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Aspartic protease activities of schistosomes cleave mammalian hemoglobins in a host-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficiency of digestion of hemoglobin from four mammalian species, human, cow, sheep, and horse by acidic extracts of mixed sex adults of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Activity ascribable to aspartic protease(s from S. japonicum and S. mansoni cleaved human hemoglobin. In addition, aspartic protease activities from S. japonicum cleaved hemoglobin from bovine, sheep, and horse blood more efficiently than did the activity from extracts of S. mansoni. These findings support the hypothesis that substrate specificity of hemoglobin-degrading proteases employed by blood feeding helminth parasites influences parasite host species range; differences in amino acid sequences in key sites of the parasite proteases interact less or more efficiently with the hemoglobins of permissive or non-permissive hosts.

  19. Comparison of regenerative capacity among six ornamental mosses on vertical planting carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Qiaoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Six ornamental mosses (Campylopus flexuosus,Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum,Thuidium cymbifolium,Grimmia pilifera and Dicranum scoparium were transplanted onto vertical planting carrier(a palm pad with a thin layer of peat and vermiculite.After a two-month cultivation,their new branch coverage,newly-developed branches and their ratio with old branches,branches,fresh weight,chlorophyll content,and maximal photochemical efficiency were measured.Based on these indices,an integrated index revealing their growth capacity was calculated.Based on their integrated indices from high to low,six mosses were ranked as Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum,Thuidium cymbifolium,Campylopus flexuosus,Dicranum scoparium,Grimmia pilifera.Finally,Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum were recommended as ornamental mosses in vertical greening combined our observation on their landscape values.

  20. Isoliquiritigenin, a strong nod gene- and glyceollin resistance-inducing flavonoid from soybean root exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kape, R; Parniske, M; Brandt, S; Werner, D

    1992-01-01

    Isoflavonoid signal molecules from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed and root exudate induce the transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this study, a new compound with symbiotic activity was isolated from soybean root exudate. The isolated 2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin) is characterized by its strong inducing activity for the nod genes of B. japonicum. These genes are already induced at concentrations 1 order of magnitude below those required of the previously described isoflavonoid inducers genistein and daidzein. Isoliquiritigenin is also a potent inducer of glyceollin resistance in B. japonicum, which renders this bacterium insensitive to potentially bactericidal concentrations of glyceollin, the phytoalexin of G. max. No chemotactic effect of isoliquiritigenin was observed. The highly efficient induction of nod genes and glyceollin resistance by isoliquiritigenin suggests the ecological significance of this compound, although it is not a major flavonoid constituent of the soybean root exudate in quantitative terms. PMID:1622242

  1. Quantitative Methods for Long-Range Environmental Forecasting. Long-Wave European Projections. Volume 2. Technical Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    in^ONi-tONTtic-rf ooooooooooo r-vDsDrorooooNinr^oovo inromNPOrooinoNinco fOh-<\\]i-( inTj <soocor^po pornvotvaoot^-^of^voooo ,~, >H 00 O...0 oorovO->to>> inTj <orv3oocjror-o^>^oo>-Hr^o 3 43 (U ft 0 CO 0 y w * ni d <u 4) o fV]I_<^Hr_il-irHOi-ii-Hco>-HrOfOrHr<i(vJoor

  2. Peroxisomes: a Nexus for Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Irfan J.; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes are often dismissed as the cellular hoi polloi, relegated to cleaning up reactive oxygen chemical debris discarded by other organelles. However, their functions extend far beyond hydrogen peroxide metabolism. Peroxisomes are intimately associated with lipid droplets and mitochondria, and their ability to carry out fatty acid oxidation and lipid synthesis, especially the production of ether lipids, may be critical for generating cellular signals required for normal physiology. Here we review the biology of peroxisomes and their potential relevance to human disorders including cancer, obesity-related diabetes, and degenerative neurologic disease. PMID:24508507

  3. Dirichlet branes and mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two books that provide the scientific record of the school. The first book, Strings and Geometry, edited by Michael R. Douglas et al., was a proceedings volume and largely focused on the topics of manifolds holonomy and supergravity. The present volume, intended to be a monograph, covers mirror symmetry from the homological and torus fibration points of view. We hope that this volume is a natural sequel to Mirror Symmetry, written by Hoi, Katz, Klemm, Pandharipande, Thomas, Vafa, Vakil and Zaslow, which was a product of the first Clay School in the spring of 2000.

  4. Body Composition and Physical Performance: Applications for the Military Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    nlpeIlsC lnl-AsnrTCtenis Ill the, humian body\\ Alti J. ( Ill \\kill XIMII !- %Ia/ ,s 8 F1 . Ik XX l’IisIIcr_ mid, l %I Iltibmi,. I84. filial -d...percent bod\\, fat in men ( Amor . 1978). although the same ant hos dat appaentlysuggesteti that 16.8 percent fat vonuId correspond \\kith the uipper I iti of...studied by Amor ( 9- 8) c ceeded the actuarial ideal of hodv mass. The proport ion of those A hoi exceeded is, arbitrary cniterioin of obesity, ( 8s

  5. Hoitotyöntekijöiden työturvallisuus : toimintamalli esimiehille

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    Terveydenhuollossa hoitotyöntekijät altistuvat samaan aikaan monille erilaisille vaaroille, joten kyseessä on ala, jolla työturvallisuusvaarat ja -poikkeamat ovat suuret. Lisäksi työturvallisuusvaarat ja -poikkeamat painottuvat eri tavoilla erilaisissa toimintaympäristöissä. (Euroopan unionin komissio 2013, 108.) HoiPro- hanke on Varsinais-Suomen sairaanhoitopiirin ja Turun Ammattikorkeakoulun yhteinen Tulevaisuuden sairaala - Hoitotyön kehittämisprojekti vuosille 2009–2015. Kehittämispro...

  6. ANALISIS KESESUAIAN KLAIM DENGAN REALITAS PEMBAYARAN PPK RUJUKAN DALAM JAMINAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT MISKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingan Ukur Tarigan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of health development in lndonesia is providing quality health care and assuring community access to equal health services for all citizen (universal coverage. In assuring the access to health services for the poor. Ministry of Health has launched special health insurance program for the poor (Askeskin. PT Askes was assigned by MOH to manage this program. Therefore, it is very important to improve facilities and management capabilities of health insurance administering bodies and health care providers. These include, improvement in case management, hospital accounting system, medical record, etc. This will be very useful for verification process and reducing the fraud and abuse. This study was conducted in order to provide valuable input for the Improvement of financing mechanism and payment system of referral providers in health insurance program for the poor (Askeskin. The objectives of this study are to calculate hospital claim on case management of Askeskin members and its real payment by PT Askes and to calculate the differences between claim and reimbursement (real payment based on hospital components. The study design is cross-sectional. A Stratified Random Sampling method was conducted to select the study sites based on Human Development Index (HOI and Fiscal Capacity (refers to Ministry of Finance Data of district and city. Districts and cities were then classified into high, middle, or low level. The 3 selected study sites were: Kampar District (HPI 34,1 in Riau Province which represent high HOI; North Bengkulu District (HPI: 30.4 in Bengkulu province which represent middle HOI, and Pontianak City (HPI: 27.7 in West Kalimantan Province which represent low HOI. The results show that tariff agreement of case management for Askeskin members was not in accordance with local real condition. Therefore, clear operational and technical Askeskin guidelines are needed to gain similar perception between PT Askes and health care

