Sample records for hoffmann hallvard degaard

  1. Woodward–Hoffmann Rules At Your Fingertips!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woodward–Hoffmann Rules. A simple procedure for determining whether a pericyclic reaction is thermally allowed is described. The focus is on the potential aromaticity of the transition state of the process, which is inferred from the topological features of the interact- ing orbitals and the number of electrons involved.

  2. Hoffmann's disease: MR imaging of hypothyroid myopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jeewon; Ahn, Kyung-Sik; Kang, Chang Ho [Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Suk-Joo [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beak Hyun [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)


    Hoffmann's syndrome is a hypothyroid myopathy presenting as muscle stiffness and hypertrophy. It is a rare complication of hypothyroidism. MRI features of this syndrome have seldom been described in the literature. We present a case of Hoffmann's syndrome in a 34-year-old man who underwent lower extremity contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI can demonstrate the hypertrophic configuration, T2 hyperintensity, and enhancement of the involved muscles in Hoffmann's syndrome. Along with clinical, laboratory, and electromyography findings, MRI may be helpful in distinguishing between inflammatory myopathy, myonecrosis, subacute muscle denervation, and infectious myositis. (orig.)

  3. [Improvement of Hoffmann external fixation apparatus]. (United States)

    Niimura, T


    The resurgence of external fixators for the management of skeletal and joint injuries has generated an increasing number of reports. In addition, many types of fixators have been developed in the last ten years. Of these, the Hoffmann external fixator is the most popular one. Is it possible for the patient with a tibial comminuted fracture to walk with the fixator? This study has been pursued to investigate this question and to improve on the fixator. Bone models were made from tubed polyester resin strengthened by glass fiber (elastic module: 9.46 kg/mm2, outside diameter: 35 mm, inside diameter: 30 mm). Each bone model was transfixed by two Steinmann pins (phi: 4.5 mm) with 43 mm between, and a pair of models was framed with two straight bars, with 30 mm from model to bar. The Steinmann pins and straight bars were connected to each attachment. The experiment focused on four main studies: Measurement of the Young's modulus of the Steinmann pin. Compression load test and bending load test framed bone models with each attachment. Observation and measurement of the ground reaction force of ambulation on stilt framed with experimental external fixator. Determination of S-N curve of the Steinmann pin. Results were as follows: The Young's modulus of the Steinmann pin were 1.8 X 10(4) kg/mm2. 0.2% proof of the pin was 110 kg/mm2. The bone models framed with the conventional method were destructed at the universal ball joint at 68 kgf in the compression load test, and 6.8 kgf in the bending load test. The models framed with the conventional method fitted with spring washers at ball joints were not destructed until 203 kgf in compression load, but after several trials the spring washers were crushed. The models fabricated by using a vice with rods and articulation coupling were not damaged until 210 kgf in compression load and were not damaged until 15 kgf in bending load even after several trials. The displacement between the models were 2.8 mm at 80 kgf and 8.5 mm at 210

  4. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1981: Fukui and Hoffmann (United States)

    van Houten, J.


    The 1981 Nobel Prize was awarded to Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions." Those theories, which have come to be known as "frontier orbital theory" and the "Woodward-Hoffmann rules" respectively, remain important tools for predicting the course of organic reactions and they are frequently taught in courses in mechanistic organic chemistry.

  5. Endoscopic cubital tunnel release using the Hoffmann technique. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Reimer; Lubahn, John


    Endoscopic cubital tunnel release was originally described in 1989 by Tsai, and his technique has been modified by other surgeons including Mirza and Cobb. In 2006, Hoffmann and Siemionow described an endoscopic technique quite different from Tsai's original description. Instead of working from the "inside out," Hoffmann's technique is performed through an incision similar to that which would be used for an in situ release of the ulnar nerve. The main difference being that the nerve can be explored and decompressed 10 cm proximal and distal to the arcuate ligament as the surgeon looks down on the nerve and the surrounding tissues while viewing the anatomy through a camera attached to a soft tissue endoscope that is inserted in the wound. The arcuate (Osborne's) ligament is released under direct vision much like a standard in situ decompression. Using a blunt dissection instrument, a workspace is created proximally and distally to the cubital tunnel. Next an illuminated speculum is introduced, the nerve is directly visualized between 4 and 5 cm proximal and distal to the cubital tunnel, and potential compressive forearm fasciae or fibrous bands are released. Finally, a 15-cm, 30° soft tissue endoscope is introduced into the incision, and viewing the internal anatomy on a video monitor, the decompression continues using longer scissors. Any potential bleeding is controlled with a long bayonet bipolar cautery. The authors discuss indications, contraindications, and the surgical technique. Postoperative management and associated complications are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fitts' Theorem and Movement Time Dissociation for Amplitude and Width Manipulations: Replying to Hoffmann. (United States)

    Heath, Matthew; Tremblay, Luc; Elliott, Digby


    The commentary by Errol Hoffmann asserts that previous work by our group provides the spurious conclusion that amplitude and width manipulations to a movement environment elicit dissociable relations between movement time (MT) and P. M. Fitts' (1954) index of difficulty (ID). Hoffmann concludes that any such dissociation is the result of actions evoked entirely as ballistic. In this reply, we demonstrate that Hoffmann's commentary is a clear misrepresentation of the study goals and conclusions stated by our group. Additionally, we provide kinematic evidence that actions involving online trajectory amendments are associated with dissociable MT-ID relations for amplitude versus width manipulations. Finally, we contend that the kinematic analyses of movement trajectories, and Hoffmann's failure to acknowledge its importance, is an important step in further understanding speed-accuracy relations in human movement.

  7. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward–Hoffmann Rules At Your ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward-Hoffmann Rules At Your Fingertips! Subramania Ranganathan. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1211-1222. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Congenital cytoplasmic body myopathy with survival motor neuron gene deletion or Werdnig-Hoffmann disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajsar, J; Balslev, T; Ray, P N


    bodies. However, molecular analysis revealed a homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene, suggesting that the patient had Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. We recommend that every patient with congenital cytoplasmic body myopathy be tested for SMN gene deletion....

  9. Energy-related renovation in the world heritage. Retrofitting 'Glas-Hoffmann' buildings, Berlin; Energetische Sanierung im Weltkulturerbe. Sanierung 'Glas-Hoffmann'-Bauten, Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brensing, Christian


    Between 1955 and 1959, the housing estate at the Schiller park in Berlin-Wedding (Federal Republic in Germany) established in the 1920ies was expanded by four-storey house lines, the so-called Glas-Hoffmann buildings. Since 2008, this ensemble belongs to the Unesco World Heritage. In improving the thermal insulation of the building envelope and the adaptation of the building services to today's standards, therefore the architectural aesthetics of these buildings should not be endangered. The retrofitting was a pilot project of the research project ''Monument and energy - Postwar Modernism''.

  10. The comparison of application of two different frequencies of TENS on excitability of Hoffmann reflex

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    Akbari M


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to compare the effect of applying two transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS current with different frequencies (2 Hz & 100 Hz on Hoffmann reflex recorded from gastrosoleus muscle of healthy people. Forty female subjects between 20 to 30 years of age were participated in this quasi-experimental design. Twenty of them were exposed to the 100 Hz current and the remaining 20 to 2 Hz current on dermatome S1 root. The excitability of the alpha motoneurone was measured by H-reflex amplitude (peak to peak max/2 before and after the application of the TENS current for 30 minutes. The reflex was recorded and at measured before (TO and after the application of TENS at different times (T1, T% and T10 up to 10 minutes. The mean values were compared by multiple paired T test (alpha=0.00825. The results indicate a considerable decrement in Hoffmann reflex amplitude after application of 100 Hz current in comarison with that of before the application. The effect last for 10 minutes after the TENS application, whereas the application of 2 Hz current results in increment of the Hoffmann reflex amplitude. The 5 and 10 minutes interval test dose not show any significance and the results were attenuated befor 5 minutes. As a conclusion high frequency of TENS (100 Hz has an inhibitory effect on excitability of alpha motor neurone reflex lasting for 10 minutes, while low frequency of TENS (2 Hz has an facilatory effect on the same motoneurone with short lasting effect.

  11. "Und immer hat's geklungen...". Zu Dämonie und Erlebniskrise in Brentanos "Lore Lay" und in der von Hoffmann und Kierkegaard gedeuteten Mozartschen Don-Juan-Figur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn


    Clemens Brentano, fremmedgørelse, indlevelse, romantik, oplevelseskrise, Mozart, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Søren Kierkegaard, forførelsesmotiv......Clemens Brentano, fremmedgørelse, indlevelse, romantik, oplevelseskrise, Mozart, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Søren Kierkegaard, forførelsesmotiv...

  12. The self-presentation of the Halle medical professor Friedrich Hoffmann (1660-1742) mirrored by his autobiography. (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph


    The lost autobiography of the famous Halle medical professor Friedrich Hoffmann (1660-1742) was recently located in the Manuscripta borussica collection of the Berlin State Library Manuscript Department (Handschriftenabteilung der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin). The autobiography shows new details about his life and work as well as his strategy to shape the picture of his personality for posterity.

  13. Intersession reliability of Hoffmann reflex gain and presynaptic inhibition in the human soleus muscle. (United States)

    Hayes, Bradley T; Hicks-Little, Charlie A; Harter, Rod A; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Hoffman, Mark A


    Hayes BT, Hicks-Little CA, Harter RA, Widrick JJ, Hoffman MA. Intersession reliability of Hoffmann reflex gain and presynaptic inhibition in the human soleus muscle. To determine the day-to-day reliability of Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) gain and presynaptic inhibition of spinal reflexes in the human soleus muscle. Controlled trial. Research laboratory. Volunteers (N=30; mean +/- SD age, 23.4+/-3.9y; height, 175.64+/-10.87cm; mass, 84.50+/-24.18kg) with no history of lower extremity pathology and/or injury participated. Subjects lay prone with the head, shoulders, arms, and hips supported in a static position by a massage body pillow and the ankle positioned at 90 degrees . Recording electrodes were placed over the soleus and tibialis anterior muscle bellies, and the stimulating electrodes were positioned over the tibial nerve in the popliteal space and the common peroneal nerve near the fibular head. The H-reflex and motor wave recruitment curves were then measured and recorded. Presynaptic inhibition was also assessed in the soleus muscle, and a conditioning stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (1 x motor threshold = motor threshold) was used prior to soleus H-reflex measurement. Two testing sessions took place between 2 and 7 days, and each session occurred at the same time of day. Assessments of H-reflex gain and presynaptic inhibition yielded test-retest reliability of R equal to . 95 and .91, respectively. Measures of presynaptic inhibition and H-reflex gain (H slope/M slope) in the human soleus muscle are consistent and reliable day to day.

  14. The acute effect of whole-body vibration on the hoffmann reflex. (United States)

    Armstrong, W Jeffrey; Nestle, Holly N; Grinnell, David C; Cole, Lindsey D; Van Gilder, Erica L; Warren, Gabriel S; Capizzi, Elizabeth A


    The extent to which motoneuron pool excitability, as measured by the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), is affected by an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) was recorded in 19 college-aged subjects (8 male and 11 female; mean age 19 +/- 1 years) after tibial nerve stimulation. H/M recruitment curves were mapped for the soleus muscle by increasing stimulus intensity in 0.2- to 1.0-volt increments with 10-second rest intervals between stimuli, until the maximal M-wave and H-reflex were obtained. After determination of Hmax and Mmax, the intensity necessary to generate an H-reflex approximately 30% of Mmax (mean 31.5% +/- 4.1%) was determined and used for all subsequent measurements. Fatigue was then induced by 1 minute of WBV at 40 Hz and low amplitude (2-4 mm). Successive measurements of the H-reflex were recorded at the test intensity every 30 seconds for 30 minutes post fatigue. All subjects displayed a significant suppression of the H-reflex during the first minute post-WBV; however, four distinct recovery patterns were observed among the participants (alpha = 0.50). There were no significant differences between genders across time (P = 0.401). The differences observed in this study cannot be explained by level or type training. One plausible interpretation of these data is that the multiple patterns of recovery may display variation of muscle fiber content among subjects. Future investigation should consider factors such as training specificity and muscle fiber type that might contribute to the differing H-reflex response, and the effect of WBV on specific performance measures should be interpreted with the understanding that there may be considerable variability among individuals. Recovery times and sample size should be adjusted accordingly.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: DNA analysis of a mummified umbilical cord using closely linked microsatellite markers. (United States)

    Matilla, T; Corral, J; Miranda, M; Troyano, J; Morrison, K; Volpini, V; Estivill, X


    We present a case of prenatal diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, the most severe type of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). DNA obtained from a mummified umbilical cord of a decreased affected brother of the index case was analysed with four closely linked microsatellite markers [EF1/2a and EF13/14 (D5S125), MAP1B, and JK53CA (D5S112)], flanking the SMA gene, on chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. The fetus was diagnosed as homozygous for the deleterious SMA gene.

  16. High incidence of spinal muscular atrophy type I (Werdnig - Hoffmann disease) in the Karaite community in Israel. (United States)

    Fried, K; Mundel, G


    Spinal muscular atrophy (S.M.A.) type I (Infantile werdnig - Hoffmann Disease) was found in 4:1,600 (1:400) infants of the Egyptian Karaite community. This group constitutes a representative sample of the Egyptian Karaite community in Israel, which numbers at present somewhat more than 7,000. The community existed as a religious and reproductive isolate for over 10 centuries. The very high gene frequency, 0.05 for the autosomal recessive gene of S.M.A. type I, is probably the result of genetic drift.

  17. rDNA mapping, heterochromatin characterization and AT/GC content of Agapanthus africanus (L. Hoffmanns (Agapanthaceae

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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agapanthus (Agapanthaceae has 10 species described. However, most taxonomists differ respect to this number because the great phenotypic plasticity of the species. The cytogenetic has been an important tool to aid the plant taxon identification, and to date, all taxa of Agapanthus L'Héritier studied cytologically, presented 2n = 30. Although the species possess large chromosomes, the group is karyologically little explored. This work aimed to increase the cytogenetic knowledge of Agapanthus africanus (L. Hoffmanns by utilization of chromosome banding techniques with DAPI / CMA3 and Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH. In addition, flow cytometry was used for determination of DNA content and the percentage of AT / GC nitrogenous bases. Plants studied showed 2n = 30 chromosomes, ranging from 4.34 - 8.55 µm, with the karyotype formulae (KF = 10m + 5sm. Through FISH, one 45S rDNA signal was observed proximally to centromere of the chromosome 7, while for 5S rDNA sites we observed one signal proximally to centromere of chromosome 9. The 2C DNA content estimated for the species was 2C = 24.4 with 59% of AT and 41% of GC. Our data allowed important upgrade for biology and cytotaxonomy of Agapanthus africanus (L. Hoffmanns.

  18. Poetry, Nature and Science: Romantic Nature Philosophy in the Works of Novalis and E. T. a. Hoffmann (United States)

    Weisend, Ausma Skerbele

    The nature philosophy of the early Romantic period in Germany attempted to find a synthesis of science and philosophy in a new philosophy of nature. This philosophy was first formulated by F. W. J. Schelling and influenced by the galvanic experiments of J. W. Ritter. Novalis is a unique figure in romanticism since he combines scientific expertise with philosophical insight and poetic imagination. In Lehrlinge zu Sais he explores the significance of nature's language and presents different relationships between man and nature. Novalis thinks that a synthesis of all divergent elements in nature and society is necessary to transform the world. In Klingsohrs Marchen this transformation is accomplished by poetic activation of the physical sciences and by the power of love. After 1800 the romantic movement becomes interested in the problems of subconscious and abnormal psychological states, which are seen as contacts with a more spiritual level of existence. These ideas, expressed in a popular form by G. H. Schubert, provide a rich source of materials for E. T. A. Hoffmann, who elevates the realms of poetry and music in his fairy tales, but sees only negative qualities in science. Hoffmann's protagonists find that love, music, and poetry are the greatest forces in life. The figure of the scientist becomes an evil magician with no regard for human values. The romantic movement failed to unite the values of humanities with the insights of physical sciences. The problem of autonomy isolates both modern science and modern literature from the ethical values of society.

  19. The usefulness of the Phalen test and the Hoffmann-Tinel sign in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. (United States)

    Brüske, J; Bednarski, M; Grzelec, H; Zyluk, A


    Both the Phalen test and the percussion (Hoffmann-Tinel) test are considered to be the classic diagnostic tests for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). Sensitivity of these tests, as given in the literature, ranges from 42 to 85% (Phalen) and from 38 to 100% (Hoffmann-Tinel), and specificity from 54 to 98% and from 55 to 100% respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of both tests and to analyse the influence of such selected factors, such as patient's age and duration of symptoms. The clinical group consisted of 112 patients (147 hands) with CTS confirmed clinically and on nerve conduction studies. The control group of 50 patients (100 hands) was selected from hospital volunteers, who did not complain of any hand symptoms. Sensitivity and specificity of the Phalen test turned out to be respectively 85 and 89% and for the percussion test, 67 and 68%. There was no significant influence of patients' age upon the test results. Seventeen patients showed negative results for both tests, but in these individuals, the duration of symptoms was significantly longer than in the remaining group. These findings indicated essential diagnostic value for the Phalen test, but considerably smaller for the percussion test. In the diagnosis of long lasting syndromes, the usefulness of both tests is limited.

  20. Blake's pouch cyst and Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: Report of a new association and review of the literature (United States)

    Shohoud, Sherien A.; Azab, Waleed A.; Alsheikh, Tarek M.; Hegazy, Rania M.


    Background: We report a case of a neonate with proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 1 (also known as Werdnig-Hoffmann disease or severe infantile acute SMA) associated with a Blake's pouch cyst; a malformation that is currently classified within the spectrum of Dandy-Walker complex. The association of the two conditions has not been previously reported in the English literature. A comprehensive review of the pertinent literature is presented. Case Description: A male neonate was noted to have paucity of movement of the four limbs with difficulty of breathing and poor feeding soon after birth. Respiratory distress with tachypnea, necessitated endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Pregnancy was uneventful except for decreased fetal movements reported by the mother during the third trimester. Neurological examination revealed generalized hypotonia with decreased muscle power of all limbs, nonelicitable deep tendon jerks, and occasional tongue fasciculations. Molecular genetic evaluation revealed a homozygous deletion of both exons 7 and 8 of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and exon 5 of the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene on the long arm of chromosome 5 consistent with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (SMA type 1). At the age of 5 months, a full anterior fontanelle and abnormal increase of the occipito-frontal circumference were noted. Computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a tetraventricular hydrocephalus and features of Blake's pouch cyst of the fourth ventricle. Conclusions: This case represents a previously unreported association of Blake's pouch cyst and SMA type 1. PMID:25225621

  1. On machines and instruments (I: The automaton’s body in the work of E.T.A. Hoffmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiel, Luis


    Full Text Available Immediately after becoming interested in animal magnetism, and undoubtedly as a result of this interest, E.T.A. Hoffmann used automata as the central characters in some of his most notable works. This paper aims to show how this interest reveals the author’s critical attitude towards a conception of the human being which, developing in parallel to anatomy-based medicine, had led in the eighteenth century to a doctrine whose most complete expression is to be found in L'homme machine, by J. O. De La Mettrie. Nowadays we can see these tales, like those dedicated to animal magnetism, as a cry of alarm against one of the consequences of such a mechanical conception of a human being: the growth of «biopower», or of «biopolitics», terms coined by Foucault in his last works; but also against the risks entailed by the Promethean drive of modernity.

    Inmediatamente después de interesarse por el magnetismo animal, y seguramente como consecuencia de dicho interés, E.T.A. Hoffmann hizo de los autómatas personajes centrales en algunas de sus obras más notables. El presente trabajo pretende mostrar cómo este interés revela la actitud crítica del escritor hacia un modo de concebir al ser humano que, desarrollándose paralelamente a una medicina basada en la anatomía, había desembocado en el siglo XVIII en un estado de opinión que tiene su más acabada expresión en L’homme machina, de J. O. De La Mettrie. Estos relatos, como los dedicados al magnetismo animal, nos parecen hoy un grito de alerta frente a una de las consecuencias de esa concepción mecánica del ser humano: el despliegue del «biopoder», o de la «biopolítica», conceptos formulados por Foucault en sus últimas obras; pero también frente a los riesgos que entraña la voluntad prometeica de la modernidad.

  2. Anestesia venosa total (AVT em lactente com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Anestesia general intravenosa (AVT en lactante con enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA in an infant with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cardoso de Resende


    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann é a causa mais comum de hipotonia no lactente e quando presente logo após o nascimento tem pior prognóstico. Fraqueza muscular simétrica, arreflexia e fasciculações da língua são característicos. A maioria dos lactentes morre antes dos dois anos por insuficiência respiratória. O presente relato apresenta um caso com técnica venosa total durante anestesia. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, branca, um ano, 10 kg, estado físico ASA III, com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann diagnosticada desde os dois meses de idade. Candidata à gastrostomia e fundogastroplicatura na técnica aberta e traqueostomia. Monitorização com cardioscópio, pressão arterial não invasiva, oxímetro de pulso, estetoscópio precordial e temperatura retal após venóclise. Foi préoxigenada e após bolus de atropina (0,3 mg foi realizada indução anestésica com remifentanil bolus (20 µg e propofol (30 mg. Após intubação traqueal foi ventilada de forma controlada manual, em sistema sem absorvedor de CO2, Baraka (sistema Mapleson D, FGF de 4 L.min-1, FiO2 0,5 (0(2/N(20. Mantida sob anestesia com propofol 250 µ e remifentanil 0,3 µ em infusão contínua manual. O tempo cirúrgico foi de 150 minutos. O despertar ocorreu 8 minutos após o término da infusão, com ventilação espontânea. Duas horas depois foi transferida para unidade pediátrica e recebeu alta hospitalar no 4º dia de pós-operatório. CONCLUSÕES: A escolha da técnica anestésica prioriza a segurança que advém da familiaridade do manuseio dos fármacos existentes. Em crianças com doenças neuromusculares, a anestesia venosa total com remifentanil e propofol em sistemas de infusão, pela duração de ação extremamente curta, pode influenciar a evolução da doença favoravelmente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann es la causa más común de hipotonía en el lactante y cuando est

  3. Short-term locomotor adaptation to a robotic ankle exoskeleton does not alter soleus Hoffmann reflex amplitude

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    Ferris Daniel P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve design of robotic lower limb exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation, it is critical to identify neural mechanisms that govern locomotor adaptation to robotic assistance. Previously, we demonstrated soleus muscle recruitment decreased by ~35% when walking with a pneumatically-powered ankle exoskeleton providing plantar flexor torque under soleus proportional myoelectric control. Since a substantial portion of soleus activation during walking results from the stretch reflex, increased reflex inhibition is one potential mechanism for reducing soleus recruitment when walking with exoskeleton assistance. This is clinically relevant because many neurologically impaired populations have hyperactive stretch reflexes and training to reduce the reflexes could lead to substantial improvements in their motor ability. The purpose of this study was to quantify soleus Hoffmann (H- reflex responses during powered versus unpowered walking. Methods We tested soleus H-reflex responses in neurologically intact subjects (n=8 that had trained walking with the soleus controlled robotic ankle exoskeleton. Soleus H-reflex was tested at the mid and late stance while subjects walked with the exoskeleton on the treadmill at 1.25 m/s, first without power (first unpowered, then with power (powered, and finally without power again (second unpowered. We also collected joint kinematics and electromyography. Results When the robotic plantar flexor torque was provided, subjects walked with lower soleus electromyographic (EMG activation (27-48% and had concomitant reductions in H-reflex amplitude (12-24% compared to the first unpowered condition. The H-reflex amplitude in proportion to the background soleus EMG during powered walking was not significantly different from the two unpowered conditions. Conclusion These findings suggest that the nervous system does not inhibit the soleus H-reflex in response to short-term adaption to exoskeleton assistance

  4. Effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi training on soleus Hoffmann reflex and control of static posture in older adults. (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Zhou, Shi; Cartwright, Colleen


    To investigate the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi training on soleus (SOL) Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) modulation and postural control in standing under 4 sensory conditions in older adults. Experimental research design with pre- and posttraining tests in a training group and a control group. University biomechanics laboratory. Community-dwelling older adults (N=34) were assigned to a training (n=20; mean ± SD age, 72.9±4.4y) and a control (n=14; mean ± SD age, 72.9±6.5y) group. Tai Chi participants attended a 1-hour session of Yang style Tai Chi, 3 sessions a week, for 12 weeks, while control participants maintained their regular daily activities during the same period. SOL H-reflex (maximal amplitudes of H-reflex [H(max)] and M-wave [M(max)] waves) and mean displacement of the center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior (COP(A-P)) and medial-lateral (COP(M-L)) directions were measured during bipedal standing, with the feet placed on a forceplate and the heels 6cm apart, under 4 sensory conditions: stable surface with eyes open, stable surface with eyes closed, unstable surface with eyes open, and unstable surface with eyes closed. SOL H(max)/M(max) ratio in the Tai Chi group was upregulated significantly in all 4 sensory tasks after the 12-week Tai Chi training (PTai Chi or control group after the 12-week period. An increase in SOL H(max)/M(max) ratio during static postural tasks is observed after 12 weeks of Tai Chi training in older adults under all 4 sensory conditions. However, training-induced changes in H-reflex were not accompanied by improvement of performance in the static postural control tasks. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A sigmoid function is the best fit for the ascending limb of the Hoffmann reflex recruitment curve. (United States)

    Klimstra, Marc; Zehr, E Paul


    The Hoffmann (H)-reflex has been studied extensively as a measure of spinal excitability. Often, researchers compare the H-reflex between experimental conditions with values determined from a recruitment curve (RC). An RC is obtained experimentally by varying the stimulus intensity to a nerve and recording the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the evoked H-reflex and direct motor (M)-wave. The values taken from an RC may provide different information with respect to a change in reflex excitability. Therefore, it is important to obtain a number of RC parameters for comparison. RCs can be obtained with a measure of current (HCRC) or without current (HMRC). The ascending limb of the RC is then fit with a mathematical analysis technique in order to determine parameters of interest such as the threshold of activation and the slope of the function. The purpose of this study was to determine an unbiased estimate of the specific parameters of interest in an RC through mathematical analysis. We hypothesized that a standardized analysis technique could be used to ascertain important points on an RC, regardless of data presentation methodology (HCRC or HMRC). For both HCRC and HMRC produced using 40 randomly delivered stimuli, six different methods of mathematical analysis [linear regression, polynomial, smoothing spline, general least squares model with custom logistic (sigmoid) equation, power, and logarithmic] were compared using goodness of fit statistics (r-square, RMSE). Behaviour and robustness of selected curve fits were examined in various applications including RCs generated during movement and somatosensory conditioning from published data. Results show that a sigmoid function is the most reliable estimate of the ascending limb of an H-reflex recruitment curve for both HCRC and HMRC. Further, the parameters of interest change differentially with respect to the presentation methodology and the analysis technique. In conclusion, the sigmoid function is a reliable analysis

  6. Conjugate Addition/[3,3] Sigmatropic Shift Processes for Formation of Medium-Ring Cyclic Amines - Do They Circumvent the Woodward-Hoffmann Rules? (United States)

    Painter, Phillip P; Siebert, Matthew R; Tantillo, Dean J


    Herein we describe our exploration, using density functional theory calculations, of a conjugate addition-rearrangement sequence that leads to medium-ring cyclic amines. On the basis of the results of our calculations, we conclude that the rearrangement step is rate determining. In addition, we analyze the role of a carbanion lone pair in the rearrangement step, concluding that it functions as a substituent on a [3,3] sigmatropic shift, rather than a nucleophile; thus, the Woodward-Hoffmann rules are not circumvented in this reaction via involvement of orthogonal orbitals on an atom involved in the rearrangement.

  7. Anestesia venosa total (AVT em lactente com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Anestesia venosa total (AVT en lactante con enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA in an infant with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Otavio Esteves


    Full Text Available Foi com grande interesse que li o artigo "Anestesia Venosa Total (AVT em Lactente com Doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann. Relato de Caso", de Resende e col. ¹, publicado nesta revista. Gostaria, em primeiro lugar, de parabenizar os autores pela iniciativa. Entretanto, dois pontos me chamaram a atenção. O primeiro refere-se à definição de lactente, a qual compreende o período de 1 a 12 meses de idade. A partir de 12 meses, define-se como pré-escolar ou apenas criança. No artigo, o autor coloca a idade do paciente como 1 ano, mas não especifica meses ou dias. Provavelmente, esse paciente tem mais de 12 meses, sendo, dessa forma, a definição de lactente inadequada. O segundo e mais importante ponto diz respeito à técnica usada e ao título do artigo. No título, utilizou-se a expressão "anestesia venosa total", mas no relato foi dito que, além de propofol e remifentanil, a anestesia foi mantida com oxigênio e N2O. Se foi usado um gás com propriedades anestésicas (N2O, não seria correto classificar essa técnica como venosa total. Além disso, ele cita o artigo de Crawford e col. ², que definiu doses de remifentanil para intubação em crianças. Esse estudo foi realizado utilizando-se oxigenação na concentração de 100%, pois os autores provavelmente entendem que a adição de gases com propriedades anestésicas interferiria nos resultados obtidosFue con un gran interés que leí el artículo "Anestesia Venosa Total (AVT en Lactante con Enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann. Relato de Caso", de Resende y col. ¹, publicado en esta revista. Y de hecho quiero, en primer lugar, felicitar a los autores por la iniciativa. Sin embargo, dos puntos me llamaron la atención. El primero, se refiere a la definición de lactante, la cual abarca el período de 1 a 12 meses de edad. A partir de los 12 meses, se define como preescolar o apenas como niño. En el artículo, el autor coloca la edad del paciente como de 1 año, pero no especifica meses o d

  8. Il viaggio nell’inconscio e la messa in scena del desiderio nell’opera ‘notturna’ di E.T.A. Hoffmann e W. Beckford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Acciaioli


    Full Text Available Far from being a mere ‘genre’ with typical motifs, the ‘fantastic’ is rather a literary ‘way’ of expressing, indirectly and allusively, almost seductively and dream-like, a personal confrontation with the ineffable inexplicableness of the ‘imaginary’. He who trespasses its threshold finds himself inevitably swallowed up in a whirl progressively winding up and attracting him towards the unknown world of the confrontation between the Self and the Other. As a consequence, he feels “in dire suspense”, because the bordering experience of the ‘fantastic-uncanny’ leaves his reasonable paradigms at ‘checkmate’. Hoffmann and Beckford’s works explore the spaces of the unconscious and the “rhetoric of the inexpressible” in a mirrored way. By entering the ‘dimidiate’, subversive world of the ‘fantastic-uncanny’, they begin their journey within the Self, which, proves to be a skilled performance of desire. The comparative analysis of Die Elixiere des Teufels and Vathek shows how impulses are represented through the insistent motifs of the abyss and the double, which are present at various levels not only in these two novels, but also in the entire works of the authors. Here, they are constantly redoubled and intensified, as if in a spiral, thus representing Freud’s most uncanny concept of “repeating constriction”. 

  9. Hoffmann's syndrome: a case report

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    Ibrahim, Mohammad


    Full Text Available This syndrome is characterized by the presence of hypothyroidism with myxoedema, muscle stiffness and pseudo hypertrophy. We describe the disorder in a 21 year old male, who got admitted with complaints of generalized weakness, cold intolerance, constipation, and hoarse voice, difficulty in walking and progressive enlargement of muscles of thighs and back with crampy pains for two years. Examination revealed mild mental retardation, enlarged tongue, dry and rough skin, enlargement of thighs and back muscles, motor weakness in flexors of hips and knees with delayed relaxation of deep tendon reflexes. Investigations revealed evidence of hypothyroidism with marked elevation of muscle enzymes. Following institution of replacement therapy with thyroxine, the patient showed marked clinical and biochemical improvements after six months, but insignificant decrease in muscle mass. In this report we review relevant literature.

  10. The Urban Text of E.T.A. Hoffmann: the Stories “The Golden Pot”, “The Deserted House” and the Novel “The Devil's Elixirs”

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    Larisa Aleksejevna Mishina


    Full Text Available In this article the urban text of the German romanticist E.T.A. Hoffmann in the stories “The Golden Pot”, “The Deserted House” and the novel “The Devil's Elixirs” is analyzed. Three types of the city are noted: the real city in the fantastical environment (Dresden; the real and at the same time mystical city (Berlin; the enlightened city. The images of the city are studied in the connection with genres of the works. The traits of realism in the late German romanticism are noted.

  11. Intentos de renovación de algunas disciplinas experimentales en la facultad de Medicina de Santiago: los cursos de Paul Hoffmann (1923 y 1924, Amédée Guy (1928 y Eduard Reichenow (1935

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    Olagüe de Ros, Guillermo


    Full Text Available The years 20s and 30s of the last century were profound renewal and change in the Faculty of Medicine of Santiago de Compostela, a traditionally parochial institution, wrongly praised by the local press and certain sectors of the own faculty. To the renewal of the faculty, with the arrival of new professors very well formed, it must be added the presence of a group of assistant professors ambitious at the scientific level and very devoted to their research and teaching tasks. The crisis experienced in Germany after the First World War was exploited by the Faculty in Santiago, which was able to attract a number of French and German professors to teach theoretical and practical courses in order to cover their training gaps in basic disciplines. We study stays and the consequences of the presence in Santiago of the physiologist Paul Hoffmann (1884-1962, Amédée Guy (1882-1957, a French microbiologist, and Eduard Reichenow (1883-1960, a German parasitologist.Los años 20 y 30 del pasado siglo fueron de renovación y cambio en la Facultad de Medicina de Santiago de Compostela, una institución tradicionalmente provinciana, equivocadamente ensalzada por la prensa local y ciertos sectores de la propia Facultad. A la renovación del profesorado, con la llegada de nuevos catedráticos muy bien formados, hay que sumar la presencia de un grupo de Profesores Auxiliares ambiciosos en el plano científico y muy dedicados a sus tareas investigadoras y docentes. La crisis vivida en Alemania tras la I Guerra Mundial fue aprovechada por la Facultad de Santiago, que supo atraerse a varios profesores alemanes y franceses para impartir cursos teórico-prácticos al objeto de cubrir sus carencias formativas en varias disciplinas básicas. Se estudian las estancias y las consecuencias de la presencia en Santiago del fisiólogo germano Paul Hoffmann (1884-1962, de Amédée Guy (1882-1957, microbiólogo francés, y del parasitólogo alemán Eduard Reichenow (1883

  12. Laboratoires de l’intermédialité moderne et points aveugles de l’hybridation littéraire : considérations à partir des "Fantasiestücke in Callots Manier" d’E.T.A. Hoffmann

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    Aleksandra Wojda


    Full Text Available L’article propose une réflexion sur la genèse des procédés de l’hybridation moderne, associée aux expérimentations intermédiales spécifiques d’un certain romantisme qualifié de “critique”. Les Fantasiestücke in Callots Manier d’E.T.A. Hoffmann, représentatives de ce mouvement, apparaissent ici comme une œuvre-laboratoire, prête à s’adapter à l’altérité que les supports et médias divers lui apportent. Trois d’entre eux font objet d’un examen plus précis: la revue, la musique et l’image. Si la Zeitschrift offre à l’écriture hoffmannienne une expérience sans précédent de mixité générique et de distanciation critique permanente que l’aspect temporalisé et fragmenté de la publication périodique ne peut qu’accroitre, son penchant musical s’y traduit par une tension vitale entre la quête éperdue de l’unité absolutisée de l’Œuvre et la fascination par la mouvance permanente du signifiant. Autant de déplacements que le patronage ambigu du maître Callot permettra de rassembler sous le label clandestin de sa techné, et de présenter comme un ensemble de stratégies d’élaboration d’un nouveau modèle de construction du sens - accessible seulement au prix d’une transformation profonde des modèles classiques de communication avec le lecteur. S’il en résulte une écriture hybride, tant sur le plan générique que médial - c’est parce que celle-si seule s’avère capable de porter un projet moderne de déplacement permanent du sens, et de construire ainsi des oeuvres qui ne se présentent plus comme des objets à conquérir, mais comme des lieux de circulation.This paper is devoted to those selected aspects of the Romantic writing which anticipate modern models of the hybridization of the literary genres, artistic forms and media. If the series of short stories and critical texts by E.T.A. Hoffmann Fantasiestücke in Callots Manier can be found in the focus of this study, it

  13. Taastatud Pilistvere pastoraat / Dolores Hoffmann, Helmi Seil, Vello Rajangu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hoffmann, Dolores, 1937-


    7 ill.; fotod: Tiit Koha; kontoriruumi akent ehib Dagmar ?(Dolores) Hoffmanni vitraaž, seinal on Helmi Seili ristpistes tikitud Eesti kaart, talvekirikus Vello Rajangu Pallase päevil loodud inglikuju

  14. Testing Ødegaard's selective migration hypothesis: a longitudinal cohort study of risk factors for non-affective psychotic disorders among prospective emigrants. (United States)

    van der Ven, E; Dalman, C; Wicks, S; Allebeck, P; Magnusson, C; van Os, J; Selten, J P


    The selection hypothesis posits that the increased rates of psychosis observed among migrants are due to selective migration of people who are predisposed to develop the disorder. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether risk factors for psychosis are more prevalent among future emigrants. A cohort of 49,321 Swedish military conscripts was assessed at age 18 years on cannabis use, IQ, psychiatric diagnosis, social adjustment, history of trauma and urbanicity of place of upbringing. Through data linkage we examined whether these exposures predicted emigration out of Sweden. We also calculated the emigrants' hypothetical relative risk compared with non-emigrants for developing a non-affective psychotic disorder. Low IQ [odds ratio (OR) 0.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.3-0.9] and 'poor social adjustment' (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8) were significantly less prevalent among prospective emigrants, whereas a history of urban upbringing (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.7) was significantly more common. Apart from a non-significant increase in cannabis use among emigrants (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8-3.1), there were no major group differences in any other risk factors. Compared to non-emigrants, hypothetical relative risks for developing non-affective psychotic disorder were 0.7 (95% CI 0.4-1.2) and 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-1.0), respectively, for emigrants narrowly and broadly defined. This study adds to an increasing body of evidence opposing the selection hypothesis.

  15. Desire To Be Or Not To Be: Desire Of Being And Nothingness In Angela Carter’s The Infernal Desire Machines Of Doctor Hoffmann And Elif Şafak’s Mahrem Olmak Ya Da Olmamak Arzusu: Angela Carter’ın Doktor Hoffmann’ın Şeytani Arzu Makineleri Ve Elif Şafak’ın Mahrem Adlı Romanlarında Varlik Ve Hiçlik Arzusu

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    Banu AKÇEŞME


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study a highly acclaimed English novelist Angela Carter`s The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffmann (1972(it will be referred to as Desire Machines from here on and Elif Şafak`s Mahrem (titled The Gaze in English (2000 comparatively by focusing on the similarities between these two novels in terms of themes, motifs and characters. Desire Machines and The Gaze are the novels of desire. These novels yield several feminist and psychoanalytical readings clustered around gender, sexuality, repression and body politics because of their explicitly sexually-laden contents. Differently from the previous approaches applied to the analyses of these novels, this paper aims to explore how desire, as imaged by consciousness in a Sartrian term, has been problematized in both novels by delving into the relationship between desire, consciousness, being, existence and imagination. Sartre explains that imagination or image function establishes an important dimension of consciousness. Sartre’s account of the constitution of the imaginary by consciousness in an attempt to satisfy desire provides insight into the nature of desire through the lens of phenomenological and existential psychology. Desire initiates ontological journeys to explore different possibilities of being. From this perspective, Desire Machines and The Gaze can be read as the texts of the externalized consciousnesses of the two desiring male characters Desiderio and Be-ce as they imagine the possibilities of their beings to bring into existence their desired being through negation, nihilation and re/constitution. Bu çalışma oldukça beğenilen İngiliz romancı Angela Carter’ınDr Hoffmann’ın Şeytani Arzu Makineleri (1972 (Buradan sonra ArzuMakineleri olarak söz edilecektir ve Elif Şafak’ın Mahrem (İngilizce adıThe Gaze (2000 adlı romanlarını karakter, motif ve tema açısındanbu iki eser arasındaki benzerliklere odaklanarak kar

  16. Võluv peatükk Soome kunstiloost / Tiina Abel, Christian Hoffmann ; interv. Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abel, Tiina, 1951-


    Näitusest "Soome kunsti kuldaeg. Meistriteoseid Turu Kunstimuuseumi kogust" Kumus, kuraator Tiina Abel. Väljapanekul esitletakse 35 autori töid. Turu Kunstimuuseumist ja kunstikogust, soome kunstist aastatel 1880-1905/1908

  17. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward-Hoffmann Rules At Your ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The orbital topology in cyclic systems can be classified as two categories, viz., Huckel .... There are numerous examples of molecules and ions which are .... In the simplest stereochemical possibility, the migrating group, ... The low activation energy associated with [3,3]-shifts has enabled the design of structures where, in.

  18. Sandra Pihlak - kõik või mitte midagi / Joanna Hoffmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hoffmann, Joanna


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia vilistlane ja Londoni Püha Martini kunsti- ja disainikolledži (Central Saint Matrins College of Art and Design - CSM) magistrant Sandra Pihlak tekstiilidisaini bakalaureuseõpingutest Eestis ja tulevikumaterjalide eriala magistriõpingutest Londonis

  19. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XVIII. The genus Stereocaulon (Schreber) Hoffmann (Lichenès)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout, T.


    Nineteen species of Stereocaulon are treated from the northern Andes, mainly from Colombia. Descriptions and keys are given, with notes on the north-Andean distribution and ecology. Seven species are new for the Colombian flora, viz. St. atlanticum, St. claviceps, St. corticatulum (chem. strain with

  20. Nissi Maarja kiriku kooriruumi kahe vitraažakna restaureerimine / H. Beyermann, Illar Kannelmäe, Dolores Hoffmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beyermann, H.


    4 ill.; aknad valmistas Riia meister H. Beyermann, ühel aknal on kujutatud evangelist Johannest, teisel apostel Peetrust; töid teostasid Dolores Hoffmanni juhendamisel OÜ Domini Canes meistrid B. Morejev, S. Ganin ja A. Bruk, kaitseklaaside projekti tegi Illar Kannelmäe

  1. Die Kritik am romantischen Ideal in E. T. A. Hoffmanns «Der goldene Topf»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Marjam Rezai Dubiel


    Full Text Available E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Der Goldene Topf portrays fantasy and the ideal of romantic aestheticism as utopian on a metafictional level. However, another possibility should be considered: the temporary contemplation within poetry compensates for the loss of belief in the poeticization of the world as conceived by Novalis. The artistic entity cannot immerse itself in the romantic ideal. Since the narrator becomes part of the story and a victim of his imagination, the narration presents a critical viewpoint of the concept of genius.

  2. Then the Wilderness Shall Bloom like a Rosy Bower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten


    In his article “The holy Road as a Bridge: The Role of Chapter 35 in the Book of Isaiah”, Hallvard Hagelia has demonstrated the intertextual connections between Isa 35 and the rest of the book. According to Hagelia, the animal motive plays a very small part in Isa 35, although he points at various...... the same function. They are metaphors for Israel's enemies (cf. Isa 34 and 36-39). The animal motive is therefore part of the bridge made by Isa 35. My analysis thereby strengthens Hallvard Hagelia's arguments for seeing Isa 35 as a bridge in the Book of Isaiah....

  3. The Hoffmann reflex from the flexor pollicis longus of the thumb in left-handed subjects: spinal motor asymmetry and supraspinal facilitation to Cattell's intelligence test. (United States)

    Tan, U


    The spinal motor asymmetry was studied in left-handers. Hand preference was assessed by Geschwind scores (GS), and hand skill by peg moving task, the reflex responses were recorded from the long flexor muscle of the thumb. The H-reflex could be elicited by averaging during cortico-spinal facilitation (voluntary isometric force). The Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test was used to assess the individual differences in mental abilities. H-reflexes were found to be significantly larger on the left than the right side. The amplitude of H-reflex increased linearly with force applied to transducer by the thumb. This facilitation was more pronounced for the left than the right reflexes. Removal of the visual visual input caused facilitation in H-reflex (supraspinal disinhibition). Post-activation potentiation was also observed in H-reflex. There was a positive linear correlation between the degree of left-hand preference (-GSs) and left-hand skill. The correlation for the right-hand skill was not significant. There was a linear correlation between the degree of left-hand preference and the right minus left hand skill. There was an inverse correlation between left-hand skill and H-reflex from left. The correlation for the right side did not reach the 5% significance level. The force-reflex relation did not show any significant change to IQ for the right H-reflex. The left H-reflexes were significantly larger in subjects with high IQ than those with low IQ. The regression line and its slope for the force-reflex relation on the left was found to be higher in subjects with high IQ than those with low IQs. There was a positive linear relationship between IQ and H reflex from left. The correlation for the right side was not as pronounced as that for the left side. The left minus right H reflex was also positive linearly correlated with IQ. These results provide further evidence for the psycho-motor hypothesis (Tan. 1988b) as well as the spinal motor asymmetry to handedness. It was suggested that lateralization of cognitive and motor functions would be essential to create subjects with high psychomotor capacity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available El género Stereocaulon presenta una gran plasticidad en sus estructuras morfológicas y anatómicas, que de no ser reconocidas se puede recaer en errores taxonómicos a nivel intraespecífico. Por esta razón, se presenta una diferenciación morfoanatómica de los caracteres diagnósticos: los filocladios, los cefalodios y los soredios para facilitar el proceso de identificación taxonómica. En esta contribución se reconocen 19 especies junto con cinco variedades de Stereocaulon para Colombia, se amplían los datos de distribución geográfica y se incluye una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies en el país.

  5. Is there a logical slippery slope from voluntary to nonvoluntary euthanasia? (United States)

    Jones, David Albert


    John Keown has constructed a logical slippery slope argument from voluntary euthanasia (VAE) to nonvoluntary euthanasia (NVAE). VAE if justified implies that death can be of overall benefit, in which case it should also be facilitated in those who cannot consent (NVAE). Hallvard Lillehammer asserts that Keown's argument rests on a fallacy. However, pace Lillehammer, it can be restated to escape this fallacy. Its validity is confirmed by applying to VAE some well-established general principles of medical decision making. Thus, either VAE and NVAE must be accepted together or, if NVAE is regarded as unacceptable, VAE should also be rejected.

  6. Undergraduate Science Students are Uncertain of How to Find Facts in E-books Compared to Print Books. A Review of: Berg, S. A., Hoffmann, K., & Dawson, D. (2010. Not on the same page: Undergraduates' information retrieval in electronic and print books. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(6, 518-525.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Carter


    Full Text Available Objective – To observe and compare the strategies that undergraduate science students use to perform information retrieval tasks in e-books and in print books.Design – Qualitative analysis, employing a “prompted think-aloud” methodology and thematic analysis.Setting – Taylor Library (serving the Faculty of Science, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.Subjects – Twenty undergraduate science students (11 females, 9 males who had completed at least two years of study in Faculty of Science programs at the University of Western Ontario.Methods – Participants for the study were recruited through informational posters in Taylor Library, science departments, and in undergraduate science classes. Participants were assigned fact-finding tasks in e-book and print versions of eight health, computer science, and engineering textbooks and handbooks available in the Taylor Library. Book titles and tasks are included in a table in the study. Each student completed four tasks using e-books and four tasks using print books. Half of the participants performed tasks in print books first, and half began with tasks in e-books. Print books were “pre-selected” for each participant. The e-books were all from the same platform: Electronic Book Library. Participants were provided with a laptop computer to access the e-book versions, and a list of questions or facts to locate within each book. Following the methodology of Cotton & Gresty (2006, one researcher prompted students to verbalize actions while performing assigned tasks. A second researcher captured audio and video of the laptop screen as students individually conducted their e-book searches. A third researcher took notes on each session. An exit survey was given to each participant, asking about previous use, knowledge, and attitudes towards e-books. Thematic analysis was then used to examine the collected data.Main Results – Researchers identified four major themes from the data with regard to use of print versus e-books: linear/non-linear strategies; tangible/intangible aspects of books; met/unmet expectations; and transferable/non-transferable behaviours. Researchers found that participants tended to search print books in a linear fashion, whereas they approached e-books non-linearly. Physicality and familiarity with print books helped participants more readily find answers, compared to e-books, where students tried less successfully to mimic techniques used in print books to locate requested information. Participants used indexes in print books, versus e-books where they did not quickly identify the e-books as having them. The students expected that the e-books would behave as other web-based/online sources or search engines would (such as Google books, and commented that they did not. Transferable actions between print and e-books included developing and using keywords for searching.Conclusion – The authors of this study found that student participants did not know how to navigate the e-books presented to them compared with their print counterparts. There was a lack of awareness on the part of participants about e-books in general: the students were unaware that e-books were available through the library catalogue; they did not know that e-books have indexes as print books do; and did not know the differences among platforms offered by the library. All of these facts point to the importance of user education. The authors note the importance of testing of e-book platforms by students, faculty, and librarians prior to committing to purchase particular platforms. The authors note that more research is needed on user interaction with e-books, how e-books are used to assimilate information, and how groups other than undergraduates search e-books.

  7. Dagmar Hoffmann (Hg.: Körperästhetiken. Filmische Inszenierungen von Körperlichkeit. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2010. — Kathrin Fahlenbrach: Audiovisuelle Metaphern. Zur Körper- und Affektästhetik in Film und Fernsehen. Marburg: Schüren Verlag 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Moldenhauer


    Full Text Available Der Sammelband Körperästhetiken enthält Aufsätze zu verschiedenen Aspekten filmischer Körperinszenierungen. Im Rahmen einer kulturwissenschaftlich ausgerichteten Perspektive werden die – nicht zuletzt als männlich oder weiblich codierten – Körperbilder der jeweils behandelten Filme auf ihren semantischen Gehalt befragt. Allerdings lassen die Beiträge offen, wie genau die kognitiven und emotiven Rezeptionsprozesse des Zuschauers strukturiert sind. Eine Lücke, die Kathrin Fahlenbrachs Monographie Audiovisuelle Metaphern füllt. Fahlenbrach entwirft eine Theorie der kognitiven und emotionalen Semantik, die davon ausgeht, dass Affekt und Bedeutung im Filmerleben nicht voneinander zu trennen sind, sondern zusammengedacht werden müssen.The anthology Körperästhetiken (body aesthetics contains articles regarding different aspects of filmic enactments of bodies. Within the framework of a cultural studies perspective, the semantic content of the – not least male of female coded – body images in the discussed movies are surveyed. However, the articles leave unanswered how the audience’s cognitive and emotive processes of reception are structured exactly. A gap that is filled by Kathrin Fahlenbrach’s monography Audiovisuelle Metaphern (audiovisual metaphors. Fahlenbrach creates a theory of cognitive and emotional semantics which assumes that, in a movie experience, affect and meaning cannot be separated but have to be thought of together.

  8. Refractive Index of III-metal-polar and N-polar AlGaN Waveguides Grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (United States)


    Zgonik, Marc Hoffmann, Ronny Kirste, Milena Bobea, Ramon Collazo, Zlatko Sitar, Seiji Mita, Michael Gerhold North Carolina State University Research...Marc P. Hoffmann,2 Ronny Kirste,2 Milena Bobea,2 Ramon Collazo,2 Zlatko Sitar,2 Seiji Mita,3 and Michael Gerhold4 1Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

  9. Polarity Control and Growth of Lateral Polarity Structures in AlN (United States)


    AlN, lateral polar structures, metal organic chemical vapor deposition Ronny Kirste, Seiji Mita, Lindsay Hussey, Marc Hoffmann, Wei Guo, Isaac Bryan...structures in AlN Ronny Kirste,1 Seiji Mita,2 Lindsay Hussey,1 Marc P. Hoffmann,1 Wei Guo,1 Isaac Bryan,1 Zachary Bryan,1 James Tweedie,1 Jinqiao Xie,2

  10. Biochemical Measurements of the Human Stress Response (United States)


    Seid, 1978; Melton, Hoffman, & Delafield, 1969; Melton. McKenzie, Kellin, Hoffmann, & Saldivar , 1975; and Sarviharju, Hluikk, Jouppila, & Kaerki, 1971...Melton, C. E. McKenzie. J. M., Kellin, J. R., Hoffmann, S. U., & Saldivar , J. T. Effect of a general aviation trainer on the stress of flight training

  11. Survey of Methods to Assess Workload (United States)


    Aviation Medicine Report No. FAA-AM-73-21, 1973. 2. Melton, C. E., J. M. McKenzie, J. T. Saldivar , and S. M. Hoffmann. Comparison of Ops Locke Tower...26-30, 1967. 7. Melton, C. E., 1. H. McKenzie, J. T. Saldivar , and H. Hoffmann: Studies on Stress in Aviation Personnel: Analysis and Presentation of

  12. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species. (United States)

    Paukkunen, Juho; Berg, Alexander; Soon, Villu; Ødegaard, Frode; Rosa, Paolo


    The Chrysididae are a group of cleptoparasitic and parasitoid aculeate wasps with a large number of rare and endangered species. The taxonomy of this group has long been confusing due to the similarity of species and extensive intraspecific variation. We present for the first time a comprehensive dichotomous key for all 74 species found in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In addition to diagnostic characters, information on the distribution and biology of each species is also presented. A new species, Chrysis borealis Paukkunen, Ødegaard & Soon, sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from Fennoscandia. Chrysis gracillima Förster, 1853 is recorded as new to the Nordic and Baltic countries.

  13. Who says no to a good cup of joe? / Kristi Martin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martin, Kristi


    Tutvustus: Moldvaer, Anette. Coffee Obsession. London, 2014; Hoffmann, James. The world atlas of coffee. London, 2014; Steiman, Shawn. The Little Coffee Know-It-All. Massachusetts, 2015; Stephenson, Tristan. The Curious Barista's Guide to Coffee. London, 2015

  14. Genetics Home Reference: transcobalamin deficiency (United States)

    ... PH, Nordwall M, Hoffmann-Lücke E, Sorensen BS, Nexo E. Transcobalamin deficiency caused by compound heterozygosity for ... Hung C, Rupar T, Mühl A, Fowler B, Nexo E, Bodamer OA. Transcobalamin II deficiency at birth. ...

  15. Lectures on Functional Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kurepa, Svetozar; Kraljević, Hrvoje


    This volume consists of a long monographic paper by J. Hoffmann-Jorgensen and a number of shorter research papers and survey articles covering different aspects of functional analysis and its application to probability theory and differential equations.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: methylmalonic acidemia (United States)

    ... 30. Citation on PubMed Hörster F, Hoffmann GF. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of methylmalonic aciduria-recent advances ... newborn screening? New Pages MDA5 deficiency type 2 diabetes mitochondrial complex I deficiency All New & Updated Pages ...

  17. Maru ühendatud : Poesie United esines Tartus / Priit Kruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruus, Priit


    23. mail esinesid Tartus saksa, ameerika, prantsuse ja eesti luuletajad spoken word-kirjandusüritusega "Poesie united". Osalesid Wehwalt Koslovsky, Tobias Hoffmann, Milo Martin, Ben Porter Lewis, Antoine Faure, Jürgen Rooste, Asko Künnap ja fs

  18. Ginsbergi vennaskond, värskelt ühendatud / Marko Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marko


    Poetry slami laadis luuleõhtul "Poesie United" esinesid 21. mail KuKu klubis Wehwalt Koslovsky, Tobias Hoffmann (Saksamaa), Ben Porter Lewis, Milo Martin (USA), Antoine Faure (Prantsusmaa), fs, Asko Künnap, Jürgen Rooste

  19. Poesie United toob kirjanduspeo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    23. mail toimub Tartus rahvusvaheline kirjanduspidu "International spoken word subversion 2005" eesti, saksa, prantsuse ja ameerika sõnakunstnikega: Wehwalt Koslovsky, Tobias Hoffmann, Ben Porter Lewis, Milo Martin, Antoine Faure. Vt ka Postimees, 21. mai, lk. 26

  20. Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial Application Flat Fan Nozzles (United States)


    Bradley K. Fritz,1 W. Clint Hoffmann,1 and W. E. Bagley2 Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial...Application Flat Fan Nozzles REFERENCE: Fritz, Bradley K., Hoffmann, W. Clint, and Bagley, W. E., “Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on...factors. Twelve spray-solution treatments were evaluated, ten of which contained a formulated glyphosate product and nine of these con- tained an

  1. Evidencias morfológicas y moleculares que validan como especie a Centruroides tecomanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae Morphological and molecular evidence supporting specific status for Centruroides tecomanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ponce-Saavedra


    Full Text Available Se presentan evidencias morfológicas y moleculares para reconocer a Centruroides limpidus tecomanus Hoffmann (Scorpiones: Buthidae como especie válida y no como una subespecie de Centruroides limpidus (Karsch. Se diagnostica la especie.Morphological and molecular evidence are provided to recognize Centruroides limpidus tecomanus Hoffmann (Scorpiones: Buthidae, as a valid species rather than a subspecies of Centruroides limpidus (Karsch. A diagnosis is provided.

  2. East European Military Establishments: The Warsaw Pact Northern Tier. (United States)


    1975, pp. 10la-103a. 34. Heinz Hoffmann interview, Neues Deutachtand, 17 October 1970. 35. East Berlin, ADN Domestic Service, October 14, 1970, FBIS...October 15, 1970. 36. Heinz Hoffmann, ADN Domestic Service, May 14, 1970. 37. It is a regular theme in GDR military publications that be- cause the...year-end meeting to discuss WP accomplishments during the year seems to have become a tradition. Finally, the Technical Connittee of the Joint Arned

  3. The genus Vaejovis in Sonora, Mexico (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae)


    Sissom, W. David


    The genus Vaejovis C. L. Koch in the Mexican state of Sonora is reviewed, based on the examination of numerous specimens from United States collections. Four species are reported to occur there: Vaejovis spinigerus (Wood), V. confusus Stahnke, V. sonorae Williams, and V. decipiens Hoffmann. Distributional information for all four species is updated, and a key is provided to facilitate identification. The subspecies V. spinigerus sonorensis Hoffmann is synonymized with V. spinigerus. The recor...

  4. Human Factors in the Design and Evaluation of Air Traffic Control Systems (United States)


    1970s at CAMI (e.g., Melton, Plis, Hoffmann, and Saldivar , 1973). These studies are reviewed by Melton (1982) and listed at the end of this chapter...and Performance Measurement in the ATC Environment Melton, C. E., McKenzie, J. M., Polis, B. D., Hoffmann, M., Saldivar , and J. T., Jr. 0 (1973...Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine, Civil Acromedical Institute. Melton, C. E., McKenzie, J. M., Saldivar , J. T., r., and

  5. The importance of looking at someone looking through a pirates telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Eriksen Ødegaard


    Full Text Available This article will address methodological issues concerning the making of knowledge.Drawing on a recent case study from an early childhood educational setting, I will give detailed descriptions of the process of video analysis including the process of transcription and the uses of logs. An aspiration is to create transparency by displaying an analytical process as dynamic, and show how theoretical positions and the researcher her/himself is intertwined in the construction of the empirical base, and thereby in the construction of knowledge. A meta-case is made, and will thereby serve as an example of epistemological reflexivity; how a process of analysis gives certain views and certain truths. To put it in a narrative idiom, this article contains a researcher’s learning story about the importance of looking at someone looking through a pirate’s telescope, to put it in words indicating a meta perspective on a case study called Captain Andreas and his Crew (Ødegaard 2006a, 2007. The article will also, on the basis of a creation of a meta-case, contribute to rethinking truths of children’s meaning-making, gender- and identity-work; boys using swords for battles, as the mention of pirates indicates. The article will problematize whether boys using swords for play battles necessarily can be seen as gendering stereotype masculinity.

  6. Static and Rotating Black Holes in Einstein-Born-Infeld Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cirilo Lombardo, D


    In this work a new asymptotically flat solution of the coupled Einstein-Born-Infeld equations for a static spherically symmetric space-time is obtained. When the intrinsic mass of the system is zero the resulting space-time is regular anywhere in the sense given by B. Hoffmann and L. Infeld in 1937. This means that the metric, the electromagnetic field and their derivatives have not singularities and discontinuities in all the manifold. In particular, there are no conical singularities at the origin, in contrast to well-known monopole solution studied by B. Hoffmann in 1935.

  7. Química na poesia e poesia na química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Martin Wallau


    Full Text Available Goethe's novel 'Elective Affinities', published in 1809, uses Bergmann's concept of 'Elective Attractions', from 1775, as a metaphor for social relations. Its analysis demonstrates the possibility of describing chemical theories, characterised by an anthropomorphic language, using poetic means. Due to the inherently poetic nature of chemical language, Nobel Laureate Roald Hoffmann (2002 suggests relaxing strictures against expressing emotions and personal motives in scientific publications, thus enabling the use ofing poetry to understand and communicate science. Based on the analysis of Goethe's novel and Hoffmann's essay, this article discusses the possibility of using poetic means to help understand chemistry and communicate its research results.


    Barnaby, Andrew


    This essay aims to revise Freud's theory of the uncanny by rereading his own essay of that name along with the key material Freud drew on in formulating his theory: E. T. A. Hoffmann's short story "The Sandman" (1816a) and Ernst Jentsch's essay "On the Psychology of the Uncanny" (1906a). While arguing, initially, both that Jentsch's work is fundamentally misconstrued by Freud and that it offers a better account of what happens in Hoffmann's story, the essay moves beyond Jentsch's account to offer a more philosophically oriented theory of the uncanny, one more in line with Freud's ideas in Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920a). © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  9. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh


    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  10. Austrian visit

    CERN Multimedia


    Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, and Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the visitors' book.Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, was welcomed by Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, on her visit to CERN on 19 May 2003. The theme of the visit was Technology Transfer and spin-offs from CERN for medical applications. Maria Rauch-Kallat toured also the installations of ATLAS.

  11. Development of the Aviation Stress Protocol--Simulation and Performance, Physiological, and Biochemical Monitoring Systems: Phase I. Assessment of Cardiovascular Function after Exposure to the Aviation Stress Protocol- Simulation. The Relationship between Stress-Related Metabolites and Disqualifying Pathology in Air Traffic Control Personnel (United States)


    B. D. Polis, S. M. lloffmann, and J. T. Saldivar , Jr.: Physiological Responses in Air Traffic Control Personnel: Houston Intercontinental Tower, FAA...AM-71-2, 1971. 5. Melton, C. E., J. M. McKenzie, R. C. Smith, B. D. Polis, E. A. Higgins, S. N. Hoffmann, G. E. Funkhouser, and J. T. Saldivar , Jr...FAA Office of Aviation Medicine Report No. AM-73-22, 1973. 6. Melton, C. E., J. M. McKenzie, J. T. Saldivar , Jr., and S. M. Hoffmann: Comparison of

  12. Meeting the Needs of All Students: A Universal Design Approach to Computer-Based Testing (United States)

    Russell, Michael; Hoffmann, Thomas; Higgins, Jennifer


    Michael Russell, Thomas Hoffmann, and Jennifer Higgins describe how the principles of universal design were applied to the development of an innovative computer-based test delivery system, NimbleTools, to meet the accessibility and accommodation needs of students with a wide range of disabilities and special needs. Noting the movement to…

  13. The Role of the Neurofibromin-Syndecan-Cask Complex in the Regulation of Synlaptic RAS-MAPK Signaling and Denoritic Spine Plasticity (United States)


    in NF1. VI. References Ahmadian, M. R., Hoffmann, U., Goody , R. S., and Wittinghofer, A. (1997). Individual rate constants for the...G. G., Stern, J., Ohno, M., Kucherlapati, R., Jacks , T., and Silva, A. J. (2002). Mechanism for the learning deficits in a mouse model of

  14. Há 100 anos, a descoberta do Treponema pallidum A hundred years ago, the discovery of Treponema pallidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemir Macedo de Souza


    Full Text Available A descoberta do Treponema pallidum por Schaudinn & Hoffmann em 3 de março de 1905 foi influenciada pela comunicação de Siegel, sobre a descoberta do agente etiológico da sífilis. Encarada com ceticismo, a comunicação acarretou novas investigações, conduzidas pelo zoologista Schaudinn e pelo dermatologista Hoffmann -primeiros observadores do agente da sífilis, denominado Spirochaeta pallida. A descoberta foi o passo inicial para o desenvolvimento dos procedimentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos nos anos subseqüentes.The discovery of Treponema pallidum by Schaudinn & Hoffmann, on March 3rd 1905, was influenced by Siegels' communication on the finding of the etiological agent of syphilis. John Siegel, working at the Institut of Zoology, University of Berlin, claimed to have found a flagellate protozoon in syphilitic lesions. Because of the skepticism it was received with, this communcation yielded further investigation, conducted by zoologist Schaudinn and dermatologist Hoffmann. They were the first investigators to find the etiological agent of syphilis, described under the name of Spirochaeta pallida. The discovery of Treponema pallidum on March 3rd 1905 was the first step towards the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in subsequent years.

  15. Pollen morphology of the Euphorbiaceae with special reference to taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.


    In the present study pollen morphology of the Euphorbeaceae is treated as an additional character in taxonomy. Besides the greater part of the genera occurring in the system of PAX and K. HOFFMANN (1931), most of the genera published after 1931 are studied. The pollen grains have been described with

  16. At the Very Root of the Development of Interest: Using Human Body Contexts to Improve Women's Emotional Engagement in Introductory Physics (United States)

    Allaire-Duquette, Geneviève; Charland, Patrick; Riopel, Martin


    In physics, women find contexts concerning human biology, medical applications, or natural phenomena highly relevant (Hoffmann, 2002), and the rareness or absence of these in physics curricula may make it more difficult for women to develop and maintain their interest in physics. To date, research in physics education addressing student's…

  17. Inbreeding and sex: canalization, plasticity and sexual selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    interaction of environment and inbreeding depression. (Bijlsma et al. 1999; Dahlgaard and Hoffmann 2000), and the effect of inbreeding on genetic and phenotypic variance (Lopez-Fanjul and Villaverde 1989; Fowler and. Whitlock 1999), have been under renewed examination. Parallel to this has been a renewed interest ...

  18. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8. Hoffmann WF. The behavioral side effects of the anti- hypertensive agents. Am Fam Physician. 1981; 23(2):. 213-216. 9. Johannes CB, Araujo AB, Feldman HA, Derby CA,. Kleinman KP, McKinlay JB. Incidence of erectile dysfunction in men 40 to 69 years old: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging study.

  19. The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution (El genero Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en Mexico: claves de identificacion para adultos, diagnosis, huespedes y distribucion) (United States)


    Distribution in Mexico. Puebla . Hosts in Mexico. Heteromyidae (Mammalia). Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956 Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956: Historia Natural 23:191-307. Hoffmann, A. 1969. Un caso de parálisis por picadura de garrapata. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología y

  20. The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution (United States)


    spur; coxa II with a small internal spur; all coxae with moderate external spurs. Distribution in Mexico. Puebla . Hosts in Mexico. Heteromyidae...1962. Monografía de los Ixodoidea de México. I Parte. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 23:191-307. Hoffmann, A. 1969. Un caso de

  1. "Uus tants 9" - kirju ja elujõuline / Evelin Lagle, Leenu Nigu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin


    19.-21. märtsini Tallinna teatrites ja saalides toimunud üheksandast Eesti uue tantsu ülevaatefestivalist "Uus Tants 9". Tantsulavastustest "Sula jagu", "Kahe korruse rahvas", "Can't Get No / Satisfaction", "Lokaalis täna: Kann/Valkeapää", "Kass ennustab tulevikku inimesest paremini", "Hoffmann-Promenade"

  2. An approach to the painful upper limb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical findings are key to pinpointing the pain source. History. Cervical and upper limb pain may present in isolation or be associated with altered sensation. .... Positive test is presence of 'electric-like sensations' down spine or extremities. Myelopathy. Hoffmann's sign. Passive snapping flexion of middle finger distal ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 184 of 184 ... Vol 20, No 2 (2015), The Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Acanthosis Nigricans in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women of Mixed Ancestry, Abstract PDF. M Hoffmann, WI Visser, B Ascott-Evans, FS Hough. Vol 18, No 2 (2013), The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 25, 2001 ... H. TRAORÉ, DE. 10388”, G. HOFF'MANN,1 G. A. SON and G. SALLÉ2. Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 04 BP 8645, Ouagadougou 04, Burkina Faso. 1International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Afld Tropics, BP 320, Bamako, Mali. 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie, ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    adsorption process on the catalytic site and the second, the breaking of the carbon-heteroatom bond leading to the heteroatom elimination. The adsorption process of thiiren have ... The calculation program is ICON 8 provided by the Quantum Chemistry. Program Exchange (QCPE 344) written by the Roald Hoffmann group.

  6. Face to Face Leading a Full Life in Two Worlds – Arts and Science!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Face to Face. This section features conversations with personalities related to science, highlighting the factors and circumstances that guided them in making the career choice to be a scientist. Leading a Full Life in Two Worlds – Arts and Science! Roald Hoffmann talks to K L Sebastian. KLS: Your very early childhood was ...

  7. Modelling Sulphur Clusters for an Understanding of Ultramarine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The S4 molecule is the most likely chromophore in ultramarine red; however the specific isomer is uncertain. Under the assumption that S4 was formed by a concerted reaction between S3–. and S+., aWoodward-Hoffmann analysis of the molecular orbitals of S3–. and S+. supported the formation of the puckered square S4, ...

  8. Electron and Hole Behavior in Powdered TiO2 - Photoluminescence and Infrared Studies (United States)


    Surf. Sci. Rep. 2003, 48, 53-229. 3. Hoffmann, M. R.; Martin , S. T.; Choi, W. Y.; Bahnemann, D. W., Environmental Applications of Semiconductor...3936. 29. Solbrand, A.; Lindstrom , H.; Rensmo, H.; Hagfeldt, A.; Lindquist, S. E.; Sodergren, S., Electron Transport in the Nanostructured Tio2

  9. Modelling Sulphur Clusters for an Understanding of Ultramarine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the blue chromophore in ultramarine. The closed, D3h, geometry represents a transition state. The S4 molecule is the most likely chromophore in ultramarine red; however the specific isomer is uncertain. Under the assumption that S4 was formed by a concerted reaction between S3. –! and S+!, a Woodward-Hoffmann ...

  10. Towards a social theory of EU foreign and security policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickerton, C.J.


    This article argues that the study of EU foreign and security policy has been hampered by its conceptualization of the sovereign state. Realist and constructivist scholars share Stanley Hoffmann's formulation of states as either 'obstinate or obsolete'. EU foreign and security policy is puzzling in

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    providing a fellowship for the present work. References. 1 M. Bochen'ska, M. Hoffmann, U. Lesin'ska, E. Luks and W. Radecka-. Paryzek, Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 12307–12313. 2 D.N. Reinhoudt and M. Crego-Calama,Science,2002,295, 2403–2407. 3 S. Sameni, C. Jeunesse, D. Matt and J. Harrowfield, Chem. Soc. Rev.,.

  12. A Study of Electrocyclic Reactions in a Molecular Junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Hansen, Thorsten


    must be in accordance to the orbital symmetry rules expressed by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules (when the electrodes do not significantly alter the molecular orbital appearances). We find these two requirements to be valid for the dianion of (1E,3Z,5E)-hexa-1,3,5-triene-1,6-diamine, and the Coulomb...

  13. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule to man: A narration of cosmic-chemical-biological organization. 2. Life under the Sun: Solar energy-ATP. 3. Energy transduction: proton gradient - energy gradient. 4. Woodward-Hoffmann rules - a simple description - aromatic transition states. 5. The magic in chemistry - ninety minutes of tested demonstrations. 6.

  14. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 34-40 Series Article. The Vacillating Mathematician A Stochastic Version · K B Athreya · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 41-51 Series Article. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward–Hoffmann Rules at Your Fingertips! Subramania Ranganathan · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 52-63 General Article.

  15. 1120 States of Matter Deepak Dhar 1132 The Development of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrons in Molecules. B M Deb. 1201. Electron Transfer in Chemistry and Biology – The Primary Events in. Photosynthesis. V Krishnan. 1211. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward–Hoffmann Rules At Your Fingertips! Subramania Ranganathan. 1223. Experimental Determination of the Avogadro Constant. S Ramasesha.

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this patient. Finally we acknowledge the devotion of the dedicated nurses of the Regional Centre for. Neurosurgery, Sokoto. REFERENCES. 1. Blasser T., Hoffmann K., Buerger T., et al. Risk of stroke, transient ischaemic attack, and vessels occlusion before endarterectomy in patients with severe carotid stenosis. Stroke.

  17. Distinguishing Plasmodium falciparum treatment failures from re-infections by using polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a holoendemic area in northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magesa, S M; Mdira, K Y; Farnert, A


    susceptibility to a combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (Fansidar; F. Hoffmann La Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Blood samples were collected before treatment and on days 7, 14, or 28 post-treatment in 51 asymptomatic children, of which 26 could not clear parasitemia within seven days post-treatment. Among...

  18. Disease: H00129 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ings in Hunter disease: pathology and possible therapeutic effects reviewed. ... JOURNAL ... J Inherit Metab Dis 31:473-80 (2008) DOI:10.1007/s10545-008-0878-x ... ...532 OMIM: 309900 PMID:18618289 ... AUTHORS ... Al Sawaf S, Mayatepek E, Hoffmann B ... TITLE ... Neurological find

  19. Intergovernmentalisms: Gendering the Dinosaur?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der


    Intergovernmentalism, whether in its original version (Hoffmann) or the liberal (Moravcsik) one, is usually portrayed as one of two classic, competing integration theories (the other one being neofunctionalism). It is also considered to be hopelessly limited as regards its explanatory power, due to

  20. Studerende lærer at forholde sig til velfærdsteknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Palle


    English abstract Hoffmann E, Eriksen P, Veje P. A Welfare Technology Characterized Nursing Education. Sygeplejersken 2014;(6):62-4. This article describes how nursing education at University College South Denmark, via a time-limited project with three student admission dates from September 2012...

  1. Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 21, 2010 ... Penerbit Fayar Bakti Sdn. Bhd,. Kualalumpu, Malaysia. Nagy A, Krusel W, Rottman S, Dannenberg S, Hoffmann K (2006). Somatosensory- motor neuronal activity in the superior colliculus of the primate. Eur. J. Neurosci. 24(3): 917-924. Reczkoski D, Diamond D (1978). cells of origin of several efficient.

  2. Expression of AeaHsp26 and AeaHsp83 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae and Pupae in Response to Heat Shock Stress (United States)


    pro- moter in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Gene 405: 10Ð18. Debat,V.,C.C.Milton, S.Rutherford,C.P.Klingenberg, and A. A. Hoffmann. 2006. Hsp90 and...Lindquist. 1998. Hsp90 as a capac- itor for morphological evolution. Nature 396: 336Ð342. 374 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 47, no. 3 Sgro, C. M

  3. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 31, 2015 ... Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers. Cancer. Epidemiol biomarkers Prev; 16(8): 1567-1572. Hoffmann, D. and Hecht, S.S. (1985). Nicotine-derived N-nitrowsamines and tobacco related cancer: current status and future directions. Cancer Res ...

  4. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques (United States)


    state-of-the- art wind-noise reduction systems, turbulent wind noise will prevent the detection of infrasonic signals from atmospheric explosions over...D.R., J.A. Vivas Veloso, P. Campus, M. Bell, T. Hoffmann, A. Langlois, P. Martysevich, E. Demirovic and J. Carvalho (2001). Detection of atmospheric

  5. Maintaining cold chain integrity: Temperature breaks within fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CBI. 2016; Uys 2016). ... and trans-national trade in perishable products, such as fresh fruit and vegetables. The objective of cold chain ..... vegetables exports, Emenike and Hoffmann (2014) also triggered temperature breaks below 0 °C and ...

  6. The potential for using flower-visiting insects for assessing site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    section is Holarctic, whereas the other is confined to mountains of South America, Australia and New Zealand (Hoffmann 1999). The main study species here, Caltha palustris, is a. Holarctic species, distributed widely in the Palaearctic in lowland temperate boreal forests. It grows in wet places near streams, and road and ...

  7. Especie nueva de alacrán del género Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae de la costa del estado de Jalisco, México A new scorpion species of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae from the coast of the state of Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ponce-Saavedra


    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides chamela sp. nov. de Chamela en el estado de Jalisco, México. Se compara con C. elegans (Thorell, especie con la que es simpátrida. También se compara con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas: C. mascota Ponce-Saavedra y Francke, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce-Saavedra y Francke y C. tecomanus Hoffmann. Además, con C. meisei Hoffmann, que habita en las costas de Guerrero, porque este taxón se había considerado como subespecie de C. elegans. En la comparación se incluyen C. infamatus (C.L. Koch y C. ornatus (Pocock, por ser especies "rayadas" registradas para el estado de Jalisco.Centruroides chamela sp. nov. from Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico is described. The new species is compared primarily with C. elegans Thorell, because both species are sympatric. It is also compared with C. mascota Ponce-Saavedra et Francke, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce-Saavedra et Francke and C. tecomanus Hoffmann which are morphologically and geographically nearest to the new species. Centruroides meisei Hoffmann, which inhabits the coast of Guerrero is compared because this species was previously classified as a subspecies of C. elegans. Finally, C. infamatus (C.L. Koch and C. ornatus (Pocock are included in the comparisons because they are also present in the state of Jalisco, and belong to the "striped" section of the genus.

  8. Kas "Medium is the message?" / Riin Kübarsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübarsepp, Riin, 1978-


    Eesti Päevalehe 100. sünnipäevale pühendatud rändnäitusest "Ajaleht kunstis" Rakvere Linnagaleriis. Eksponeeritakse Oskar Hoffmann, Jaan Elkeni, Raul Rajangu, Agur Kruusingu, Endel Kõksi, Valeri Vinogradovi, Jüri Ojaveri jt töid

  9. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni


    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. An Integrated Approach to Intelligent Systems (United States)


    area of hybrid control design tools for automotive control and CAD tools for verification • University of Pennsylvania, mobile robots, visual... neurodynamics . From neuron to brain. Walter Freeman. Journal of Physiology (Paris) 94: 303-322, 2000 The origin of microscopic noise in biological...knowledge base for a mobile robot, International Journal of Approximate Reasoning. Hoffmann, Frank Evolutionary learning of mobile robot behaviors

  11. Bomen hebben wortels, mensen hebben benen, ideeën hebben vleugels: een introductie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerssen, J.


    Trees have roots, people have legs, ideas have wings: an introduction Taking a philological field trip in 1837 by A.H. Hoffmann von Fallersleben as an example, this essay demonstrates how the rise of medievalism and national philology in the Netherlands was not a homegrown development, but a result

  12. Ka luule võib olla tantsitav / Aija Sakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sakova, Aija, 1980-


    21. ja 23. mail esinevad Tallinnas ja Tartus saksa, ameerika, prantsuse ja eesti luuletajad spoken word-kirjandusüritustega "Poesie united". Osalevad Wehwalt Koslovsky, Tobias Hoffmann, Milo Martin, Ben Porter Lewis, Antoine Faure, Jürgen Rooste, Asko Künnap ja fs

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoffmann, U. Vol 6, No 3 (2009) - Articles Methanol fractionations of Catha edulis frosk (Celastraceae) contracted lewis rat aorta in vitro: a comparison between crimson and green leaves. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  14. ["Kuhu me siis läheme? - Eks ikka koju."] / M. J.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Mall, 1947-


    Tutvustus: „Kuhu me siis läheme? - Eks ikka koju.“ : sajandivahetus saksa kirjanduses 200 aastat tagasi : Goethe, Schiller, Tieck, Kleist, Hoffmann, Eichendorff, Büchner, Novalis, Hegel (Schelling? Hölderlin?), Schlegel / saksa keelest valinud ja tõlkinud Mati Sirkel. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2015

  15. Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Israel, at the ATLAS exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    Photo 01: L. to r.:Dr Jim Allaby, Dr Peter Jenni, Prof. Bracha Regev, Chief Scientist, Ministry of Health, Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Dr Boaz Lev, Director General, Ministry of Health, Dr Hans F. Hoffmann and Dr Georges Mikenberg. Photo 02: Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Israel, signing the Guest Book.

  16. Disease: H00129 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ayatepek E, Hoffmann B Neurological findings in Hunter disease: pathology and possible therapeutic effects r...eplacement therapy Elaprase [DR:D04499] ICD-10: E76.1 MeSH: D016532 OMIM: 309900 PMID:18618289 Al Sawaf S, M

  17. Structural characterization of vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3.2 Average internal stress and microstrain. Thornton and Hoffmann (1989) revealed that all vacuum evaporated films are in a state of stress. The total stress is composed of a thermal stress and an intrinsic stress. The thermal stress is due to the difference in the thermal ex- pansion coefficients of the film and substrate ...


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water purification (12) 1330 (GA). Water structure (12) 1307 (GA). Weak interactions (9) 802 (GA). Weierstrass approximation (4) 341 (GA). What is Science? (9) 860 (RF). Why the Universe is Expanding (5) 480 (CL). Wiles (10) 950 (SA). Wiesel Torsten (1) 88 (FF). Woodward–Hoffmann rules (12) 1211 (GA). World War I (7) ...

  19. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    On exposure to a hypotonic environment, cells swell rapidly because of a redistribution of osmolytes and water. (Hoffmann et al. 2009). The cell volume is challenged thus during a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Some examples of these are hypoxia/ischaemia, hyponatremia,. (when hormonal and renal functions ...

  20. Grammatik neu gedacht: Innovatives didaktisches Konzept für die deutschen Modalverben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsiaryna EL-Bouz (geb. Kanaplianik


    Suñer Muñoz, Ferran (2015, Metaphern und Grammatikvermittlung am Beispiel der Passivkonstruktion. In: Sohrabi, Parvaneh & Hoffmann, Sabine (Hrsg., Beiträge aus der XV. internationalen Deutschlehrertagung, Bozen 2013. Bozen: Bozen University Press, 137-153.