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHL834 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iarum ZAP II cDNA library Neocallimastix patriciarum cDN...ein (Gph1) mRNA, complete cds. 68 3e-07 1 EH431298 |EH431298.1 NPE00000022 Neocallimastix patriciarum ZAP II... cDNA library Neocallimastix patriciarum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 42 1e-06 2 CR382126 |CR382126.1 Kluyveromyces ...hoI) Cunninghamella elegans cDNA clone CeleSEQ14670, mRNA sequence. 56 1e-13 2 EH431847 |EH431847.1 NPE00000861 Neocallimastix patric

  8. Balansoitu yleisanestesia : Itseopiskelumateriaali

    OpenAIRE

    Keskitalo, Kati; Viiri, Loviisa

    2016-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö, jonka tarkoituksena on tuottaa itseopiskelumateriaali balansoidusta yleisanestesiasta Lapin ammattikorkeakoulun leikkaussaliympäristöön hoitotyön opiskelijoille. Opinnäytetyö on tehty osana HoiSim-projektia, jonka tavoitteena on parantaa hoitotyön simulaatio-opetusta. Idean itseopiskelumateriaalin toteuttamiseen leikkaussaliympäristöön antoi kirurgisen hoitotyön opettaja. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tarjota hoitotyön opiskelijoille tiivi...

  9. Making Clothing Retail Place-Specific, While Changing The Spatialities Of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    This paper takes its starting point in literature on retail geographies to discuss a relatively unexplored relationship between globalization and the significance of place for retail in global tourist destinations. Based on fieldwork conducted in Hoi An, Vietnam, it shows how local clothing...... industrialised and transcends multiple territories. The paper identifies three segments of tailor shops, distinguished by their various relations to ‘the global’. It argues that their unequal opportunities are highly embedded in Vietnam’s transitional political economy, and also connected to the ways...

  10. A boswellic acid-containing extract ameliorates schistosomiasis liver granuloma and fibrosis through regulating NF-κB signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Wu, Qingsi; Chen, Peng; Büchele, Berthold; Bian, Maohong; Dong, Shengjian; Huang, Dake; Ren, Cuiping; Zhang, Yuxia; Hou, Xin; Simmet, Thomas; Shen, Jijia

    2014-01-01

    Boswellic acid (BA)-containing extracts such as BSE have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. In chronic schistosomiasis, the hepatic granuloma and fibrosis induced by egg deposition in the liver is the most serious pathological manifestations. However, little is known regarding the role of BAs in Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) egg-induced liver granuloma and fibrosis. In order to investigate the effect of a water-soluble complex preparation of BSE, BSE-CD, on S. japonicum egg-induced liver pathology, liver granuloma and fibrosis were induced by infecting C57BL/6 mice with 18-22 cercariae of S. japonicum. S. japonicum cercariae infected mice were injected with BSE-CD at the onset of egg granuloma formation (early phase BSE-CD treatment after 4 weeks infection) or after the formation of liver fibrosis (late phase BSE-CD treatment after 7 weeks infection). Our data show that treatment of infected mice with BSE-CD significantly reduced both the extent of hepatic granuloma and fibrosis. Consistent with an inhibition of NF-κB signaling as evidenced by reduced IκB kinase (IKK) activation, the mRNA expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-α) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1, MCP-1) was decreased. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) revealed that the content of α-SMA in liver tissue of BSE-CD treated mice was dramatically decreased. Our findings suggest that BSE-CD treatment attenuates S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granulomas and fibrosis, at least partly due to reduced NF-κB signaling and the subsequently decreased expression of VEGF, TNF-α, and MCP-1. Suppression of the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) may also be involved in the therapeutic efficacy of BSE-CD.

  11. [A comparison of the superficial argentophilic structures of miracidia from 12 species of the genus Schistosoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaret, J L

    1984-01-01

    Observation of miracidia of twelve species of Schistosoma shows the fundamental epidermal cell pattern is: 6, 9, 4, 3. Comparison of superficial argentophilic organites permits us: --to divide these species into three inequal groups: mansoni group: Schistosoma mansoni, S. rodhaini. haematobium group: S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. indicum , S. intercalatum, S. margrebowiei , S. mattheei, S. nasale and S. spindale . japonicum group: S. japonicum, S. incognitum . --to emphasize the relatively narrow specificity between members of each group and the snail-hosts. --to position the above species of Schistosoma within the Schistosomatoidea . Furthermore this character gives us some idea of the degree of evolution of species of Schistosoma.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHD517 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7.1 Ciona intestinalis cDNA, clone:cima804e24, 5'end, single read. 66 3e-12 3 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43...688215 |CV688215.1 sjs2-16-2_G01_sjs2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 4e-12 2 CV682854 |CV682854.1 servi...ce30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 4e-12 2

  13. Dicty_cDB: VHE691 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA, mRNA sequence. 74 7e-14 2 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum ...oides sonorensis female serum-fed midgut cDNA Library Culicoides sonorensis cDNA, mRNA sequence. 113 4e-22 2 CV682907 |CV682907.1 ser...vice43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 7e-14

  14. Long-term persisting hybrid swarm and geographic difference in hybridization pattern: genetic consequences of secondary contact between two Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Tada, Fumito; Yamashiro, Tadashi; Maki, Masayuki

    2016-01-22

    During glacial periods, glacial advances caused temperate plant extirpation or retreat into localized warmer areas, and subsequent postglacial glacial retreats resulted in range expansions, which facilitated secondary contact of previously allopatric isolated lineages. The evolutionary outcomes of secondary contact, including hybrid zones, dynamic hybrid swarm, and resultant hybrid speciation, depends on the strengths of reproductive barriers that have arisen through epistatic and pleiotropic effects during allopatric isolation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate refugia isolation and subsequent secondary contact between two perennial Asclepioid species and to assess the genetic consequences of the secondary contact. We modeled the range shift of two ecologically distinct Vincetoxicum species using the species distribution model (SDM) and assessed the genetic consequences of secondary contact by combining morphological and genetic approaches. We performed morphometric analysis (592 individuals) and examined 10 nuclear microsatellites (671 individuals) in V. atratum, V. japonicum, and putative hybrid populations. Multivariate analysis, model-based Bayesian analysis, and non-model-based discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed the hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum. High pollen fertility and a lack of linkage disequilibrium suggested that the hybrid populations may be self-sustaining and have persisted since V. atratum and V. japonicum came into contact during the post-glacial period. Moreover, our findings show that the pattern of hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum is unidirectional and differs among populations. Geographically-isolated hybrid populations exist as genetically distinct hybrid swarms that consist of V. atratum-like genotypes, V. japonicum-like genotypes, or admixed genotypes. In addition, Bayesian-based clustering analysis and coalescent-based estimates of long-term gene flow showed patterns of

  15. Nodulation and mycorrhization of transgenic soybean after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Bradyrhizobium spp with in relation to glyphosate can be influenced by the concentration of the herbicide. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two formulations of glyphosate, in two application periods, on nodulation and mycorrhization in a soybean of variety RR P98Y11, using greenhouse, in pots with capacity of 4 L with savanna soils. Six treatments were utilized using Roundup Ultra and Roundup Original with one and two applications, witness without herbicide and witness only with mineral nitrogen, in a completely randomized design. Four evaluations were done, every 15 days, to determine the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weigh and mycorrhizae. It was observed an increase on the number of nodules, with the use of Roundup Ultra until 15 days after the first application. After this period, the witness only with inoculants showed a larger number of nodules. Roundup Ultra had positive influences on the dry weight of nodules, regardless the number of applications. There was no influence of glyphosate formulation considering the mycorrhizal colonization.

  16. Orientation toward humans predicts cognitive performance in orang-utans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerius, Laura A; Forss, Sofia I F; Kosonen, Zaida K; Willems, Erik P; Burkart, Judith M; Call, Josep; Galdikas, Birute M F; Liebal, Katja; Haun, Daniel B M; van Schaik, Carel P

    2017-01-09

    Non-human animals sometimes show marked intraspecific variation in their cognitive abilities that may reflect variation in external inputs and experience during the developmental period. We examined variation in exploration and cognitive performance on a problem-solving task in a large sample of captive orang-utans (Pongo abelii &P. pygmaeus, N = 103) that had experienced different rearing and housing conditions during ontogeny, including human exposure. In addition to measuring exploration and cognitive performance, we also conducted a set of assays of the subjects' psychological orientation, including reactions towards an unfamiliar human, summarized in the human orientation index (HOI), and towards novel food and objects. Using generalized linear mixed models we found that the HOI, rather than rearing background, best predicted both exploration and problem-solving success. Our results suggest a cascade of processes: human orientation was accompanied by a change in motivation towards problem-solving, expressed in reduced neophobia and increased exploration variety, which led to greater experience, and thus eventually to higher performance in the task. We propose that different experiences with humans caused individuals to vary in curiosity and understanding of the physical problem-solving task. We discuss the implications of these findings for comparative studies of cognitive ability.

  17. In vitro screening of soil bacteria for inhibiting phytopathogenic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum could highly inhibit the mycelial growth of five moulds (Botrytis cinerea, Phoma medicaginis, Fusarium verticilloides, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophtora infestans) with a growth inhibition varying between 12.38 and 37.61%. 12 Bacillus strains and five Pseudomonas strains were antagonistic to ...

  18. Effects of genotype x bradyrhizobium inoculation or x fertilizer n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symbiotic fixation). A set of 52 random lines from a broad-based reference population was evaluated for 2 years with and without B.japonicum inoculation in a split-plot design. Inoculation increased ... Genotype x: Inoculation Interactions, Nitrogen fixation ..... genotype x N treatment interaction was non significant each year ...

  19. Growth, nodulation and yield of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... EM (effective microorganisms) is a commercial biofertilizer mainly consists of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast and ... application significantly enhanced grain yield by 48% in NPK amendment without B. japonicum inoculation. ... Black gram is a grain legume widely cultivated in. Pakistan, India ...

  20. Metabolic changes reveal the development of schistosomiasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Wu

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by small trematode worms called schistosomes, amongst which Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum is endemic in Asia. In order to understand the schistosome-induced changes in the host metabolism so as to facilitate early diagnosis of schistosomiasis, we systematically investigated the dynamic metabolic responses of mice biofluids and liver tissues to S. japonicum infection for five weeks using (1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis. We were able to detect schistosomiasis at the third week post-infection, which was one week earlier than "gold standard" methods. We found that S. japonicum infection caused significant elevation of urinary 3-ureidopropionate, a uracil catabolic product, and disturbance of lipid metabolism, stimulation of glycolysis, depression of tricarboxylic acid cycle and disruption of gut microbiota regulations. We further found that the changes of 3-ureidopropionate and overall metabolic changes in both urinary and plasma samples were closely correlated with the time-course of disease progression. Furthermore, such changes together with liver tissue metabonome were clearly associated with the worm-burdens. These findings provided more insightful understandings of host biological responses to the infection and demonstrated that metabonomic analysis is potentially useful for early detection of schistosomiasis and comprehension of the mechanistic aspects of disease progression.

  1. Revised Final Environmental Review for the Construction of a New Base Exchange at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    provided in Appendix B. Areas of steep slopes and cliffs were predominantly vegetated with Macaranga tanarius, Psychotria manillensis and Cinnamomum ...Kadsura japonica Illicium anisatum L. var.anisatum Machilus thunbergii Neolitsea sericea Cinnamomum doederleinii Cinnamomum japonicum Machilus...depressa Macaranga tanarius Bischofia javanica Glochidion zeylanicum Mallotus japonicus Mallotus philippensis Garcia and Associates May 2007

  2. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 20 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-inoculation effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Azospirillum sp. on competitive nodulation and rhizosphere eubacterial community structures of ... Induced gene expression in wheat seedlings treated with a crude extract of Agapanthus africanus L. prior to leaf rust infection · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ...

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFO507 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 1... 35 7.1 AF438165_8( AF438165 |pid:none) Camelpox virus M-96 from Kaz...akhsta... 34 9.3 AY698061_1( AY698061 |pid:none) Schistosoma mansoni nuclear recept

  4. Shelf-life of legume inoculants in different carrier materials available ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, prepared with filter mud carrier, achieved a shelf-life of 135 days and B. japonicum USDA110 contained over 109 cells g-1 for 105 days. Both of these results fall below the stated six months expiry period of BIOFIX. Replacing filter mud carrier with vermiculite, resulted in an inferior product; ...

  5. Growth, nodulation and yield of black gram [ Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EM (effective microorganisms) is a commercial biofertilizer mainly consists of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast and actinomycetes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of EM application and two strains of nitrogen fixing Bradyrhizobium japonicum (TAL- 102 and MN-S) on plant growth, ...

  6. Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... EM (effective microorganisms) is a commercial biofertilizer mainly consists of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast and actinomycetes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of. EM application and two strains of nitrogen fixing Bradyrhizobium japonicum (TAL- 102 and MN-S) on.