  1. Zolotõje mazki severnõh sosedei / Dmitri Babitshenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Babitshenko, Dmitri


    Näitus "Soome kunsti kuldaeg. Meistriteoseid Turu Kunstimuuseumi kogust" Kumus. Kuraator Tiina Abel (Kumu kunstimuuseum), kaaskuraatorid Christian Hoffmann ja Mia Haltia (Turu Kunstimuuseum). Kommenteerib Sirje Helme. Komi, Marimaa, Mordva ja Udmurtia kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Põhi ja kirre : kontinentaalne alateadvus. Kaasaegne kunst ja soome-ugri maailm" Kumus. Kuraator Anders Kreuger

  2. Shkarat Msaied: The 2005 Season of Excavations. : A Short Preliminary Report


    Dahl Hermansen, Bo; Thuesen, Ingolf; Hoffmann Jensen, Charlott; Kinzel, Moritz; Bille Petersen, Mikkel; Louise Jørkov, Marie; Lynnerup, Niels


    In 2005, two short campaigns were undertaken at the Neolithic site of Shkarat Msaied, Southern Jordan (Fig. 1), under the direction of Charlott Hoffmann Jensen (spring), Ingolf Thuesen (fall) and Bo Dahl Hermansen (spring and fall) and with Talal al-Amarin as representative of the Department of Antiquities. This year's efforts turned out to be fruitful, especially in four areas of research.

  3. Stress and Performance in T-37 Pilot Training (United States)


    Kelln, Hoffmann, & Saldivar , 1975; Melton & Wicks, 1967), though there appears to be considerable variation from student to student (Melton et al., 1969...FAAO 1969. Melton, C. E.,, McKenzie, J. M., Kelln, J. R., Hoffman, S. N., & Saldivar , J. T. Effect of a general aviation trainer on the * stress of

  4. Effects of Ozone on Exercising and Sedentary Adult Men and Women Representative of the Flight Attendant Population (United States)


    measurements. Patsy Fowler was responsible for blood specimen collection and, together with Stanley Mullen and Ted Saldivar , for blood analyses. Russell...1157, 1966. 5. Melton, C. E., J. M. McKenzie, B. D. Polis, S. M. Hoffmann, and J. T. Saldivar , Jr.: Physiological Responses in Air Traffic Control

  5. Life cycle, population dynamics and schistosome infection in Bulinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curtis, H.K., Julie, A.C., Brady, M.S., Kitron, U.,. Sturrock, R., Ouma, J.H., Ndzovu, S.T.M., Mungai,. P., Hoffmann, O., Hamburger, J., Pellegrini, C.,. Muchiri, E.M. and King, C.H. (2004). Distribution patterns and cercarial shedding of Bulinus nasutus and other snails in the Msambweni area, Coast Province,. Kenya. Am. J. Trop.

  6. Isolation of Stilbenoids and Lignans from Dendrobium hongdie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13. Jolad SD, Hoffmann JJ, Cole JR, Tempesta MS, Bates. RB. Cytotoxic agent from Penstemon deustus. (Scrophulariaceae): isolation and stereochemistry of liriodendrin, a symmetrically substituted furofuranoid lignan diglucoside. J Org Chem, 1980; 45: 1327-. 1329. 14. Hernandez-Romero Y, Rojas JI, Castillo R, Rojas A,.

  7. Interindividual differences in H reflex modulation during normal walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Alkjaer, T


    Based on previous studies, at least two different types of soleus Hoffmann (H) reflex modulation were likely to be found during normal human walking. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to identify different patterns of modulation of the soleus H reflex and to examine whether or not sub......Based on previous studies, at least two different types of soleus Hoffmann (H) reflex modulation were likely to be found during normal human walking. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to identify different patterns of modulation of the soleus H reflex and to examine whether...... was greater for the S group. The hip joint moment was similar for the groups. The EMG activity in the vastus lateralis and anterior tibial muscles was greater prior to heel strike for the S group. These data indicate that human walking exhibits at least two different motor patterns as evaluated by gating...

  8. [Summary Tradition and innovation. Representatives of medical concepts in Uwe Tellkamp's novel The Tower]. (United States)

    Max, Katrin


    Uwe Tellkamp's novel Der Turm. Geschichte aus einem versunkenen Land (The Tower. A Story From a Lost Land) tells the story of a physician's family in Dresden during the last seven years of the GDR's existence. Crucial in this narration of this family, the Hoffmanns, are the medical aspects. I'm particularly interested in how various concepts of clinical diagnostics and therapies are introduced and linked to specific characters, respectively. While the physicians of the Hoffmann family follow a traditional and rather conservative notion of their profession and use orthodox medical methods, the novel presents a number of figures that are linked to alternative complementary healing methods. In the end, those characters searching for alternative ways of practicing medicine, in contrast to the traditional doctors, are also actively involved in the political uproar that led to the fall of the wall in 1989. Hence the text presents analogies that capture both the medical and the political spheres.

  9. [Christian Andreas Cothenius (1708-1789). A pro-memoria on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his death]. (United States)

    Völker, A


    The 200th anniversary of the death of Christian Andreas Cothenius gave occasion to appreciate life and work of this personage of a physician. Cothenius maintained manifold connections to Halle, of which the golden doctorate and the heritage of the pharmaceutic enterprises of his teacher Friedrich Hoffmann were treated in this place. The picture of the local relations was supplemented by the history of the Cothenius medal which is today awarded by the Leopoldina of Halle.

  10. Visit of the Austrian Minister of Health and Women's Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice


    Mrs Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, came to CERN on 19 May. The theme of her visit was technology transfer. Photo 01: Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing with Mrs Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the VIP visitors' book. Photo 02: Mrs Maria Rauch-Kallat, Minister of Health and Women's Issues, Austria, signing the VIP visitors' book.

  11. El papel de la lengua especializada y la terminología en la comunicación y la documentación profesionales de empresas


    Våge, Ole


    This article is in Spanish! This article explores the role of languages of special purposes (LSP) and terminology in professional communication and documentation in businesses. Different communication models (Hoffmann 1985; Cassany 2004; Roelke 2010 [1999]) are discussed in order to show how LSP and terminology contribute to efficient, precise and appropriate communication in a professional setting. The second part of the article demonstrates that terminology plays a pivotal role in busine...

  12. El papel de la lengua especializada y la terminología en la comunicación y la documentación profesionales de empresas


    Våge, Ole


    This article explores the role of languages of special purposes (LSP) and terminology in professional communication and documentation in businesses. Different communication models (Hoffmann 1985; Cassany 2004; Roelke 2010 [1999]) are discussed in order to show how LSP and terminology contribute to efficient, precise and appropriate communication in a professional setting. The second part of the article demonstrates that terminology plays a pivotal role in business documentation. Finally, the ...

  13. Effect of joint mobilization on the H Reflex amplitude in people with spasticity


    Pérez Parra, Julio Ernesto; Henao Lema, Claudia Patricia


    Objective: To determine the effect of ankle joint mobilization on the H reflex amplitude of thesoleus muscle in people with spasticity. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental study withcrossover design and simple masking was conducted in 24 randomized subjects to initiate thecontrol or experimental group. Traction and rhythmic oscillation were applied for five minutesto the ankle joint. H wave amplitude changes of Hoffmann reflex (electrical equivalent of themonosynaptic spinal reflex) w...

  14. Efecto de la movilización articular sobre la amplitud del Reflejo H en personas con espasticidad


    Julio Ernesto Pérez Parra; Claudia Patricia Henao Lema


    Objective: To determine the effect of ankle joint mobilization on the H reflex amplitude of the soleus muscle in people with spasticity. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental study with crossover design and simple masking was conducted in 24 randomized subjects to initiate the control or experimental group. Traction and rhythmic oscillation were applied for five minutes to the ankle joint. H wave amplitude changes of Hoffmann reflex (electrical equivalent of the monosynaptic spinal refl...

  15. Wide-bandgap III-Nitride based Second Harmonic Generation (United States)


    Seiji Mita, Zachary Bryan, Wei Guo, Lindsay Hussey, Baxter Moody, Raoul Schlesser, Ronny Kirste, Michael Gerhold, Ramon Collazo, Zlatko Sitar...Lasing and longitudinal cavity modes in photo- pumped deep ultraviolet AlGaN heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett., (04 2013): 171102. doi: Ronny Kirste...Marc Hoffmann, Ronny Kirste, Milena Bobea, Ramon Collazo, Zlatko Sitar, Seiji Mita, Michael Gerhold. Refractive index of III-metal-polar and N-polar

  16. Linnugripp tõi ravimifirmale Roche magusa kasumi / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik


    Šveitsi ravimitootja Roche'i viiruseravimi Tamiflu müük on kasvanud. Roche kavatseb järgmiseks suveks suurendada toodangut võrreldes 2004. aastaga kaheksa korda, kuid seda ei peeta piisavaks. ÜRO ja WHO nõuavad, et firma loobuks patentidest või annaks koopiaravimite valmistajatele tootmise litsentsi. Tabel: F. Hoffmann-La Roche. Lisa: Linnugripi vaktsiini võib loota kuue kuu pärast

  17. Quantifying the Movement of Multiple Insects Using an Optical Insect Counter (United States)


    QUANTIFYING THE MOVEMENT OF MULTIPLE INSECTS USING AN OPTICAL INSECT COUNTER WESLEY C. HOFFMANN,1 PHILIP C. JANK,2 JEROME A. KLUN2 AND BRADLEY K...FRITZ1 ABSTRACT. An optical insect counter (OIC) was designed and tested. The new system integrated a line- scan camera and a vertical light sheet along...with data collection and image-processing software to count flying insects crossing a vertical plane defined by the light sheet. The system also

  18. Volumetric Collection Efficiency and Droplet Sizing Accuracy of Rotary Impactors (United States)


    for droplet sizing data. WIND TUNNEL FACILITIES Sampler testing was conducted at the USDA‐ARS Aerial Application Technology low‐speed wind tunnel in...studies, adjusted appropriately , if possible, for airspeed spe‐ cific collection efficiencies. With aerial application field trials involving minute...spray collection efficiency of nylon screen. Applied Eng. in Agric . 20(2): 147‐152. Fritz, B. K., and W. C. Hoffmann. 2008a. Collection efficiencies

  19. Bewaffnete Konflikte: Geschichte, Dynamik, Simulation und Analyse (Armed Conflict: History, Dynamics, Simulation and Analysis) (United States)


    Copyrighted. (I and 20) ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Table of Contents: I . Board Game Simulations for the Anny? -Felix Hoffmann Introduction; Ottoman...Thinking; Learn or Assess the Opponents; Stress Resistance in Critical Situations; Strategic Thinking; Game Modifications with Respect to the lnfmmation...Conclusion- "Libetty" as a Useful lnstmctional Media 7. Computer-based or Board Game : Simulation Types Compared -Nils Boesner Introduction

  20. Chiral photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshihisa


    Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S

  1. The Addition of Cocoa, Glycerol, and Saccharose to the Tobacco of Cigarettes: Implications for Smoke Chemistry, In Vitro Cytotoxicity, Mutagenicity and Further Endpoints


    Roemer E; Wittke S; TrellesSticken E; Piade JJ; Bonk T; Schorp MK


    The cigarette ingredients cocoa powder, glycerol, and saccharose were investigated regarding their potential effect on the resulting mainstream smoke, i.e., smoke chemistry (Hoffmann analytes), mammalian cell cytotoxicity (Neutral Red Uptake assay), and bacterial mutagenicity (Ames assay). Each ingredient was added at three concentrations to the tobacco of a 6 mg and 10 mg ‘tar’ yield experimental American blend filter cigarette (obtained under ISO/FTC smoking regime). The lowest application ...

  2. Music


    Deinert, Herbert


    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  3. Novel Insights into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori (United States)


    Schumann, E. M. Schneider, and K. Triantafilou. 2005. Lipopolysaccharides from Helicobacter pylori can act as antagonists for Toll -like receptor 4. Cell...lymphocyte receptor for the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin. Cell Host Microbe 3:20-9. 142. Sharma, C. M., S. Hoffmann, F. Darfeuille, J...into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori Name of Candidate: Jeremy Gilbreath Doctor of Philosophy Degree January 10, 2013 DISSERTATION AND

  4. The Stillborn Army: Political Contention and the Fate of De Gaulle’s Armee de Metier (United States)


    characteristics and workings. Prominent among these works are those of Stanley Hoffmann and Michel Crozier , who have analyzed French political...34domination-crisis" model of state-group relations, and is also closely associated with the Z% writings of Michel Crozier . Their views of French...Community," 11. 1 0 Michel Crozier , The Stalled Society (New York: Viking Press, 1973), 86-93. 11 Michel Crozier , The Bureaucratic Phenomenon (Chicago

  5. Towards Robust Multiagent Plans (United States)


    Selman, & Kautz, 2007; Gerevini, Saetti, & Serina, 2008; Thayer & Ruml, 2011; Thayer, Stern , Felner, & Ruml, 2012; Haslum, 2013; Nakhost, Hoffmann...22nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), pp. 674–679. Thayer, J. T., Stern , R. T., Felner, A., & Ruml, W. (2012...A baseline for prob- abilistic planning. In Mark S. Boddy, Maria Fox, and Sylvie Thiébaux, editors, Proceedings of the Seventeenth International

  6. Decifra-me ou devoro-te

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Longo Bahia

    Full Text Available resumo Decifra-me ou devoro-te apresenta uma análise da obra Olympia, do artista Edouard Manet. Trata-se de estabelecer uma comparação entre a pintura de Manet e o conto de E. T. A. Hoffmann, O homem de areia, levando-se em conta a relação entre as personagens femininas de ambos e a mercadoria.

  7. A Quadrotor Sensor Platform (United States)

    2008-08-01 (accessed Sep. 1, 2008). [8] Gabe Hoffmann, Dev Gorur Rajnarayan, Steven L. Waslander, David Dostal, Jung Soon Jang, and... Claire J. Tomlin. “The Stanford Testbed of Autonomous Rotorcraft for Multi Agent Control (STARMAC)”. In Proceedings of the 23rd Digital Avionics...Siegwart. “Towards Intelligent Miniature Flying Robots”. In Proceedings of Field and Service Robotics, Port Douglas , Australia, Jul. 29–31, 2005. [23] M. S

  8. Kumb oli agressor Hitler või Stalin / Rudolf Augstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Augstein, Rudolf


    Järg Apr/13.,15.16.,17.,18.,19,20.,22.,23.,24.,25.,26. lk. 35,23,23,23,23,23,33,23,23,23,23,23. Kolme raamatu põhjal tehtud ülevaade sõjast: Vladimir Rezun "M-päev", Joachim Hoffmann "Stalini hävitussõda 1941-1945", Walter Post ""Barbarossa" plaan". Saksa ja Nõukogude kallaetungikavad 1940/41

  9. The drop height determines neuromuscular adaptations and changes in jump performance in stretch-shortening cycle training


    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Lauber, B.; Gollhofer, Albert


    There is an ongoing discussion about how to improve jump performance most efficiently with plyometric training. It has been proposed that drop height influences the outcome, although longitudinal studies are missing. Based on cross-sectional drop jump studies showing height-dependent Hoffmann (H)-reflex activities, we hypothesized that the drop height should influence the neuromuscular activity and thus, the training result. Thirty-three subjects participated as a control or in one of two str...

  10. New politics and changing parties : a comparative perspective


    Hoffmann-Martinot, Vincent

    2003-01-01; This article illustrates a new style of politics, the New Political Culture (NPC), whichbegan in many countries in the 1970s. It has become dominant in some locations. Itdefines new rules of the game for politics, challenging two older traditions: classpolitics and clientelism. Advocates of the New Political Culture include Bill Clinton,Tony Blair, and Francois Mitterrand. They revolutionized the politics of their countriesby embracing ...

  11. Predictors of overall satisfaction of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy


    Becker-Schiebe M; Pinkert U; Ahmad T; Schäfer C; Hoffmann W; Franz H


    Martina Becker-Schiebe,1,2 Uwe Pinkert,1 Tahera Ahmad,1 Christof Schäfer,3 Wolfgang Hoffmann,1 Heiko Franz4 1Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Städtisches Klinikum Braunschweig gGmbH, Braunschweig, 2Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 3Radiation Oncology Straubing, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Städtisches Klinikum Braunschweig gGmbH, Braunschweig, Germany Background: Reporting the e...

  12. TWO NEW ITALIAN CEUTORHYNCHUS (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Colonnelli


    Full Text Available Are described and illustrated two new Italian species of Ceutorhynchus. The first of them, C. apenninus n. sp. from central Italy, collected on the montane crucifer Isatis allionii P. W. Ball., is close to C. peyerimhoffi Hustache from Spain, Italy and Algeria, also living on Isatis. The second, C. magnanoi n. sp. from southern Italy is very close to the French C. matthiolae Hoffmann, and was collected of Matthiola like the species from southern France.

  13. Verification of models for ballistic movement time and endpoint variability. (United States)

    Lin, Ray F; Drury, Colin G


    A hand control movement is composed of several ballistic movements. The time required in performing a ballistic movement and its endpoint variability are two important properties in developing movement models. The purpose of this study was to test potential models for predicting these two properties. Twelve participants conducted ballistic movements of specific amplitudes using a drawing tablet. The measured data of movement time and endpoint variability were then used to verify the models. This study was successful with Hoffmann and Gan's movement time model (Hoffmann, 1981; Gan and Hoffmann 1988) predicting more than 90.7% data variance for 84 individual measurements. A new theoretically developed ballistic movement variability model, proved to be better than Howarth, Beggs, and Bowden's (1971) model, predicting on average 84.8% of stopping-variable error and 88.3% of aiming-variable errors. These two validated models will help build solid theoretical movement models and evaluate input devices. This article provides better models for predicting end accuracy and movement time of ballistic movements that are desirable in rapid aiming tasks, such as keying in numbers on a smart phone. The models allow better design of aiming tasks, for example button sizes on mobile phones for different user populations.

  14. The history of benzodiazepines. (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y


    After more than 50 years of experience with benzodiazepines, the American health care system has a love-hate relationship with them. In 1955, Hoffmann-La Roche chemist Leo Sternbach serendipitously identified the first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium). By 1960, Hoffmann-La Roche marketed it as Librium, and it pursued molecular modifications for enhanced activity. Valium (diazepam) followed in 1963. Hoffmann-La Roche's competitors also began looking for analogues. Initially, benzodiazepines appeared to be less toxic and less likely to cause dependence than older drugs. A specific improvement was their lack of respiratory depression, a safety concern with barbiturates. Medical professionals greeted benzodiazepines enthusiastically at first, skyrocketing their popularity and patient demand. In the mid-to-late 1970s, benzodiazepines topped all "most frequently prescribed" lists. It took 15 years for researchers to associate benzodiazepines and their effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid as a mechanism of action. By the 1980s, clinicians' earlier enthusiasm and propensity to prescribe created a new concern: the specter of abuse and dependence. As information about benzodiazepines, both raising and damning, accumulated, medical leaders and legislators began to take action. The result: individual benzodiazepines and the entire class began to appear on guidelines and in legislation giving guidance on their use. Concurrently, clinicians began to raise concerns about benzodiazepine use by elderly patients, indicating that elders'lesser therapeutic response and heightened sensitivity to side effects demanded prescriber caution. The benzodiazepine story continues to evolve and includes modern-day issues and concerns beyond those ever anticipated.

  15. On the Relationship between Medical Ethics and the Law. (United States)

    Brassington, Iain


    In his comments on Bland, Lord Justice Hoffmann stated that 'I would expect medical ethics to be formed by the law rather than the reverse'. But what judges expect, and what they have a right to expect, are different things; I shall use Hoffmann LJ's statement as a way into looking at the relationship between ethics and law, and argue that it is partially correct insofar as that it makes a prediction about that relationship. Professional ethics and codes of ethics are shaped by law; but law is shaped by those codes to some extent, and both are influenced by 'philosophical ethics'. As a normative claim, Hoffmann LJ's statement is more compelling; but he also distinguished between 'medical ethics' and 'morality', and this merits exploration. There remains a question about the proper relationship between law, ethics, and morality that I shall address. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press; All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. ELEVATE: an innovative study design to assess the efficacy, safety, and evolution of cardiovascular parameters in de novo kidney transplant recipients after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Giet M


    Full Text Available Markus van der Giet,1 Josep M Cruzado,2 Johan W de Fijter,3 Hallvard Holdaas,4 Zailong Wang,5 Antonio Speziale,6 Guido Junge61Department of Nephrology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite'-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 4Section of Nephrology, Department of Transplant Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 5Biometrics and Statistical Science, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 6Research and Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandAbstract: Progressive decline in allograft function and cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation remain major clinical challenges that can potentially be addressed by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, everolimus and sirolimus. mTOR inhibitors maintain immunosuppressive efficacy after minimization of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI therapy and can achieve significant long-term improvements in renal function. Recently, data have accumulated that suggest mTOR inhibitors may offer cardioprotective effects. In animal models, inhibition of mTOR leads to regression of cardiac hypertrophy, and the limited data consistently point to a remodeling benefit following heart transplantation. Experimentally, mTOR inhibitors restrict atherogenesis, confirmed clinically by intravascular ultrasound data demonstrating lower rates of transplant vasculopathy in heart transplant recipients on everolimus. Lastly, mTOR inhibitors appear to ameliorate arterial stiffness, a known risk factor for post-transplant cardiovascular events, but data remain sparse. The ELEVATE study will examine the renal effect of early conversion from CNI therapy to everolimus after kidney transplantation. Key secondary endpoints include the change in left ventricular mass index, the first time

  17. The history of botany in Moscow and Russia in the 18th and early 19th centuries in the context of the Linnaean Collection at Moscow University (MW). (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Balandin, Sergey A; Gubanov, Ivan A; Jarvis, Charles E; Majorov, Sergey R; Simonov, Sergey S


    The Herbarium of Moscow State University, Russia, possesses a relatively small (63 specimens), but historically interesting, collection of herbarium specimens linked with Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). Some of these originally formed part of Linnaeus' own herbarium while others, although never his property, were nevertheless studied by him and may be original material for the typification of his plant names. This paper discusses the broad historical background to the gathering of these specimens, their study by Linnaeus and their subsequent fate. Specimens linked with Linnaeus have been encountered in each of the four largest historical collections of the Herbarium of Moscow State University, i. e., in the herbaria of J. F. Ehrhart, G. F. Hoffmann, C. B. von Trinius and C. L. Goldbach. Ehrhart's General Herbarium contains 31 sheets, which were more or less certainly collected or studied by Linnaeus. Ehrhart, a pupil of Linnaeus, received some specimens directly from the latter, while others came to him from Linnaeus filius, A. Dahl, and P. J. Bergius. Ehrhart's collections were purchased by G. F. Hoffmann, later, the first head of the Department of Botany at Moscow University, who took them to Russia. Hoffmann's General Herbarium contains three specimens that may be connected with Linnaeus. They were received from C. P. Thunberg, J. A. Murray, and an unknown person, respectively. At least five specimens from Trinius' collection, although certainly never seen by Linnaeus, are probable duplicates of material that was studied by him. Some of them are almost certainly iso-lectotypes of Linnaean names. Finally, 24 specimens linked with Linnaeus were found in Goldbach's herbarium. The majority of them were collected in the Lower Volga Region by J. Lerche and during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (Great Northern Expedition) by J. G. Gmelin and G. W. Steller.

  18. The Significance of the Trömner Sign in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Patient. (United States)

    Chaiyamongkol, Weera; Laohawiriyakamol, Teeranan; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Tanutit, Pramot; Bintachitt, Piyawat; Siribumrungwong, Koopong


    This study is a diagnostic analysis. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Trömner sign in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and how its presence correlates with the severity of myelopathy. A clinical presentation of myelopathy corresponding with image findings is a current standard to diagnose CSM. Trömner sign is an alternative of well-known Hoffmann sign to detect CSM. Little is known about its diagnostic accuracy and how its presence correlates with the severity of CSM. Consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of CSM and other cervical spondylosis-related problems were enrolled in either CSM group, cervical spondylotic radiculopathy group, or axial pain group. Normal volunteers and patients without spine-related issues were used as a control. All participants were examined for the presence of myelopathic signs. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of all participants were reviewed by a radiologist. There were 85 participants included in the study. Diagnostic sensitivity was 76%, 94%, 76%, and 36% for Hoffmann sign, Trömner sign, inverted radial reflex, and Babinski sign, respectively. Trömner sign had relatively high sensitivity (95%) despite of mild degree of myelopathy. Negative predictive value was 60%, 85%, 59%, and 38% for Hoffmann sign, Trömner sign, inverted radial reflex, and Babinski sign, respectively. There were 63%-71% of patients in either axial pain group or cervical spondylotic radiculopathy group had positive Trömner sign. Most of CSM patients with cord signal changed had positive myelopathic sign. Regarding CSM patient without cord signal change, most of tests were negative except Trömner sign. High sensitivity (94%) and relatively high negative predictive value (85%) for Trömner sign indicate the usefulness of Trömner sign in ruling out CSM. High incidence of positive Trömner sign in presymptomatic cervical cord compression patients suggests Trömner sign could have a useful role in early detection of presymptomatic

  19. Magnetic Responsive Hydrogel Material Delivery System II (United States)


    were recorded using a X-ray diffractometer (D/max-Ra, Rigaku, Japan ) with Cu-K radiation at 42 kV and 109 mA. The crystal size of MNPs was calculated...were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEM-1OOCX, JEOL, Japan ) with an accelerating voltage of 80 kV. Samples for TEM were prepared...Microbiol. Biotechnol., 1998, 20, 121. 15 M. Yamato , C. Konno, M. Utsumi, A. Kikuchi and T. Okano, Biomaterials., 2002, 23, 561. 16 J. Hoffmann, M

  20. Tratamiento de las fracturas abiertas graves de la diáfisis tibial con osteosteotaxis inmediata e injerto óseo diferido


    Fernández Sabaté, Alfons; Portabella Blavia, Federico; Ferrer Escobar, Humberto; Cáceres Palou, Enrique


    Las fracturas abiertas graves de la diáfisis tibial correspondientes al grado II y III de Cauchoix presentan una alta incidencia de fracasos de consolidación, de infección y de reoperaciones para consolidación con injerto óseo. Consideramos que la resección quirúrgica en urgencias seguida de inmovilización con fijador externo de Hoffmann es la mejor metódica para que la fractura quede en óptimas condiciones de consolidación. A pesar de ello son altos los fracasos y el injerto al cabo de meses...

  1. Freqüência de parasitas intestinais em felinos mantidos em zoológicos Frequency of intestinal parasites in felines kept in zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C.K. Müller


    Full Text Available The endoparasites occurrence in felines confined in two Zoos, between December 1999 and April 2000, was studied. Fecal samples of 18 felines (Panthera tigris, Panthera leo, Felis serval, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii were collected and the methods of Faust, modified Baermann and Hoffmann, were used for fecal analyses. Three genera were identified in the feces: Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp. In the zoo of Pomerode, six animals (46% were infected by Trichuris spp. and/or Giardia spp. and all samples from the zoo of Brusque were infected by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp.

  2. Relativity and its roots

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh


    In this fascinating, accessible introduction to one of the most revolutionary developments in modern physics, Einstein scholar Banesh Hoffmann recounts the successive insights that led to both the special and general theories of relativity.Using simple examples from everyday life, the author presents entertaining, nontechnical demonstrations of what relativity actually means and how it has revolutionized our ideas of time and space. Starting with the geometrical and cosmological ideas of the ancient Greeks, the author traces the succession of ideas and advances that paved the way for modern p

  3. A picture story of Coppélia ou La Fille aux yeux d'émail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Lo Iacono


    Full Text Available Coppelia tells a story of significant and "disturbing" aspects: from Der Sandmann by ETA Hoffmann,  inspired by Cagliostro’s alchemic mastery, to the obsessive eyes pattern repetition and characters division which inspire Freud in writing his pages. Literary references and iconographic links join together various “robot” section by Kleist’s vision of puppet "dancing without error" and by analizing Paris 1870 mise en scène and followings. The final images and video gallery summarizes the main reasons of contemporary interest for a Second French Empire ballet, reinvented on stage by modern choreographers fascinated by doll fetish qualities.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen


    Johannes Martin Schmid, Ronald Dahl, and Hans Juergen Hoffmann Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aarhus, Denmark Background: The major effect of SCIT is a change in allergen specific immunoglobulin. We measure the contribution of competing immunoglobulin to the effect of SCIT in patients......X with an about six-fold decrease in cellular sensitivity. Conclusion: We found an increasing protective effect of SCIT after 1 year of treatment measured by basophil activation test. During the early treatment period, this effect is primarily based on a shift towards protecting IgX, while there seems...

  5. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 26 of 26 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. H. Hahn, D · Hale, M · Hall, D · Hall, David · Hammond, Emmanuel Nii Boye · Hamunyela, RH · Hannah, T · Harmankaya, Ozlem · Harrichund, P · Hartley, Patricia S · Hassan, H · Hinnen, DA · Hoebel, S · Hoffman, M · Hoffmann, M · Hough, FS · Hough ...

  6. Prospects for the biological control of invasive Pinus species (Pinaceae) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hoffmann, JH


    Full Text Available Zealand. Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Conference 51: 216?223. BROCKERHOFF, E.G., HOFFMANN, J.H. & ROQUES, A. 2004. Is biological control an option for the management of wilding pines (Pinus spp.) in New Zealand? In: Hill, R....L., Zydenbos, S.M.& Bezar, C.M. (Eds) Managing Wilding Conifers in New Zealand: Present and Future. 65?78. New Zealand Plant Protection Society, Christchurch. COUTINHO, T.A., STEENKAMP, E.T., MONGWAKETSI, K., WILMOT, M. & WINGFIELD, M.J. 2007. First...

  7. A Short Discussion of Crisis Management – Practical Experience with the 2006 Electoral Campaign in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zdechovský


    Full Text Available The rival candidate – directly or through a “third person” – attacks, parodies or mocks the rival and his or her services, trying to persuade voters of the exclusivity of his or her own products. Negative campaigns fabricate situations which have not occurred, pointing out the weaknesses of the rival and trying to draw voters’ attention to them. During the Senate campaign in autumn 2006 for constituency No. 44, Chrudim, Petr Pithart had to face repeated media attacks (in Chrudimský deník by Chrudim businessman Ivan Hoffmann. What can be learned from Pithart’s defense.

  8. Descripción de una especie nueva de alacrán con importancia médica del género Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae) del estado de Colima, México Description of a new species of scorpion of medical importance of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from the state of Colima, Mexico


    Javier Ponce-Saavedra; Oscar F. Francke


    Se describe Centruroides hirsutipalpus sp. nov. de la región de Minatitlán, Colima. Se compara con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas, C. elegans Thorell y C. tecomanus Hoffmann y con otras especies "rayadas" de Centruroides del centro-occidente de México. Es ésta una especie con importancia médica que no se había recolectado previamente.Centruroides hirsutipalpus sp. nov. from the region of Minatitlán, Colima, Mexico is described. The new species is compared with C. eleg...

  9. Kanon i dansk 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldendals læsebog i kanonlitteratur for 8. klasse. Med tekster af Homer, Thomas Kingo, Ambrosius Stub, E.T.A. Hoffmann, St.St. Blicher, N.F.S. Grundtvig, Christian Winther, H.C. Andersen, Emil Aarestrup, Henrik Ibsen, J.P. Jacobsen, Henrik Pontoppidan, Herman Bang, Jeppe Aakjær, Johannes V. Jens......, Tom Kristensen, Oskar Hansen, Knud Sønderby, Poul Henningsen, Gustaf Munch-Petersen, Karen Blixen, Robert Storm Petersen, Frank Jæger, J.R.R. Tolkien, Tage Skou-Hansen, Klaus Rifbjerg, Inger Christensen og Dan Turèll....

  10. Financial Development and Sectoral Output Growth in 19th century Germany


    Diekmann, Katharina; Westermann, Frank


    In this paper we re-evaluate the hypothesis that the development of the financial sector was an essential factor behind economic growth in 19th century Germany. We apply a structural VAR framework to a new annual data set from 1870 to 1912 that was initially recorded by Walther Hoffmann (1965). With respect to the literature, the distinguishing characteristic of our analysis is the focus on different sectors in the economy and the interpretation of the findings in the context of a two-sector ...

  11. Parameters for Viability Check on Gravitational Theories Regarding the Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celakoska E. G.


    Full Text Available Parameterized post-Newtonian formalism requires an existence of a symmetric metric in a gravitational theory in order to perform aviability check regarding the experimental data. The requirement of a symmetric metric is a strong constraint satisfied by very narrowclass of theories. In this letter we propose a viability check of a theory using the corresponding theory equations of motion. It issufficient that a connection exists, not necessarily a metrical one. The method is based on an analysis of the Lorentz invariant terms in the equations of motion. An example of the method is presented on the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann equations.

  12. Relações Internacionais no Brasil: a expansão dos manuais*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Resenha de BAUMANN, Renato, CANUTO, Otaviano, et al. Economia internacional: teoria e experiência brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier. 2004. 442 p. ISBN: 85-353-1441-0. HERZ, Mônica e HOFFMANN, Andrea Ribeiro. Organizações internacionais: história e práticas. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, 2004. 268 p. ISBN: 85-352-1453-4. NOGUEIRA, João Pontes e MESSARI, Nizar. Teoria das relações internacionais: correntes e debates. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, 2005. 250 p. 85-352- 1687-1.

  13. Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Surface Roughness of Dental Restorations (United States)


    3M  ESPE   St. Paul, MN  Resin Modified  Glass Ionomer  Fuji II LC  silicate glass powder,  polyalkenoic acid,  HEMA, UDMA  GC America  Alsip, IL  19...J.E., Amin, S., Desai, D., Idris, A.M., Hoffmann, D.,  1995. Improved  methodology  for the quantitative assessment of tobacco­specific

  14. Distribución de la flora algal en el sabinar litoral de la Punta de la Mora (Tarragona)


    Merino, Víctor; Fernández, M.; García Serrano Joan; Hernández-mariné, M. C.


    Las algas y cianobacterias de ambientes terrestres no han sido tan estudiadas como las acuáticas, a pesar de encontrarse muy difundidas y existir un gran número de especies. Viven en medios diversos: suelos, rocas, cortezas de árboles y arbustos, hielo, animales, etc. La biología y taxonomía de las algas edáficas han sido extensamente revisadas (METTING, 1981; HOFFMANN, 1989; ARCHIBALD, 1990); las de los otros biotopos terrestres han sido menos consideradas. El objetivo del presente trabajo e...

  15. Geneva University honours two CERN staff members

    CERN Multimedia


    Albert Hofmann Steve Myers On 8 June, two CERN staff members will receive Geneva University's highest distinction. On the proposal of the University's particle physicists, Steve Myers and Albert Hoffmann, who orchestrated LEP commissioning and operation and were instrumental in its success, will awarded the distinction of doctor honoris causa. The ceremony, interspersed with musical interludes, will be followed by a formal reception and is open to all. The Uni Dufour car park will be free to members of the public attending the ceremony. 8 June 2001 at 10.00 a.m. Uni Dufour, Auditoire Piaget 24, rue Général Dufour, Geneva.

  16. Phases in development of an interactive mobile phone-based system to support self-management of hypertension


    Hallberg I; Taft C; Ranerup A; Bengtsson U; Hoffmann M.; Höfer S; Kasperowski D; Mäkitalo Å; Lundin M.; Ring L; Rosenqvist U; Kjellgren K


    Inger Hallberg,1,11 Charles Taft,1,11 Agneta Ranerup,2,11 Ulrika Bengtsson,1,11 Mikael Hoffmann,3,10 Stefan Höfer,4 Dick Kasperowski,5 Åsa Mäkitalo,6 Mona Lundin,6 Lena Ring,7,8 Ulf Rosenqvist,9 Karin Kjellgren1,10,11 1Institute of Health and Care Sciences, 2Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3The NEPI Foundation, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Medical Psychology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, ...

  17. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 875 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. H. Hasan, KZ · Hassen, H Y · Hawkley, M · Healy, M · Henderson, S · Hendricks, C L · Hendricks, R J · Hendson, W · Herselman, M · Herselman, M G · Hittler, T · Hlambelo, N · Hlatswayo, BPS · Hlope, S T · Hoffmann, K S · Hon, JML · Horn, AR

  18. Kætterbegrebet i den danske reformationstid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz


    Efter omtale af fordømmelsen af Luther som kætter og af hans forfølgelse af kættere drøfter artiklen kætterdommen over Melchior Hoffmann i Flensburg 1529.Derefter vises, hvorledes den katolske Poul Helgesen og de første evangeliske prædikanter i Danmark gensidigt fordømte hinanden som kættere. Ti...... sidst omtales, hvorledes man i den etablerede evangeliske kirke opfattede katolikker, ikke-lutherske protestanter og jøder som kættere....

  19. Aplicación del modelo Discovering Hands en Argentina


    Infante Rasch, Oriana; Urbina Hueso, Jhoan Sebastian


    Discovering Hands (DH) es un proyecto que nace en Alemania en el 2006, liderado por el doctor Frank Hoffmann. El programa se desarrolla pensando en el importante problema de salud pública en el cual se ha convertido en el cáncer de mama, pues según la Organización Mundial de la Salud es el mayor causal de muerte en mujeres, tanto en países desarrollados como en vía de desarrollo, y en Alemania esta enfermedad acaba con la vida de aproximadamente 18.000 mujeres cada año. (The Global Journal, ...

  20. Gravitational Lagrangians, Mach’s Principle, and the Equivalence Principle in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Essén


    Full Text Available Gravitational Lagrangians as derived by Fock for the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann approach, and by Kennedy assuming only a fourth rank tensor interaction, contain long range interactions. Here we investigate how these affect the local dynamics when integrated over an expanding universe out to the Hubble radius. Taking the cosmic expansion velocity into account in a heuristic manner it is found that these long range interactions imply Mach’s principle, provided the universe has the critical density, and that mass is renormalized. Suitable higher order additions to the Lagrangians make the formalism consistent with the equivalence principle.

  1. Bicontinuous liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Mathew L


    PrefaceIntroduction AcknowledgmentsBicontinuous Cubic Liquid Crystalline Materials: A Historical Perspective and Modern Assessment; Kr̄e LarssonIntermediate Phases; Michael C. Holmes and Marc S. LeaverCubic Phases and Human Skin: Theory and Practice; Steven Hoath and Lars NorlňThe Relationship between Bicontinuous Inverted Cubic Phases and Membrane Fusion; D.P. SiegelAspects of the Differential Geometry and Topology of Bicontinuous Liquid-Crystalline Phases; Robert W. CorkeryNovel L3 Phases and Their Macroscopic Properties; R. Beck and H. HoffmannBicontinuous Cubic Phases of Lipids with Entra

  2. Members of the State Council of Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Luncheon hosted by the Director-General for members of the State Council of Geneva: From left to right A. Naudi; J. May; M. Carlo Lamprecht, State Council - Employement, Foreign Office and Economic Departement; M. Robert Hensler, State Chancellor; L. Maiani, CERN Director General; H.F. Hoffmann; M. Robert Cramer, State Council - Environment, Agriculture and Interior Departement; J.Van Der Boon; M. Laurent Moutinot, State Council - Installation, equipment and housing Departement; C. Détraz; C. Wyss; P. Jenni; G. Hentsch; M. Pierre-François Unger, State Council - Health and Social Action Departement; G. Stassinakis; M. Bourquin, CERN Council President.

  3. Ferran de Pol, un escriptor-traductor del segle XX


    Garcia i Raffi, Josep-Vicent


     Ferran de Pol (Arenys de Mar 1911-1994) fue uno de los traductores-escritores que comenzó su obra en la Cataluña republicana. Los primeros textos traducidos al catalán fueron de E.T.A. Hoffmann. Autor de una destacable obra narrativa, estuvo en el exilio en Méjico de 1939 a 1948, donde trabajó de peirodista i tradujo novelas al español para la editorial Albatros. Desde su retorno a Cataluña tradujo diferentes novelas al castellano y al catalán, entre las que destacan El viejo y el mar de Ern...

  4. Santolina ageratifolia Bamades ex Asso (Compositae y el agregado S. rosmarinifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Udias, Silvia


    Full Text Available The status of Santolina ageratifolia Bamades ex Asso as a distinct species belonging to S. rosmarinifolia L. aggr. is vindicated. An historical approach, a revisión of the diagnostic characters and a detailed chorology of the species in Spain is presented. Likewise, some doubtful questions conceming taxonomy and chorology in Spain of the whole aggregate (including S. rosmarinifolia L. s. str., S. canescens Lag., S. pectinata Lag. and S. semidentata Hoffmanns. & Link are clarified. A new nomenclatural combination is proposed: S. semidentata subsp. melidensis (Rodríguez-Oubiña & Ortiz López Udias, Fabregat & Mateo.Se reivindica Santolina ageratifolia Bamades ex Asso como especie bien caracterizada dentro del agregado S. rosmarinifolia L. Se resume su historia taxonómica, se detallan los caracteres diagnósticos que la diferencian de las demás especies del grupo y se indica la corología detallada de la misma. Asimismo se aclaran algunos puntos confusos relativos a la taxonomía y corología en España de las restantes especies del agregado (S. rosmarinifolia L. s. str., S. canescens Lag., S. pectinata Lag. y S. semidentata Hoffmanns. & Link y se propone la siguiente combinación nueva: S. semidentata subsp. melidensis (Rodríguez-Oubiña & Ortiz López Udias, Fabregat & Mateo.