  7. [A pharmacognostical study on the fruits of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C; Li, L; Ding, Z; Zhou, Y

    1990-11-01

    The fruits of three species are used as the Chinese drug "Shechuangzi", namely Cnidium monnieri, C. monnieri var. formosana and C. japonicum, among which only C. monnieri is the real sort. The authors have distinguished them by macroscopic and microscopic structures and TLC. The total coumarin, trace element and amino acid contents are reported.

  8. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  9. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  10. Gclust Server: 19847 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19847 Npun1_NpF5504 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(157) 395 blr6297 [Bradyrhiz...obium japonicum] 5 1.00e-10 0.0 0.0 8.0 0.0 9.68 0.0 Show 19847 Cluster ID 19847 Sequence ID Npun1_NpF5504 L

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHL241 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, m...RNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS

  12. Growth, symbiotic, and proteomics studies of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... Interestingly, GroEL protein is involved in nif gene regulation in B. japonicum. It was proposed that one or more of chaperonin proteins assembled with nitrogenase and assisting the proper folding of nitrogenase complex, and finally link to nodulation and nitrogen fixation efficiency of bacteria (Lund,. 2009).

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lu, Z. Vol 13, No 2 (2014) - Articles Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum with Potential Anti-proliferation Activity in MCF- 7 Breast Cancer Cell Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 1 (2015) - Articles Evaluation of Apoptotic and Growth Inhibitory Activity of Phloretin in BGC823 Gastric Cancer Cell

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHI203 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s producing significant alignments: (bits) Value AF325215_2( AF325215 |pid:none) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis...5090 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC03255 ... 36 2.8 EU480452_2( EU480452 |pid:none) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis...325214_2( AF325214 |pid:none) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus... 35 8.2 BX2941

  15. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tan, Chao. Vol 15, No 3 (2016) - Articles Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of Pectolinarigenin from Cirsium japonicum Fisch ex DC in Breast Cancer Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-9827. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  16. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xu, X. Vol 13, No 2 (2014) - Articles Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum with Potential Anti-proliferation Activity in MCF- 7 Breast Cancer Cell Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 10 (2014) - Articles Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in euthyroid patients. Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 10 (2014) - Articles

  17. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zuo, B. Vol 13, No 2 (2014) - Articles Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum with Potential Anti-proliferation Activity in MCF- 7 Breast Cancer Cell Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 1 (2015) - Articles Evaluation of Apoptotic and Growth Inhibitory Activity of Phloretin in BGC823 Gastric Cancer Cell

  18. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yu, W. Vol 13, No 2 (2014) - Articles Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum with Potential Anti-proliferation Activity in MCF- 7 Breast Cancer Cell Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 1 (2015) - Articles Evaluation of Apoptotic and Growth Inhibitory Activity of Phloretin in BGC823 Gastric Cancer Cell

  19. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Determination and Confirmation of Seven Active Components in Chinese Medicine Kumu Injection Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 2 (2014) - Articles Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum with Potential Anti-proliferation ...

  20. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 15, No 5 (2016), Patterns of prescribing and utilization of asthma medications in a tertiary hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Abstract PDF. Sahar A. Fahmy, Eman Abu-Gharbieh, Samer Hamidi. Vol 13, No 2 (2014), Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum with Potential Anti-proliferation ...

  1. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1900 ... Vol 15, No 3 (2016), Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of Pectolinarigenin from Cirsium japonicum Fisch ex DC in Breast Cancer, Abstract PDF. Mingqian Lu, Xinhua Xu, Hongda Lu, Zhongxin Lu, Bingqing Xu, Chao Tan, Kezhi Shi, Rong Guo, Qingzhi Kong. Vol 14, No 1 ...

  2. Alkaloids of some Asian Sedum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, JH; THart, H; Stevens, JF

    The leafy parts of 16 Asian species belonging to the three sections of Sedum were investigated for the presence of alkaloids. Only in seven species of Sedum sect. Sedum were alkaloids found. Sedum bulbiferum, S. japonicum, S. lepidopodium, S. morrisomensis, S. oryzifolium, S. polytrichoides and S.

  3. RHIZOBIUM CROSS-INOCULATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-01-13

    Jan 13, 1993 ... Six introduced and one native nitrogen fixing tree species were grown in a potted non-sterilized Inceptisol inoculated with: species-specific rhizobia strains; Rhizobium strain TAL 1145, a Leucaena isolate;. Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL 169, and without inoculation. Twelve weeks later, significant.

  4. Anti-ice nucleation activity in xylem extracts from trees that contain deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Jun; Mizuno, Kaoru; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-12-01

    Boreal hardwood species, including Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukat. var. japonica Hara), Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.), katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. et Zucc.), Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata Blume), mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.), and Japanese rowan (Sorbus commixta Hedl.), had xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) that adapt to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling. Crude extracts from xylem in all these trees were found to have anti-ice nucleation activity that promoted supercooling capability of water as measured by a droplet freezing assay. The magnitude of increase in supercooling capability of water droplets in the presence of ice-nucleation bacteria, Erwinia ananas, was higher in the ranges from 0.1 to 1.7 degrees C on addition of crude xylem extracts than freezing temperature of water droplets on addition of glucose in the same concentration (100 mosmol/kg). Crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum provided the highest supercooling capability of water droplets. Our additional examination showed that crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum exhibited anti-ice nucleation activity toward water droplets containing a variety of heterogeneous ice nucleators, including ice-nucleation bacteria, not only E. ananas but also Pseudomonas syringae (NBRC3310) or Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide or airborne impurities. However, crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum did not affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperature as analyzed by emulsified micro-water droplets. The possible role of such anti-ice nucleation activity in crude xylem extracts in deep supercooling of XPCs is discussed.

  5. Effects of biofertilizers on grain yield and protein content of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofertilizers can affect the quality and quantity of crop. In order to study the effects of biofertilizers on grain yield and protein content of ... It therefore seems that biofertilizers can be considered as a replacement for part of chemical fertilizers in soybean production. Key words: Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, phosphate ...

  6. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS286 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se cDNA Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 50 7e-05 3 CF445056 |CF445056.1 EST681401 normalized cDNA library of onion...652 |CF439652.1 EST675997 normalized cDNA library of onion Allium cepa cDNA clone ACAAS01, mRNA sequence. 46

  8. Nodulation and N2 fixation effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains in symbiosis with Adzuki Bean, Vigna angularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Delić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiment, one isolate Knj from a Serbian soil, four strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and three strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. were examined for the effect on adzuki bean nodulation and effectiveness in symbiotic N2 fixation. All the tested strains produced root nodules in adzuki bean. Strains of B. japonicum showed high potential of N2 fixation, particularly 525 and 542. B. japonicum strains resulted 65-71% shoot dry weight and 99-138% total N content of uninoculated control with full N content (100%. No significant difference was found between the plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. strains and uninoculated control plants without N (40-42 and 42% shoot dry weight, respectively, which indicated symbiotic N2 fixation inactivity of the Bradyrhizobium spp. strains. Knj strain had the middle position (56% shoot dry weight. These data showed that B. japonicum 525 and 542 strains could be used in further investigations in order to apply them as inoculants in microbiological N fertilizers.

  9. Genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium embrapense strain CNPSo 2833T, isolated from a root nodule of Desmodium heterocarpon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Renata Marçon Delamuta

    Full Text Available Abstract Bradyrhizobium embrapense CNPSo 2833T is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of the legume pasture Desmodium. Its draft genome contains 8,267,832 bp and 7876 CDSs. The symbiotic island includes nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes resembling the operon organization of B. japonicum. Several CDSs related to secretion proteins and stress tolerance were also identified.

  10. Heat Shock Protein 60 in Eggs Specifically Induces Tregs and Reduces Liver Immunopathology in Mice with Schistosomiasis Japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhou

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths need to suppress the host immune system to establish chronic infections. Paradoxically, immunosuppression induced by the worm also benefits the host by limiting excessive inflammation and tissue damage, which remains the major cause leading to serious morbidity and mortality. Regulatory T cells (Tregs are key immune regulators of this mutualism. The successive rise in Tregs during schistosome infection plays a critical role in immunoregulation. We and others previously showed that Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum egg antigens (SEA induce Tregs both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we identified that SjHSP60 derived from SEA significantly induces Tregs in vivo and in vitro. However, the contribution of SjHSP60 in SEA to Treg induction and the related mechanisms of the Treg induction have not yet been identified.In this study, we showed that S. japonicum stress protein HSP60 (SjHSP60 was constitutively and extensively expressed in eggs of S. japonicum. SjHSP60 specially induced Tregs in vivo and in vitro without inducing other CD4+ T sub-populations including Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells. Furthermore, we showed that the SjHSP60-depleted SEA almost lost the ability in vitro and displayed a significant impaired ability to induce Tregs in vivo. Finally, our study illustrated that the mechanisms of SjHSP60-mediated induction of Tregs are through both conversion of CD4+CD25- T cells into CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs and expansion of preexisting CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs in a TLR4-dependent manner.Collectively, our findings identify SjHSP60 as a major parasitic contributor of Treg induction in S. japonicum egg antigens, which not only contributes to the better understanding of the mechanism of immunoregulation during helminth infection, but also suggests its potential as a therapeutic target for control of immunopathology, allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  11. Heat Shock Protein 60 in Eggs Specifically Induces Tregs and Reduces Liver Immunopathology in Mice with Schistosomiasis Japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Jin, Xin; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jifeng; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Feng; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Liang; Su, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminths need to suppress the host immune system to establish chronic infections. Paradoxically, immunosuppression induced by the worm also benefits the host by limiting excessive inflammation and tissue damage, which remains the major cause leading to serious morbidity and mortality. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key immune regulators of this mutualism. The successive rise in Tregs during schistosome infection plays a critical role in immunoregulation. We and others previously showed that Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) egg antigens (SEA) induce Tregs both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we identified that SjHSP60 derived from SEA significantly induces Tregs in vivo and in vitro. However, the contribution of SjHSP60 in SEA to Treg induction and the related mechanisms of the Treg induction have not yet been identified. In this study, we showed that S. japonicum stress protein HSP60 (SjHSP60) was constitutively and extensively expressed in eggs of S. japonicum. SjHSP60 specially induced Tregs in vivo and in vitro without inducing other CD4+ T sub-populations including Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells. Furthermore, we showed that the SjHSP60-depleted SEA almost lost the ability in vitro and displayed a significant impaired ability to induce Tregs in vivo. Finally, our study illustrated that the mechanisms of SjHSP60-mediated induction of Tregs are through both conversion of CD4+CD25- T cells into CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs and expansion of preexisting CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs in a TLR4-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings identify SjHSP60 as a major parasitic contributor of Treg induction in S. japonicum egg antigens, which not only contributes to the better understanding of the mechanism of immunoregulation during helminth infection, but also suggests its potential as a therapeutic target for control of immunopathology, allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  12. A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay for early detection of Schistosoma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Tang, Jingfeng; Zhao, Youyun; Gong, Rui; Lu, Xuan; Gong, Lulu; Wang, Yefu

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major infectious disease and a public health concern in many areas in China and other countries. Sensitive method for detection of the parasite is critical for early diagnosis and for monitoring of effective treatment of the disease. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the detection of Schistosoma japonicum DNA in mouse feces and serum samples. This assay was based on the DNA sequence of the S. japonicum 18S rRNA gene and was able to detect 10 fg of S. japonicum genomic DNA, which is 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. We were able to detect the S. japonicum DNA one week post-infection in mouse sera and 4 weeks post-infection in feces, which was one week earlier than egg detection by microscopy in feces. This assay was also highly specific for Asian Schistosomes which are causative species of human Schistosomiasis. In single sex male cercariae infected mice, parasite DNA was only detected in the first 4 weeks post-infection, suggesting that the DNA was derived from decaying worms' corpse in the first 4 weeks whereas the DNA was mainly from decaying parasite eggs afterwards. Therefore we conclude that the established TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a sensitive, specific and convenient method that could be used for the early diagnostic evaluation of S. japonicum infection in humans and for monitoring outbreaks in endemic areas with low prevalence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Practical identification of eight medically important Trichosporon species by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) assay and rolling circle amplification (RCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Guo, Li-Na; Kong, Fanrong; Wang, He; Sorrell, Tania C; Li, Ruo-Yu; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Sharon C-A; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2013-04-01

    We developed a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization-, and rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based assays for the identification of Trichoporon species and evaluated them with 48 isolates that had been previously recognized as belonging to eight species (Trichosporon asahii, T. cutaneum, T. dermatis, T. domesticum, T. inkin, T. japonicum, T. jirovecii, and T. laibachii). Results were compared to those obtained with DNA sequencing of three rRNA gene loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, D1/D2 domain of the 28S rRNA gene and intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region. Using species-specific, or group-specific probes targeted at the ITS region and the D1/D2 domain, the RLB assay permitted accurate species identification of all 48 isolates with 100% specificity. Species-specific RLB probes correctly assigned 45/48 (94%) of the isolates (six species) with the exception of T. dermatis and T. japonicum isolates which were not targeted by the assay. Identification of T. dermatis relied on a positive hybridization result with the group-specific probe hybridizing with T. dermatis and T. jirovecii and the absence of a signal with the T. jirovecii-specific probe. T. japonicum strains were first assigned to the T. asahii-T. japonicum group by hybridization with the two species group-specific probe and then as T. japonicum by the absence of signal with a T. asahii-specific probe. Twelve species-specific RCA probes targeting the eight species studied detected templates of all 48 Trichosporon isolates and an artificial template of T. asteroides, all with good specificity. Both RLB and RCA are potential alternatives to DNA sequencing for the identification of Trichosporon species. The RLB approach is suited for the batched simultaneous analysis of large numbers of isolates, while RCA is more appropriate for the immediate study of single isolates. Comparative costs are US$7 and US$2 per assay for the RLB and RCA methods, respectively.