  5. Neural Excitability and Joint Laxity in Chronic Ankle Instability, Coper, and Control Groups. (United States)

    Bowker, Samantha; Terada, Masafumi; Thomas, Abbey C; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Hiller, Claire E; Gribble, Phillip A


    Neuromuscular and mechanical deficiencies are commonly studied in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Few investigators have attempted to comprehensively consider sensorimotor and mechanical differences among people with CAI, copers who did not present with prolonged dysfunctions after an initial ankle sprain, and a healthy control group. To determine if differences exist in spinal reflex excitability and ankle laxity among participants with CAI, copers, and healthy controls. Case-control study. Research laboratory. Thirty-seven participants with CAI, 30 participants categorized as copers, and 26 healthy control participants. We assessed spinal reflex excitability of the soleus using the Hoffmann reflex protocol. Participants' ankle laxity was measured with an instrumented ankle arthrometer. The maximum Hoffmann reflex : maximal muscle response ratio was calculated. Ankle laxity was measured as the total displacement in the anterior-posterior directions (mm) and total rotation in the inversion and eversion directions (°). Spinal reflex excitability was diminished in participants with CAI compared with copers and control participants (P = .01). No differences were observed among any of the groups for ankle laxity. Changes in the spinal reflex excitability of the soleus that likely affect ankle stability were seen only in the CAI group, yet no mechanical differences were noted across the groups. These findings support the importance of finding effective ways to increase spinal reflex excitability for the purpose of treating neural excitability dysfunction in patients with CAI.

  6. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury (United States)

    Zhang, S-x; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G


    Study design: This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. Setting: This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. Methods: A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long–Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Results: Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. Conclusion: TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury. PMID:27067652

  7. Comparison of FT4 with log TSH on the Abbott Architect ci8200: Pediatric reference intervals for free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone (United States)

    Soldin, Steven J; Cheng, Luke L; Lam, Lisa Y; Werner, Alice; Le, Alexander D; Soldin, Offie P


    Background We evaluated the clinical validity of serum FT4 measurements by assessing its correlation with log TSH. To provide pediatric reference intervals (representative ranges) for FT4, and TSH on the Architect ci8200 integrated system. Methods This population-based study encompassed 6023 children (3369 females and 2654 males). The percentile and Hoffmann approaches for obtaining reference intervals on these analytes were also compared. Results: FT4 correlation with log TSH was poor ( r=0.010 for males and 0.050 for females). Reference intervals were established. TSH and FT4 did not show a significant sex difference; moreover, the intervals decreased with age for FT4 and TSH. Conclusions Whereas in a previous study ultrafiltration tandem mass spectrometry yielded a correlation of r=0.90 for FT4 vs. log TSH this present study reveals a poor FT4 vs. log TSH correlation in the pediatric population studied and indicates the FT4 immunoassay conducted on the Abbott Architect ci8200 is less useful clinically than might have been expected. Reference intervals using the Hoffmann approach for pediatric in- and out-patients compare well with previously published results utilizing the percentile approach. PMID:19931524

  8. Taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic lslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedí i González, Carles


    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands is carried out. Two changes in nomenclature are proposed: Chamaemelum nobile ( L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. and C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. For each taxon the correct name as well as the corresponding synonyms are given. A dichotomic key of the recognized taxa and a list of the herharium sheets studied are provided.

    Se realiza una revisión taxonómica del género Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se proponen dos cambios nomenclaturles: Chamaemelum nobile (L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. y C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. Para cada taxon se da el nombre correcto, así como las correspondientes sinonimias. Se adjunta una clave dicotómica de los táxones reconocidos y una relación de los testimonios de herbario estudiados.

  9. Voltage-ampere characteristics of YBCO coated conductor under inhomogeneous oscillating magnetic field (United States)

    Geng, J.; Shen, B.; Li, C.; Zhang, H.; Matsuda, K.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. A.


    Direct current carrying type II superconductors present a dynamic resistance when subjected to an oscillating magnetic field perpendicular to the current direction. If a superconductor is under a homogeneous field with high magnitude, the dynamic resistance value is nearly independent of transport current. Hoffmann and coworkers [Hoffmann et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 1628 (2011)] discovered, however, flux pumping effect when a superconducting tape is under an inhomogeneous field orthogonal to the tape surface generated by rotating magnets. Following their work, we report the whole Voltage-Ampere (V-I) curves of an YBCO coated conductor under permanent magnets rotating with different frequencies and directions. We discovered that the two curves under opposite rotating directions differ from each other constantly when the transport current is less than the critical current, whereas the difference gradually reduces after the transport current exceeds the critical value. We also find that for different field frequencies, the difference between the two curves decreases faster with lower field frequency. The result indicates that the transport loss is dependent on the relative direction of the transport current and field travelling, which is distinct from traditional dynamic resistance model. The work may be instructive for the design of superconducting motors.

  10. The Relationship Between Preoperative Clinical Presentation and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Patients With Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy. (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Tetreault, Lindsay; Dalzell, Kristian; Zamorano, Juan J; Fehlings, Michael G


    Degenerative cervical myelopathy encompasses a group of conditions resulting in progressive spinal cord injury through static and dynamic compression. Although a constellation of changes can present on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the clinical significance of these findings remains a subject of controversy and discussion. To investigate the relationship between clinical presentation and quantitative MRI features in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy. A secondary analysis of MRI and clinical data from 114 patients enrolled in a prospective, multicenter study was conducted. MRIs were assessed for maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC), maximum canal compromise (MCC), signal changes, and a signal change ratio (SCR). MRI features were compared between patients with and those without myelopathy symptoms with the use of t tests. Correlations between MRI features and duration of symptoms were assessed with the Spearman ρ. Numb hands and Hoffmann sign were associated with greater MSCC ( P neurological deficits. Hoffmann sign occurred more commonly in patients with a greater MSCC, MCC and SCR. The Lhermitte phenomenon presented more commonly in patients with a lower SCR and may be an early indicator of mild spinal cord involvement. Research to validate these findings is required.

  11. Silent gains: Instituto Buena Bista and art as catalyst among Curaçaoan youth. (United States)

    González, Iberia Pérez


    Considering the limited opportunities and resources for creative education, artists David Bade and Tirzo Martha, along with art historian Nancy Hoffmann, developed a dynamic platform to support creative young talent on the Dutch Caribbean island of Curaçao. The aim of Instituto Buena Bista (IBB), founded in 2006, is to strengthen the arena of culture and the visual arts by offering young Curaçaoans a basic but thorough course in art education that is meant to function as a springboard to more advanced art schools. With only two years of operation, the IBB is already seeing how some of its students go to art academies abroad and participate in art contests in the Netherlands. An exploration of how the IBB is filling up a cultural void by proposing an alternative to local youth education that allows them to develop a buena bista-a new and different view of their island, their futures, and themselves.

  12. Mr Erkki Liikanen, European Commissioner for Enterprise and Information Society

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Photo 01: Visit of Mr Erkki Liikanen, at CMS experiment assembly hall at Point 5, L. to r.: : Mr Mario Campolargo, Head of Unit, Research Infrastructure, DG Information Society; Prof. Dan-Olof Riska, Director, Helsinki Institute of Physics; Prof. Ari-Pekka Hameri, HEC, University of Lausanne, Helsinki Institute of Physics; Mr Wolfgang Boch, Head of Unit, Grids for Complex Problems Solving, DG Information Society; Mr David O. Williams, Relations with the European Commission; Mr Erkki Liikanen, European Commissioner for Enterprise and Information Society; Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing; Prof. Jorma Tuominiemi, Director of the CMS Programme for the Helsinki Institute of Physics; H.E. Mr Carlo Trojan, Ambassador, Head of the permanent delegation of the European Commission to the international organizations in Geneva; Prof. Erkko Autio, Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Strategy & International Business. Photo 02: Prof. Dan-Olof Riska, Director,...

  13. Effect of Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Carlo G.; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    consisting of 3 to 20 amino acids, can be released from proteins upon degradation by proteolytic enzymes, e.g. in the intestinal tract. The numerous described bioactivities include antihypertensive, anticancerous, antimicrobial, and immunomodulating effects. Here, we investigate the effect of fish protein......Effect of Fish Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells Carlo G. Ossum1, Lisa Lystbæk Andersen2, Henrik Hauch Nielsen2, Else K. Hoffmann1, and Flemming Jessen2 1University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, Denmark, 2Technical University of Denmark (DTU), National Food Institute, Denmark...... Corresponding author: Carlo G. Ossum ( A large number of bioactive peptides have been identified in and isolated from various food sources. Milk seems to be a particularly rich source but also different fish species have been found to yield bioactive peptides. Bioactive peptides, usually...

  14. [From the willow to aspirin]. (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier


    At the beginning was the willow bark, which was considered as a medicine by Hippocrates, Dioscorides and Plinus. During the XVIIIth century, the Reverend Edward Stone re-discovered the willow for the cure of agues. In 1829, the french pharmacist Pierre Joseph Leroux isolated salicin. Raffaelle Piria was the first to synthesize salicylic acid from salicin (salicoside). Hermann Kolbe prepared salicylic acid from sodium phenate and carbon dioxide. And then acetylsalicylic acid was first prepared by Charles Gerhardt in 1853, but he did not succeed in identifying its structure. Felix Hoffmann, Arthur Eichengrun and Heinrich Dresen from Bayer Laboratories were at the origin of the use of Aspirin as a medicine. In 1971, John Vane showed that aspirin-like drugs inhibited prostaglandine synthesis.

  15. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  16. The Direction of the North Pole and the Control Network of Asteroid 243 Ida (United States)

    Davies, Merton E.; Colvin, Tim R.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Veverka, Joseph; Thomas, Peter C.


    A control network containing 64 points identified on Galileo images obtained during the August 1993 flyby was used to determine the direction of Ida's north pole. We find the right ascension and declination (in J2000 coordinates) to be α0= 348.76° ± 7.5°, δ0= 87.10° ± 0.4°. This result agrees reasonably well with earlier determinations from groundbased observations of Ida's lightcurve. We confirm that the rotation is retrograde, but we lack the time base to improve the rotation period of 0.1930680 days determined from lightcurve analysis (Binzel, R. P., S. M. Sivan, P. Magnusson, W. Z. Wisniewski, J. Drummond, K. Lumme, M. A. Barucci, E. Dotto, C. Angeli, D. Lazzaro, S. Mottola, M. Gonano-Beurer, T. Michalowski, G. De Angelis, D. J. Tholen, M. Di Martino, M. Hoffmann, E. H. Geyer, and F. Velichko 1993.Icarus105, 310-325).

  17. Endoscopic release of the cubital tunnel. (United States)

    Zajonc, Horst; Momeni, Arash


    It is safe to say that in situ decompression of the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel syndrome has been demonstrated to achieve equivalent functional results when compared with more elaborate techniques, such as decompression with nerve transposition. The evolution toward procedures associated with less patient morbidity is reflected by the introduction of endoscopic techniques for the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. The authors have incorporated the endoscopic approach as proposed by Hoffmann and Siemionow into their practice and have obtained favorable results. Although the skin incision can frequently be kept to a minimum (<2 cm), superior visualization associated with this approach allows for in situ decompression of the ulnar nerve along a distance of up to 30 cm. Despite the extent of decompression performed, operative morbidity is minimal, with return to full duty being the rule even in manual laborers within 10 to 14 days postoperatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Princess Brambilla - images/text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Barbosa


    Full Text Available Read the illustrated literary text is simultaneously think pictures and words. This articulation between the written text and pictures adds potential, expands and becomes complex. Coincides with nowadays discussions on Giorgio Agamben's "contemporary" that add to what adheres to respectively time the displacement and the distance needed to understand it, shakes linear notions of historical chronology. Somehow the coincidence is related to the current interest in the concept of "Nachleben" (survival, which assumes the images of the past ransom, postulated by the art historian Aby Warburg in a research on ancient art of motion characteristics in Renaissance pictures Botticelli's. For the translation of the Princesa Brambilla – um capriccio segundo Jakob Callot, de E. T. A. Hoffmann, com 8 gravuras cunhadas a partir de moldes originais de Callot (1820 to Portuguese such discussions were fundamental, as I try to present in this article.

  19. Die Stadt. Passagen zwischen Literatur und Architektur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Bongers


    Full Text Available O artigo pretende contribuir para uma arqueologia literária da cidade. Autores como Hoffmann, Poe e Baudelaire reagiram desde o começo da modernidade com novas perspectivas às ondas de modernização e construiram modelos de observação da metrópole européia, capazes de estabelecer novos discursos. Eles encontram sua continuação e transformação nas literaturas latinoamericana (Borges, cortázar, Marechal, Piglia e europeia (Aragon, Benjamin, Borchert, Brecht, Calvino, Döblin. Os textos apresentam, todavia, cidades imperceptíveis e invisíveis, que indicam as mudanças das arquiteturas urbanas.

  20. Estudo piloto sobre esquistossomose mansoni em área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Conceição


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho os autores apresentam dados relativos à prevalência e formas clinicas da esquistossomose mansoni, hospedeiro intermediário e determinação do seu índice de infecção em Santa Luzia do Carneiro, área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. O estudo seccional da população revelou 42,1% de positividade para ovos de S.mansoni em um exame de fezes peto método de Lutz (Hoffmann, Ponz, Janer e um percentual de 6,8% de pacientes com hepato-esplenomegalia. O hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a B.glabrata com um índice de infecção de 3,2%.

  1. [Compression syndrome of the superficial fibular nerve. Case report]. (United States)

    Piza-Katzer, H; Pilz, E


    The case of a female patient complaining of dysaesthesia and paraesthesia on the dorsum of her right foot and digits which failed to respond to conservative treatment is presented. 10 cm above the lateral malleolus, a muscle bulge of 2 cm was detected. Hoffmann-Tinel's sign was positive at this site. The diagnosis of nerve entrapment was confirmed by a conduction velocity block. Through an incision centered over the muscle bulge, the superficial fibular nerve was identified. It was found to be compressed by fascia. Fascial release and epineuriotomy resulted in complete recovery. Entrapment of the sensory superficial fibular nerve in the patient is thought to have been caused by prolonged work-related kneeling and squatting over many years.

  2. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from Lagoa do Tamburí farm, Aracatu – Bahia, with new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSpecies of Cerambycidae were inventoried in an area of Caatinga (dryland vegetation in the municipality of Aracatu, Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2012 and July/2013. The insects were collected using light traps, active searches, and white cloth trapping. A total of 716 specimens of Cerambycidae were collected; 665 of them were identified as belonging to 107 species, 84 genera, 30 tribes, and 3 subfamilies. The speciesPhaedinus carbonelli Monné, 1999,Lepturges (Lepturges fasciculatoides Gilmour, 1962,Hoplistonychus bondari Melzer, 1930,Ataxia arenaria Martins & Galileo, 2013 were new records for Bahia;Nesozineus obscurus Hoffmann, 1984 is new record for Brazil. The subfamily Cerambycinae demonstrated the greatest richness, with 56 species. These results contribute to our knowledge of the Cerambycidae fauna of Brazil.

  3. Symmetric Fractional Diffusion and Entropy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janett Prehl


    Full Text Available The discovery of the entropy production paradox (Hoffmann et al., 1998 raised basic questions about the nature of irreversibility in the regime between diffusion and waves. First studied in the form of spatial movements of moments of H functions, pseudo propagation is the pre-limit propagation-like movements of skewed probability density function (PDFs in the domain between the wave and diffusion equations that goes over to classical partial differential equation propagation of characteristics in the wave limit. Many of the strange properties that occur in this extraordinary regime were thought to be connected in some manner to this form of proto-movement. This paper eliminates pseudo propagation by employing a similar evolution equation that imposes spatial unimodal symmetry on evolving PDFs. Contrary to initial expectations, familiar peculiarities emerge despite the imposed symmetry, but they have a distinct character.

  4. Control Strategy in Movements with Transmission Delay. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Karri, Shilpa


    The strategy used by participants was studied when making movements in a Fitts movement paradigm with transmission delay between control input and display output. Fitts' law in the modified form developed by E. R. Hoffmann (1992) gave an excellent description of the data. Movement time could also be expressed as a function of the total delay time (number of submovements × transmission delay) and Fitts' index of difficulty (ID). Two types of submovement were identified, being step and drag forms. The number of step submovements was the most important in determining movement time. These were related to a move-and-wait strategy used by participants. Number of submovements increased with the level of ID and transmission delay and was linearly related to the ID and product of ID by transmission delay.

  5. Le fantastique roumain. une diachronie possible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Apostol


    Full Text Available Dans le présent aricle nous nous arrêtons sur le fantastique roumain au XIXe siècle, en tant que situation générique, et sur la possibilité d’une approche diachronique. Notre étude fait partie d’un projet plus ample des diachronies du fantastique dans deux espaces littéraires différents – en France et en Roumanie, à partir de la théorie de la réception : réception de deux étrangers, Hoffmann et Poe, en France, et réception des récits autochtones en Roumanie. Nous nous appuyons sur la démarche diachronique d’Ioan Vultur, qui identifie deux étapes dans l’apparition et l’évolution du fantastique roumain.

  6. Triterpene saponins from Pleurospermum kamtschaticum and their biological activity. (United States)

    Lee, Il Kyun; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro


    Eleven new triterpene saponins (1-11), together with fourteen known triterpene and triterpene saponins (12-25) were isolated from a MeOH extract of Pleurospermum kamtschaticum HOFFMANN (Umbelliferae). The chemical structures of the new compounds (1-11) were determined by means of MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, correlated spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), total correlated spectroscopy (TOCSY) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) to be pleurosaponin A (1)-K (11). The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, HCT15) in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay (SRB) assay. All compounds showed little cytotoxicity against tested cell lines (IC(50) >30 µM).

  7. Critical Index of Difficulty for Different Body Motions: A Review. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R


    K.-C. Gan and E. R. Hoffmann (1988) demonstrated that there is a clear boundary between values of Fitts' index of difficulty (ID) below which movements may be made without ongoing path corrections; above this value it was necessary to use corrections to hit a target of high ID. It is shown that this critical ID (IDcrit) value is dependent on both the body component making the movement and on the form of feedback available to the person. The arm system, having the highest ratio of muscle strength to mass moment of inertia, has the highest value of IDcrit, whereas control of the body center of mass location has the lowest value of IDcrit. It is suggested that the use of visual control to lower ID values with the larger body components is due to the longer movement times available because of the physical characteristics of these components-the time is available, and therefore it is used to make path corrections.

  8. Increased spinal reflex excitability is not associated with neural plasticity underlying the cross-education effect. (United States)

    Lagerquist, Olle; Zehr, E Paul; Docherty, David


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 5-wk unilateral, isometric strength-training program on plasticity in the spinal Hoffmann (H-) reflex in both the trained and untrained legs. Sixteen participants, 22-42 yr old, were assigned to either a control (n = 6) or an exercise group (n = 10). Both groups were tested for plantar flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and soleus H-reflex amplitude in both limbs, at the beginning and at the end of a 5-wk interval. Participants in the exercise group showed significantly increased MVIC in both legs after training (P cross-education effect of strength training may be due to supraspinal to a greater extent than spinal mechanisms.

  9. Nickel alloys and high-alloyed special stainless steels. Properties, manufacturing, applications. 4. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubner, Ulrich; Kloewer, Jutta; Alves, Helena; Behrens, Rainer; Schindler, Claudius; Wahl, Volker; Wolf, Martin


    This book contains the following eight topics: 1. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels - Material overview and metallurgical principles (U. Heubner); 2. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (U. Heubner); 3. Welding of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (T. Hoffmann, M. Wolf); 4. High-temperature materials for industrial plant construction (J. Kloewer); 5. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels as hot roll clad composites-a cost-effective alternative (C. Schindler); 6. Selected examples of the use of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels in chemical plants (H. Alves); 7. The use of nickel alloys and stainless steels in environmental engineering (V. Wahl); 8: Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels for the oil and gas industry (R. Behrens).

  10. Reflections on evaluative practice in higher education: an experience collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suênya Marley Mourão Batista


    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the evaluation practice of higher education teachers generated from research conducted as part of a private higher education institution. The objective of this study is to characterize the assessment practices of teachers who work in higher education and collaborate in order to facilitate the expansion of dynamic assessment practices were used as theoretical and methodological support the studies of Vygotsky (2007, Liberali (2008, Ibiapina (2007, 2008, Meier (2007, Campione (2002 and Hoffmann (2011. Field research was conducted in a qualitative approach to collaborative type with 3 (three in higher education using the reflective interview as data collection tool to promote critical thinking about assessment practices to develop. The results showed the prevalence of use of traditional assessment practices by teachers and the possibility of performing dynamic assessment practices from the understanding of these nurtured by the research and training process.

  11. Competitive Pseudopericyclic [3,3]- and [3,5]-Sigmatropic Rearrangements of Trichloroacetimidates. (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Rajale, Trideep; Unruh, Daniel K; Birney, David M


    The Woodward-Hoffmann rules predict whether concerted pericyclic reactions are allowed or forbidden based on the number of electrons involved and whether the cyclic orbital overlap involves suprafacial or antarafacial orbital overlap. Pseudopericyclic reactions constitute a third class of reactions in which orthogonal orbitals make them orbital symmetry allowed, regardless of the number of electrons involved in the reaction. Based on the recent report of eight-centered ester rearrangements, it is predicted that the isoelectronic eight-centered rearrangements of imidates would also be allowed. We now report that these rearrangements occur, and indeed, an eight-centered rearrangement is slightly favored in at least one case over the well-known six-centered Overman rearrangements, in a trichloroacetimidoylcyclohexadienone, a molecular system where both rearrangements are possible.

  12. Biological invasions and natural colonisations are different – the need for invasion science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. U. Wilson


    Full Text Available In a recent Discussion Paper, Hoffmann and Courchamp (2016 posed the question: are biological invasions and natural colonisations that different? This apparently simple question resonates at the core of the biological study of human-induced global change, and we strongly believe that the answer is yes: biological invasions and natural colonisations differ in processes and mechanisms in ways that are crucial for science, management, and policy. Invasion biology has, over time, developed into the broader transdisciplinary field of invasion science. At the heart of invasion science is the realisation that biological invasions are not just a biological phenomenon: the human dimension of invasions is a fundamental component in the social-ecological systems in which invasions need to be understood and managed.

  13. Dr. Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    L. to. r.:Dr Henrik Foeth, Team Leader, CMS experiment; Dr Daniel Denegri, Physics Coordinator, CMS experiment; Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Deputy Spokesman, CMS experiment; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General (signing); Mr Jean-Marie Dufour, Head of the Legal Service, Mr Ghodratollah Habibpour Gharakol (back); Dr Abdolali Sharghi, Advisor to the Minister and Director General, Office of International Scientific Cooperation, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; Dr Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran (signing); Dr Reza Mansouri, Director, International Scientific Meetings Office, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; H. E. Dr Ali Khorram, Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer & for Scientific Computing. _

  14. CERN signs draft Memorandum of Understanding with Iran

    CERN Multimedia


    Left to right: Dr Henrik Foeth, Team Leader CMS; Dr Daniel Denegri, Physics Coordinator CMS; Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Deputy Spokesman CMS; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General - signing; Mr Jean-Marie Dufour, Head of the CERN Legal Service, Mr Ghodratollah Habibpour Gharakol, back; Dr Abdolali Sharghi, Advisor to the Minister and Director General, Office of International Scientific Cooperation, Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; Dr Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran - signing; Dr Reza Mansouri, Director, International Scientific Meetings Office, Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; H. E. Dr Ali Khorram, Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations in Geneva, Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer & for Scientific Computing. Iranian Minister for Science, Research and Technology, Dr Mostafa Moin, and CERN Director-General Luciano Maiani, s...

  15. Germany at CERN, from 13 to 15 November 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Photo 01: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF, during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 02: Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committe, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 04: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF; Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committee; Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva (background); Dr Horst Wenninger, CERN and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, visiting the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN.



    Morales Valverde, Ramón


    [ES]Se estudian 12 poblaciones de 8 táxones ibéricos del género Thymus L. Los métodos seguidos en lo referente a mitosis son los descritos en MORALES (1979). Se ha estudiado la meyosis de T. capitellatus Hoffmanns. & Link, previa fijación de botones florales en una mezcla de alcohol etílicoácido acético-cloroformo (6:3:1), mordentado con alumbre férrico durante 24 horas y coloración en orceina acética. Los pliegos testigo se encuentran en el herbario del Real Jardín Botánico...

  17. Energy markets - investment, competition, and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, W.; Winkelmann, R.; Zimmermann, K.F. (eds.)


    Within the scope of the 70th Annual Meeting of the Association of German Economic Research Institutes with the topic ''Energy markets - investment, competition, and regulation'' in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) on 19th April, 2007, the following lectures were held: (a) Alternative strategies for promoting renewable energy in EU electricity markets (Christoph Boehringer, Tim Hoffmann, Thomas F. Rutherford); (b) Biofuels and climate policy (Gernot Klepper); (c) Investments of the German electricity-supply industry (Hans-Dieter Karl); (d) Asymmetric strategic investment behaviour in network industries: the case of natural gas distribution in Norway (Till Requate); (e) How dominant is Russia on the European natural gas market? Results from modelling exercises (Franziska Holz).

  18. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Photo 01: Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing. Looking on are Christoph Eck (far left), resource manager of the LCG Project and Les Robertson, LCG Project Leader. Photo 02: (left to right) Christoph Eck, resource manager of the LCG Project; G. Govindrajan, Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation G...

  19. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing.

  20. Levantamento qualitativo de gêneros de parasitos em amostras fecais de jacarés criados comercialmente em sistema fechado no estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M.B. Batista


    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar um diagnóstico qualitativo dos gêneros de parasitos encontrados em amostras fecais ambientais de jacarés (Caiman latirostris Daudin, 1802, criados comercialmente em sistema fechado, no período de 2008 a 2009, no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Um total de 300 amostras foi coletado de 150 filhotes, 80 de animais de engorda e 70 de reprodução, e submetido a análises coproparasitológicas, de flutuação (método de Willis-Mollay e sedimentação simples (método de Lutz, de acordo com Hoffmann (1987. As amostras foram visualizadas à luz da microscopia óptica. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a presença de oocistos de Eimeria e Isospora, cistos de Balantidium e ovos de Acanthostomum e Dujardinascaris.

  1. CERN in the park

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN will be the centre of debate at a 'Café scientifique' on Monday 29 April. The aim of the Cafés scientifiques, which are organised by the association of Bancs Publics, is to kindle discussion between ordinary people and specialists in a scientific field. This Monday, Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council, Hans Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing at CERN, Gilbert Guignard, a physicist at CERN, and Ruhal Floris, who teaches mathematical didactics at the University of Geneva, will explain the usefulness and contributions to science of the world's biggest laboratory for particle physics. What is CERN for? Monday 29 April at 18.30 Musée d'histoire des sciences, Geneva (in the park Perle du Lac) Entry free Wine and buffet after the discussion

  2. Influence of an aerobic sediment-water interface in relation to reduced risk of phosphorus leaching from re-established wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    water interactions are of fundamental importance for the biogeochemical processes controlling phosphorus dynamics in wetlands, and different hydrological pathways such as groundwater discharge and surface water flooding are operating within wetlands (Hoffmann et al., 2009). During groundwater discharge...... water passes through the wetland sediment and carry soluble iron and phosphorus by convection to the sediment-water interface. During surface water flooding phosphorus fluxes from the sediment will be dominated by diffuse fluxes. The eventual loss of phosphorus mobilized within the anaerobic sediment...... depends both on the hydrological regimes and the processes taking place at the sediment-water interface. Re-oxidation of iron might allow a recapturing of phosphorus (Zak et al., 2004), and thereby impede P losses to the aquatic environment....

  3. Instantaneous charge state of Uranium projectiles in fully ionized plasmas from energy loss experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Roberto; Casas, David


    The instantaneous charge state of uranium ions traveling through a fully ionized hydrogen plasma has been theoretically studied and compared with one of the first energy loss experiments in plasmas, carried out at GSI-Darmstadt by Hoffmann \\textit{et al.} in the 90's. For this purpose, two different methods to estimate the instantaneous charge state of the projectile have been employed: (1) rate equations using ionization and recombination cross sections, and (2) equilibrium charge state formulas for plasmas. Also, the equilibrium charge state has been obtained using these ionization and recombination cross sections, and compared with the former equilibrium formulas. The equilibrium charge state of projectiles in plasmas is not always reached, it depends mainly on the projectile velocity and the plasma density. Therefore, a non-equilibrium or an instantaneous description of the projectile charge is necessary. The charge state of projectile ions cannot be measured, except after exiting the target, and experime...

  4. Characterization of grog of bricks; Caracterizacao de chamote de blocos de vedacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, V.S.; Pinheiro, R.M.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados


    This work aims to characterize a waste of red ceramic, grog, generated from the milling of defective pieces of bricks fired in a Hoffmann type furnace by a industry from Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ. The grog was tested for X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, dilatometry, sieving and sedimentation by gravity and optical microscopy. The results indicated that the grog is predominantly constituted of quartz, muscovite mica and hematite. The presence of kaolinite indicates that the bricks were fired at low temperatures, below 600 deg C. Finally, the characterization results indicated that the grog presents itself as an alternative non plastic material to be used in mixtures with clays for the production of red ceramics. (author)

  5. B2C graphene, nanotubes, and nanoribbons. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Pei, Yong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    We report a first-principles prediction of a new two-dimensional inorganic material, namely, the B(2)C graphene in which the boron and carbon atoms are packed into a mosaic of hexagons and rhombuses. In the B(2)C graphene, each carbon atom is bonded with four boron atoms, forming a planar-tetracoordinate carbon (ptC) moiety, a notion first conceived by Hoffmann et al. The B(2)C graphene is possibly a metal with a small overlap in the energy of conduction and valence bands. Like the carbon graphene and nanotubes, a B(2)C graphene sheet can be rolled into various forms of B(2)C nanotubes as well. Depending on the roll-up vector, the B(2)C nanotubes may become either a metal or a semiconductor. All B(2)C graphene nanoribbons are predicted to be uniformly metallic, regardless of their width and edge structure.

  6. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference. (United States)

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M; Koelsch, Stefan


    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman") subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  7. Prevalência de enteroparisitos na populaçao urbana de São Tomé - RN - estudo comparativo de um decênio

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    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos


    Full Text Available Objetivando a obtenção de variáveis relacionadas aos fatores sócio-econômicos e sanitários no período de dez (10 anos, os autores colheram resultados sobre a prevalência de enteroparasitas na população urbana de São Tomé, Rio Grande do Norte, cujos dados foram coletados entre 09 a 27 de julho de 1979, empregando o método da sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann, Pons e Janer, através de exames realizados em 826 amostras de fezes, com uma positividade de565 para as diversas parasitoses intestinais e correspondendo a uma prevalência de 68,4% em função das condições ambientais que, embora melhoradas, concorrem no processo de disseminação de helmintoses e protozooses, além de outras patologias.In view of socio-economic and sanitary changes during ten (10 years, the authors gathered data on the prevaíence of enteroparasites in the urban population of São Tomé, Rio Grande do Norte. They collected from July 9 to July 27, 1979, 826 faecal samples which they examined using the spontaneous sedimentation method (Hoffmann, Pons, and Janer. 565 were positive for the various intestinal parasites, corresponding to a prevaíence of 68,4%. Although environmetal conditions have improved, they still contributed to the dissemination intestinal protozoal and helminthic infections.

  8. Pediatric electrocardiograph abnormalities following Centruroides limpidus tecomanus scorpion envenomation. (United States)

    Diaz, P; Chowell, G; Ceja, G; D'Auria, T C; Lloyd, R C; Castillo-Chavez, C


    Scorpionism is an endemic public health problem in Mexico [Hoffmann, C.C., 1936. La distribucion geografica de los alacranes peligrosos en la Republica Mexicana. Bol. Inst. Hygiene Mex. 2, 321; Hoffmann, C.C., Nieto, D.R., 1939. Segunda contribucion al conocimiento de los alacranes mexicanos. Anal. Inst. Biol. 10, 83-92; Mazzoti, L., Bravo-Becherelle, M.A., 1963. Scorpionism in the Mexican Republic. In: Keegan, H.L., McFarlane, W.V. (Eds.), Venomous and Poissonous Animals and Noxious Plants of the Pacific Area. Pergamon Press, London, pp. 119-131; Monroy-Velasco, J., 1961. Alacranes venenosos de Mexico. Rev. Mex. Cien. Med. Biol., Mex. 1, 1-23; Diaz-Najera, A., 1975. Listas y datos de distribucion geografica de los alacranes de Mexico. Rev. Inv. Salud. Publica. (Mex.) 35, 1; Velasco-Castrejon, O., Lara-Aguilera, R., Alatorre, H., 1976. Aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos de la picadura de alacran en una area hiperendemica. Rev. Inv. Salud Publica. (Mex.) 36, 93-103; Dehesa-Davila, M., Possani, L.D., 1994. Scorpionism and serotherapy in Mexico. Toxicon 32 (9), 1015-1018]. In this prospective study, we assess cardiovascular disorders in children via electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings following envenomation by scorpion species Centruroides limpidus tecomanus found in the state of Colima, Mexico. We analyzed 113 cases between the ages of 5 and 14 years. Among the most frequent symptoms presented included local pain (99.1%) and paresthesia (75.2%), pruritus (36.3%), sialorrhoea (35.4%), and nystagmus (24.8%). Cardiovascular disorders were observed in 39.8% of cases, 71% of which were rhythm abnormalities. We find a significant association between the frequency of ECG alterations and age, whereby 8-9-year-old children are more likely to experience ECG alterations when compared with other tested age groups.

  9. Surface displacement due to groundwater exploitation using spatial and terrestrial techniques. (United States)

    Abajo Muñoz, T.; Fernandez, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Luzon, F.


    Subsidence is a natural hazard that affects wide areas in the world causing important economic costs annually. It is estimated that there are over 150 cities in the world with serious problems of subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal like the Po Valley (Italy), Mexico DC, San Joaquin Valley (USA) and Bangkok (Thailand). Globally, groundwater depletion rates have risen in recent decades and significant lowering of groundwater tables has been reported. Aquifer overdraft has been a concern for the management of water resources, due to the potential irreversible loss of aquifer storage caused by aquifer system compaction and associated land subsidence. From a mechanical point of view, groundwater extraction from a confined aquifer reduces groundwater pore pressure. Because the overburden remains unchanged, the effective stress on the grain matrix of the aquifer increases, and the volume of the confined aquifer decreases, resulting in compaction and triggering surface subsidence. The control of land subsidence could serve as a proxy for the management of pore pressure change and groundwater flows in underlying aquifers (Galloway & Hoffmann, 2007). Our main interest is to study the ground surface displacement and Coulomb stress transfer produced by an extended source located in a homogeneus, elastic and isotropic half-space, based on Geerstma's model (1973). This study implies the improvement, development and implementation of the tools necessary for modelling and interpretation of the observations, as well as to evaluate possible interactions with other phenomena, such as the potential to influence on nearby faults. REFERENCES Galloway, D.L., Hoffmann, J., 2007. The application of satellite differential SAR interferometry-derived ground displacements in hydrogeology. Hydrogeology J., 15, 133-154. Geertsma J., 1973. A basic theory of subsidence due to reservoir compaction: the homogeneus case. Verhandelingen Kon. Ned. Geol. Mijnbouwk. Gen., 28, 43-62.

  10. Global transcriptome analysis of the scorpion Centruroides noxius: new toxin families and evolutionary insights from an ancestral scorpion species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rendón-Anaya

    Full Text Available Scorpion venoms have been studied for decades, leading to the identification of hundreds of different toxins with medical and pharmacological implications. However, little emphasis has been given to the description of these arthropods from cellular and evolutionary perspectives. In this report, we describe a transcriptomic analysis of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann, performed with a pyrosequencing platform. Three independent sequencing experiments were carried out, each including three different cDNA libraries constructed from RNA extracted from the whole body of the scorpion after telson removal, and from the venom gland before and after venom extraction. Over three million reads were obtained and assembled in almost 19000 isogroups. Within the telson-specific sequences, 72 isogroups (0.4% of total unique transcripts were found to be similar to toxins previously reported in other scorpion species, spiders and sea anemones. The annotation pipeline also revealed the presence of important elements of the small non-coding RNA processing machinery, as well as microRNA candidates. A phylogenomic analysis of concatenated essential genes evidenced differential evolution rates in this species, particularly in ribosomal proteins and proteasome components. Additionally, statistical comparison of transcript abundance before and after venom extraction showed that 3% and 2% of the assembled isogroups had higher expression levels in the active and replenishing gland, respectively. Thus, our sequencing and annotation strategies provide a general view of the cellular and molecular processes that take place in these arthropods, allowed the discovery of new pharmacological and biotechnological targets and uncovered several regulatory and metabolic responses behind the assembly of the scorpion venom. The results obtained in this report represent the first high-throughput study that thoroughly describes the universe of genes that are expressed in

  11. Responses of diatom communities to hydrological processes during rainfall events (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola


    The importance of diatoms as a tracer of hydrological processes has been recently recognized (Pfister et al. 2009, Pfister et al. 2011, Tauro et al. 2013). However, diatom variations in a short-term scale (e.g., sub-daily) during rainfall events have not been well documented yet. In this study, rainfall event-based diatom samples were taken at the outlet of the Kielstau catchment (50 km2), a lowland catchment in northern Germany. A total of nine rainfall events were caught from May 2013 to April 2014. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed that diatom communities of different events were well separated along NMDS axis I and II, indicating a remarkable temporal variation. By correlating water level (a proxy of discharge) and different diatom indices, close relationships were found. For example, species richness, biovolume (μm3), Shannon diversity and moisture index01 (%, classified according to van Dam et al. 1994) were positively related with water level at the beginning phase of the rainfall (i.e. increasing limb of discharge peak). However, in contrast, during the recession limb of the discharge peak, diatom indices showed distinct responses to water level declines in different rainfall events. These preliminary results indicate that diatom indices are highly related to hydrological processes. The next steps will include finding out the possible mechanisms of the above phenomena, and exploring the contributions of abiotic variables (e.g., hydrologic indices, nutrients) to diatom community patterns. Based on this and ongoing studies (Wu et al. unpublished data), we will incorporate diatom data into End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) and select the tracer set that is best suited for separation of different runoff components in our study catchment. Keywords: Diatoms, Rainfall event, Non-metric multidimensional scaling, Hydrological process, Indices References: Pfister L, McDonnell JJ, Wrede S, Hlúbiková D, Matgen P, Fenicia F, Ector L, Hoffmann L

  12. Il perturbante è l’identità divisa Un’interpretazione di Der Sandmann

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    Giovanni Bottiroli


    Full Text Available Il saggio di Freud sul perturbante ha offerto molti stimoli agli studi letterari e a quelli sul cinema: è stato commentato e discusso molte volte. Nella maggior parte dei casi, tuttavia, sembra essere stato letto frettolosamente: ci si è soffermati sulla tesi più evidente, che stabilisce un nesso tra perturbante e angoscia di castrazione, e sono state trascurate le affermazioni relative al problema dell’identità. Eppure, proprio in relazione a Der Sandmann Freud offre riflessioni di straordinaria importanza. Questo articolo si propone anzitutto di restituire al saggio di Freud la sua complessità: vengono messi in luce, ad esempio, i fraintendimenti e le forzature della critica femminista (Sarah Kof- man. E, soprattutto, propone una nuova interpretazione del racconto di Hoffmann, a partire dal concetto di ‘identità divisa’. L’identità si dice in due modi fondamentali, la coincidenza e la non-coincidenza con se stessi. Ogni soggetto sperimenta il conflitto tra questi due modi. Nel racconto di Hoffmann, il prota- gonista (Nathaniel viene trascinato al di là di se stesso, verso la fatale coincidenza con das Ding. È questa la fonte essenziale della sua angoscia. Der Sandmann è la storia di un’attrazione inesora- bile, rallentata da entità che svolgono una funzione-schermo: nel rapporto con la bambola Olimpia emergono tutti i paradossi che determinano la fragile identità di Nathaniel. Poiché il perturbante appartiene al campo dell’angoscia, non sarebbe stato possibile ignorare il Seminario X di Lacan, così come le riflessioni di Heidegger. Quest’articolo propone una revisione della concezione di Lacan: l’angoscia più devastante non deriva tanto da un eccesso di presenza (ciò che Lacan chiama «la mancanza della mancanza» quanto dallo svanire della non- coincidenza. Perturbante è la sensazione di un collasso logico-ontologico, a causa del quale il soggetto viene come incellofanato in se stesso

  13. Thoracic 9 Spinal Transection-Induced Model of Muscle Spasticity in the Rat: A Systematic Electrophysiological and Histopathological Characterization.