  14. [Development of colloidal gold immunochromatography assay strip for schistosomiasis diagnosis in domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Zhao, Deng-yun; Lu, Ke; Hong, Yang; Li, Hao; Lin, Jiao-jiao; Liu, Jin-ming; Xu, Yu-mei; Zhu Chuan-gang

    2015-10-01

    To develop a quick and easy colloidal gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) strip for schistosomiasis diagnosis in domestic animals. The reconstruction of Streptococcal Protein G (SPG) was designed and its gene was subcloned into plasmid pET-28a(+) to express in Escherichia coli. The recombinant SPG was purified and labeled with colloidal gold. The Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigen (SEA) and rSPG were blotted on the nitrocellulose membrane for the test line and control line respectively. The specificity, sensitivity and cross-reaction of the strip method were detected. The rSPG was successfully expressed and purified to label with colloidal gold. The colloidal gold immunochromatography assay strips were assembled and they could detect the sera of S. japonicum infected BALB/c mice, New Zealand white rabbits, buffalo and sheep successfully. Besides, the sensitivity of GICA strip was 100% in the sera of mice and the serum of rabbits with S. japonicum infection. The specificity was 100% in the serum of mice and the sera of rabbits with free of infection. The sensitivity was 100% in the sera of sheep with miracidia of S. japonicum hatching from the stool and the specificity was 88.46% in the sera of sheep without that. The sensitivity was 94.44% in the sera of buffalo with miracidia hatching from the stool and the specificity was 100% in the sera of buffalo without that. The cross-reaction rate was 5.88% in Paramphistomum. The GICA strip can successfully detect a variety of S. japonicum infected domestic animals and may be a useful tool for screening on a large scale in the endemic areas.

  15. The synergistic effect of concomitant schistosomiasis, hookworm, and trichuris infections on children's anemia burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the degree of synergism between helminth species in their combined effects on anemia.Quantitative egg counts using the Kato-Katz method were determined for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Schistosoma japonicum in 507 school-age children from helminth-endemic villages in The Philippines. Infection intensity was defined in three categories: uninfected, low, or moderate/high (M+. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dL. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals (CI, and synergy index for pairs of concurrent infections.M+ co-infection of hookworm and S. japonicum (OR = 13.2, 95% CI: 3.82-45.5 and of hookworm and T. trichiura (OR = 5.34, 95% CI: 1.76-16.2 were associated with higher odds of anemia relative to children without respective M+ co-infections. For co-infections of hookworm and S. japonicum and of T. trichiura and hookworm, the estimated indices of synergy were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6 and 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.0, respectively.Co-infections of hookworm and either S. japonicum or T. trichiura were associated with higher levels of anemia than would be expected if the effects of these species had only independent effects on anemia. This suggests that integrated anti-helminthic treatment programs with simultaneous deworming for S. japonicum and some geohelminths could yield a greater than additive benefit for reducing anemia in helminth-endemic regions.

  16. The Three Gorges Dam: Does it accelerate or delay the progress towards eliminating transmission of schistosomiasis in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2016-07-05

    The Three Gorges Dam, located in the largest endemic area of schistosomiasis in China, is one of the world's largest hydroelectric projects to date. Some large-scale hydro projects have resulted in schistosomiasis emergence or re-emergence. Therefore, the dam's potential impact on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum has raised concerns from medical researchers worldwide. A systematic literature review, coupled with an analysis of data on the water level and snail density in the Yangtze River was conducted to assess the impact of the dam on schistosomiasis transmission after more than 10 years of operation. The dam has significantly altered the water levels in the Yangtze River according to different seasons. These changes directly impact the ecology of the schistosome snail host. Due to the dam, there has been a reduction in the density of Oncomelania snails and/or changes in the distribution of snails. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum has decreased in the downstream areas of the dam, including in the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum in humans has decreased from 6.80 % in 2002 (before the dam began operating) to 0.50 % in 2012, and the number of people infected with S. japonicum have decreased from 94 208 in 2002 to 59 200 in 2011 in the Poyang Lake region. The presence of the dam does not seem to affect snail breeding or the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Overall, the Three Gorges Dam has significantly contributed to changes in hydrology after more than 10 years of the dam operating. The changes caused by the dam, together with integrated control of schistosomiasis, might be accelerating the progress towards eliminating the transmission of S. japonicum in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Despite the positive effect the dam is having in controlling S. japonicum transmission, continued surveillance is required to monitor the future ecological impacts of the

  17. Implications of iodine chemistry for daytime HO2 levels at Rishiri Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Yugo; Yokouchi, Yoko; Matsumoto, Jun; Nakamura, Kenji; Kato, Shungo; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Furutani, Hiroshi; Toyota, Kenjiro; Akimoto, Hajime

    2002-04-01

    The observed midday maximum in the mixing ratio of HO2 at Rishiri Island in June 2000 was ~10 pptv, but photochemical box model simulations overpredicted HO2 at this location by an average of 70%. This overestimation was significant only when the mixing ratio of NO was lower than 300 pptv, and was coincident with overprediction of the NO/NO2 ratio. We detected several organoiodines, presumably emitted from seaweeds, and propose the presence of the IO radical. IO could reduce HO2 mixing ratios via the formation of HOI that may subsequently be scavenged by aerosols or lost by photolysis and may also convert NO to NO2 directly. Model calculations with known iodine chemistry could reproduce the observed HO2 with 12-25 pptv of IO. Although iodine chemistry is unlikely to explain the entire discrepancy in HO2, several pptv of IO could significantly reduce HO2 mixing ratios and NO/NO2 ratios.

  18. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela T P Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions.

  19. Student Attitudes Towards Cooperative Construction Education Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Haupt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the attitudes of students at a historically disadvantaged institution (HOI compared with those at a previously advantaged institution (PAl in South Africa. PAis in South Africa have been almost exclusively white in the past while HOls have been predominantly black-both with respect to their academic staffing and student population. It is argued that higher education institutions have given students in general too little that will be of real value beyond a credential that will help them get their first jobs. The opinions of first year students were surveyed before, and third and final year students after, their practical periods of employment in construction. The study concludes that all the cooperative partners in cooperative education can do much more to improve this approach to construction education.