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    Jose A Corleto

    Full Text Available The development of spinal hyper-reflexia as part of the spasticity syndrome represents one of the major complications associated with chronic spinal traumatic injury (SCI. The primary mechanism leading to progressive appearance of muscle spasticity is multimodal and may include loss of descending inhibitory tone, alteration of segmental interneuron-mediated inhibition and/or increased reflex activity to sensory input. Here, we characterized a chronic thoracic (Th 9 complete transection model of muscle spasticity in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Isoflurane-anesthetized rats received a Th9 laminectomy and the spinal cord was transected using a scalpel blade. After the transection the presence of muscle spasticity quantified as stretch and cutaneous hyper-reflexia was identified and quantified as time-dependent changes in: i ankle-rotation-evoked peripheral muscle resistance (PMR and corresponding electromyography (EMG activity, ii Hoffmann reflex, and iii EMG responses in gastrocnemius muscle after paw tactile stimulation for up to 8 months after injury. To validate the clinical relevance of this model, the treatment potency after systemic treatment with the clinically established anti-spastic agents baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist, tizanidine (α2-adrenergic agonist and NGX424 (AMPA receptor antagonist was also tested. During the first 3 months post spinal transection, a progressive increase in ankle rotation-evoked muscle resistance, Hoffmann reflex amplitude and increased EMG responses to peripherally applied tactile stimuli were consistently measured. These changes, indicative of the spasticity syndrome, then remained relatively stable for up to 8 months post injury. Systemic treatment with baclofen, tizanidine and NGX424 led to a significant but transient suppression of spinal hyper-reflexia. These data demonstrate that a chronic Th9 spinal transection model in adult SD rat represents a reliable experimental platform to be used in studying the

  14. Isotretinoin use and subsequent depression and suicide: presenting the evidence. (United States)

    Hull, Peter R; D'Arcy, Carl


    The growing number of reported cases of depression and suicide associated with isotretinoin (a retinoid receptor agonist) use in patients with acne has prompted concern among dermatologists, patients, and their relatives and has triggered new warnings from regulators including depression-related, patient-informed consent forms. In establishing a cause-effect relationship, it is useful to judiciously consider whether there is an association, what is the nature of that association, if there is a plausible biological mechanism of action, the validity and reliability of measures used and the strength of study designs. Hoffmann-La Roche estimates that by April 2001 approximately 12 million patients worldwide have used isotretinoin, with 5 million patients in the US.A MEDLINE search between January 1966 and May 14 2003 of the published medical literature found 24 documented cases of isotretinoin-associated depression, with 3 suicides. One additional patient committed suicide during the fourth month of isotretinoin treatment and 3 further patients attempted suicide by taking an overdose of isotretinoin. The US FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) contains almost 23,000 reports for isotretinoin from its approval in 1982 to December 2002. As of November 30, 2002, AERS contained 3,104 reports (US and foreign) with at least one reported psychiatric event. The FDA is aware of 173 reports of suicide (both US and foreign) in association with isotretinoin. Reports of positive dechallenge and rechallenge present a strong signal pointing to an association between isotretinoin and depression. A Hoffmann-La Roche sponsored epidemiological study failed to find any evidence of an association between isotretinoin and depression or suicide. However, the design of the study was flawed and the evidence was deemed inconclusive. Further studies using strong study designs, reliable and valid measures, and adequate sample sizes may bring us closer to the answer. The evidence suggesting

  15. Role of voltage-gated sodium, potassium and calcium channels in the development of cocaine-associated cardiac arrhythmias (United States)

    O'Leary, Michael E; Hancox, Jules C


    Cocaine is a highly active stimulant that alters dopamine metabolism in the central nervous system resulting in a feeling of euphoria that with time can lead to addictive behaviours. Cocaine has numerous deleterious effects in humans including seizures, vasoconstriction, ischaemia, increased heart rate and blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. The cardiotoxic effects of cocaine are indirectly mediated by an increase in sympathomimetic stimulation to the heart and coronary vasculature and by a direct effect on the ion channels responsible for maintaining the electrical excitability of the heart. The direct and indirect effects of cocaine work in tandem to disrupt the co-ordinated electrical activity of the heart and have been associated with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. This review focuses on the direct effects of cocaine on cardiac ion channels, with particular focus on sodium, potassium and calcium channels, and on the contributions of these channels to cocaine-induced arrhythmias. Companion articles in this edition of the journal examine the epidemiology of cocaine use (Wood & Dargan [1]) and the treatment of cocaine-associated arrhythmias (Hoffmann [2]). PMID:20573078

  16. Grid Technologies: scientific and industrial prospects

    CERN Multimedia


    On Friday 27th, 17:00-21:00, CERN will for the first time be host to the popular 'First Tuesday Geneva' events for entrepreneurs, investors and all those interested in how new technologies will impact industry. Organised by the non-profit group Rezonance, these evening events typically attract over 300 persons, and combine a series of short presentations on a hot topic with an informal networking session. The topic for this 'First Tuesday@CERN' is Grid Technologies. Over the last year, the concept of a Grid of geographically distributed computers providing huge computing resources 'on tap' to companies and institutions has led to a great deal of interest and activity from major computer hardware and software companies. The session is hosted by the CERN openlab for DataGrid applications, a recently established industrial partnership on Grid technologies, and will profile both CERN's activities in this emerging field and those of some key industrial players. Speakers include: Hans Hoffmann: CERN, The LHC a...

  17. A Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Dispersion in N-band Spectra: Implications for Mid-IR Systems on ELTs (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Close, Laird M.; Kendrew, Sarah; Mathar, Richard J.; Stuik, Remko; Greene, Thomas P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael S.

    This paper is modified from [A.J. Skemer, P.M. Hinz, W.F. Hoffmann, L.M. Close, S. Kendrew, R.J. Mathar, R. Stuik, T.P. Greene, C.E. Woodward, M.S. Kelley, PASP 121, 897 (2009)]. Adaptive optics will almost completely remove the effects of atmospheric turbulence at 10µm on the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) generation of telescopes. In this paper, we observationally confirm that the next most important limitation to image quality is atmospheric dispersion, rather than telescope diffraction. By using the 6.5 meter MMT with its unique mid-IR adaptive optics system, we measure atmospheric dispersion in the N-band with the newly commissioned spectroscopic mode on MIRAC4BLINC. Our results indicate that atmospheric dispersion is generally linear in the N-band, although there is some residual curvature. We compare our measurements to theory, and make predictions for ELT Strehls and image FHWM with and without an atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC). We find that for many mid-IR applications, an ADC will be necessary on ELTs. The observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona

  18. Plasma acceleration in the Martian magnetotail observed by MAVEN (United States)

    Esteban-Hernandez, R.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.; Dubinin, E.; Chaufray, J. Y.; Curry, S.; Steckiewicz, M.; Brain, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Connerney, J. E. P.; McFadden, J. P.; Livi, R.; Jakosky, B. M.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Romanelli, N. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Bowers, C. F.; Mitchell, D. L.


    Since November 2014, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft has been collecting data from Mars's upper atmosphere and induced magnetosphere. Evidences of escaping planetary ions have been reported from earlier missions as Mars-Express and more recently from MAVEN. Our goal is to infer the significance of the acceleration mechanism responsible for the energization of heavy planetary ions in the Martian plasma sheet. According to Dubinin et al. (2011), the j x B force due to magnetic shear stresses of the draped field lines is expected to play a major role in such energization process. MAVEN has a full plasma package with a magnetometer and plasma particles instruments, which allow to address the question of plasma particle acceleration. We present observations of plasma sheet crossing events taking place in the Martian magnetotail between March 2015 and April 2016, using data from the magnetometer (MAG) and the ion mass spectrometer (STATIC). We present the results of the Walén test applied to these events in the commonly used DeHoffmann-Teller reference frame. Thanks to the results obtained from the Walén test, we can infer the importance of the j x B force.

  19. The LHC Computing Grid Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Åkesson, T

    In the last ATLAS eNews I reported on the preparations for the LHC Computing Grid Project (LCGP). Significant LCGP resources were mobilized during the summer, and there have been numerous iterations on the formal paper to put forward to the CERN Council to establish the LCGP. ATLAS, and also the other LHC-experiments, has been very active in this process to maximally influence the outcome. Our main priorities were to ensure that the global aspects are properly taken into account, that the CERN non-member states are also included in the structure, that the experiments are properly involved in the LCGP execution and that the LCGP takes operative responsibility during the data challenges. A Project Launch Board (PLB) was active from the end of July until the 10th of September. It was chaired by Hans Hoffmann and had the IT division leader as secretary. Each experiment had a representative (me for ATLAS), and the large CERN member states were each represented while the smaller were represented as clusters ac...

  20. Simulation of warpage induced by non-isothermal crystallization of co-polypropylene during the SLS process (United States)

    Amado, Antonio; Schmid, Manfred; Wegener, Konrad


    Polymer processing using Additive Manufacturing Technologies (AM) has experienced a remarkable growth during the last years. The application range has been expanding rapidly, particularly driven by the so-called consumer 3D printing sector. However, for applications demanding higher requirements in terms of thermo-mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy the long established AM technologies such as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) do not depict a comparable development. The higher process complexity hinders the number of materials that can be currently processed and the interactions between the different physics involved have not been fully investigated. In case of thermoplastic materials the crystallization kinetics coupled to the shrinkage strain development strongly influences the stability of the process. Thus, the current investigation presents a transient Finite Element simulation of the warpage effect during the SLS process of a new developed polyolefin (co-polypropylene) coupling the thermal, mechanical and phase change equations that control the process. A thermal characterization of the material was performed by means of DSC, integrating the Nakamura model with the classical Hoffmann-Lauritzen theory. The viscoelastic behavior was measured using a plate-plate rheometer at different degrees of undercooling and a phase change-temperature superposition principle was implemented. Additionally, for validation porpoises the warpage development of the first sintered layers was captured employing an optical device. The simulation results depict a good agreement with experimental measurements of deformation, describing the high sensitivity of the geometrical accuracy of the sintered parts related to the processing conditions.

  1. Attitude towards English and ESP acquisition as an L2 or L3 at university

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    Joseba Mikel González Ardeo


    Full Text Available Although several researchers have already investigated whether knowing more than one language will help students acquire additional languages (Edwards, 1995; Klein, 1995; Cenoz & Genesse, 1998b, one of the still unexplored areas when considering the difference between bilingualism and trilingualism is that of linguistic behaviour referred to adults (Hoffmann, 1999. The present study reflects on the socio-cultural and sociopolitical situation in the Basque Country and its relationship with performance in English as L2 or L3. Thus, a research was carried out by testing matched groups of Monolingual (Ml (Spanish versus Bilingual (Bl (Basque/Spanish university students, acquiring English for Specific Purposes (ESP within the following fields: Engineering "mechanical branch", Business Administration, and Nursing. Participants were tested on acquisition of specific technical vocabulary from their fields of study, and they were invited to complete a questionnaire on attitudes towards English. The Bls as a whole outperformed slightly the Mls, suggesting that Bls' immediate/academic aims are somewhat more easily achieved but the differences were not statistically significant. As far as their attitudes towards English are concerned, the differences between Mls and Bls were not significant either, both groups showing overall positive attitudes towards English.

  2. [A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin]. (United States)

    Pasero, G; Marson, P


    The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba) were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name "Aspirin". In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Analysis of heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics studied by two different pseudo-random binary sequence work rate amplitudes. (United States)

    Drescher, U; Koschate, J; Schiffer, T; Schneider, S; Hoffmann, U


    The aim of the study was to compare the kinetics responses of heart rate (HR), pulmonary (V˙O2pulm) and predicted muscular (V˙O2musc) oxygen uptake between two different pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) amplitudes both below anaerobic threshold. Eight healthy individuals performed two PRBS WR protocols implying changes between 30W and 80W and between 30W and 110W. HR and V˙O2pulm were measured beat-to-beat and breath-by-breath, respectively. V˙O2musc was estimated applying the approach of Hoffmann et al. (Eur J Appl Physiol 113: 1745-1754, 2013) considering a circulatory model for venous return and cross-correlation functions (CCF) for the kinetics analysis. HR and V˙O2musc kinetics seem to be independent of WR intensity (p>0.05). V˙O2pulm kinetics show prominent differences in the lag of the CCF maximum (39±9s; 31±4s; pkinetics remain unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estudo piloto sobre esquistossomose mansoni em área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais

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    Maria José Conceição


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho os autores apresentam dados relativos à prevalência e formas clinicas da esquistossomose mansoni, hospedeiro intermediário e determinação do seu índice de infecção em Santa Luzia do Carneiro, área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. O estudo seccional da população revelou 42,1% de positividade para ovos de S.mansoni em um exame de fezes peto método de Lutz (Hoffmann, Ponz, Janer e um percentual de 6,8% de pacientes com hepato-esplenomegalia. O hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a B.glabrata com um índice de infecção de 3,2%.Data on prevalence and morbidity of Schistosomiasis mansoni, local intermediate host and its rate of infection, in the county of Santa Luzia do Carneiro, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are presented. A cross-seccionai study demonstrated a figure of 42.1 per cent of positivity for S.mansoni eggs in one faeces parasitoiogic examination by Lutz method (Hoffman, Pons, Janer metod. Liver and spleen eniagement were observed in 6.8 per cent of the patients. The intermediate host B.glabrata showed an infection rate of 3.2per cent.

  5. Primitive reflexes distinguish vascular parkinsonism from Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Okuda, Bungo; Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Hisao; Kamogawa, Kenji; Okamoto, Kensho


    Although vascular parkinsonism (VP) occurs frequently in the elderly, its clinical features have not been investigated in detail, particularly in comparison with Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study is to clarify the diagnostic value of pathological reflexes in differentiating between VP and PD. In 132 patients with PD and 55 with VP, pathological reflexes, including snout reflex (SR), palmomental reflex (PMR), corneomandibular reflex (CMR), jaw reflex (JR), Hoffmann reflex (HR), and extensor plantar response (EPR), were evaluated. The percentage of each pathological reflex elicited in two groups (VP:PD) was as follows: SR (78:30), PMR (53:26), CMR (9:6), JR (33:12), HR (29:11), and EPR (25:8). The prevalence of pathological reflexes, except for CMR, was significantly higher in the VP patients than in the PD patients. In particular, SR and PMR were more frequent than upper motor neuron signs in the VP patients. The sensitivity and specificity of either SR or PMR for VP were 84% and 82%. Snout and palmomental reflexes are useful tools in the differentiation between VP and PD.

  6. Princess Brambilla - images/text

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    Maria Aparecida Barbosa


    Full Text Available Read the illustrated literary text is simultaneously think pictures and words. This articulation between the written text and pictures adds potential, expands and becomes complex. Coincides with nowadays discussions on Giorgio Agamben's "contemporary" that add to what adheres to respectively time the displacement and the distance needed to understand it, shakes linear notions of historical chronology. Somehow the coincidence is related to the current interest in the concept of "Nachleben" (survival, which assumes the images of the past ransom, postulated by the art historian Aby Warburg in a research on ancient art of motion characteristics in Renaissance pictures Botticelli's. For the translation of the Princesa Brambilla – um capriccio segundo Jakob Callot, de E. T. A. Hoffmann, com 8 gravuras cunhadas a partir de moldes originais de Callot (1820 to Portuguese such discussions were fundamental, as I try to present in this article.

  7. Pseudogenization of the tooth gene enamelysin (MMP20) in the common ancestor of extant baleen whales (United States)

    Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Cheng, Joyce; Springer, Mark S.


    Whales in the suborder Mysticeti are filter feeders that use baleen to sift zooplankton and small fish from ocean waters. Adult mysticetes lack teeth, although tooth buds are present in foetal stages. Cladistic analyses suggest that functional teeth were lost in the common ancestor of crown-group Mysticeti. DNA sequences for the tooth-specific genes, ameloblastin (AMBN), enamelin (ENAM) and amelogenin (AMEL), have frameshift mutations and/or stop codons in this taxon, but none of these molecular cavities are shared by all extant mysticetes. Here, we provide the first evidence for pseudogenization of a tooth gene, enamelysin (MMP20), in the common ancestor of living baleen whales. Specifically, pseudogenization resulted from the insertion of a CHR-2 SINE retroposon in exon 2 of MMP20. Genomic and palaeontological data now provide congruent support for the loss of enamel-capped teeth on the common ancestral branch of crown-group mysticetes. The new data for MMP20 also document a polymorphic stop codon in exon 2 of the pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), which has enamel-less teeth. These results, in conjunction with the evidence for pseudogenization of MMP20 in Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni), another enamel-less species, support the hypothesis that the only unique, non-overlapping function of the MMP20 gene is in enamel formation. PMID:20861053

  8. Numerical Methods for Free Boundary Problems

    CERN Document Server


    About 80 participants from 16 countries attended the Conference on Numerical Methods for Free Boundary Problems, held at the University of Jyviiskylii, Finland, July 23-27, 1990. The main purpose of this conference was to provide up-to-date information on important directions of research in the field of free boundary problems and their numerical solutions. The contributions contained in this volume cover the lectures given in the conference. The invited lectures were given by H.W. Alt, V. Barbu, K-H. Hoffmann, H. Mittelmann and V. Rivkind. In his lecture H.W. Alt considered a mathematical model and existence theory for non-isothermal phase separations in binary systems. The lecture of V. Barbu was on the approximate solvability of the inverse one phase Stefan problem. K-H. Hoff­ mann gave an up-to-date survey of several directions in free boundary problems and listed several applications, but the material of his lecture is not included in this proceedings. H.D. Mittelmann handled the stability of thermo capi...

  9. The Eroticism of Artificial Flesh in Villiers de L'Isle Adam's L'Eve Future

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    Patricia Pulham


    Full Text Available Villiers de L'Isle Adam's 'L'Eve Future' published in 1886 features a fictional version of the inventor Thomas Edison who constructs a complex, custom-made android for Englishman Lord Ewald as a substitute for his unsatisfactory lover. Hadaly, the android, has a number of literary and cultural precursors and successors. Her most commonly accepted ancestor is Olympia in E. T. A. Hoffmann's 'The Sandman' (1816 and among her fascinating descendants are Oskar Kokoschka's 'Silent Woman'; Model Borghild, a sex doll designed by German technicians during World War II;‘Caracas' in Tommaso Landolfi's short story ‘Gogol's Wife' (1954; a variety of gynoids and golems from the realms of science fiction, including Ira Levin's 'Stepford Wives' (1972; and, most recently, that silicon masterpiece - the Real Doll. All, arguably, have their genesis in the classical myth of Pygmalion. This essay considers the tension between animation and stasis in relation to this myth, and explores the necrophiliac aesthetic implicit in Villiers's novel.

  10. Low-energy and very-low energy total cross sections for electron collisions with N2 (United States)

    Kitajima, Masashi; Kishino, Takaya; Okumura, Takuma; Kobayashi, Naomasa; Sayama, Atsushi; Mori, Yuma; Hosaka, Kouichi; Odagiri, Takeshi; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Hiroshi


    Absolute grand total cross sections for electron scattering from N2 are obtained in the energy range from 20 eV down to 5 meV with very narrow electron energy width of 9 meV using the threshold-photoelectron source. Total cross sections obtained in the present study are compared with the previous experimentally obtained results. At the very-low energy region below 50 meV, the present total cross sections are somewhat smaller than those reported by the Aarhus group [S.V. Hoffmann et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4157 (2002)], which has been the only experimental work that provided the total cross sections in the very-low energy region. The energy positions of the peaks in the total cross sections due to the 2Πg shape resonance are obtained with higher accuracy, due to the improved uncertainty of the energy position in the present measurement compared to the previous works. The resonance structure in the total cross sections due to the Feshbach resonances of N2 at around 11.5 eV are also observed. Analysis of the resonant structure was carried out in order to determine the values of resonance width of Feshbach resonances of N2. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  11. A New Phase in Cancer Research at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    The first meeting of the ENLIGHT network, set up to co-ordinate the development of light ion cancer therapy projects in Europe, took place at CERN last week. This is a form of therapy ideally suited to the treatment of deep-seated tumours and those near critical organs. Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology transfer and scientific computing, and Director General Luciano Maiani during the opening of the first meeting of the ENLIGHT network that was held at CERN last week. The fruit of several years of work, this meeting offers new hope for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Around 70 specialists, including radiotherapists, oncologists, physicists and engineers, got together at CERN for the first meeting of a European cancer therapy research network named ENLIGHT (European Network for research in LIGHt ion Therapy(1)). This initiative, headed by oncologists and funded by the European Commission, aims to promote the development of light ion (hadron) therapy projects. The choice of CERN as a venue for ...

  12. Acetylsalicylic acid: Incoming 150 years of the first synthesis

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    Mijin Dušan Ž.


    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the most fascinating and versatile drugs known to medicine, as well as one of the oldest. Acetylsalicylic acid is a drug which is safe, with analgetic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory antiplatelet and antithrombotic action. It may be applied not only in clinical practice, but also as prevention. The first known use of an acetylsalicylic acid-like preparation can be traced to ancient Greece. In 1853 Charles Gerhardt published the first synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid. Felix Hoffmann, a chemist for Friedrich Bayer, a German dye company obtained a patent on acetylsalicylic acid some 40 years later. Bayer coined the name Aspirin for the new product. The 20 in century was the century in which many researchers in many companies tried to improve the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid not only in terms of yield but also purity. This paper describes the history, use, mechanism of action, synthesis and production as well as the purification and stability of acetylsalicylic acid.

  13. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson


    Full Text Available The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name “Aspirin”. In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.


    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  15. Short-term plasticity in a monosynaptic reflex pathway to forearm muscles after continuous robot-assisted passive stepping

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    Tsuyoshi Nakajima


    Full Text Available Both active and passive rhythmic limb movements reduce the amplitude of spinal cord Hoffmann (H- reflexes in muscles of moving and distant limbs. This could have clinical utility in remote modulation of the pathologically hyperactive reflexes found in spasticity after stroke or spinal cord injury. However, such clinical translation is currently hampered by a lack of critical information regarding the minimum or effective duration of passive movement needed for modulating spinal cord excitability. We therefore investigated the H-reflex modulation in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR muscle during and after various durations (5, 10, 15, and 30 min of passive stepping in 11 neurologically normal subjects. Passive stepping was performed by a robotic gait trainer system (Lokomat® while a single pulse of electrical stimulation to the median nerve elicited H-reflexes in the FCR. The amplitude of the FCR H-reflex was significantly suppressed during passive stepping. Although 30 minutes of passive stepping was sufficient to elicit a persistent H-reflex suppression that lasted up to 15 minutes, 5 minutes of passive stepping was not. The duration of H-reflex suppression correlated with that of the stepping. These findings suggest that the accumulation of stepping-related afferent feedback from the leg plays a role in generating short-term interlimb plasticity in the circuitry of the FCR H-reflex.

  16. Neural adaptations after short-term wingate-based high-intensity interval training (United States)

    Vera-Ibañez, Antonio; Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo


    Objectives: This study examined the neural adaptations associated with a low-volume Wingate-based High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). Methods: Fourteen recreationally trained males were divided into an experimental (HIIT) and a control group to determine whether a short-term (4 weeks) Wingate-based HIIT program could alter the Hoffmann (H-) reflex, volitional (V-) wave and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar-flexor muscles, and the peak power achieved during a Wingate test. Results: Absolute and relative peak power increased in the HIIT group (ABS_Ppeak: +14.7%, P=0.001; and REL_Ppeak: +15.0%, P=0.001), but not in the control group (ABS_Ppeak: P=0.466; and REL_Ppeak: P=0.493). However, no significant changes were found in the MVC (P>0.05 for both groups). There was a significant increase in H-reflex size after HIIT (+24.5%, P=0.004), while it remained unchanged in the control group (P=0.134). No significant changes were observed either in the V-wave or in the Vwave/Mwave ratio (P>0.05 for both groups). Conclusion: The Wingate-based training led to an increased peak power together with a higher spinal excitability. However, no changes were found either in the volitional wave or in the MVC, indicating a lack of adaptation in the central motor drive. PMID:29199186

  17. [Enteropathogens relating to diarrhea in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy]. (United States)

    Pupulin, Aurea Regina Telles; Carvalho, Paula Galdino; Nishi, Letícia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Guilherme, Ana Lucia Falavigna


    The etiology of the diarrheic process in AIDS may be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa or helminths, as well as HIV itself. This study evaluated enteropathogens relating to diarrhea in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. The parasitological methods used were Faust, Hoffmann and Kinyoun. Isolation and culturing of fungi were carried out in accordance with the methodology recommended by the NCCLS M27-A standard. The yeast species were identified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacteria were isolated on MacConkey and SS agar and the species were identified using Enterokit B (Probac do Brasil) and biochemical methods. Forty-nine patients were evaluated: 44.89% presented enteroparasites and 48.1% presented Candida sp, of which 61.5% were Candida albicans, 7.6% were Candida sp and 30.7% were Candida non-albicans. Bacteria were isolated from 72% of the patients, of which 49% were Escherichia coli, 13% Salmonella parathyphi, Klebsiella sp or Proteus and 6% Citrobacter freundii or Yersinia sp. There was high prevalence of Candida sp in HIV patients with diarrhea and non-albicans species were isolated. Their presence could be taken to mean that they were accomplices in or causes of the infection.

  18. Frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and cats of Londrina, PR, focusing on public health

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    Fernanda Pinto Ferreira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and cats of Londrina, Paraná. A survey of the results of fecal examinations, the technique of Faust, Willis, Hoffmann and / or direct examination, performed in routine Laboratory of Parasitology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, State University of Londrina in the period January 2000 to December 2011 and the Clinical Laboratory Veterinary January 2008 to December 2011. 2668 fecal samples were analyzed, of which 2290 (85.83% and 378 dogs (14.17% of cats. Of the total, 851 (37,16% dogs and 166 (43,91% feline samples were positive for at least one parasite. Isospora spp. was the most frequent in both species with 8.82% and 11.64% of dogs infected cats. Regarding the form of infection, 740 (86.96% and 139 dogs (83.73% cats had single infection, while 111 (13.04% dogs and 27 (16.27% cats had multiple infection gastrointestinal parasites. The ocurrence of a significant number of parasites and the close contact between animals and humans demonstrates the need for a more effective control and specific, whereas the reduction of the parasitic load of animals and thus decreases environmental exposure of humans to important zoonosis.

  19. Emicizumab Prophylaxis in Hemophilia A with Inhibitors. (United States)

    Oldenburg, Johannes; Mahlangu, Johnny N; Kim, Benjamin; Schmitt, Christophe; Callaghan, Michael U; Young, Guy; Santagostino, Elena; Kruse-Jarres, Rebecca; Negrier, Claude; Kessler, Craig; Valente, Nancy; Asikanius, Elina; Levy, Gallia G; Windyga, Jerzy; Shima, Midori


    Emicizumab (ACE910) bridges activated factor IX and factor X to restore the function of activated factor VIII, which is deficient in persons with hemophilia A. This phase 3, multicenter trial assessed once-weekly subcutaneous emicizumab prophylaxis in persons with hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitors. We enrolled participants who were 12 years of age or older. Those who had previously received episodic treatment with bypassing agents were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to emicizumab prophylaxis (group A) or no prophylaxis (group B). The primary end point was the difference in bleeding rates between group A and group B. Participants who had previously received prophylactic treatment with bypassing agents received emicizumab prophylaxis in group C. A total of 109 male participants with hemophilia A with inhibitors were enrolled. The annualized bleeding rate was 2.9 events (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 5.0) among participants who were randomly assigned to emicizumab prophylaxis (group A, 35 participants) versus 23.3 events (95% CI, 12.3 to 43.9) among those assigned to no prophylaxis (group B, 18 participants), representing a significant difference of 87% in favor of emicizumab prophylaxis (Phemophilia A with inhibitors. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche and Chugai Pharmaceutical; HAVEN 1 number, NCT02622321 .).

  20. Iron-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis with Low-Valent Iron Alkylidenes. (United States)

    Mauksch, Michael; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B


    Inspired by recent reports of low-valent iron-complex-catalyzed formal [2+2] cycloaddition of olefins, we demonstrate computationally that with such low-valent iron complexes and with "strong" ligands, the olefin metathesis is also preferred over the undesired cyclopropanation side-reaction, competition already studied by Hoffmann and co-workers almost 40 years ago (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1981, 103, 5582). The [2+2] cycloaddition step in metathesis propagation, which gives a Chauvin-type metallacyclobutane intermediate, is proposed to proceed either via a planar four-electron Craig-Möbius aromatic [π2s +π2s ] transition-state structure with a low barrier of 4.7 kcal mol(-1) or, alternatively, via a twisted Zimmerman-Möbius aromatic [π2s +π2a ] transition state with a 5.5 kcal mol(-1) activation-energy barrier, with respect to an "encounter" π-complex minimum obtained from an Fe(II) alkylidene and the entering olefin, while the corresponding triplet pathways are all disfavored. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Russo


    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  2. Time Course of the Soleus M Response and H Reflex after Lidocaine Tibial Nerve Block in the Rat

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    Kévin Buffenoir


    Full Text Available Aims. In spastic subjects, lidocaine is often used to induce a block predictive of the result provided by subsequent surgery. Lidocaine has been demonstrated to inhibit the Hoffmann (H reflex to a greater extent than the direct motor (M response induced by electrical stimulation, but the timecourse of these responses has not been investigated. Methods. An animal (rat model of the effects of lidocaine on M and H responses was therefore developed to assess this time course. M and H responses were recorded in 18 adult rats before and after application of lidocaine to the sciatic nerve. Results. Two to five minutes after lidocaine injection, M responses were markedly reduced (mean reduction of 44% and H reflexes were completely abolished. Changes were observed more rapidly for the H reflex. The effects of lidocaine then persisted for 100 minutes. The effect of lidocaine was therefore more prolonged on the H reflex than on the M response. Conclusion. This study confirms that lidocaine blocks not only alpha motoneurons but also Ia afferent fibres responsible for the H reflex. The authors describe, for the first time, the detailed time course of the effect of lidocaine on direct or reflex activation of motoneurons in the rat.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamilton Alvares Santarém


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of contamination of vegetables by infective forms of helminths and protozoa commercialized in the municipality of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. Samples of two varieties of lettuce and one of watercress, parsley, chives, and packets of parsley and chives were collected from 96 out of 121 commercial establishments registered in the municipality. Samples were washed with Extran MA 02 0.5% and the resulting fluid subjected to techniques of Baermann, Hoffmann and Faust, in order to recovery parasite. Bacterial culture for Salmonella spp. was performed following the steps of pre-enrichment, selective enrichment, plating and differential biochemical classification. It was observed that 33.06% of the samples were contaminated by parasitic structures. The highest contaminations were present in watercress (69.2% and parsley (47.6%, while the lowest occurred in chives (20.7% and lettuce (20.0%. The eggs of trichostrongylidae type were most often found in the samples. Giardia duodenalis cysts were recovered in 9.1% of the samples. Regarding the presence of Salmonella spp., only one strain was isolated in a sample of watercress (1.04%. It was conclude that there is a need for a health education campaign for farmers and vegetables merchants as well as for consumers, based on hygienic techniques, in order to reduce the risks of infection by infectious and parasitic agents during the ingestion of these foods.

  4. Cryptosporidium sp. in children suffering from acute diarrhea at Uberlândia City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Margareth Leitão Gennari-Cardoso


    Full Text Available This study's objective was to search for Cryptosporidium sp. in diarrheic feces from children aged zero to 12 years and cared for at medical units within Universidade Federal de Uberlândia or at a private practice in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from September 1992 to August 1993. Three fecal samples preserved in 10% formalin, were collected from 94 children. Oocyst concentration was performed through Ritchie's (modified method and staining of fecal smears for each sample (total of 1128 slides was done by the "Safranin/Methylene Blue" and the "Kinyoun (modified" techniques. The Hoffmann, Pons & Janer method was also employed to look for other enteroparasites. From 94 children, 4.26% excreted fecal Cryptosporidium oocysts. The infection seemed to vary according to age: 5.08% of patients aged zero to two years old; 33.33% of those aging eight to ten years (P>0.05. Cryptosporidium appeared in November, December and March, during the rainy season. 20.21% of the children harbored at least one enteroparasite different from Cryptosporidium, mainly Giardia intestinalis (12.77%. From Cryptosporidium infected patients, two had only this kind, another harbored Giardia intestinalis; the last one hosted Strongyloides stercoralis.

  5. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)


    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  6. Otto Hahn achievement and responsibility

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Klaus


    Otto Hahn (1879-1968) was awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on atomic fission: his work in Berlin in the 1930s and 1940s with Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann led to the discovery that uranium nuclei bombarded by neutrons undergo spontaneous fission, releasing enormous energies. This work, conveyed to England and the US by scientific refugees from Nazi Germany, led to the instigation of the Manhattan Project and the development of the Atomic Bomb. Reviled by many after the war as one of the people responsible for the carnage at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hahn had already begun to reflect on the social responsibility of scientists for their fundamental discoveries and the subsequent applications of the knowledge they create. Already during the war, Hahn had protested Nazi restrictions on Universities and researchers, and after the War, he became actively involved in efforts to restrict the spread of nuclear weapons. In this volume Klaus Hoffmann discusses Hahn's contributions to science and...

  7. Post-Newtonian Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem: Schwarzschild primaries (United States)

    Dubeibe, F. L.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, G. A.


    The restricted three-body problem (RTBP) has been extensively studied to investigate the stability of the solar system, extra-solar subsystems, asteroid capture, and the dynamics of two massive black holes orbited by a sun. In the present work, we study the stability of the planar circular restricted three-body problem in the context of post-Newtonian approximations. First of all, we review the results obtained from the post-Newtonian equations of motion calculated in the framework of the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann formalism (EIH). Therefore, using the Fodor-Hoenselers-Perjes formalism (FHP), we have performed an expansion of the gravitational potential for two primaries, deriving a new system of equations of motion, which unlike the EIH-approach, preserves the Jacobian integral of motion. Additionally, we have obtained approximate expressions for the Lagrange points in terms of a mass parameter μ, where it is found that the deviations from the classical regime are larger for the FHP than for the EIH equations.

  8. Quadriceps muscle function after rehabilitation with cryotherapy in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (United States)

    Hart, Joseph M; Kuenze, Christopher M; Diduch, David R; Ingersoll, Christopher D


    Persistent muscle weakness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may be due to underlying activation failure and arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Knee-joint cryotherapy has been shown to improve quadriceps function transiently in those with AMI, thereby providing an opportunity to improve quadriceps muscle activation and strength in patients with a reconstructed ACL. To compare quadriceps muscle function in patients with a reconstructed ACL who completed a 2-week intervention including daily cryotherapy (ice bag), daily exercises, or both. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. A total of 30 patients with reconstructed ACLs who were at least 6 months post-index surgery and had measurable quadriceps AMI. The patients attended 4 supervised visits over a 2-week period. They were randomly assigned to receive 20 minutes of knee-joint cryotherapy, 1 hour of therapeutic rehabilitation exercises, or cryotherapy followed by exercises. We measured quadriceps Hoffmann reflex, normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, central activation ratio using the superimposed-burst technique, and patient-reported outcomes before and after the intervention period. After the 2-week intervention period, patients who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy had higher normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torques (P = .002, Cohen d effect size = 1.4) compared with those who received cryotherapy alone (P = .16, d = 0.58) or performed exercise alone (P = .16, d = 0.30). After ACL reconstruction, patients with AMI who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy experienced greater strength gains than those who performed cryotherapy or exercises alone.

  9. D3R Grand Challenge 2: blind prediction of protein–ligand poses, affinity rankings, and relative binding free energies (United States)

    Gaieb, Zied; Liu, Shuai; Gathiaka, Symon; Chiu, Michael; Yang, Huanwang; Shao, Chenghua; Feher, Victoria A.; Walters, W. Patrick; Kuhn, Bernd; Rudolph, Markus G.; Burley, Stephen K.; Gilson, Michael K.; Amaro, Rommie E.


    The Drug Design Data Resource (D3R) ran Grand Challenge 2 (GC2) from September 2016 through February 2017. This challenge was based on a dataset of structures and affinities for the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), contributed by F. Hoffmann-La Roche. The dataset contained 102 IC50 values, spanning six orders of magnitude, and 36 high-resolution co-crystal structures with representatives of four major ligand classes. Strong global participation was evident, with 49 participants submitting 262 prediction submission packages in total. Procedurally, GC2 mimicked Grand Challenge 2015 (GC2015), with a Stage 1 subchallenge testing ligand pose prediction methods and ranking and scoring methods, and a Stage 2 subchallenge testing only ligand ranking and scoring methods after the release of all blinded co-crystal structures. Two smaller curated sets of 18 and 15 ligands were developed to test alchemical free energy methods. This overview summarizes all aspects of GC2, including the dataset details, challenge procedures, and participant results. We also consider implications for progress in the field, while highlighting methodological areas that merit continued development. Similar to GC2015, the outcome of GC2 underscores the pressing need for methods development in pose prediction, particularly for ligand scaffolds not currently represented in the Protein Data Bank (, and in affinity ranking and scoring of bound ligands.

  10. Clinical and molecular analysis of spinal muscular atrophy in Brazilian patients

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    Kim C.A.


    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, the second most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder, has an incidence of 1:10,000 newborns. SMA is divided into acute (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, type I, intermediate (type II and juvenile forms (Kugelberg-Welander disease, type III. The gene of all three forms of SMA maps to chromosome 5q 11.2-13.3. Two candidate genes, the survival motor neuron (SMN gene and the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP gene, have been identified; SMN is deleted in most SMA patients. We studied both genes in 87 Brazilian SMA patients (20 type I, 14 type II and 53 type III from 74 unrelated families, by using PCR and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. Deletions of exons 7 and/or 8 of the SMN gene were found in 69% of the families: 16/20 in type I, 9/12 in type II and 26/42 in type III. Among 51 families with deletions, 44 had both exons deleted while seven had deletions only of exon 7. Deletions of exon 5 of the NAIP gene were found in 7/20 of type I, 2/12 of type II and 1/42 of type III patients. No deletion of SMN and NAIP genes was found in 112 parents, 26 unaffected sibs and 104 normal controls. No correlation between deletions of one or both genes and phenotype severity was found.

  11. Clinical and Genetic Study of Algerian Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

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    Y. Sifi


    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the second most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder. It is divided into the acute Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (type I, the intermediate form (type II, the Kugelberg-Welander disease (type III, and the adult form (type IV. The gene involved in all four forms of SMA, the so-called survival motor neuron (SMN gene, is duplicated, with a telomeric (tel SMN or SMN1 and a centromeric copy (cent SMN or SMN2. SMN1 is homozygously deleted in over 95% of SMA patients. Another candidate gene in SMA is the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP gene; it shows homozygous deletions in 45–67% of type I and 20–42% of type II/type III patients. Here we studied the SMN and NAIP genes in 92 Algerian SMA patients (20 type I, 16 type II, 53 type III, and 3 type IV from 57 unrelated families, using a semiquantitative PCR approach. Homozygous deletions of SMN1 exons 7 and/or 8 were found in 75% of the families. Deletions of exon 4 and/or 5 of the NAIP gene were found in around 25%. Conversely, the quantitative analysis of SMN2 copies showed a significant correlation between SMN2 copy number and the type of SMA.

  12. O hipertexto e o estranho: causas e efeitos

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    Everton Vinicius de Santa


    Full Text Available Segundo Barthes, o texto ideal é aquele que se apresenta em redes múltiplas e que se entrelaça, sem comprometer sua estrutura. Redes ou nós que fazem com que esse texto ofereça um universo de significantes e significados, ou seja, não tem início, é reversível, possui diversas entradas e isso se choca com a noção tradicional de práticas de leitura e escrita linear. Nesse sentido, nosso objetivo é demonstrar como o hipertexto causa "estranheza" partindo do conceito de “estranho” apontado por Freud em seu artigo Das Unheimlich (1919, a fim de que possamos compreender como essa relação obra/leitor vem sendo alterada e provocando sensações de dinamicidade distintas da inércia do papel, como observamos em O Jogo da Amarelinha (1963, de Julio Cortázar, e em textos de temática fantástica, como em E.T.A. Hoffmann e Edgar Allan Poe, não no sentido do assustador, mas do provocativo, do foregrounding que gera causas e efeitos significantes nas práticas literárias digitais conectadas ao ciberespaço.

  13. ATLAS honours one of its suppliers

    CERN Multimedia


    On 12 February the Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech was awarded a prize for best ATLAS supplier for the construction of the two vacuum chambers for the ATLAS endcap toroid magnets. The award for best supplier is handed over to representatives of the firm Schelde Exotech in front of one of the two vacuum chambers built by the firm. From left to right: E. Baynham (RAL), H. Geerink (NIKHEF), Y. Lefevere (NIKHEF), J. Engelen (NIKHEF), P. Jenni (CERN), E. Holtom (RAL), R. Boddaert (Schelde Exotech), G. Luijckx (NIKHEF), H. Klumpus (Schelde Exotech), M. Nessi (CERN), H. ten Kate (CERN), M. Nordberg (CERN), H. Hoffmann (CERN).This ceremony has now become something of a tradition. For the third consecutive year, ATLAS has given best supplier awards for the most exceptional contributors to the construction of the future detector. The Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech has just received the award for the construction of the two vacuum chambers for the ATLAS endcap toroid magnets. With a diameter of 11 metres and a volum...

  14. To attach or not to attach? The effect of carrier surface morphology and topography on attachment of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropoda orbicularis (Acari) (United States)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Adamski, Zbigniew; Kacalak, Wojciech; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Wiesner, Maciej; Jurga, Stefan


    Previous studies on preferences of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropodina for attachment sites have shown that they frequently select smooth and hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of our study was to provide the detailed morphological and topographical characteristics of beetle body surfaces to which deutonymphs frequently attach and to verify how the presence of setae and surface sculpture affects deutonymph attachment. The study was conducted on Uropoda orbicularis (Müller, 1776) and its common beetle carriers: Aphodius prodromus (Brahm, 1790), Aphodius fimetarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Onthophagus nuchicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Margarinotus carbonarius (Hoffmann, 1803). Morphology and topography of elytra, femora, propygidia and pygidia of beetles were analysed mainly using SEM methods supported with CLSM and AFM techniques. The hypothesis that deutonymphs may attach to surfaces covered with setae, if seta density is low enough not to disturb mite movement, was tested. The study revealed that deutonymphs attach to surfaces of various types as follows: (i) smooth, (ii) hairy, i.e., covered with setae, (iii) flat and (iv) sculptured. Smooth body parts and body parts covered with setae of low density were most frequently and intensively occupied with deutonymphs. Surfaces of high seta density were avoided by mites. Within elytra of Aphodius beetles, deutonymphs definitely preferred flat surfaces of elytral intervals. On the contrary, densely punctuated propygidium and pygidium in M. carbonarius were heavily infested with deutonymphs. We conclude that carrier surface morphology and topography are important for Uropodina deutonymph attachment, but these two factors cannot fully explain the observed relation.


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    Kucher Galina Olegovna


    Full Text Available This paper presents the figurative theory under German sociologist N.Elias - one of the first synthetic sociological theories. With the concept of "figuration" of N.Elias there was performed synthesis of micro and macro approaches in sociology, which is distinctive for present sociological discourse. The purpose of this article is to show the impact of sociology of N.Elias on modern sociological theories, to detect complex connection with other synthetic theories. The comparison of key theoretical concepts of figurative sociology and structuration theory ("figuration" and "structuration", "affects" and "unconscious", "habit" and "routinization" supports system-influenced by the work of Elias on the formation of the initial theoretical premise by A.Giddens. However comparison of figurative and dramatic sociology shows more parallelism of theoretical constructs by N.Elias and I.Hoffmann. Both authors are working on stories of etiquette rules, rituals and ceremonies, but use different perspectives (diachronic or synchronic, the different interpretations of continuous changes (as the interaction inside and between figurations or as a chain effect or a trace of the events, focusing on the analysis of the influence changes at different levels (social structures or structures of individual experience. These comparisons make it possible to estimate theoretical potential of the basic concepts of sociology figurative, the possibility of their use of context proposed by Elias, particularly in synchronic perspective but for the social structures.

  16. Curse on two generations: a history of congenital syphilis. (United States)

    Obladen, Michael


    Before the microbiologic era, venereal diseases were poorly distinguished. Congenital syphilis was believed to be transmitted during conception by the father's sperm, during delivery in the birth canal, or from infected milk or breasts. The most frequent maternofetal transmission was not considered because the mother's primary infection remained undiagnosed. The concept of treating infants with mercury transmitted by nurses' milk prompted the founding of a specialized infant hospital in Vaugirard in 1780: lactating syphilitic women received mercury orally and by rubbing it into the skin. Their own infant and a second infected infant from the foundling hospital were believed to be cured by their milk. Underwood described snuffles in 1789 and Bertin periosteal bone disease in 1810. Tardive congenital lues with keratitis, deafness, and notched upper incisors were described by Hutchinson in 1863. Feeding remained difficult, as wet nursing transmitted syphilis to the nurse and other infants. Specialized institutions tried goat or donkey milk. A debate between contagionists assuming exclusively maternal infection and hereditists assuming germinal transmission by the father's sperm continued throughout the 19th century. Schaudinn and Hoffmann identified Spirochaeta pallida in 1905. When Ehrlich discovered the efficacy of salvarsan in 1910, Noeggerath treated infants with the new drug, pioneering the injection into scalp veins. In 1943, Lentz and Ingraham established penicillin treatment for congenital syphilis. Whereas this drug effectively prevented maternofetal transmission, treating infants remained difficult due to the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals: A long-known but neglected tool in electronic structure theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, David W.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Head-Gordon, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals (cRHF) is studied. We introduce an orbital pairing theorem, with which we obtain a concise connection between cRHF and real-valued RHF, and use it to uncover the close relationship between cRHF, unrestricted Hartree Fock, and generalized valence bond perfect pairing. This enables an intuition for cRHF, contrasting with the generally unintuitive nature of complex orbitals. We also describe an efficient computer implementation of cRHF and its corresponding stability analysis. By applying cRHF to the Be + H{sub 2} insertion reaction, a Woodward-Hoffmann violating reaction, and a symmetry-driven conical intersection, we demonstrate in genuine molecular systems that cRHF is capable of removing certain potential energy surface singularities that plague real-valued RHF and related methods. This complements earlier work that showed this capability in a model system. We also describe how cRHF is the preferred RHF method for certain radicaloid systems like singlet oxygen and antiaromatic molecules. For singlet O{sub 2}, we show that standard methods fail even at the equilibrium geometry. An implication of this work is that, regardless of their individual efficacies, cRHF solutions to the HF equations are fairly commonplace.

  18. Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals: A long-known but neglected tool in electronic structure theory (United States)

    Small, David W.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Head-Gordon, Martin


    Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals (cRHF) is studied. We introduce an orbital pairing theorem, with which we obtain a concise connection between cRHF and real-valued RHF, and use it to uncover the close relationship between cRHF, unrestricted Hartree Fock, and generalized valence bond perfect pairing. This enables an intuition for cRHF, contrasting with the generally unintuitive nature of complex orbitals. We also describe an efficient computer implementation of cRHF and its corresponding stability analysis. By applying cRHF to the Be + H2 insertion reaction, a Woodward-Hoffmann violating reaction, and a symmetry-driven conical intersection, we demonstrate in genuine molecular systems that cRHF is capable of removing certain potential energy surface singularities that plague real-valued RHF and related methods. This complements earlier work that showed this capability in a model system. We also describe how cRHF is the preferred RHF method for certain radicaloid systems like singlet oxygen and antiaromatic molecules. For singlet O2, we show that standard methods fail even at the equilibrium geometry. An implication of this work is that, regardless of their individual efficacies, cRHF solutions to the HF equations are fairly commonplace.

  19. Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp. living in an environment with high human activity

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    Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets, through analysis of fecal samples. The study involved 51 marmosets (genus Callithrix from five groups living in places with levels of human impact in Viçosa-MG. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique (Hoffmann-Pons-Janner. Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. Most of the marmosets (86% were parasitized by at least one genus of helminths. Among the infected marmosets, 37% presented co-infection. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp. and Dilepididae.P. jacchi and Ancylostomatidae had higher prevalences (> 80% and > 40%, respectively and were found in all marmoset groups. Dilepididae species were found in almost all the groups, but only accounted for around 30% of the marmosets. Prosthenorchis sp. showed a relatively low prevalence (< 10% and was only found in one group. Although two parasites are commonly found in marmosets and other primates (P. jacchi and Prosthenorchis sp., our study is the first record for Ancylostomatidae and Dilepididae. Factors like marmosets' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets.

  20. Typing of colon and lung adenocarcinoma by high throughput imaging mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Mark; Longuespée, Rémi; Wandernoth, Petra; Mohanu, Cristina; Lisenko, Katharina; Weichert, Wilko; Warth, Arne; Dienemann, Hendrik; De Pauw, Edwin; Katzenberger, Tiemo; Aust, Daniela; Baretton, Gustavo; Kriegsmann, Joerg; Casadonte, Rita


    In advanced tumor stages, diagnosis is frequently made from metastatic tumor tissue. In some cases, the identification of the tumor of origin may be difficult by histology alone. In this setting, immunohistochemical and molecular biological methods are often required. In a subset of tumors definite diagnosis cannot be achieved. Thus, additional new diagnostic methods are required for precise tumor subtyping. Mass spectrometric methods are of special interest for the discrimination of different tumor types. We investigated whether it is possible to discern adenocarcinomas of colon and lung using high-throughput imaging mass spectrometry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays. 101 primary adenocarcinoma of the colon and 91 primary adenocarcinoma of the lung were used to train a Linear Discriminant Analysis model. Results were validated on an independent set of 116 colonic and 75 lung adenocarcinomas. In the validation cohort 109 of 116 patients with colonic and 67 of 75 patients with lung adenocarcinomas were correctly classified. The ability to define proteomic profiles capable to discern different tumor types promises a valuable tool in cancer diagnostics and might complement current approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypersensitivity Reactions to Obinutuzumab in Cynomolgus Monkeys and Relevance to Humans. (United States)

    Husar, Elisabeth; Solonets, Maria; Kuhlmann, Olaf; Schick, Eginhard; Piper-Lepoutre, Hanna; Singer, Thomas; Tyagi, Gaurav


    Obinutuzumab (GA101, Gazyva™, Gazyvaro®, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland) is a humanized, glycoengineered type II antibody targeted against CD20. The preclinical safety evaluation required to support clinical development and marketing authorization of obinutuzumab included repeat-dose toxicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys for up to 6-month dosing with a 9-month recovery period. Results from those studies showed decreases in circulating B cells and corresponding B-cell depletion in lymphoid tissues, consistent with the desired pharmacology of obinutuzumab. Hypersensitivity reactions were noted at all doses in the 6-month study and were attributed to the foreign recognition of the drug construct in cynomolgus monkeys. Findings in monkeys were classified as acute hypersensitivity reactions that were evident immediately after dosing, such as excessive salivation, erythema, pruritus, irregular respiration, or ataxia, or chronic hypersensitivity reactions characterized by glomerulonephritis, arteritis/periarteritis, and inflammation in several tissues including serosal/adventitial inflammation. Immune complex deposits were demonstrated in tissues by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. Some of, but not all, the animals that developed these reactions had detectable antidrug antibodies or circulating immune complexes accompanied by loss of drug exposure and pharmacodynamic effect. On the basis of clinical evidence to date, hypersensitivity reactions following obinutuzumab are rare, further supporting the general view that incidence and manifestation of immunogenicity in nonclinical species are generally not predictive for humans.

  2. The work of the couple Brailowsky in the mirror of Serbian critiques

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    Mosusova Nadežda


    Full Text Available Leonid (1867-1937 and Rimma (1877-1959 Brailowsky brought to Belgrade National theatre (together with other Russian emigrated stage and costume designers the spirit of the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva, making décor and costumes for 18 performances during the period of 1921-1924. Les romanesques by Edmond Rostand, Le malade imaginaire by Molière, Shakespeare's Richard III, Merchant of Venice and King Lear and two Serbian dramas, Offenbach's Hoffmann's Tales, Faust by Gounod, Smetana's Bartered Bride, Bizet's Carmen Onegin and Queen of Spades by Tchaikovsky, Massenet's Manon, The Tsar's Bride by Rimsky-Korsakov, The Wedding of Miloš by Petar Konjović, the Serbian opera composer, two ballets, Sheherazade and Nutcracker. The artists, husband and wife, were praised for their modernization of the Belgrade scene, for their vivid realization of sets and costumes, for their novelties, especially in Serbian historical dramas by Branislav Nušić and Milutin Bojić, and Shakespeare as well. In operas and ballets they were also respected in some extent, but the pictorial, sometimes independent value of their scenic work, although inspired by music, arouse opposing questions among the musical critics, who could not accept their too bright colors which once conquered Paris in the scenic interpretation of Leon Bakst or Nikolai Roerich. To avoid resistance of Belgrade critics the couple decided to leave Yugoslav capital for Italy where they continued successfully their artistic career.

  3. Effects of Kinesio taping in patients with quadriceps inhibition: A randomized, single-blinded study. (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Davis, Brandon; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph


    To determine effects of Kinesio taping (KT) on quadriceps activation and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in patients with quadriceps inhibition. Randomized, single-blinded. Laboratory. Sixteen participants (9 males, 7 females) with quadriceps inhibition, as determined by 90% or lower in central activation ratio (CAR), participated. Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) of the vastus medialis and quadriceps CAR and MVIC were measured before taping, and participants were randomly allocated to either KT (KT application with tension) or sham (non-elastic tape application without tension) group. H-reflexes were assessed immediately and 20 min after tape was applied over the rectus femoris. All outcomes were measured again after tape was removed when participants returned the laboratory 24-48 h after taping. Two-way repeated ANOVA found no group-by-time interaction for: H-reflex (F 3,42  = 1.94, P = 0.14), CAR (F 1,14  = 0.03, P = 0.86), or MVIC (F 1,14  = 0.007, P = 0.93). None of the outcome measures differed between groups or over time (P > 0.05). KT applied to the rectus femoris did not change H-reflex of the vastus medialis and quadriceps CAR and MVIC in patients with quadriceps inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Batch-processing of imaging or liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry datasets and De Novo sequencing of polyketide siderophores. (United States)

    Novák, Jiří; Sokolová, Lucie; Lemr, Karel; Pluháček, Tomáš; Palyzová, Andrea; Havlíček, Vladimír


    The open-source and cross-platform software CycloBranch was utilized for dereplication of organic compounds from mass spectrometry imaging imzML datasets and its functions were illustrated on microbial siderophores. The pixel-to-pixel batch-processing was analogous to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry data. Each data point represented here by accurate m/z values and the corresponding ion intensities was matched against integrated compound libraries. The fine isotopic structure matching was also embedded into CycloBranch dereplication process. The siderophores' characterization from single-pixel mass spectra was further supported by their de novo sequencing. New ketide building block library was utilized by CycloBranch to characterize the siderophores in images and mixtures and nomenclature of fragment ion series of linear and cyclic polyketide siderophores was proposed. The software is freely available at This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of testing realism on experimentally obtained stereotype strength. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Whitfield, Richard C


    It has been shown (Hoffmann 2009) that pencil-and-paper tests, when used to determine stereotype strength, may yield data quite different to that obtained from hardware tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of realism required in order to have stereotypes that are consistent with real-world values. It is surprising that there does not appear to be any published research addressing this problem; all previous researches have considered either paper/pencil or hardware tests or sometimes both, but no level of simulation in between these techniques. In order to determine the effect of level of testing realism, a specific example was chosen to test, that of water tap operation stereotypes. Tests used verbal questioning, photographs of tap arrangements, a partial hardware arrangement and finally a full hardware setup. The results of these four levels of realism were very different and illustrated that, only with a full realistic simulation, did participants respond as might be expected in a real-world environment, illustrating the importance of testing realism when determining population stereotypes. This result has strong implications for product designers when selecting appropriate layouts of displays and controls and the linkages relating these. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. The legacy of the benzodiazepine receptor: from flumazenil to enhancing cognition in Down syndrome and social interaction in autism. (United States)

    Möhler, Hanns


    The study of the psychopharmacology of benzodiazepines continues to provide new insights into diverse brain functions related to vigilance, anxiety, mood, epileptiform activity, schizophrenia, cognitive performance, and autism-related social behavior. In this endeavor, the discovery of the benzodiazepine receptor was a key event, as it supplied the primary benzodiazepine drug-target site, provided the molecular link to the allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors and, following the recognition of GABAA receptor subtypes, furnished the platform for future, more selective drug actions. This review has two parts. In a retrospective first part, it acknowledges the contributions to the field made by my collaborators over the years, initially at Hoffmann-La Roche in Basle and later, in academia, at the University and the ETH of Zurich. In the second part, the new frontier of GABA pharmacology, targeting GABAA receptor subtypes, is reviewed with special focus on nonsedative anxiolytics, antidepressants, analgesics, as well as enhancers of cognition in Down syndrome and attenuators of symptoms of autism spectrum disorders. It is encouraging that a clinical trial has been initiated with a partial inverse agonist acting on α5 GABAA receptors in an attempt to alleviate the cognitive deficits in Down syndrome. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. La metafísica de la música en el romanticismo

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    Ricardo Pinilla Burgos


    Full Text Available La música fascinó siempre a la filosofía por varias razones. El romanticismo alemán representa una cumbre de esa fascinación desde su ruptura fundamental con la infravaloración neoclásica de la música instrumental, elevándola por el contrario a paradigma expresivo en la búsqueda de lo absoluto y lo inefable. En el artículo se parte desde la interesante y ambigua reflexión kantiana sobre la música, para de ahí abordar los autores fundamentales de esta concepción: Michaelis, los poetas Tieck y Wackenroder y E.T.A. Hoffmann, quien configuró la interpretación romántica de Beethoven como cristalización de esa música soñada. A pesar del talante antirromántico de muchas músicas del siglo XX, sigue siendo esta concepción un horizonte ineludible de comprensión de lo que hoy entendemos por música. De otro lado, desde este tema se halla una línea crucial para realizar una justa valoración de laimportante aportación filosófica del romanticismo.

  8. Synthesis and Use of Stable Isotope Enriched Retinals in the Field of Vitamin A

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    Johan Lugtenburg


    Full Text Available The role of vitamin A and its metabolites in the life processes starting with the historical background and its up to date information is discussed in the introduction. Also the role of 11Z-retinal in vision and retinoic acid in the biological processes is elucidated. The essential role of isotopically enriched systems in the progress of vision research, nutrition research etc. is discussed. In part B industrial commercial syntheses of vitamin A by the two leading companies Hoffmann-La Roche (now DSM and BASF are discussed. The knowledge obtained via these pioneering syntheses has been essential for the further synthetic efforts in vitamin A field by other scientific groups. The rest of the paper is devoted to the synthetic efforts of the Leiden group that gives an access to the preparation of site directed high level isotope enrichment in retinals. First the synthesis of the retinals with deuterium incorporation in the conjugated side chain is reviewed. Then, 13C-labeled retinals are discussed. This is followed by the discussion of a convergent synthetic scheme that allows a rational access to prepare any isotopomer of retinals. The schemes that provide access to prepare any possible isotope enriched chemically modified systems are discussed. Finally, nor-retinals and bridged retinals that give access to a whole (as yet incomplete library of possible isotopomers are reviewed.

  9. Yearbook 2008; Jahrbuch 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandi-Dohrn, Anselm; Heckmann, Dirk (eds.)


    The yearbook 2008 of information technology and law contains the following contributions: (a) Does the data protection need a new fundamental right? (Wolfgang Hoffmann-Riem); (b) Energy efficiency needs IKT. IKT needs energy efficiency (Michael Zinke, Ludwig Karg); (c) IBM: Green Responsibility - an energy model and environment model for companies (Klaus-Juergen Ruenger); (d) Monetary pitfalls in the internet: Development and court decisions in the years 2007 and 2008 (Thomas Bradler); (e) Information of withdrawal in remote distribution (Mathias Lejeune); (f) Report on the workshop 'ITIL processes at IT projects (IT - infrastructure library)' (Thomas H. Fischer); (g) Report on the workshop 'Data protection as a entrepreneurial risk?' (Dirk Heckmann); (h) Report on the workshop 'Actual questions of properties rights (Oliver Meyer-van Raay); (i) The suitable claims of damages at the violation of intellectual property (Ulrike Gedert); (j) Consequences of regulation for the implementation of the rights of intellectual property on the German civil procedure law (Susanne Klein); (k) A data protective evaluation and rights of concerned people in the credit investigation in Greek under consideration of the European and German law (Timoleon Kosmides); (l) Mediator between the worlds: Prof. Dr. jur. Dr. rer. Nat. Herbert Fiedler in portrait (Dirk Heckmann).

  10. On the motion of inertial particles by sound waves (United States)

    Cleckler, Jay; Elghobashi, Said; Liu, Feng


    This paper describes the numerical simulation of the motion of a heavy spherical particle in an acoustic wave using the equation of motion for a point particle. Our results agree well with the recent experimental data of Gonzàlez, Hoffmann, and Gallego ["Precise measurements of particle entrainment in a standing-wave acoustic field between 20 and 3500 Hz," J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 1461-1468 (2000)]. Our simulations cover a range of particle relaxation number, τ* = ωτ, where τ is the particle relaxation time and ω is the angular acoustic frequency from 0.06 to 10, particle to fluid density ratios, ρp/ρf, from 2500 to 2, and moderate acoustic velocity amplitudes. The results show that the Stokes force controls particle motion for τ* 25. Within this regime it is appropriate to consider the Basset, pressure gradient, and virtual mass forces as "higher order" corrections to the Stokes force. The magnitude of the Basset force exceeds that of the Stokes force for ρp/ρf ⩾ 25 and τ* ⩾ 4. All the forces in the particle equation of motion should be accounted for when simulating particle motion in an acoustic wave for ρp/ρf < 25.

  11. New therapy of pleural empyema by deoxyribonuclease

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    Grzegorz Kacprzak


    Full Text Available Empyema is a severe complication of different diseases and traumas. Management of this complication is difficult and should comprise general and local procedures. The general procedure is mainly based on administering wide-spectrum antibiotics. Local management depends on patient general condition, but in all cases the essential procedure is to insert a drain into the pleural cavity and to evacuate the pus. Sometimes pus is very thick and its evacuation and following re-expansion of the lung is rather impossible. In these patients surgical intervention is needed. The use of intrapleural enzymes to support the drainage was first described in 1949 by Tillett and Sherry using a mixture of streptokinase and streptococcal deoxyribonuclease. Nowadays, purified streptokinase has come into widespread use, but recent studies reported no streptokinase effect on pus viscosity. On the other side, deoxyribonuclease reduces pus viscosity and may be more useful in treatment. We report two cases of intrapleural administration of Pulmozyme (alfa dornase - deoxyribonuclease (HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE AG in dosage 2 × 2.5 mg with a significant improvement caused by changes in pus viscosity.

  12. Retrospective life course data from European countries on how early life experiences determine health in old age and possible mid-life mediators

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    Eduwin Pakpahan


    Full Text Available The data presented in this article is related to the research paper entitled “The long arm of childhood circumstances on health in old age: Evidence from SHARELIFE” (E. Pakpahan, R. Hoffmann, H. Kröger, 2016 [1]. It presents the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES and health from childhood until old age in thirteen European countries. In order to capture the characteristics of longitudinal data, which resembles life course data, we divide the data into three schematic periods: childhood (up to 15 years old, adulthood (30 to 60 years old, and old age (61 to 90 years old. This data set contains respondents’ life histories, ranging from childhood conditions (such as housing and health to detailed questions on education, adult SES (working history, income, and wealth and old age health. The data can be used not only to understand on how early life experiences determine health in old age, but also to recognise the importance of possible mid-life mediators.

  13. Theoretical Analysis of the Fragmentation of (CO)5: A Symmetry-Allowed Highly Exothermic Reaction that Follows a Stepwise Pathway. (United States)

    Liu, Jiajun; Bao, Xiaoguang; Hrovat, David A; Borden, Weston Thatcher


    B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, using an aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, have been carried out on the fragmentation of 1,2,3,4,5-cyclopentanepentone, (CO)(5), to five molecules of CO. Although this reaction is calculated to be highly exothermic and is allowed to be concerted by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules, our calculations find that the D(5h) energy maximum is a multidimensional hilltop on the potential energy surface. This D(5h) hilltop is 16-20 kcal/mol higher in energy than a C(2) transition structure for the endothermic cleavage of (CO)(5) to (CO)(4) + CO and 11-15 kcal/mol higher than a C(s) transition structure for the loss of two CO molecules. The reasons for the very high energy of the D(5h) hilltop are discussed, and the geometries of the two lower energy transition structures are rationalized on the basis of mixing of the e(2)' HOMO and the a(2)″ LUMO of the hilltop.

  14. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Ion Beams: the HEDgeHOB Collaboration (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Piriz, A. R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Deutsch, C.


    Intense particle beams provide a novel tool to generate large samples of HED matter with uniform physical conditions [1]. Theoretical studies have shown that an ion beam can be employed using different experimental schemes to study HED states in matter. These include HIHEX [2,3] and LAPLAS [4,5]. The former involves isochoric and uniform heating of matter by an ion beam that is followed by isentropic expansion of the heated material. This allows one to access the entire phase diagram including those regions which can not be accessed by traditional methods of shock waves. The latter considers a multiple shock reflection technique that leads to a low-entropy compression of a test material like H or water which generates physical conditions that are expected to exist in the interior of giant planets. Interesting problems like Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities have also been investigated in detail.This work has provided the necessary basis for the HEDgeHOB proposal for future experiments at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt. [1] N.A. Tahir et al., PRE 60 (1999) 4715. [2] D.H.H. Hoffmann et al., PoP 9 (2002) 3652. [3] N.A. Tahir et al., PRL 95 (2005) 035001. [4] N.A. Tahir et al., PRE 62 (2001) 016402. [5] N.A. Tahir et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 577 (2007) 238.

  15. Central and peripheral causes of hyperreflexia in humans breathing 5% trimix at 650 m. (United States)

    Parmentier, J L; Harris, D J; Bennett, P B


    To clarify the mechanism of increased stretch reflex responsiveness in deep divers (hyperbaric hyperreflexia), comparative studies of stretch (T) and Hoffmann (H) reflexes were done on three men breathing 5% N2-0.5 bar O2-balance He at pressures up to 650 m of seawater (msw) (Atlantis IV simulated dive, F.G. Hall Laboratory, Duke Medical Center). Electromyography revealed increases at depth of up to 160% in the T reflex recruitment ratio (T reflex/Mmax) compared with surface controls. The H reflex recruitment ratio (Hmax/Mmax) did not change significantly. It is concluded that hyperbaric hyperreflexia is mainly due to increased muscle spindle sensitivity, presumably arising as a central effect on gamma-motoneuron activity. However, a purely peripheral effect of pressure on the spindle end-organ itself is not ruled out. Increases of 100-200% in muscle twitch peak force are reported and provide evidence that pressure can act directly on peripheral physiology. Postreflex clonic potentials (rebounds) during voluntary plantar flexion were significantly increased both in amplitude and number, leading to sustained clonus in one subject. In this respect, 5% N2 was less effective than 10% N2 of Atlantis III in controlling underdamping of the reflex loop. Conversely, the twitch contraction rate and clonic frequency in this study were only half as slowed compared with results from the earlier dive.

  16. Hindlimb spasticity after unilateral motor cortex lesion in rats is reduced by contralateral nerve root transfer. (United States)

    Zong, Haiyang; Ma, Fenfen; Zhang, Laiyin; Lu, Huiping; Gong, Jingru; Cai, Min; Lin, Haodong; Zhu, Yizhun; Hou, Chunlin


    Lower extremity spasticity is a common sequela among patients with acquired brain injury. The optimum treatment remains controversial. The aim of our study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of contralateral nerve root transfer in reducing post stroke spasticity of the affected hindlimb muscles in rats. In our study, we for the first time created a novel animal hindlimb spastic hemiplegia model in rats with photothrombotic lesion of unilateral motor cortex and we established a novel surgical procedure in reducing motor cortex lesion-induced hindlimb spastic hemiplegia in rats. Thirty six rats were randomized into three groups. In group A, rats received sham operation. In group B, rats underwent unilateral hindlimb motor cortex lesion. In group C, rats underwent unilateral hindlimb cortex lesion followed by contralateral L4 ventral root transfer to L5 ventral root of the affected side. Footprint analysis, Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) retrograde tracing of gastrocnemius muscle (GM) motoneurons and immunofluorescent staining of vesicle glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) on CTB-labelled motoneurons were used to assess spasticity of the affected hindlimb. Sixteen weeks postoperatively, toe spread and stride length recovered significantly in group C compared with group B (Pcortex lesion-induced hindlimb spasticity in rats. Our data indicated that this could be an alternative treatment for unilateral lower extremity spasticity after brain injury. Therefore, contralateral neurotization may exert a potential therapeutic candidate to improve the function of lower extremity in patients with spastic hemiplegia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. The effect of tone-reducing orthotic devices on soleus muscle reflex excitability while standing in patients with spasticity following stroke. (United States)

    Ibuki, Aileen; Bach, Timothy; Rogers, Douglas; Bernhardt, Julie


    Orthoses are commonly prescribed for the management of spasticity but their neurophysiologic effect on spasticity remains unsubstantiated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three tone-reducing devices (dynamic foot orthosis, muscle stretch, and orthokinetic compression garment) on soleus muscle reflex excitability while standing in patients with spasticity following stroke. A repeated measures intervention study was conducted on 13 patients with stroke selected from a sample of convenience. A custom-made dynamic foot orthosis, a range of motion walker to stretch the soleus muscle and class 1 and class 2 orthokinetic compression garments were assessed using the ratio of maximum Hoffmann reflex amplitude to maximum M-response amplitude (Hmax:Mmax) to determine their effect on soleus muscle reflex excitability. Only 10 subjects were able to complete the testing. There were no significant treatment effects for the interventions (F=1.208, df=3.232, p=0.328); however, when analyzed subject-by-subject, two subjects responded to the dynamic foot orthosis and one of those two subjects also responded to the class 1 orthokinetic compression garment. Overall, the results demonstrated that the tone-reducing devices had no significant effect on soleus reflex excitability suggesting that these tone-reducing orthotic devices have no significant neurophysiologic effect on spasticity.

  18. An Unusual Cause of Dementia: Essential Diagnostic Elements of Corticobasal Degeneration—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mastrolilli


    Full Text Available Corticobasal degeneration (CBD is an uncommon, sporadic, neurodegenerative disorder of mid- to late-adult life. We describe a further example of the pathologic heterogeneity of this condition. A 71-year-old woman initially presented dysarthria, clumsiness, progressive asymmetric bradykinesia, and rigidity in left arm. Rigidity gradually involved ipsilateral leg; postural instability with falls, blepharospasm, and dysphagia subsequently developed. She has been previously diagnosed as unresponsive Parkinson's Disease. At our clinical examination, she presented left upper-arm-fixed-dystonia, spasticity in left lower limb and pyramidal signs (Babinski and Hoffmann. Brain MRI showed asymmetric cortical atrophy in the right frontotemporal cortex. Neuropsychological examination showed an impairment in visuospatial functioning, frontal-executive dysfunction, and hemineglect. This case demonstrates that association of asymmetrical focal cortical and subcortical features remains the clinical hallmark of this condition. There are no absolute markers for the clinical diagnosis that is complicated by the variability of presentation involving also cognitive symptoms that are reviewed in the paper. Despite the difficulty of diagnosing CBD, somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, long latency reflexes, and correlations between results on electroencephalography (EEG and electromyography (EMG provide further support for a CBD diagnosis. These techniques are also used to identify neurophysiological correlates of the neurological signs of the disease.

  19. Using Drama to Promote Argumentation in Science Education. The Case of "Should've" (United States)

    Archila, Pablo Antonio


    The purpose of this study was to use drama as a springboard for promoting argumentation among 91 first-semester undergraduate medical students (56 females and 35 males, 16-30 years old) in Colombia during a complete teaching-learning sequence (TLS) supervised by the same teacher. The drama used was the play Should've, written by Nobel laureate Roald Hoffmann. The data was derived from students' written responses, audio and video recordings, and written field notes. This investigation provides evidence that an approach combining drama and argumentation could increase students' awareness of the relevance of ethics in science as one of the features of science (FOS). The findings show that the play Should've can be useful for promoting students' argumentation and is also appropriate for medical students. Future studies could include other science disciplines (e.g., astronomy, biology, chemistry, earth science, ecology, physics); students of other ages; and other plays and experiments in other parts of the world.

  20. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  1. Targeting pattern recognition receptors in cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Goutagny, Nadège; Estornes, Yann; Hasan, Uzma; Lebecque, Serge; Caux, Christophe


    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are known for many years for their role in the recognition of microbial products and the subsequent activation of the immune system. The 2011 Nobel Prize for medicine indeed rewarded J. Hoffmann/B. Beutler and R. Steinman for their revolutionary findings concerning the activation of the immune system, thus stressing the significance of understanding the mechanisms of activation of the innate immunity. Such immunostimulatory activities are of major interest in the context of cancer to induce long-term antitumoral responses. Ligands for the toll-like receptors (TLRs), a well-known family of PRR, have been shown to have antitumoral activities in several cancers. Those ligands are now undergoing extensive clinical investigations both as immunostimulant molecules and as adjuvant along with vaccines. However, when considering the use of these ligands in tumor therapy, one shall consider the potential effect on the tumor cells themselves as well as on the entire organism. Recent data indeed demonstrate that TLR activation in tumor cells could trigger both pro- or antitumoral effect depending on the context. This review discusses this balance between the intrinsic activation of PRR in tumor cells and the extrinsic microenvironment activation in term of overall effect of PRR ligands on tumor development. We review recent advances in the field and underline appealing prospects for clinical development of PRR agonists in the light of our current knowledge on their expression and activation.

  2. Yaws: 110 years after Castellani's discovery of Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V


    Yaws is a neglected infectious disease that affects mostly children and adolescents living in poor, rural communities in humid, tropical areas of Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. The etiological agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (T. pertenue), was discovered by Aldo Castellani in 1905 shortly after Schaudinn and Hoffmann discovered the etiological agent of syphilis, T. pallidum subspecies pallidum. The discovery of T. pertenue enabled the development of animal models and the identification of an effective antibiotic treatment (i.e., penicillin) for yaws. A World Health Organization (WHO) mass treatment campaign from 1952 to 1964 reduced the global burden of yaws by 95%, but failed to eradicate this disease. Today, 110 years after Castellani's discovery of T. pertenue, yaws is again targeted for eradication. Recent advances in the treatment and diagnosis of yaws improve the likelihood of success this time. However, several challenges must be overcome to make the goal of yaws eradication attainable. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Transparent thermal insulation for a fabrication hall of LHB, Salzgitter; Transparent gedaemmte Fertigungshalle bei LHB in Salzgitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetzky, A. [Linke-Hofmann-Busch Waggon - Fahrzeug - Maschinen GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Goller, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)


    Many industrial workshops in Germany were erected during the 40s and 50s, especially at the beginning of the economic boom. After more than 40 years, these facilities are in need of structural and production-technical modernization. A case in point is the carriage fabrication workshop of the Salzgitter-based company Linke-Hoffmann-Busch. The characteristic features of this type of building are large glazed areas, free uncontrolled ventilation and substantial height. Opportunities for energy-oriented and light-technical modernization are demonstrated at this Salzgitter workshop in exemplary form, the emphasis being on the use of solar energy components and, particularly, transparent thermal insulation. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland gibt es viele Produktionshallen, die in den vierziger und fuenfziger Jahren, insbesondere zu Beginn des wirtschaftlichen Aufschwungs, errichtet wurden. Diese Hallen sind nach ueber vierzig Jahren sowohl aus baulichen als auch produktionstechnischen Gruenden sanierungsbeduerftig. Die Halle 1, Waggonneubau, der Linke-Hofmann-Busch GmbH in Salzgitter ist ein typischer Vertreter dieser Art von Hallen. Sie zeichnen sich durch grosse Verglasungsflaechen, freie unkontrollierte Lueftung und relativ grosse Bauhoehe aus. Exemplarisch werden an dieser Halle Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen und lichttechnischen Sanierung aufgezeigt, wobei der Einsatz von Solarenergiekomponenten und insbesondere der Transparenten Waermedaemmung besondere Beruecksichtigung erfaehrt. (orig.)

  4. International Symposium 100 Years of Chemical Warfare : Research, Deployment, Consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Renn, Jürgen; Schmaltz, Florian; Wolf, Martin; One hundred years of chemical warfare : research, deployment, consequences; 100 Jahre Giftgaskrieg : Forschung, Einsatz, Folgen chemischer Massenvernichtungswaffen


    On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them). Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an inte...

  5. On the true identity of Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Junhao Huang


    Full Text Available Basing on the study of the type specimen of Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 preserved in the Linnean Collection in London, and here designated as the lectotype, it was found that this name was misapplied to another close species of the genus Rhinoncus Schoenherr, 1825 starting from the Paykull 1792 misidentification. As a consequence, the following new synonymies are established: Rhinoncus pericarpius (Linnaeus, 1758 [= Curculio castor Fabricius, 1792, syn. n.; = Curculio interstitialis Reich, 1787, syn. n.; = Curculio scabratus Fabricius, 1792, syn. n.; = Curculio fruticulosus Herbst, 1795, syn. n.; = Curculio interstitialis Reich, 1797, syn. n.; = Rhynchaenus seniculus Gravenhorst, 1807, syn. n.; = Campylirhynchus quadricornis (Gyllenhal, 1813 sensu Dejean, 1821: 85 [misidentification] not Rhynchaenus quadricornis Gyllenhal, 1813, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus flavipes Stephens, 1831, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus rufipes Stephens, 1831, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus granulipennis Gyllenhal, 1837, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus pyrrhopus Boheman, 1845 sensu Hatch & Kincaid,1958: 20 [misidentification] not Rhinoncus pyrrhopus Boheman, 1845, syn. n.]; and Rhinoncus leucostigma (Marsham, 1802 [ = Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 sensu Paykull, 1792 [misidentification] not Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758, syn. n.; = Cryptorhis herbstii Billberg, 1820: 43 [replacement name for Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus sensu Paykull, 1792], syn. n.; = Rhinoncus spartii Stephens, 1831, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus sanguinipes Reitter, 1916, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus pericarpius ssp. montanus Hoffmann, 1960, syn. n.]. Lectotypes are designated for Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 and Curculio leucostigma Marsham, 1802. A neotype is selected for Curculio interstitialis Reich, 1797.

  6. Fatores ambientais associados às helmintoses intestinais em áreas de assentamento subnormal, Juiz de Fora, MG Environmental factors related to intestinal helminth infections in subnormal settled areas, Juiz de Fora, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira


    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho são o de caracterizar a morbidade por infecções intestinais por helmintos e o de identificar os fatores associados a estas doenças, com ênfase para os fatores ambientais, em crianças com idade entre um ano completo e cinco anos incompletos residentes em áreas de assentamento subnormal - áreas de invasão. Utilizou-se um delineamento epidemiológico transversal de base populacional em 29 das 78 áreas de assentamento subnormal do município de Juiz de Fora - MG. A amostra foi composta por todas as crianças na faixa etária de interesse residentes nos 29 assentamentos, escolhidos de forma não aleatória. A amostra estudada totalizou 753 crianças. A coleta de dados foi feita mediante entrevistas domiciliares com a mãe ou o responsável pela criança. Utilizou-se o método de Hoffmann-Pons-Janer no exame parasitológico de fezes. Foram usados modelos de regressão logística binária para identificar fatores associados às enfermidades. Da amostra, 161 (21,38% crianças apresentaram infecções intestinais por helmintos. Os fatores associados a estas parasitoses incluíram idade da criança, renda familiar, queixas quanto à qualidade da água do sistema público e deficiências no esgotamento sanitário.The objectives of this study are the characterization of the morbidity by intestinal helminth infections and the identification of the factors associated with these diseases, with emphasis on environmental factors, in children ranging from one to five incomplete years old residing in subnormal settlement areas - invasion areas. A population-based cross-sectional epidemiological design was used in 29 out of the 78 subnormal settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG. The sample consisted of all children at the age of interest residing in the 29 settlement areas, not chosen at random. The assessed sample amounted to 753 children. Data were collected by means of domiciliary interviews with their

  7. Towards Direct Numerical Simulation of mass and energy fluxes at the soil-atmospheric interface with advanced Lattice Boltzmann methods (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Krafczyk, Manfred; Geier, Martin; Schönherr, Martin


    peak performance of modern General Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU, [6]) allowing the simulation of several minutes real-time for an LES LBM model. In our contribution we will present detailed profiles of the velocity distribution for different surface roughnesses, describe our multi-scale approach for the advection diffusion and estimate water vapour fluxes from transient simulations of the coupled problem. REFERENCES [1] J. Fröhlich and D. von Terzi. Hybrid LES/RANS methods for the simulation of turbulent flows. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 44(5):349 - 377, 2008. [2] S. Chen and G. D. Doolen, Annual Review, of Fluid Mechanics 30, 329, 1998, [3] S. Seeger and K. H. Hoffmann, The cumulant method for computational kinetic theory, Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 12:403-421, 2000. [4] S. Seeger and K. H. Hoffmann, The cumulant method applied to a mixture of Maxwell gases, Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 14:321-335, 2002. [5] S. Freudiger, J. Hegewald and M. Krafczyk. A parallelisation concept for a mult-physics Lattice Boltzmann prototype based on hierarchical grids. Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, 8(1):168-178, 2008. [6] M. Schönherr, K. Kucher, M. Geier, M. Stiebler, S. Freudiger and M. Krafczyk, Multi- thread implementations of the Lattice Boltzmann method on non-uniform grids for CPUs and GPUs. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 61(12):3730-3743, 2011.