  20. The Japanese Medical Empire and Its Iterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John DiMoia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoi-eun Kim. Doctors of Empire: Medical and Cultural Encounters between Imperial Germany and Meiji Japan. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014. 272 pp. $55 (cloth/ebook. As recently as the early 1980s, the literature in English concerning the broader transformation of East Asia as a space for emerging developments in science, technology, and medicine (STM was dominated almost exclusively by works on imperial China. This is not surprising, given its considerable historical legacy as the dominant cultural force in the region. It was perfectly acceptable within the field, moreover, to treat neighboring countries within this Sinocentric framework, or at least to regard their cultural and historical indebtedness to China as one of their central features of interest. If I exaggerate the hegemonic force of China studies in the recent past to make a rhetorical point, I do so to mark the arrival of a great deal of newer scholarship concerning the transformation of the East Asian region since the nineteenth century, and arguably since at least the seventeenth century, particularly within the field of medicine—whether Western, “traditional” (a problematic term, admittedly, or even, in more complex cases, those practices embedded within a dense nexus of religious worship and healing. The work under review here, Hoi-eun Kim’s Doctors of Empire, provides a new and welcome addition to the growing literature on Meiji Japan, following in the tradition of a substantial body of previous work on scientific and technological accomplishments, including studies by James Bartholomew (1993, Tessa Morris-Suzuki (1994, and Morris Low (2005, among many others....

  1. Formation of iodo-trihalomethanes, iodo-acetic acids, and iodo-acetamides during chloramination of iodide-containing waters: Factors influencing formation and reaction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shaogang [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuang-qing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China); Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Food Safety and Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530006, Guangxi (China); Li, Zhenlin [Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Food Safety and Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530006, Guangxi (China); Dong, Huiyu [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuang-qing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China); Goodman, Bernard A. [College of Physical Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning, 520004, Guangxi (China); Qiang, Zhimin, E-mail: qiangz@rcees.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuang-qing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2017-01-05

    This study investigated systematically the factors influencing the formation of iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) during chloramination of I{sup −}-containing waters, including reaction time, NH{sub 2}Cl dose, I{sup −} concentration, pH, natural organic matter (NOM) concentration, Br{sup −}/I{sup −} molar ratio, and water matrix. Among the I-DBPs detected, iodoform (CHI{sub 3}), iodoacetic acid (IAA), diiodoacetic acid (DIAA), triiodoacetic acid (TIAA), and diiodoacetamide (DIAcAm) were the major species produced from reactions between reactive iodine species (HOI/I{sub 2}) and NOM. A kinetic model involving the reactions of NH{sub 2}Cl auto-decomposition, iodine species transformation and NOM consumption was developed, which could well describe NH{sub 2}Cl decay and HOI/I{sub 2} evolution. Higher concentrations of CHI{sub 3}, IAA, DIAA, TIAA, and DIAcAm were observed in chloramination than in chlorination, whereas IO{sub 3}{sup −} was only formed significantly in chlorination. Maximum formation of I-DBPs occurred at pH 8.0, but acidic conditions favored the formation of iodinated haloacetic acids and DIAcAm. Increasing Br{sup −}/I{sup −} molar ratio from 1 to 10 did not increase the total amount of I-DBPs, but produced more bromine-substituting species. In addition, chloramination of 18 model compounds indicated that low-SUVA{sub 254} (specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm) NOM generally favored the formation of I-DBPs compared to high-SUVA{sub 254} NOM. Finally, potential pathways for I-DBPs formation from chloramination of NOM were proposed.

  2. Chlorination of iodide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Formation of periodate

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2014-11-18

    It has been shown previously that the disproportionation of halogen-containing oxidants (e.g., HOCl, HOBr, and ClO2) is enhanced by a CuO-catalyzed process. In this study, the transformation of iodine during chlorination in the presence of CuO was investigated. There is no significant enhancement of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in the presence of CuO. The formation rate of iodate (IO3 -) in the CuO-HOCl-I- system significantly increased when compared to homogeneous solutions, which was ascribed to the activation of HOCl by CuO enhancing its reactivity toward HOI. In this reaction system, iodate formation rates increase with increasing CuO (0-0.5 g L-1) and bromide (0-2 μM) doses and with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6). Iodate does not adsorb to the CuO surfaces used in this study. Nevertheless, iodate concentrations decreased after a maximum was reached in the CuO-HOCl-I-(-Br-) systems. Similarly, the iodate concentrations decrease as a function of time in the CuO-HOCl-IO3 - or CuO-HOBr-IO3 - system, and the rates increase with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6) due to the enhanced reactivity of HOCl or HOBr in the presence of CuO. It could be demonstrated that iodate is oxidized to periodate by a CuO-activated hypohalous acid, which is adsorbed on the CuO surface. No periodate could be measured in filtered solutions because it was mainly adsorbed to CuO. The adsorbed periodate was identified by scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA gene divergence in the genus Schistosoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D A; Kane, R A; Rollinson, D

    1993-08-01

    An entire 18S rRNA gene sequence from Schistosoma spindale (1990 bases) and partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from S. haematobium (1950 bases) and S. japonicum (1648 bases) have been determined. Together with the previously published sequence of the S. mansoni 18S rRNA gene, these data encompass the 4 recognized Schistosoma species groups. Although Schistosoma 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved, the sequences permit a preliminary molecular phylogeny to be established for the genus. This identifies S. haematobium and S. spindale as sister taxa in a clade with S. mansoni. S. japonicum does not appear to be closely related to this clade. Much of the observed variation occurs within a 'hypervariable' stretch of the gene corresponding to part of the V4 region of 18S rRNA. Despite this variation, the 3 new sequences fit models of 18S rRNA secondary structure predicted from the S. mansoni sequence.

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of the four Schistosoma species groups determined with partial 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, D T; Johnston, D A

    1995-08-01

    Partial 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences, including the variable domains D1, D2 and D3, were determined for representative species from the 4 Schistosoma species groups. On an alignment of 1345 bp from S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. spindale and S. japonicum (with Heterobilharzia americana chosen as an outgroup), both maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses provide a robust molecular phylogeny for the genus; ((((S. haematobium, S. spindale), S. mansoni), S. japonicum), H. americana). When analysed separately, both domain D1 and domain D2 yielded similarly informative data whereas D3 failed to resolve the phylogeny. These results confirm a phylogeny previously suggested by 18S rRNA gene sequences, corroborating the status of S. spindale as a sister taxon to S. haematobium, and demonstrate the utility of 28S rRNA gene sequence data for resolving phylogenies within the Schistosomatidae.

  5. Dicty_cDB: SSC557 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 76 9e-16 3 BU768904 |BU768904.1 SJEBZB10 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067329...|AI067329.1 EST209007 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS63...|AI067936.1 EST209624 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCG92...|AI067953.1 EST209642 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCH20...54 0.002 1 BU776849 |BU776849.1 SJEDDD08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067312

  6. Dicty_cDB: VSE491 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |AI067329.1 EST209007 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS63...54 0.002 1 BU776849 |BU776849.1 SJEDDD08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067936...|AI067936.1 EST209624 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCG92...|AI067312.1 EST208990 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS44...54 0.002 1 BU768904 |BU768904.1 SJEBZB10 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067953

  7. Dicty_cDB: SSM519 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 76 5e-14 2 BU768904 |BU768904.1 SJEBZB10 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067329...|AI067329.1 EST209007 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS63...|AI067936.1 EST209624 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCG92...|AI067953.1 EST209642 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCH20...54 0.002 1 BU776849 |BU776849.1 SJEDDD08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067312

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSA185 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 76 4e-14 2 BU768904 |BU768904.1 SJEBZB10 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067329...|AI067329.1 EST209007 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS63...|AI067936.1 EST209624 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCG92...|AI067953.1 EST209642 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCH20...54 0.002 1 BU776849 |BU776849.1 SJEDDD08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067312

  9. Dicty_cDB: VFA349 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 76 5e-14 2 BU768904 |BU768904.1 SJEBZB10 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067329...|AI067329.1 EST209007 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS63...|AI067936.1 EST209624 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCG92...|AI067953.1 EST209642 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCH20...54 0.002 1 BU776849 |BU776849.1 SJEDDD08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067312

  10. Dicty_cDB: SLF122 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 76 1e-13 2 BU776849 |BU776849.1 SJEDDD08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.003 1 AI067312...|AI067312.1 EST208990 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS44...54 0.003 1 BU768904 |BU768904.1 SJEBZB10 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.003 1 AI067329...|AI067329.1 EST209007 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS63...|AI067953.1 EST209642 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCH20

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSI366 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |AI067953.1 EST209642 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCH20...|AI067936.1 EST209624 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNCG92...54 0.002 1 BU776849 |BU776849.1 SJEDDD08 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067312...|AI067312.1 EST208990 Schistosoma mansoni, Phil LoVerde/Joe Merrick Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone SMNAS44...54 0.002 1 BU768904 |BU768904.1 SJEBZB10 SJE Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 54 0.002 1 AI067329

  12. Integrated Control Strategy of Schistosomiasis in The People's Republic of China: Projects Involving Agriculture, Water Conservancy, Forestry, Sanitation and Environmental Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhou, Y-B; Song, X-X; Li, S-Z; Zhong, B; Wang, T-P; Bergquist, R; Zhou, X-N; Jiang, Q-W

    2016-01-01

    Among the three major schistosome species infecting human beings, Schistosoma japonicum is the only endemic species in The People's Republic of China. Schistosomiasis is endemic in 78 countries and regions and poses a severe threat to public health and socioeconomic development. Through more than 60years of hard work and endeavour, The People's Republic of China has made considerable achievements and reduced the morbidity and prevalence of this disease to the lowest level ever recorded, especially since the introduction of the new integrated control strategy in 2004. This review illustrates the strategies implemented by giving successful examples of schistosomiasis control from the different types of remaining endemic areas. The challenge to control or eliminate S. japonicum is analysed in order to provide useful information to policy makers and scientists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rhizobium strains differ considerably in outer membrane permeability and polymyxin B resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaniecka, Iwona; Zamłyńska, Katarzyna; Zan, Radosław; Staszczak, Magdalena; Pawelec, Jarosław; Seta, Irena; Choma, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Six rhizobium (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii TA1, Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, Mesorhizobium huakuii IFO 15243(T), Ochrobactrum lupini LUP 21(T), Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and B. elkanii USDA 76) and two Escherichia coli strains (E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli HB 101) were compared in respect to polymyxin B and EDTA resistance, as well as bacterial outer membrane (OM) permeability to a fluorescent hydrophobic agent (N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine - NPN). TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and a microbial test demonstrated that all the rhizobia were much more resistant to polymyxin B in comparison with E. coli strains. EDTA and polymyxin B enhance permeability of B. japonicum and O. lupini OM. Other rhizobia incorporated NPN independently of the presence of membrane-deteriorating agents; however, the level of fluorescence (measured as NPN absorption) was strain dependent.

  14. Pleomorphism and acetylene-reducing activity of free-living rhizobia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneshiro, T; Baker, F. L.; Johnson, D E

    1983-01-01

    Cowpea-type Rhizobium sp. strain 32H1 and Rhizobium japonicum USDA 26 and 110 grown on a glutamate-mannitol-gluconate agar medium showed increases in the number of pleomorphic cells coincident with their acetylene-reducing activity. Pleomorphs appeared to be inhibited in growth nonuniformly, because acetylene-reducing cultures were mixtures of rod, branched (V, Y, and T), and other irregularly shaped cells. In contrast, strain USDA 10 consistently failed to reduce acetylene, even though it al...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02000-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mermis nielseni mitochondrio... 41 0.16 EU665484_1( EU665484 |pid:none) Raillieti...0 0.35 EU170096_1( EU170096 |pid:none) Tribolium castaneum gustatory rece... 39 0.59 EU665489_1( EU665489 |pid:none) Rail...1( FN313579 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum isolate Anhu... 37 2.9 EU665488_1( EU665488 |pid:none) Railliet

  16. Assessing the effect of an integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis japonica emphasizing bovines in a marshland area of Hubei Province, China: a cluster randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Cheng Hong

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: More than 80% of schistosomiasis patients in China live in the lake and marshland regions. The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of a comprehensive strategy to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in marshland regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cluster randomized controlled trial, we implemented an integrated control strategy in twelve villages from 2009 through 2011 in Gong'an County, Hubei Province. The routine interventions included praziquantel chemotherapy and controlling snails, and were implemented in all villages. New interventions, mainly consisting of building fences to limit the grazing area for bovines, building safe pastures for grazing, improving the residents' health conditions and facilities, were only implemented in six intervention villages. Results showed that the rate of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines, snails, cow dung and mice in the intervention group decreased from 3.41% in 2008 to 0.81% in 2011, 3.3% to none, 11 of 6,219 to none, 3.9% to none and 31.7% to 1.7%, respectively (P0.05 for all comparisons. Moreover, a generalized linear model showed that there was a higher infection risk in humans in the control group than in the intervention group (OR = 1.250, P = 0.001 and an overall significant downward trend in infection risk during the study period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The integrated control strategy, designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of S. japonicum infection, was highly effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-12002405.

  17. Genome Sequence of the Chemolithoautotrophic Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb-255

    OpenAIRE

    Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam L.; Larimer, Frank W.; Stephanie A Malfatti; Klotz, Martin G.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Arp, Daniel J.; Hickey, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi (ATCC 25391) is a gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy from the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Sequencing and analysis of its genome revealed a single circular chromosome of 3,402,093 bp encoding 3,143 predicted proteins. There were extensive similarities to genes in two alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 (1,300 genes) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 CG (815 genes). Genes encodin...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHC191 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA,... mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJ

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHK450 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum... cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 0.001 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonic

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHM314 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -group) cDNA clone IR64-BI1.6B04 5', mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B...js2-16-2G01-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_