  8. Enteropatógenos relacionados à diarréia em pacientes HIV que fazem uso de terapia anti-retroviral Enteropathogens relating to diarrhea in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Regina Telles Pupulin


    Full Text Available A etiologia do processo diarréico na AIDS pode ser causada por vírus, bactérias, fungos, protozoários e helmintos, assim como pelo próprio HIV. Este trabalho avaliou enteropatogenos relacionados à diarréia em pacientes HIV que fazem uso de terapia anti-retroviral. Os métodos parasitológicos utilizados foram Faust, Hoffmann e Kinyoun. O isolamento e cultura dos fungos foram realizados conforme metodologia recomendada por NCCLS M27-A standard. A identificação das espécies de leveduras foi realizada através da reação em cadeia da polimerase. O isolamento de bactérias, foi feito em agar Mac Conkey e agar SS, a identificação das espécies através do Enterokit B (Probac do Brasil e métodos bioquímicos. Foram avaliados 49 pacientes, 44,9% apresentaram enteroparasitas, 48,1% Candida sp com 61,5% Candida albicans, 7,6% Candida sp e 30,7% Candida não- albicans. Foram isoladas bactérias de 72% dos pacientes, 49% Escherichia coli, 13% Salmonella parathyphi, Klebsiella sp ou Proteus e 6% Citrobacter freundii ou Yersinia sp. Houve alta prevalência de Candida sp nos pacientes HIV com diarréia e foram isoladas espécies não albicans cuja presença pode ser entendida como cúmplice ou causa da infecção.The etiology of the diarrheic process in AIDS may be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa or helminths, as well as HIV itself. This study evaluated enteropathogens relating to diarrhea in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. The parasitological methods used were Faust, Hoffmann and Kinyoun. Isolation and culturing of fungi were carried out in accordance with the methodology recommended by the NCCLS M27-A standard. The yeast species were identified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Bacteria were isolated on MacConkey and SS agar and the species were identified using Enterokit B (Probac do Brasil and biochemical methods. Forty-nine patients were evaluated: 44.89% presented enteroparasites and 48.1% presented

  9. Carbonate speleothems from western Mediterranean gypsum karst: palaeoclimate implications (United States)

    Columbu, Andrea; Drysdale, Russell; Woodhead, Jon; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Hellstrom, John; Forti, Paolo; Sanna, Laura


    Gypsum caves are uncommon environments for carbonate speleothems (cave deposits). Contrary to limestone caves, the only source of non-atmospheric carbon is from biogenic CO2 produced by the overlying soils. Enhanced CO2 content in soils is in turn related with climate, where warm temperatures and high humidity favour plant activity .().....(Fairchild and Baker, 2012). Although poorly decorated, the exploration of northern Italian and Spanish gypsum karst systems reveals the existence of several generations of carbonate speleothems, which have been dated with the U-Th series method .()......(Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). Their ages coincide with current and previous two interglacials (MIS 1, 5e and 7e and Greenland interstadials (GIS) 19, 20, 21 and 24. Considering that these periods are amongst the most pronounced warm-wet pulsations over the last 250,000 ...(Martrat et al., 2007; NGRIP, 2004), and that CO2 has a fundamental role in this karst process, this study explores the climate-driven hydrogeological conditions necessary to trigger carbonate deposition in gypsum voids. The further correlation with sapropel events 5, 4, 3 and 1, considered symptomatic of enhanced rainfall across the whole Mediterranean basin .(.)(Emeis et al., 1991), highlights the importance of flow-rate in the fracture network and infiltration of meteoric water into the caves. The combination of high CO2 and a phreatic status of the fracture network is thus indispensable for the formation of carbonate speleothems in gypsum karst. This condition appears to be triggered by periods of orbital precession minimum, when the monsoonal activity peaked in the Atlantic area. Stable oxygen isotope signatures suggest that the speleothems did not grow during any interglacial-glacial or main interstadial-stadial transitions, confirming that variations from optimum climate conditions may hamper the formation of this category of speleothems. New speleological exploration and sampling campaign

  10. Smog chamber experiments to investigate Henry's law constants of glyoxal using different seed aerosols as well as imidazole formation in the presence of ammonia (United States)

    Jakob, Ronit


    such as ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sodium nitrate. The aim of this campaign was to investigate Henry's law constants for different seed aerosols. Additionally imidazole formation was studied. During the campaign filter samples were taken to investigate the amount of glyoxal and imidazole in the particle phase. After filter extraction and derivatisation of glyoxal, the compounds were measured using UHPLC-ESI-HR-MS. Additionally, gas-phase glyoxal has been analysed during the campaign. The results will be used to calculate the Henry's law constants. In this work, results of the glyoxal study as well as imidazole formation are presented. [1] J. Schnelle-Kreis, M. Sklorz, H. Herrmann, R. Zimmermann, Chem. Unserer Zeit, 2007, 41, 220-230 [2] M. M. Galloway, P. S. Chhabra, A. W. H. Chan, J. D. Surratt, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, F. N. Keutsch, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 9, 3331-3345, 2009 [3] C. J. Kampf, E. M. Waxman, J. G. Slowik, J. Dommen, L. Pfaffenberger, A. P. Praplan, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, T. Hoffmann, R. Volkamer, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, 47, 4236-4244 [4] C. J. Kampf, R. Jakob, T. Hoffmann, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6323-6333, 2012

  11. Echosonography and surgical therapy of facial skin tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Zoran U.


    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20 century, echosonography has been used in many medical specialties. In 1992 and 1993 highfrequencies echosonography was used in the examination of irritant and allergic skin lesions in order to examine the effects of different therapeuthical agents on the skin lesions [1-4]. Hoffmann used highfrequencies echosonography in the examination of healing of skin lesions [3]. By their incidence skin tumors are the largest group of newly discovered tumors, and their usual location is on the face [5-7]. By clinical examination it is not possible to precisely determine the depth of tumor border; therefore, the radically performed surgical excision is the only correct surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the results of preoperatively performed high frequencies echosonography in order to reduce the number of incorrectly performed surgical excisions of skin tumors. The group was composed of 40 patients with 45 tumors, who first underwent echosonographic diagnostic procedure (20 MHz, Hadsund electronic, Hadsund Technology, Denmark and then surgical excision; patients in control group (45 patients with 45 tumors were only subjected to surgical excision. Excised tumors were then pathohistologically analyzed, and measurements of tumor depth progression were performed. Margins of pathohistological specimen were controlled for the presence of tumor cells. Results of measurements of tumor depth obtained by echosonography and pathohistological measurements were compared. By Jate's modification of c2 test results regarding correct and incorrect surgical excision in patients and control group were compared. By linear regression analysis results of tumor depth obtained by echosonographic and pathohistologic examinations were compared. Hypoechogen zone echosonographic results were used like criteria for tumor expansion. Results of tumor depth measurements are presented in Table 1. Linear regression analysis showed (R = 0

  12. Age and speleogenesis of epigenic gypsum caves in the northern Apennines (Italy) (United States)

    Columbu, Andrea; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Drysdale, Russell; Forti, Paolo; Hellstrom, John; Woodhead, Jon


    Triassic and Messinian gypsum beds host the majority of the caves in the eastern flank of the northern Apennines. To date, more than six hundreds voids have been mapped, including the longest known epigenic gypsum cave system in the world (Spipola-Acquafredda, ~11 km of tunnels) (De Waele et al., 2013). Superimposed caves are typically sub-horizontal (Klimchouk, 2000) and connected through vertical shafts, reflecting the palaeo base-level variations. When preserved, river terraces at the surface lie at the same palaeo altitude of the base level and horizontal cave passages. Notwithstanding the well-known geology of the area known (Vai and Martini, 2001), the age of these caves has been greatly underestimated in the past. Considering the rapid dissolution of the gypsum and uplifting of the area, the start of speleogenesis activity was considered to have occurred during the last glacial age. The age of karst voids can be only indirectly estimated by the dating of the infilling sediments. U-Th dating on carbonate speleothems provides high-precision and accurate ages (Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). We thus applied this methodology to 20 speleothems coming from 14 different caves belonging to the Monte Tondo, Spipola Acquafredda, Castelnuovo, Stella-Rio Basino and Brisighella systems. The results show that: i) caves were forming since at least ~300 ka; ii) the peak of speleogenesis was reached during relatively cold climate stages, when rivers formed terraces at the surface and aggradation caused paragenesis in the stable cave levels (Columbu et al., 2015). Besides the significant contribution to the understanding of the Apennines evaporite karst evolution, this study (and its further advancement) may also refine knowledge of the local vs regional uplifting rates and base-level variations since the late Pleistocene (Wegmann and Pazzaglia, 2009). References Columbu, A., De Waele, J., Forti, P., Montagna, P., Picotti, V., Pons-Branchu, E., Hellstrom, J

  13. PREFACE: International Conference "Trends in Spintronics and Nanomagnetism" (TSN-2010) (United States)

    Maruccio, Giuseppe; Sanvito, Stefano; Hoffmann, Germar; Wiesendanger, Roland; Rowan, Alan


    Dublin, Ireland), Germar Hoffmann and Roland Wiesendanger (Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany), and Alan Rowan (NSRIM Institute Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands). This group also acted as the Publication Committee and managed all the submitted papers that were reviewed by expert referees in order to meet the standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Conference photographNobel Laureate A Fert with some members of the organizing committee. The conference would not have been possible without the support from the local organizing committee at the University of Salento and NNL Institute Nanoscience-CNR, including Anna Paola Caricato, Luigi Martina and the Conference Secretaries Maria Concetta Gerardi, Adriana Amato, and Gabriella Zammillo. We are grateful for the technical assistance of Michele Linciano, Antonio Guerrieri, Carmine Mangia, Luciano Carluccio, and Tommaso Moscara e Francesco Sabetta. We also gratefully acknowledge Serena Chiriacó, Anna Grazia Mondeduro and Massimo Corrado who helped to run the conference. The conference was made possible by the financial support from the European Commission through the SpiDME project (EU-FP6-029002), the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the University of Lecce and its Department of Physics, and all of the sponsors (Lot Oriel, Attocube, Schaefer, Cryogenic Ltd, Oxford Instruments, MTI Corporation, Cantele, Monte dei Paschi di Siena). Conference Chair and Co-Chairs Giuseppe MaruccioStefano SanvitoGermar HoffmannRoland WiesendangerAlan Rowan Logos

  14. Large Early Permian eruptive complexes in northern Saxony, Germany: Volcanic facies analysis and geochemical characterization (United States)

    Hübner, Marcel; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Repstock, Alexander; Heuer, Franziska


    In the course of formation of extensional basins during the Early Permian a widespread volcanic activity led to the deposition of volcanic and volcanosedimentary units in Saxony (Walter 2006, Hoffmann et al. 2013). Situated east of Leipzig, the North Saxonian Volcanic Complex (NSVC) hosts two large caldera complexes, the Rochlitz and Wurzen Volcanic Systems, with diameters of 90 and 52 km, respectively. Volume estimates (> 1000 km3) qualify these as supereruptions according to Mason et al. (2004). In addition to the large caldera systems, the NSVC hosts several small pyroclastic flow deposits ranging from crystal-poor (e.g. Cannewitz and vitrophyric Ebersbach ignimbrites) to crystal-rich units (Wermsdorf and Dornreichenbach ignimbrites). Additionally rhyolitic lava and subvolcanic units are present. The Chemnitz basin (Schneider et al. 2012), located to the south of the NSVC, harbours caldera-outflow facies deposits of the Rochlitz eruption (Fischer 1991), i.e. the partially vitrophyric Planitz ignimbrite. The Rochlitz and Wurzen caldera-fill ignimbrites exhibit relatively high crystal contents with maxima up to 52 and 58 vol.-%, for corresponding 66 and 68 wt.-% SiO2. This is comparable with the 'monotonous intermediates' (Hildreth 1981) in the Cenozoic western USA investigated by Huber et al. (2012). In contrast, the Planitz ignimbrite in the Chemnitz basin reveals predominantly crystal-poor pyroclastics ( 70 analyses), and mineral geochemistry to reconstruct the eruption history and magma genesis of this large Late Paleozoic magmatic complex in Central Europe. Volcanic textures and geochemical trends indicate magma mingling and mixing to have been important during the formation of the Wurzen caldera system. Geothermometric and -barometric calculations based on composition of pyroxene and feldspar suggest deeply seated crustal magma chambers for the NSVC and the Planitz ignimbrite. Fischer, F. (1991): Das Rotliegende des ostthüringisch-westsächsischen Raumes

  15. Past climate variability between 97 and 7 ka reconstructed from a multi proxy speleothem record from Western Cuba (United States)

    Winterhalder, Sophie; Scholz, Denis; Mangini, Augusto; Spötl, Christoph; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Pajón, Jesús M.


    . Due to the competing influence of the NA, the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, the proposed severe changes in the tropical hydrological cycle during that time (such as variations of the ITCZ, insolation and the thermohaline circulation (THC)) have potentially lead to significant changes in sources and trajectories of precipitation in Western Cuba. Our record, thus, provides an important contribution towards understanding and differentiating these parameters on Caribbean climate during glacial climate changes. References: Fensterer, C., Scholz, D., Hoffmann, D., Spötl, C., Pajón, J.M., Mangini, A., 2012. Cuban stalagmite suggests relationship between Caribbean precipitation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation during the past 1.3 ka. The Holocene, 0959683612449759. Fensterer, C., Scholz, D., Hoffmann, D.L., Spötl, C., Schröder-Ritzrau, A., Horn, C., Pajón, J.M., Mangini, A., 2013. Millennial-scale climate variability during the last 12.5 ka recorded in a Caribbean speleothem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 361, 143-151. Winter, A., Miller, T., Kushnir, Y., Sinha, A., Timmermann, A., Jury, M.R., Gallup, C., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., 2011. Evidence for 800years of North Atlantic multi-decadal variability from a Puerto Rican speleothem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 308, 23-28.

  16. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene alluvial-aeolian sediments caused by GIA induced seismicity along the Osning Thrust (northern Germany) (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta


    Historic sources report that northern Germany was affected by significant earthquakes during the last 500 years (Leydecker 2009), but the only modern study so far on earthquake related soft-sediment deformation structures was carried out by Hoffmann and Reicherter (2012) for the Baltic Sea coast area of northeastern Germany. We present new data on seismically triggered soft-sediment deformation structures in Pleniglacial to Late Glacial alluvial fan and aeolian sand-sheet deposits of the upper Senne (Münsterland Embayment) and link this soft-sediment deformation directly to Late Glacial earthquakes generated along the Osning Thrust, which is one of the major fault systems in Central Europe. The reactivation of the Mesozoic Osning Thrust was an effect of glacial isostatic adjustment during the Pleniglacial to Late Glacial (Brandes et al., 2012). Young tectonic activity in this area is indicated by the 1612 Bielefeld earthquake (Vogt & Grünthal 1994). The analysed soft-sediment deformation structures are exposed in two sand pits in the vicinity of the Osning Thrust and include a complex fault and fold pattern, clastic dykes, sand volcanoes, sills, irregular intrusive sedimentary bodies, flower- to antler-like dewatering structures, flame structures, and ball-and-pillow structures. There is a distinct variation of the soft-sediment deformation style parallel to the trend of the Osning Thrust. In the northwestern part of the study area, close to Oerlinghausen there is a wide range of structures developed that is mainly related to fluidization processes. In contrast, in the southeast only flower- to antler-like dewatering structures and normal fault-arrays occur. This might indicate that the epicentre of the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial seismic event was close to Oerlinghausen. It is the first time in northern Germany, that fluidization and liquefaction features can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleniglacial to Late

  17. Analysis: New point-of-care blood glucose monitoring system for the hospital demonstrates satisfactory analytical accuracy using blood from critically ill patients--an important step toward improved blood glucose control in the hospital. (United States)

    Joseph, Jeffrey I


    Patients managed in the intensive care units (ICUs) and general wards of the hospital experience a high incidence of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability, despite significant hospital resources devoted to glucose control. Optimized glucose meters and monitoring systems are required to improve the safety and efficacy of insulin delivery and glucose control in the hospital. Safe insulin dosing requires timely and accurate glucose measurements, especially during dynamic changes in nutrition, insulin sensitivity, and physiological stress. In the current issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Mitsios and coauthors describe the analytical accuracy of the new Accu-Check® Inform II blood glucose (BG) monitoring system commercialized by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. The point-of-care glucose meter achieved the desired degree of accuracy and precision, as defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute POCT12-A3 guidelines when evaluated using venous blood from 600 critically ill patients from multiple ICUs at two medical centers. Venous whole blood samples were used to obtain glucose meter results in duplicate. The remaining blood sample was centrifuged to obtain plasma for central hospital laboratory testing using the hexokinase method within 5 min of meter testing. A total of 98.8% of the 1200 Accu-Check Inform II meter's glucose values were within ± 12.5% (± 12 mg/dl) of the mean laboratory glucose value, and 99.8% were within ± 20% (± 20 mg/dl), thus meeting the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. Future studies are required to evaluate the clinical performance of the new BG monitoring system in the intended-use patient populations and critical care environments, using arterial, peripheral venous, central venous, and capillary blood samples. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Effect of air-abrasion on the retention of zirconia ceramic crowns luted with different cements before and after artificial aging. (United States)

    Shahin, Ramez; Kern, Matthias


    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of intaglio surface air-abrasion on the retention of CAD/CAM produced zirconia ceramic crowns cemented with three different types of cement. In addition the influence of artificial aging in masticatory simulator and thermocycling was tested. Extracted human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic crowns (12 degrees taper, 3 mm axial length). CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were manufactured. Half of the crowns were air-abraded with 50 microm alumina particles at 0.25 MPa, the rest was left as machined. The crowns were luted with zinc phosphate cement (Hoffmann), glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), or composite resin (Panavia 21), subgroups were either stored for 3 days in 37 degrees water bath or stored for 150 days in 37 degrees water bath, with additional 37,500 thermal cycles (5-55 degrees) and 300,000 cycles dynamic loading with 5 kg in a masticatory simulator. Then crown retention was measured in tension at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed with three-way ANOVA. Mean retention values were ranged from 2.8 to 7.1 MPa after 3 days and from 1.6 to 6.1 MPa after artificial aging. Air-abrasion significantly increased crown retention (paging decreased retention (p=0.017). In addition, the luting material had a significant influence on retention (p<0.001) with the adhesive luting resin providing the highest retention. The use of phosphate monomer containing composite resin on air-abraded zirconia ceramic can be recommended as most retentive luting method. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal parasitosis and socio-environmental factor sof a population from peri-urban area of Manaus - AM

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    Cecília Leite Motta de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patients who sought a Basic Health Unit and get to know the conditions and socio-environmental characteristics of a population of peri-urban area of Manaus - AM, Brazil. Methods: A study conducted by spontaneous demand of patients in a Basic Health Unit, Northern Zone of Manaus, Amazonas, between April and July 2007, conducting parasitological examination in 400 stool samples by Hoffmann-Pons-Janer’s method, and interviews. Results: From the total, 271/400 (67,8% contained parasites; 181/268 (45,25% samples were of females; 147/224 (36,7% aged between 19 and 85 years; 119/170 (29,75% with incomplete elementary school; 207/299 (51.75% with a family income between one and three minimum wages; 220/316 (55% were natural from Amazonas; 192/284 (48% worked at home; 199/298 (49,7% consumed water from artesian public well; 106/152 (26.5% treated the water; 165/248 (66% did not treat the consumed water. The most frequent helminthes found: Ascaris lumbricoides 48 (12%, Enterobius vermicularis 44 (11%, Ancilostomídeos 38 (9,5%. Protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica 83 (20,8%, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana, 79 (19,8% e 79 (19,8% respectively, Giardia lamblia 41 (10,3% and Iodamoeba butschlii 17 (4,3%. It was observed monoparasitism for E. histolytica 83 (20,8%, biparasitism 104/271 (26% E. histolytica and A. lumbricóides, E. histolytica and E. vermicularis, E. histolytica and G. lamblia. Conclusions:   We recorded a high prevalence of parasites in young people with low income, low cultural level, predominantly women of the household. Among the environmental factors associated with these indexes are a deficiency in water services and sanitary sewer.

  20. Effects of 4 weeks of low-load unilateral resistance training, with and without blood flow restriction, on strength, thickness, V wave, and H reflex of the soleus muscle in men. (United States)

    Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Vera-Ibáñez, Antonio; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo


    To test the effects of 4 weeks of unilateral low-load resistance training (LLRT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle thickness, volitional wave (V wave), and Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) of the soleus muscle. Twenty-two males were randomly distributed into three groups: a control group (CTR; n = 8); a low-load blood flow restriction resistance training group (BFR-LLRT; n = 7), who were an inflatable cuff to occlude blood flow; and a low-load resistance training group without blood flow restriction (LLRT; n = 7). The training consisted of four sets of unilateral isometric LLRT (25% of MVC) three times a week over 4 weeks. MVC increased 33% (P trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. The soleus thickness increased 9.5% (P trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. However, neither MVC nor thickness changed in either of the legs tested in the CTR group (MVC -1 and -5%, and muscle thickness 1.9 and 1.2%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Moreover, V wave and H reflex did not change significantly in all the groups studied (V wave /M wave ratio -7.9 and -2.6%, and H max /M max ratio -3.8 and -4%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Collectively, the present data suggest that in spite of the changes occurring in soleus strength and thickness, 4 weeks of low-load resistance training, with or without BFR, does not cause any change in neural drive or motoneuronal excitability.

  1. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister J


    Full Text Available Johanna Lister,1 Sanja Stanisic,1 Klaus Kaier,2 Christian Hagist,2 Dmitry Gultyaev,1 Stefan Walzer31Analytica LA-SER International Inc, Lörrach, Germany; 2Research Centre for Generational Contracts, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Methods: Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working full-time and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work.Conclusion: This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, economic model, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

  2. Live cell imaging reveals different modes of cytotoxic action of extracts derived from commonly used luting cements. (United States)

    Trumpaitė-Vanagienė, Rita; Čebatariūnienė, Alina; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Pūrienė, Alina; Pivoriūnas, Augustas


    To compare cytotoxicity of extracts derived from commonly used luting cements: Hoffmann's Zinc Phosphate (ZPC), GC Fuji Plus Resin Modified Glass Ionomer (RMGIC) and 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem Resin Cement (RC) on primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). HGFs were exposed to different concentrations of the ZPC, RMGIC and RC extracts. The cytotoxicity was assessed with the PrestoBlue Cell Viability Reagent and viable cells were counted by a haemocytometer using the trypan blue exclusion test. In order to determine the primary mechanism of the cell death induced by extracts from different luting cements, the real-time monitoring of caspase-3/-7 activity and membrane integrity of cells was employed. The extracts from the RMGIC and ZPC decreased the metabolic activity and numbers of viable cells. Unexpectedly, the extracts from the RC evoked only small effects on the metabolic activity of HGFs with a decreasing number of viable cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The live cell imaging revealed that the apoptosis was the primary mechanism of a cell death induced by the extracts derived from the RMGIC, whereas the extracts from the RC and ZPC induced a cell death through a necrotic and caspase-independent pathway. The apoptosis was the primary mechanism of the cell death induced by the extracts derived from the RMGIC, whereas the extracts from the RC and ZPC induced a cell death via a necrotic pathway. We suggest that metabolic assays commonly used to assess the cytotoxicity of luting cements should be validated by alternative methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Once-Monthly Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator (C.E.R.A.) in Patients with Hemodialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease: Pooled Data from Phase III Trials. (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Choukroun, Gabriel; Truman, Matt; Wiggenhauser, Alfons; Fliser, Danilo


    00882713/NCT00550680/NCT00576303/NCT00660023/NCT00717821/NCT00642850/NCT00605293/NCT00661505/NCT00699348. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.

  4. Progressive supranuclear palsy presenting as primary lateral sclerosis but lacking parkinsonism, gaze palsy, aphasia, or dementia. (United States)

    Nagao, Shigeto; Yokota, Osamu; Nanba, Reiko; Takata, Hiroshi; Haraguchi, Takashi; Ishizu, Hideki; Ikeda, Chikako; Takeda, Naoya; Oshima, Etsuko; Sakane, Katsuaki; Terada, Seishi; Ihara, Yuetsu; Uchitomi, Yosuke


    We report an autopsy case of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) that clinically showed only slowly progressive and symmetric upper motor neuron syndrome over a disease course of 12 years. A female patient initially exhibited dysarthria at the age of 65, followed by gait disturbance and dysphagia. Neurological examination at age 67 disclosed pseudobulbar palsy, spastic gait, hyperreflexia, and presence of bilateral Hoffmann and Babinski signs. However, muscle atrophy, weakness, evidence of denervation on electromyography, vertical gaze palsy, parkinsonism, gait freezing, aphasia, speech apraxia, or dementia was not noted throughout the course. She was clinically diagnosed as having motor neuron disease consistent with so-called primary lateral sclerosis. Pathological examination disclosed histopathological features of PSP, including argyrophilic and tau-positive tufted astrocytes, neurofibrillary tangles, coiled bodies, and thread-like processes in the motor cortex and superior frontal gyrus, and to a lesser degree, in the basal ganglia and brain stem nuclei. In addition, severe fibrillary gliosis was noted in the precentral gyrus and corticospinal tract, being consistent with upper motor neuron syndrome observed in this case. No TAR-DNA binding protein 43-positive lesion, FUS pathology, Bunina body, or Lewy body-like hyaline inclusion was noted in the motor cortex or lower motor neurons. These findings suggest that when tau pathology is prominent in the motor cortex but is minimal in the basal ganglia and brain stem nuclei, a PSP case can lack all classic clinical features of PSP and show only slowly progressive upper motor syndrome, consistent with clinical picture of primary lateral sclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antihyperalgesic activity of nucleoside transport inhibitors in models of inflammatory pain in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes SS


    Full Text Available Sabine S Maes,1,2 Stefan Pype,1 Vincent LH Hoffmann,3 Maria Biermans,1 Theo F Meert11CNS Discovery Research, Pain and Neurology, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, a Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica, Beerse, Belgium; 2Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Treatment Center, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The NetherlandsBackground and methods: The role of the endogenous purine nucleoside, adenosine, in nociception is well established. Inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1 prevents adenosine uptake into cells, and could therefore enhance the antinociceptive properties of adenosine. The effects of ENT1 inhibition were studied in two animal models of inflammatory pain. Analgesic activity was assessed in a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced and carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia model in the guinea pig.Results: Draflazine, dipyridamole, dilazep, lidoflazine, soluflazine, and KF24345 showed efficacy in the CFA thermal hyperalgesia model. Draflazine, the most potent compound in this test, was further characterized in the CFA model of mechanical hyperalgesia and the carrageenan inflammation model of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, where it completely reversed the hypersensitivity. The antihyperalgesic effects of draflazine (10 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously were attenuated by the A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (5–40 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally, by the nonselective adenosine antagonist, caffeine (10–40 mg/kg intraperitoneally, and by the A2 antagonist, DMPX (10 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally.Conclusion: ENT1 inhibition is an effective way of reversing mechanical and thermal inflammatory hyperalgesia in the guinea pig, and these effects are mediated by enhancement of endogenous adenosine levels. Both A1 and A2 adenosine receptor subtypes are likely to

  6. [Value of neurophysiological studies in diagnostic verification of carpal tunnel syndrome]. (United States)

    Patsalis, T; Gravill, N


    The success of surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome depends largely on correct diagnosis. Nerve conduction studies are usually recommended, especially in cases where history and clinical signs are not very clear. The aim of this study is to show whether nerve conduction studies are helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Fifty-two cases of carpal tunnel decompression (39 patients, 13 male, 26 female, mean age 54 years) were included in the study. Prior to surgery, all patients underwent standardized nerve conduction studies. One patient who developed RSD was excluded. In 33 cases the history was typical for carpal tunnel syndrome (Phalen 1966). The surgical result was classified excellent in 67% and good in 33%. Nerve conduction studies had failed to confirm the diagnosis in five cases, although duration as well as severity of symptoms did not differ from the other cases. In 18 cases the patients' history was considered atypical. Nerve conduction studies indicated carpal tunnel syndrome in 89%. The result of median nerve decompression was satisfactory in 78% (excellent in 45% and good in 33%) and unsatisfactory in 22% of the cases. Notably patients with unsatisfactory results had positive nerve conduction studies. The Phalen and Hoffmann-Tinel testing produced no false-positive results in these cases. General analysis showed that age, severity and duration of symptoms did not significantly influence the result. However, patients with atypical symptoms had a higher incidence of radiological evidence of cervical spondyloarthritis (50 versus 30% in patients with typical symptoms). The results of our nerve conduction studies indicated a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 92%, comparable favourably with other reports. We conclude that in patients with classical symptoms nerve conduction studies are not absolutely necessary. However, when symptoms are atypical the diagnosis cannot be based on nerve conduction studies alone. The false-positive results delivered

  7. The relationship between the sensory responses to ankle-joint loading and corticomotor excitability. (United States)

    Needle, Alan R; Baumeister, Jochen; Farquhar, William B; Greaney, Jody L; Higginson, Jill S; Kaminski, Thomas W; Swanik, C Buz


    Maintaining joint stability is dependent on the ability of the nervous system to sense and react to potentially injurious loads. In attempts to understand the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying joint stability, this afferent and efferent activity has been quantified separately at the cortical, segmental and peripheral levels using various electrophysiologic techniques in vivo. However, no studies have attempted to quantify sensory and motor activation at multiple levels of the nervous system in a single subset, to understand potential adaptations for optimizing joint stability. Muscle spindle afferent activity and sensory cortex event-related desynchronization were quantified during ankle-joint loading; and motor excitability was assessed through transcranial magnetic stimulation and the Hoffmann reflex in a subset of 42 able-bodied individuals. Microneurography and electroencephalography were used to collect the muscle spindle afferent and sensory cortex activation, respectively, as joint load was applied using an ankle arthrometer. Separately, motor-evoked potentials were obtained from the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex, and compared to the reflexive responses evoked via sciatic nerve electrical stimulation. Correlation coefficients revealed significant correlations between the motor threshold of the soleus and early muscle spindle afferent activity (r = -0.494) and early cortical event-related desynchronization (r = 0.470), as well as tibialis anterior motor-evoked potential size and late muscle spindle afferent activity (r = 0.499). The results of this study highlight the nervous system's capability to offset motor output based on the volume of sensory input at the segmental and cortical levels.

  8. In vitro model for DNA double-strand break repair analysis in breast cancer reveals cell type-specific associations with age and prognosis. (United States)

    Deniz, Miriam; Kaufmann, Julia; Stahl, Andreea; Gundelach, Theresa; Janni, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Isabell; Keimling, Marlen; Hampp, Stephanie; Ihle, Michaela; Wiesmüller, Lisa


    Dysfunction of homologous recombination is a common denominator of changes associated with breast cancer-predisposing mutations. In our previous work, we identified a functional signature in peripheral blood lymphocytes from women who were predisposed that indicated a shift from homologous recombination to alternative, error-prone DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. To capture both hereditary and nonhereditary factors, we newly established a protocol for isolation and ex vivo analysis of epithelial cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition cells (EMTs), and fibroblasts from breast cancer specimens (147 patients). By applying a fluorescence-based test system, we analyzed the error-prone DSB repair pathway microhomology-mediated end joining in these tumor-derived cell types and peripheral blood lymphocytes. In parallel, we investigated DNA lesion processing by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of histone H2AX phosphorylated on Ser139 focus after radiomimetic treatment. Our study reveals elevated histone H2AX phosphorylated on Ser139 damage removal in epithelial cells, not EMTs, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitor sensitivities, which suggested a DSB repair pathway shift with increasing patient age. Of interest, we found elevated microhomology-mediated end joining in EMTs, not epithelial cells, from patients who received a treatment recommendation of adjuvant chemotherapy, that is, those with high-risk tumors. Our discoveries of altered DSB repair activities in cells may serve as a method to further classify breast cancer to predict responsiveness to adjuvant chemotherapy and/or therapeutics that target DSB repair-dysfunctional tumors.-Deniz, M., Kaufmann, J., Stahl, A., Gundelach, T., Janni, W., Hoffmann, I., Keimling, M., Hampp, S., Ihle, M., Wiesmüller, L. In vitro model for DNA double-strand break repair analysis in breast cancer reveals cell type-specific associations with age and prognosis. © FASEB.

  9. Mesenteric cryptococcal granuloma in a dog caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii

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    Rodrigues-Hoffmann A


    Full Text Available Jennifer R Cook, Karen E Russell, Kristin B Eden, Aline Rodrigues-HoffmannDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Although cryptococcosis is usually associated with respiratory and neurologic signs in domestic species (such as sneeze, cough, nasal discharge, seizures, ataxia, clinical manifestations of the disease may be more subtle and nonspecific. A 3-year-old male castrated Boxer dog presented with a history of chronic vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and lethargy. At no time had respiratory or neurologic signs been noted by the owners or the primary care veterinarian. Palpation of an abdominal mass revealed an atypical lesion location: a large (16 × 9 × 7 cm mass at the root of the mesentery. Diagnosis was achieved through cytology of this mass and a positive serologic Cryptococcus capsular antigen titer; polymerase chain reaction was utilized for speciation of the abdominal isolate as Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii. The animal was euthanized due to poor prognosis. After necropsy and histopathologic analysis, the mesenteric mass and associated lymph nodes were identified as large fungal granulomas. This is a rare manifestation of cryptococcosis, involving several visceral organs, with no remaining evidence of the route of entry of the organism. As prompt diagnosis of mycotic illness is paramount to successful management, this case indicates that cryptococcal infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with gastrointestinal signs and lymphadenopathy. The protean nature of cryptococcosis is discussed within the context of a brief review of emerging and unresolved issues in pathogenesis.Keywords: Cryptococcus gattii, granuloma, lymphadenitis

  10. Pharmacokinetics of thymosin alpha1 after subcutaneous injection of three different formulations in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Rost, K L; Wierich, W; Masayuki, F; Tuthill, C W; Horwitz, D L; Herrmann, W M


    Thymosin alpha1, an immunomodulatory endogenous peptide, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C. In this study, single- and 5-day multiple-dose pharmacokinetics were characterized in nine Caucasian volunteers after subcutaneous administration of 900 microg/m2 thymosin alpha1. Using a randomized, 3-way crossover design three available drug formulations were compared: Zadaxin (SciClone), Timosina (Sclavo), and Thymosin alpha1 (Tal-HLR; Hoffmann La Roche). AUC, Cmax, t(max), t(1/2), Cl/f, and the volume of distribution, V(Z)/f, were derived by model-independent methods. Endogenous serum concentrations were below the limit of quantification (0.10 microg/l) of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in most subjects. Thymosin alpha1 was well absorbed with a mean t(max) between 1-2 hours from all galenic formulations. Cmax concentrations of 30 to 80 microg/l and AUC(0-infinity) from 95 to 267 microg x h/l did not differ between single- and multiple-dose administration of all drugs. This apparent lack of accumulation was supported by the short elimination half-life of less than 3 hours. As indicated by a V(Z)/f in the range of 30-40 l, thymosin alpha1 appears to distribute within the extracellular volume. AUC and Cmax were similar for Zadaxin and T alpha1-HLR, but higher after administration of Timosina. Thymosin alpha1 kinetics from this study are comparable to those previously obtained in Japanese volunteers or cancer patients, but may be influenced by the drug formulation used.

  11. Prevention of Thumb Web Space Contracture With Multiplanar External Fixation. (United States)

    Harper, Carl M; Iorio, Matthew L


    Thumb web space contracture following hand trauma can be disabling with numerous reconstructive procedures existing to correct the resultant deformity. Following marked soft tissue injury to the hand we utilized the Stryker Hoffmann II Micro External Fixator System to link the first and second metacarpals by a multiplanar system using 1.6 or 2.0 mm self-drilling half-pins and 3 mm carbon fiber connecting rods. This facilitated placement of the thumb in maximal palmar abduction as well as allowed adjustment of thumb position throughout the postoperative period. This technique was performed on 5 patients. Two patients were treated with a first web space external fixator for table saw injuries to the radial aspect of the hand. An additional 2 patients were treated with a first web space external fixator following metacarpophalangeal joint capsular release in the setting of thermal burns. A fifth patient underwent second ray amputation, trapeziectomy and trapezoidectomy for squamous cell carcinoma with subsequent stabilization with the external fixator. The external fixator was left in place until soft tissues were healed (average 5.5 wk). The patients were allowed to mobilize their hand in as much as the external fixator allowed, and no device-associated complications were noted. Thumb web space was preserved with passive and supple thumb circumduction and web space abduction/adduction in all patients at an average follow-up of 5 months. The average Quick Dash Score was 35±5 and the average Modern Activity Subjective Survey of 2007 was 30±8.

  12. Metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging using Matrix Coating Assisted by an Electric Field (MCAEF). (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Han, Jun; Hardie, Darryl B; Yang, Juncong; Pan, Jingxi; Borchers, Christoph H


    In this work, we combined the use of two MALDI matrices (quercetin and 9-aminoacridine), a recently developed new matrix coating technique - matrix coating assisted by an electric field (MCAEF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICRMS) to detect and image endogenous compounds in the cancerous and non-cancerous regions of three human prostate cancer (stage II) tissue specimens. After three rounds of imaging data acquisitions (i.e., quercetin for positive and negative ion detection and 9-aminoacridine for negative ion detection), and metabolite identification, a total of 1091 metabolites including 1032 lipids and 59 other metabolites were routinely detected and successfully localized. Of these compounds, 250 and 217 were only detected in either the cancerous or the non-cancerous regions respectively, although we cannot rule out the presence of these metabolites at concentrations below the detection limit. In addition, 152 of the other 624 metabolites showed differential distributions (p<0.05, t-test) between the two regions of the tissues. Further studies on a larger number of clinical specimens will need to be carried out to confirm this large number of apparently cancer-related metabolites. The successful determination of the spatial locations and abundances of these endogenous biomolecules indicated significant metabolism abnormalities - e.g., increased energy charge and under-expression of neutral acyl glycerides, in the prostate cancer samples. To our knowledge, this work has resulted in MALDI-MS imaging of the largest group of metabolites in prostate cancer thus far and demonstrated the importance of using complementary matrices for comprehensive metabolomic imaging by MALDI-MS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Addition of Cocoa, Glycerol, and Saccharose to the Tobacco of Cigarettes: Implications for Smoke Chemistry, In Vitro Cytotoxicity, Mutagenicity and Further Endpoints

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    Roemer E


    Full Text Available The cigarette ingredients cocoa powder, glycerol, and saccharose were investigated regarding their potential effect on the resulting mainstream smoke, i.e., smoke chemistry (Hoffmann analytes, mammalian cell cytotoxicity (Neutral Red Uptake assay, and bacterial mutagenicity (Ames assay. Each ingredient was added at three concentrations to the tobacco of a 6 mg and 10 mg ‘tar’ yield experimental American blend filter cigarette (obtained under ISO/FTC smoking regime. The lowest application concentration was equivalent to the normal approximate use level of the ingredients; the highest application level was up to 5-fold higher. The resulting data were compared with the respective control cigarettes without addition of the ingredients. The addition of cocoa powder did not lead to any consistent effects on the measured mainstream smoke analytes. Neither the in vitro cytotoxicity nor the in vitro mutagenicity was affected by cocoa addition. The addition of glycerol resulted in a decrease in the delivery of several smoke constituents (generally around 20%, e.g. aldehydes, phenolics, and N-nitrosamines. Water in the particulate phase (TPM was distinctly increased (up to +150%. The cytotoxicity of the TPM was decreased (approx. !15%. Mutagenicity was not affected. Saccharose addition consistently increased formaldehyde delivery in smoke by up to 40% and decreased tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines by up to approximately 20%. The increase in formaldehyde is discussed in the context of the human smoker. The cytotoxicity was not affected by the addition of saccharose, while the mutagenicity of the TPM was decreased in tester strain TA98 with metabolic activation (!15%. The results are in agreement with currently available literature. Some investigations summarized in this publication are novel and have not yet been reported in the literature. Based on the total evidence, it can be concluded that the three ingredients added at their current use levels do

  14. Effect of display location on control-display stereotype strength for translational and rotational controls with linear displays. (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R


    Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of control type and display location, relative to the operator, on the strength of control/display stereotypes. The Worringham and Beringer Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann E.R., and Chan A.H.S. 2013). "The Worringham and Beringer 'Visual Field' Principle for Rotary Controls. Ergonomics." 56 (10): 1620-1624) indicated that, for a number of different control types (rotary and lever) on different planes, there should be no significant effect of the display location relative to the seated operator. Past data were surveyed and stereotype strengths listed. Experiments filled gaps where data are not available. Six different control types and seven display locations were used, as in the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (Wickens, C.D., Keller, J.W., and Small, R.L. (2010). "Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT)." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting September 2010, 54: 1022-1026). Control/display arrangements with high stereotype strengths were evaluated yielding data for designers of complex control/display arrangements where the control and display are in different planes and for where the operator is moving. It was found possible to predict display/control arrangements with high stereotype strength, based on past data. Practitioner Summary: Controls and displays in complex arrangements need to have high compatibility. These experiments provide arrangements for six different controls (rotary and translational) and seven different display locations relative to the operator.

  15. Circular displays: control/display arrangements and stereotype strength with eight different display locations. (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R


    Two experiments are reported that were designed to investigate control/display arrangements having high stereotype strengths when using circular displays. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (2010). (Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 54: 1022-1026). In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer (1998. Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41(6), 864-880) Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann and Chan (2013). The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1620-1624). The initial indicator position (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock) had a major effect on control/display stereotype strength for many of the six controls tested. Best display/control arrangements are listed for each of the different control types (rotational and translational) and for the planes on which they are mounted. Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. Display/control arrangements having high stereotype strength are listed for four initial indicator positions. These arrangements are best for design purposes.

  16. The Complexity of H-wave Amplitude Fluctuations and Their Bilateral Cross-Covariance Are Modified According to the Previous Fitness History of Young Subjects under Track Training

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    Maria E. Ceballos-Villegas


    Full Text Available The Hoffmann reflex (H-wave is produced by alpha-motoneuron activation in the spinal cord. A feature of this electromyography response is that it exhibits fluctuations in amplitude even during repetitive stimulation with the same intensity of current. We herein explore the hypothesis that physical training induces plastic changes in the motor system. Such changes are evaluated with the fractal dimension (FD analysis of the H-wave amplitude-fluctuations (H-wave FD and the cross-covariance (CCV between the bilateral H-wave amplitudes. The aim of this study was to compare the H-wave FD as well as the CCV before and after track training in sedentary individuals and athletes. The training modality in all subjects consisted of running three times per week (for 13 weeks in a concrete road of 5 km. Given the different physical condition of sedentary vs. athletes, the running time between sedentary and athletes was different. After training, the FD was significantly increased in sedentary individuals but significantly reduced in athletes, although there were no changes in spinal excitability in either group of subjects. Moreover, the CCV between bilateral H-waves exhibited a significant increase in athletes but not in sedentary individuals. These differential changes in the FD and CCV indicate that the plastic changes in the complexity of the H-wave amplitude fluctuations as well as the synaptic inputs to the Ia-motoneuron systems of both legs were correlated to the previous fitness history of the subjects. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the FD and CCV can be employed as indexes to study plastic changes in the human motor system.

  17. The effect of Bobath approach on the excitability of the spinal alpha motor neurones in stroke patients with muscle spasticity. (United States)

    Ansari, N N; Naghdi, S


    A clinical study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the Bobath approach on the excitability of the spinal alpha motor neurones in patients with poststroke spasticity. Ten subjects ranging in age from 37 through 76 years (average 60 years) with ankle plantarflexor spasticity secondary to a stroke were recruited and completed the trial. They had physiotherapy according to Bobath concept for ten treatment sessions, three days per week. Two repeated measures, one before and another after treatment, were taken to quantify clinical efficacy. The effect of this type of therapy on the excitability of alpha motor neurones (aMN) was assessed by measuring the latency of the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) and the Hmax/Mmax ratio. The original Ashworth scale and ankle range of motion were also measured. The mean HmaxlMmax ratio on the affected side at baseline was high in the study patients. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the HmaxlMmax ratio or in the H-reflex latency between the baseline values and those recorded after therapy intervention. Before treatment, the HmaxlMmax ratio was significantly higher in the affected side than in the unaffected side. However, it was similar at both sides after treatment. Following treatment, the significant reduction in spasticity was clinically detected as measured with the original Ashworth scale. The ankle joint active and passive range of motion was significantly increased. In conclusion, Bobath therapy had a statistically significant effect on the excitability of the aMN in the affected side compared to the unaffected side in stroke patients with muscle spasticity.

  18. The UNCOPE: An effective brief screen for DSM-5 substance use disorders in correctional settings. (United States)

    Proctor, Steven L; Hoffmann, Norman G


    This study examines the clinical utility of the UNCOPE (Hoffmann, Hunt, Rhodes, & Riley, 2003), a brief 6-item screen that has been validated on a number of criminal justice involved populations (i.e., state prison and county jail inmates, recent arrestees, and juvenile offenders), in identifying risk for DSM-5 substance use disorders (SUDs) among a large sample of state prison inmates. Although the UNCOPE has demonstrated relatively good accuracy in identifying DSM-IV substance dependence, its utility for DSM-5 SUDs warrants investigation. The current study explored substance-specific UNCOPE screening for identifying DSM-5 diagnoses for alcohol, cocaine, and cannabis. Data for the present report were derived from routine consecutive clinical assessments of 6,871 male and 801 female inmates recently admitted to a state prison system. All inmates were administered the UNCOPE as part of a computer-prompted structured diagnostic interview conducted by certified addiction counselors during routine clinical assessments to identify SUDs. Results revealed that a cut-score of 3 positive responses yielded reasonable sensitivity estimates for a severe DSM-5 diagnosis ranging from 85% to 97%, depending on substance class and gender. Specificity findings for those without a severe diagnosis were very high and ranged from 97% to 99%. Cronbach's alphas were .90 or greater, and the item intercorrelations were generally high. Observed findings suggest screening for specific substances using the UNCOPE is a potentially valid strategy for the identification of specific DSM-5 SUDs among inmates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Cocaine use disorder prevalence: From current DSM-IV to proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria with both a two and three severity level classification system. (United States)

    Proctor, Steven L; Kopak, Albert M; Hoffmann, Norman G


    This article presents a secondary analysis from a study investigating the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and previously proposed DSM-5 cocaine use disorder (CUD) criteria (S. L. Proctor, A. M. Kopak, & N. G. Hoffmann, 2012, Compatibility of current DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cocaine use disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 722-728). The current analyses examined the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and two sets of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for CUDs among adult male inmates (N = 6,871) recently admitted to the Minnesota Department of Corrections state prison system from 2000-2003. Initially proposed DSM-5 criteria (DSM-5.0) featured only two diagnostic designations (i.e., moderate and severe). A subsequent revision (DSM-5.1) included the addition of a mild designation and required a greater number of positive findings for the severe designation. A computer-prompted structured diagnostic interview was administered to all inmates as part of routine clinical assessments. The past 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV CUDs was 12.70% (Abuse, 3.78%, Dependence, 8.92%), while 10.98% met past 12-month DSM-5.1 criteria for a CUD (Mild [MiCUD], 1.72%; Moderate [MCUD], 1.12%; and Severe [SCUD], 8.14%). The vast majority of those with no diagnosis (99.6%) continued to have no diagnosis, and most of those with a dependence diagnosis (91.2%) met SCUD criteria of the proposed DSM-5.1. Most of the variation in DSM-5.1 diagnostic classifications was accounted for by those with a current abuse diagnosis. DSM-5.0 MCUD cases were most affected when DSM-5.1 criteria were applied. The proposed diagnostic changes might translate to reduced access to treatment for those individuals evincing symptoms consistent with DSM-IV cocaine abuse.

  20. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

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    de la Iglesia G


    Full Text Available Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1,2 Agustin Freiberg Hoffmann,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace1,2 1National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET, 2University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years and most of them (83.3% were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. Keywords: academic achievement, parenting, social support, college

  1. Possível parentesco entre as moléstias familiares com lesões predominantes na medula e moléstias familiares com lesões no neurônio periférico

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    Paulino W. Longo


    Full Text Available Os AA., depois de descreverem em linhas gerais as características da atrofia muscular progressiva e familiar tipo Charcot-Marie-Tooth, assinalam suas semelhanças com as atrofias musculares tipo Dejerine-Sottas e Werdnig-Hoffmann. Chamam atenção a seguir para a tendência, aliás já antiga de se reunir as moléstias familiares clássicas em um só grupo, pois as formas de transição entre umas e outras são bastante frequentes. A êsse respeito lembram que Austregésilo, desde 1918, defendeu essa teoria com abundância de documentação, procurando reuni-las em tôrno do que êle chama grande família hipotrófica cuja entidade central é a moléstia de Friedreich. A contribuição que trazem ao assunto é a observação de tres irmãos, membros de uma família em cujos ancestrais já havia sido assinalada paraplegia progressiva, e que apresentam o quadro neurológico típico da moléstia Charcot-Marie-Tooth, acrescido, num deles, de um síndromo piramidal bilateral (reflexos profundos exaltados, clonus da rótula e pés, sinal de Babinski e em outro, de exaltação dos reflexos patelares. Esta associação, em uma moléstia familiar degenerativa do neurônio periférico, de um quadro degenerativo cordonal, é mais um argumento favorável à unidade nosológica de todas estas moléstias familiares sistematizadas.

  2. Spinal Cord Excitability and Sprint Performance Are Enhanced by Sensory Stimulation During Cycling. (United States)

    Pearcey, Gregory E P; Noble, Steven A; Munro, Bridget; Zehr, E Paul


    Spinal cord excitability, as assessed by modulation of Hoffmann (H-) reflexes, is reduced with fatiguing isometric contractions. Furthermore, spinal cord excitability is reduced during non-fatiguing arm and leg cycling. Presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals is believed to contribute to this suppression of spinal cord excitability. Electrical stimulation to cutaneous nerves reduces Ia presynaptic inhibition, which facilitates spinal cord excitability, and this facilitation is present during arm cycling. Although it has been suggested that reducing presynaptic inhibition may prolong fatiguing contractions, it is unknown whether sensory stimulation can alter the effects of fatiguing exercise on performance or spinal cord excitability. Thus, the aim of this experiment was to determine if sensory stimulation can interfere with fatigue-related suppression of spinal cord excitability, and alter fatigue rates during cycling sprints. Thirteen participants randomly performed three experimental sessions that included: unloaded cycling with sensory stimulation ( CONTROL + STIM ), sprints with sensory stimulation ( SPRINT + STIM ) and sprints without stimulation ( SPRINT ). Seven participants also performed a fourth session ( CONTROL ), which consisted of unloaded cycling. During SPRINT and SPRINT + STIM, participants performed seven, 10 s cycling sprints interleaved with 3 min rest. For CONTROL and CONTROL + STIM , participants performed unloaded cycling for ~30 min. During SPRINT + STIM and CONTROL + STIM , participants received patterned sensory stimulation to nerves of the right foot. H-reflexes and M-waves of the right soleus were evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve at multiple time points throughout exercise. Sensory stimulation facilitated soleus H-reflexes during unloaded cycling, whereas sprints suppressed soleus H-reflexes. While receiving sensory stimulation, there was less suppression of soleus H-reflexes and slowed reduction in average power output, compared

  3. Spinal Cord Excitability and Sprint Performance Are Enhanced by Sensory Stimulation During Cycling

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    Gregory E. P. Pearcey


    Full Text Available Spinal cord excitability, as assessed by modulation of Hoffmann (H- reflexes, is reduced with fatiguing isometric contractions. Furthermore, spinal cord excitability is reduced during non-fatiguing arm and leg cycling. Presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals is believed to contribute to this suppression of spinal cord excitability. Electrical stimulation to cutaneous nerves reduces Ia presynaptic inhibition, which facilitates spinal cord excitability, and this facilitation is present during arm cycling. Although it has been suggested that reducing presynaptic inhibition may prolong fatiguing contractions, it is unknown whether sensory stimulation can alter the effects of fatiguing exercise on performance or spinal cord excitability. Thus, the aim of this experiment was to determine if sensory stimulation can interfere with fatigue-related suppression of spinal cord excitability, and alter fatigue rates during cycling sprints. Thirteen participants randomly performed three experimental sessions that included: unloaded cycling with sensory stimulation (CONTROL + STIM, sprints with sensory stimulation (SPRINT + STIM and sprints without stimulation (SPRINT. Seven participants also performed a fourth session (CONTROL, which consisted of unloaded cycling. During SPRINT and SPRINT + STIM, participants performed seven, 10 s cycling sprints interleaved with 3 min rest. For CONTROL and CONTROL + STIM, participants performed unloaded cycling for ~30 min. During SPRINT + STIM and CONTROL + STIM, participants received patterned sensory stimulation to nerves of the right foot. H-reflexes and M-waves of the right soleus were evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve at multiple time points throughout exercise. Sensory stimulation facilitated soleus H-reflexes during unloaded cycling, whereas sprints suppressed soleus H-reflexes. While receiving sensory stimulation, there was less suppression of soleus H-reflexes and slowed reduction in average power output

  4. Systematics of the Holarctic species of the weevil genus Cleopomiarus Pierce (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Roberto Caldara


    Full Text Available The Holarctic species of Cleopomiarus Pierce, 1919 (Curculionidae, Curculioninae, Mecinini are revised. Two North American and 19 Palaearctic species are recognized as valid. Three of the latter are new to science: C. afghanus sp. nov. (Afghanistan, C. caucasicus sp. nov. (Armenia, and C. reitteri sp. nov. (Algeria, Morocco. Cleopomiarus ruscinonensis (Roudier & Tempère, 1966, described as subspecies of C. longirostris Gyllenhal, 1838, is raised to species (stat. nov.. The following new synonymies are proposed: Cleopomiarus distinctus (Boheman, 1845 (= Miarus dictamnophilus Zherichin, 1996 syn. nov.; Cleopomiarus flavoscutellatus (Morimoto, 1959 (= Miarus tapirus Korotyaev, 1999 syn. nov.; Cleopomiarus graminis (Gyllenhal, 1813 (= Miarus dulcinasutus Kangas, 1976 syn. nov.; = Miarus jakowlewi Faust, 1895 syn. nov.; = Miarus scutellaris subsp. mequignoni Hoffmann, 1939 syn. nov.. Miarus hispidulus Reitter, 1907 and M. hispidus Bovie, 1909 are again placed in synonymy with Cleopomiarus hispidulus (LeConte, 1876. The lectotypes of the following taxa are designated: Cionus micros Germar, 1824, Cionus plantarum Germar, 1824, Gymnetron distinctus Boheman, 1845, Gymnetron longirostris Gyllenhal, 1838, Miaromimus schatzmayri Solari, 1947, Miarus degorsi Abeille de Perrin, 1906, Miarus fuscopubens Reitter, 1907, Miarus graminis var. subfulvus Reitter, 1907, Miarus graminis var. subuniseriatus Reitter, 1907, Miarus hispidulus Reitter, 1907, Miarus jakowlewi Faust, 1895, Miarus longirostris ssp. mandschuricus Voss, 1952, Miarus medius Desbrochers des Loges, 1893, Miarus vestitus Roelofs, 1875. A key to the species, diagnoses of species groups, descriptions or redescriptions, notes on type specimens, synonymies, comparative notes, distribution, bionomics when available, phylogenenetic observations, and drawings of body, rostra, terminalia and other useful characters for taxonomy are provided.

  5. Medullosalean fusain trunk from the roof rocks of a coal seam: Insight from FTIR and NMR (Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Area de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario - M5502JMA - Mendoza (Argentina)


    Reported for the first time from the Sydney Coalfield, Canada, is a fragmentary fusain (R{sub o} = 2.51%) specimen, 41 cm long, of a medullosalean trunk or massive petiole that originated from the roof rocks of the banded bituminous Hub Seam (R{sub o} {proportional_to} 0.65%). Megascopic characteristics of the flat-preserved specimen include an irregular-cracked fusain surface with secretinite-rodlet structures and sclerenchymatous strands some of which still embedded in the shaly matrix, and locally preserved vitrain (R{sub o} 0.69%). Co-occurrence with a compression flora composed virtually of only the seed-fern taxon Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri (Hoffmann) is noted. The goal of this study is to provide a framework for the phytophysicochemical taphonomic history which includes the perspective on vitrinite/fusinite relationship, formation of fusinite, and on the significance the only fusinized identifiable plant-fossil specimen in the Sydney Coalfield. We use state-of-the-art solid-state FTIR, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H NMR CP/MAS techniques, and standard reflected-light microscopy and SEM methods as investigative tools. Results indicate that the fusinite is characterized by long and narrow xylem fibers, without fungal signals, and cell structures infilled with pyrite and carbonate. FTIR spectra of the fusinite and secretinite are similar particularly in respect to high absorbance of aromatic and low absorbance of aliphatic compounds, and absorbance of Si-O functionalities relating to kaolinite. {sup 13}C NMR experiments with direct carbon excitation quantify the aromatic to aliphatic ratio as being 20 {+-} 3:1. As part of the taphonomic history, the evidence favors a hot, > 400 C, directional surface-fueled flame palaeofire of local extent that charred trunks of growing arborescent seed ferns on only one side, and that these trunks were transported to comprise part of the roof rocks of the Hub Seam. (author)

  6. Noninvasive Multimodality Imaging of the Tumor Microenvironment: Registered Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography Studies of a Preclinical Tumor Model of Tumor Hypoxia

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    HyungJoon Cho


    Full Text Available In vivo knowledge of the spatial distribution of viable, necrotic, and hypoxic areas can provide prognostic information about the risk of developing metastases and regional radiation sensitivity and may be used potentially for localized dose escalation in radiation treatment. In this study, multimodality in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET imaging using stereotactic fiduciary markers in the Dunning R3327AT prostate tumor were performed, focusing on the relationship between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI using Magnevist (Gd-DTPA and dynamic 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-Fmiso PET. The noninvasive measurements were verified using tumor tissue sections stained for hematoxylin/eosin and pimonidazole. To further validate the relationship between 18F-Fmiso and pimonidazole uptake, 18F digital autoradiography was performed on a selected tumor and compared with the corresponding pimonidazole-stained slices. The comparison of Akep values (kep = rate constant of movement of Gd-DTPA between the interstitial space and plasma and A = amplitude in the two-compartment model (Hoffmann U, Brix G, Knopp MV, Hess T and Lorenz WJ (1995. Magn Reson Med 33, 506– 514 derived from DCE-MRI studies and from early 18F-Fmiso uptake PET studies showed that tumor vasculature is a major determinant of early 18F-Fmiso uptake. A negative correlation between the spatial map of Akep and the slope map of late (last 1 hour of the dynamic PET scan 18F-Fmiso uptake was observed. The relationships between DCE-MRI and hematoxylin/eosin slices and between 18F-Fmiso PET and pimonidazole slices confirm the validity of MRI/PET measurements to image the tumor microenvironment and to identify regions of tumor necrosis, hypoxia, and well-perfused tissue.

  7. [Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816): remarkable organizer of health service, philosopher, sponsor, and social figure]. (United States)

    Nogaller, Alexander


    Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816) was one of the most eminent doctors of his time. His name was given not accidentally to one of the largest squares, a street and a bridge across the river Regnitz in Bamberg, the town where he worked more than 40 years. Markus was well-known among the population as an excellent doctor, he also was a personal doctor of Kurfürst bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal. Markus was the first principal to found a hospital affordable to everyone, where medical personnel was taught and many professors worked. He was also founder and principal of the medico-surgical school, whose program of studies was equal to those of an university. On Markus' initiative a birthhouse was founded, as well as a sheltered housing complex for the elderly and a school, as well as a social system for poor citizens. In January 1803 Markus became the head of the health department of the principality of Frankonia. On his initiative a free smallpocks vaccination for all new born was carried out. Markus brought up an annual report of medical science and numerous magazines on therapy. In his scientifical articles in different magazines he wrote about diseases of respiratory tract, skin, liver, as well as typhus and feaver. In many of his published works he appears to be a philosopher supporting a naturalistic philosophy and disagreeing with its idealistic attitude at the same time. He was the head of a literature society called "Harmony", and he supported the construction of the first theatre where E. T. A Hoffmann worked who was a friend of Markus. A. F. Markus' death 1816 put his friends and supporters into a deep grief. According to the newspapers of that time, the whole town followed the funeral procession and all the churches rang their bells goodbye. The name of A. F. Markus has an important place among the extraordinary German physicians of the late 18th and early 19th century.

  8. Nitrate does not result in iron inactivation in the apoplast of sunflower leaves. (United States)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Römheld, Volker


    It has been hypothesized that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) nutrition might induce iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis by inactivation of Fe in the leaf apoplast (H.U. Kosegarten, B. Hoffmann, K. Mengel [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1069-1079). To test this hypothesis, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Farnkasol) plants were grown in nutrient solutions supplied with various nitrogen (N) forms (NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+) and NH(4)NO(3)), with or without pH control by using pH buffers [2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid or 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid]. It was shown that high pH in the nutrient solution restricted uptake and shoot translocation of Fe independently of N form and, therefore, induced Fe deficiency chlorosis at low Fe supply [1 micro M ferric ethylenediaminedi(O-hydroxyphenylacetic acid)]. Root NO(3)(-) supply (up to 40 mM) did not affect the relative distribution of Fe between leaf apoplast and symplast at constant low external pH of the root medium. Although perfusion of high pH-buffered solution (7.0) into the leaf apoplast restricted (59)Fe uptake rate as compared with low apoplastic solution pH (5.0 and 6.0, respectively), loading of NO(3)(-) (6 mM) showed no effect on (59)Fe uptake by the symplast of leaf cells. However, high light intensity strongly increased (59)Fe uptake, independently of apoplastic pH or of the presence of NO(3)(-) in the apoplastic solution. Finally, there are no indications in the present study that NO(3)(-) supply to roots results in the postulated inactivation of Fe in the leaf apoplast. It is concluded that NO(3)(-) nutrition results in Fe deficiency chlorosis exclusively by inhibited Fe acquisition by roots due to high pH at the root surface.

  9. Nitrate Does Not Result in Iron Inactivation in the Apoplast of Sunflower Leaves1 (United States)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Römheld, Volker


    It has been hypothesized that nitrate (NO3–) nutrition might induce iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis by inactivation of Fe in the leaf apoplast (H.U. Kosegarten, B. Hoffmann, K. Mengel [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1069–1079). To test this hypothesis, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Farnkasol) plants were grown in nutrient solutions supplied with various nitrogen (N) forms (NO3–, NH4+ and NH4NO3), with or without pH control by using pH buffers [2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid or 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid]. It was shown that high pH in the nutrient solution restricted uptake and shoot translocation of Fe independently of N form and, therefore, induced Fe deficiency chlorosis at low Fe supply [1 μm ferric ethylenediaminedi(O-hydroxyphenylacetic acid)]. Root NO3– supply (up to 40 mm) did not affect the relative distribution of Fe between leaf apoplast and symplast at constant low external pH of the root medium. Although perfusion of high pH-buffered solution (7.0) into the leaf apoplast restricted 59Fe uptake rate as compared with low apoplastic solution pH (5.0 and 6.0, respectively), loading of NO3– (6 mm) showed no effect on 59Fe uptake by the symplast of leaf cells. However, high light intensity strongly increased 59Fe uptake, independently of apoplastic pH or of the presence of NO3– in the apoplastic solution. Finally, there are no indications in the present study that NO3– supply to roots results in the postulated inactivation of Fe in the leaf apoplast. It is concluded that NO3– nutrition results in Fe deficiency chlorosis exclusively by inhibited Fe acquisition by roots due to high pH at the root surface. PMID:12857812

  10. Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Its Molecular Genetics

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    Sabriye Kocaturk Sel


    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases, affecting aproximately 1 in 6,000 - 10,000 live births, and with a carrier frequency of aproximately 1 in 40- 60. The childhood SMAs can be classified clinically into three groups. Type I (Werdnig-Hoffmann is the most severe form, with onset at ‹ 6 months of age and with death typically at ‹2 years of age. Type II SMA patients display an intermediate severity, with onset at ‹18 months of age and with an inability to walk. Type III (Kugelberg –Walender individuals are able to walk independently and have a relatively mild phenotype, with onset at ›18 months of age. The gene involved in type I–III SMA has been mapped to 5q12-q13 by linkage analysis, and refined to a region of about 500 kb. The region contains a large inverted duplication consisting of at least four genes, which are present in a telomeric (t and a centromeric (c copy: survival motor neuron gene (SMN1 or SMNt and SMN2 or SMNc; neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene (NAIP; basal transcription factor subunit p44 (BTFp44t and BTFp44c; and a novel protein with unknown function H4F5. Although homozygous deletions encompassing all these genes are found in SMA patients, it is now well established that mutations or deletions of SMN1 (MIM#600354 cause the disease. SMN2 (MIM# 601627 gene, however, does not prevent the disease but attenuates disease severity. Therefore, upregulating functional SMN protein level via inducing gene expression and/or restoring splicing is an important therapeutic approach such as use of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 1-26

  11. Intestinal parasitosis and socio-environmental factor sof a population from peri-urban area of Manaus - AM - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p30

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    Cecília Leite Motta de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patients who sought a Basic Health Unit and get to know the conditions and socio-environmental characteristics of a population of peri-urban area of Manaus - AM, Brazil. Methods: A study conducted by spontaneous demand of patients in a Basic Health Unit, Northern Zone of Manaus, Amazonas, between April and July 2007, conducting parasitological examination in 400 stool samples by Hoffmann-Pons-Janer’s method, and interviews. Results: From the total, 271/400 (67,8% contained parasites; 181/268 (45,25% samples were of females; 147/224 (36,7% aged between 19 and 85 years; 119/170 (29,75% with incomplete elementary school; 207/299 (51.75% with a family income between one and three minimum wages; 220/316 (55% were natural from Amazonas; 192/284 (48% worked at home; 199/298 (49,7% consumed water from artesian public well; 106/152 (26.5% treated the water; 165/248 (66% did not treat the consumed water. The most frequent helminthes found: Ascaris lumbricoides 48 (12%, Enterobius vermicularis 44 (11%, Ancilostomídeos 38 (9,5%. Protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica 83 (20,8%, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana, 79 (19,8% e 79 (19,8% respectively, Giardia lamblia 41 (10,3% and Iodamoeba butschlii 17 (4,3%. It was observed monoparasitism for E. histolytica 83 (20,8%, biparasitism 104/271 (26% E. histolytica and A. lumbricóides, E. histolytica and E. vermicularis, E. histolytica and G. lamblia. Conclusions:   We recorded a high prevalence of parasites in young people with low income, low cultural level, predominantly women of the household. Among the environmental factors associated with these indexes are a deficiency in water services and sanitary sewer.

  12. Zorn: Avant/Après/Passé

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    John Lowell Brackett


    Full Text Available Witold Wachowski’s brief exchange with John Zorn provides us with many valuable insights relating to the composer’s aesthetic. Zorn’s professed antipathy towards audiences, his faith in the creative instinct of the “artist,” and his belief in the transcendental nature of musical works (as a gateway into a world of “truth” and “beauty” are all refrains commonly encountered in many interviews with the composer. Given the fact that Zorn emphasizes these themes in his very short interview with Wachowski, we can assume that these ideas form the core of Zorn’s musical and artistic aesthetic. For any person with even a basic knowledge of Western aesthetic traditions, however, these same aesthetic features and positions characterize musical institutions common to the Western art tradition, particularly the “romantic” ideal of music and composers that developed in the nineteenth century. Philosophers (most notably Hegel and Kant along with music critics and composers (such as Friedrich Schiller, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Friedrich Schlegel, Robert Schumann, and Eduard Hanslick all contributed to the development of a romantic musical aesthetic in the nineteenth century that emphasized the role of the artist (as a “genius” or “god-like” who created “works” that – through purely musical relations that exist irregardless of the listener’s abilities – reveal hidden worlds of truth and beauty, worlds far-removed from the humdrum concerns of daily existence. Given the close (nearly one-to-one correspondences between Zorn and aestheticians/philosophers of the nineteenth century, one could make the argument that Zorn holds a “romantic” view of music and art.

  13. Greek ζά for διά and some «Lesbian» glosses

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    Wojciech Sowa


    Full Text Available Among other forms in the lexicon of Hesychius a preverb ζά ‘much, very’, without an indication of the dialectal provenance can be found; this form has been quoted as a typical Lesbian formation by Johannes Grammaticus Philoponus (490-580 AD in his work on Lesbian dialect. In fact, the occurence of instead of may be observed only twice in Lesbian inscriptions. On the other hand, one observes the use of ζά attested in literary dialect, both in an absolute form and as a member of compound in Sappho and Alcaeus. The forms with ζα- are attested also in Homeric poems, and as probable Homeric elements they occur also in the Archaic Lyric. According to Hoffmann, all the glosses found in Hesychius, which display the use of the preverb ζά in place of διά should be interpreted as originating from the Lesbian dialect. It seems however more probable to consider the big group of compound glosses consisting of ζα- to be rather poetical formations. They all belong to the poetical diction (even if the possibility of existing in the vernacular use in some cases cannot be excluded, where since early Epic the metrically caused variants ζα- and δια- existed hand in hand. The occurring interchange ζά for διά for the metrical reason in Sappho and Alcaeus should then be considered another element of Epic/Homeric influence upon an independent Aeolic poetical tradition.

  14. Evolution of a typical ion-scale magnetic flux rope caused by thermal pressure enhancement (United States)

    Teh, W.-L.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Pollock, C.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Ergun, R. E.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.


    With high time-resolution field and plasma measurements by the Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft, interior fine structures of two ion-scale magnetic flux ropes ( 5 and 11 ion inertial length radius) separated by 14 s are resolved. These two ion-scale flux ropes (FR1 and FR2) show non-frozen-in ion behavior and consist of a strong axial magnetic field at the reversal of the negative-then-positive bipolar field component. The negative bipolar field component of the FR2 is found to be depressed, where magnetic pressure and total pressure decrease, but ion and electron thermal pressures increase, a feature akin to a crater-like flux rope. The pressure enhancement is due to the magnetosheath plasma feeding into the flux rope along the field lines. Magnetic field draping and energetic electrons are also observed in the trailing part of the FR2. The ratio of perpendicular and parallel currents indicates that the FR1 appears force-free but the FR2 seems not. Moreover, the FR2 is time-dependent as a result of a low correlation coefficient (CC = 0.75) for the derivation of the deHoffmann-Teller frame using the direct measured electric fields, while the FR1 is in quasi-steady conditions (CC = 0.94). It is concluded that the crater formation within the FR2 can be interpreted by the analytical flux rope simulation as the evolution of typical flux rope to crater-like one due to the thermal pressure enhancement, which could be induced by the depression of transverse magnetic fields of the flux rope.

  15. The immediate effects of an anterior-to-posterior talar mobilization on neural excitability, dorsiflexion range of motion, and dynamic balance in patients with chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Harkey, Matthew; McLeod, Michelle; Van Scoit, Ashley; Terada, Masafumi; Tevald, Michael; Gribble, Phillip; Pietrosimone, Brian


    Altered neuromuscular function and decreased dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) have been observed in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Joint mobilizations are indicated for restoring DFROM and dynamic postural control, yet it remains unknown if a mobilization can alter neuromuscular excitability in muscles surrounding the ankle. To determine the immediate effects of a Maitland grade III anterior-to-posterior joint mobilization on spinal-reflex and corticospinal excitability in the fibularis longus (FL) and soleus (SOL), DFROM, and dynamic postural control. Single-blinded randomized control trial. Research laboratory. 30 patients with CAI randomized into a mobilization (n = 15) or control (n = 15) group. Maitland grade III anterior-to-posterior joint mobilization. Spinal-reflex excitability was measured with the Hoffmann reflex, while corticospinal excitability was evaluated with transcranial magnetic stimulation. DFROM was measured seated with the knee extended, and dynamic postural control was quantified with the Star Excursion Balance Test. Separate 2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVAs were performed for each outcome measure. Dependent t tests were used to evaluate individual differences within groups in the presence of significance. Spinal-reflex and corticospinal excitability of the SOL and FL were not altered in the mobilization or control group (P > .05). DFROM increased immediately after the mobilization (P = .05) but not in the control group, while dynamic postural control was unchanged in both groups (P > .05). A single joint-mobilization treatment was efficacious at restoring DFROM in participants with CAI; however, excitability of spinal reflex and corticospinal pathways at the ankle and dynamic postural control were unaffected.

  16. Estudio clínico, genético y molecular en un paciente con atrofia muscular espinal

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    Ibis Menéndez Alejo


    Full Text Available Las atrofias musculares espinales (AME infantiles son enfermedades neuromusculares hereditarias caracterizadas por la degeneración de las motoneuronas alfa del asta anterior de la médula espinal. La enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann, AME tipo I, es la forma más grave, se transmite como un carácter autosómico recesivo y los afectados suelen fallecer durante el primer año de vida por fallo respiratorio. En este trabajo se presenta una familia cubana con 2 hijos con AME tipo I, en la cual el estudio molecular en uno de ellos permitió identificar los 2 cromosomas parentales asociados con ésta. Se encontró además en el paciente una deleción de ambas copias del gen SMN (exón 8 y del gen NAIP (exón 5. Los hallazgos ilustran la utilidad de estos estudios, con vistas a posibilitar el diagnóstico prenatal de la enfermedad.The infantile spinal muscular atrophies (SMA are hereditary neuromuscular diseases characterized by degenerated Alfa-motoneurons of the anterior spinal marrow horn. Werdning-Hoffman disease, Type 1 SMA, is the most serious affection being transmitted as an autosomal recessive character, so those affected may die from respiratory failures in the first year of life. This paper presents a Cuban family with two kids who suffer from Type-1 SMA; the molecular analysis carried out in one of them identified two parental chromosomes responsible for the disease. Also, a deletion of both copies of SMN gene (exon 8 and NAIP gene (exon 5 were discovered in this patient. These findings showed the usefulness of this kind of studies with a view to making a prenatal diagnosis of Werdning-Hoffman disease.

  17. Soleus H-reflex gain in humans walking and running under simulated reduced gravity (United States)

    Ferris, D. P.; Aagaard, P.; Simonsen, E. B.; Farley, C. T.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.


    The Hoffmann (H-) reflex is an electrical analogue of the monosynaptic stretch reflex, elicited by bypassing the muscle spindle and directly stimulating the afferent nerve. Studying H-reflex modulation provides insight into how the nervous system centrally modulates stretch reflex responses.A common measure of H-reflex gain is the slope of the relationship between H-reflex amplitude and EMG amplitude. To examine soleus H-reflex gain across a range of EMG levels during human locomotion, we used simulated reduced gravity to reduce muscle activity. We hypothesised that H-reflex gain would be independent of gravity level.We recorded EMG from eight subjects walking (1.25 m s-1) and running (3.0 m s-1) at four gravity levels (1.0, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 G (Earth gravity)). We normalised the stimulus M-wave and resulting H-reflex to the maximal M-wave amplitude (Mmax) elicited throughout the stride to correct for movement of stimulus and recording electrodes relative to nerve and muscle fibres. Peak soleus EMG amplitude decreased by 30% for walking and for running over the fourfold change in gravity. As hypothesised, slopes of linear regressions fitted to H-reflex versus EMG data were independent of gravity for walking and running (ANOVA, P > 0.8). The slopes were also independent of gait (P > 0.6), contrary to previous studies. Walking had a greater y-intercept (19.9% Mmax) than running (-2.5% Mmax; P neural mechanisms responsible for spinal modulation of the stretch reflex during human locomotion.

  18. European interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) real-time RT-PCR detection in experimental and field samples: The method of extraction is critical for SBV RNA detection in semen. (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; van der Poel, Wim H M; Ponsart, Claire; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Steinbach, Falko; Zientara, Stéphan; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd


    Molecular methods for the detection of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) RNA were rapidly developed after the emergence of this novel orthobunyavirus in Europe. The SBV epizootic wave has declined, but infectious SBV in SBV RNA-positive semen remains a possible risk for the distribution of SBV. However, the abilities of SBV molecular detection methods used at European laboratories have not yet been assessed, to our knowledge. The performances of extraction and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) methods used at 27 German and 17 other European laboratories for SBV RNA detection in the matrices of whole blood, serum, tissue homogenate, RNA eluates, and bovine semen were evaluated in 2 interlaboratory trials with special emphasis on semen extraction methods. For reliable detection of viral genome in bovine semen samples, highly effective extraction methods are essential to cope with the potential inhibitory effects of semen components on PCR results. All methods used by the 44 laboratories were sufficiently robust to detect SBV RNA with high diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95.8%) in all matrices, except semen. The trials demonstrated that the published recommended semen extraction methods (Hoffmann et al. 2013) and a combination of TRIzol LS with an alternative extraction kit have a considerably higher diagnostic sensitivity to detect SBV RNA in semen up to a detection limit of Cq ≤35 compared to other extraction methods used. A thorough validation of extraction methods with standardized semen batches is essential before their use for SBV RNA detection in bovine semen. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. MALDI imaging delineates hippocampal glycosphingolipid changes associated with neurotoxin induced proteopathy following neonatal BMAA exposure. (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Michno, Wojciech; Ransome, Yusuf; Hanrieder, Jörg


    The environmental toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been proposed to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that neonatal exposure to BMAA results in dose-dependent cognitive impairments, proteomic alterations and progressive neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of adult rats. A high BMAA dose (460mg/kg) also induced intracellular fibril formation, increased protein ubiquitination and enrichment of proteins important for lipid transport and metabolism. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the role of neuronal lipids in BMAA-induced neurodegeneration. By using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS), we characterized the spatial lipid profile in the hippocampus of six month-old rats that were treated neonatally (postnatal days 9-10) with 460mg/kg BMAA. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed long-term changes in distinct ganglioside species (GM, GD, GT) in the dentate gyrus. These changes could be a consequence of direct effects on ganglioside biosynthesis through the b-series (GM3-GD3-GD2-GD1b-GT1b) and may be linked to astrogliosis. Complementary immunohistochemistry experiments towards GFAP and S100β further verified the role of increased astrocyte activity in BMAA-induced brain damage. This highlights the potential of imaging MS for probing chemical changes associated with neuropathological mechanisms in situ. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The drop height determines neuromuscular adaptations and changes in jump performance in stretch-shortening cycle training. (United States)

    Taube, W; Leukel, C; Lauber, B; Gollhofer, A


    There is an ongoing discussion about how to improve jump performance most efficiently with plyometric training. It has been proposed that drop height influences the outcome, although longitudinal studies are missing. Based on cross-sectional drop jump studies showing height-dependent Hoffmann (H)-reflex activities, we hypothesized that the drop height should influence the neuromuscular activity and thus, the training result. Thirty-three subjects participated as a control or in one of two stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) interventions. Subjects either trained for 4 weeks doing drop jumps from 30, 50, and 75 cm drop heights (SSC1) or completed the same amount of jumps exclusively from 30 cm (SSC2). During training and testing (from 30, 50, and 75 cm), subjects were instructed to minimize the duration of ground contact and to maximize their rebound height. Rebound heights were significantly augmented after SSC1, but a trend was only observed after SSC2. In contrast, the duration of ground contact increased after SSC1 but decreased after SSC2. The performance index (rebound height/duration of ground contact) improved similarly after SSC1 (+14%) and SSC2 (+14%). Changes in performance were accompanied by neuromuscular adaptations: for SSC1, activity of the soleus increased toward take-off (between 120 and 170 ms after touchdown), whereas SSC2-trained subjects showed enhanced activity shortly after ground contact (20-70 ms after touch down). The present study demonstrates a strong link among drop height, neuromuscular adaptation, and performance in SSC training. As the improvement in the performance index was no different after SSC1 or SSC2, the decision whether to apply SSC1 or SSC2 should depend on the specific requirements of the sports discipline. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Growth and nutrition of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. cultivated in different rhizosphere soils collected from Tetraclinis stand

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    Abbas, Y.


    Full Text Available Five representative plant species (Withania frutescens Pauquy, Lavandula multifida L., Pistacia atlantica Desf., Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster (Hoffmanns. & Link Negodi and Tetraclinis articulata [Vahl] Mast. were selected from Moroccan Tetraclinis woodland in order to evaluate their mycorrhizal potential and to compare the impact of their rhizosphere soil on growth and nutrition of Tetraclinis articulata seedlings. We observed that roots of selected plants were highly colonized by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi. Lavandula multifida roots showed the highest colonization percentage (100%. We recovered AM fungal spores from the rhizosphere soils of the five plant species and we found that the spores number from L. multifida and T. articulata rhizosphere was significantly different from that of other plants. We assessed the mycorrhizal potential of the indigenous soils by using the Most Probable Number (MPN approach. We found that MPN in soils collected near the five plant species was significantly higher than the one in the bare soil. The average of MPN per 100 g of dry soil was 11.8 (from 5.6 to 25.0 in the bare soil and 228.5 (from 108.0 to 476.0 in L. multifida rhizosphere. This result indicates that the soil surrounding the target plants can be used as inoculum for mycorrhization. We conducted a nursery experiment in which L. multifida soil yielded a high mycorrhizal percentage in T. articulata plants, thus contributing to improve the plant growth. However, the highest formation of arbuscules in T. articulata grown in Lavandula soil did not significantly affect the growth or the nutrition of plants compared to Tetraclinis soil, except for potassium concentration. Our investigation clearly showed that L. multifida soil can be used as biofertilizer to inoculate nurseries for T. articulata production. This will greatly contribute to sustain Tetraclinis woodland.

  2. Soleus H reflex studies in humans at 40-70 bar in helium-oxygen-nitrogen (trimix). (United States)

    Harris, D J; Bennett, P B


    Excitability of the Hoffmann (H) reflex was studied in 6 subjects at pressures of 40 to 70 bar during two trimix exposures (10% N2, 0.5 bar O2, the remainder He; Atlantis II and III simulated dives, Duke University Medical Center). In Atlantis II (12 h to 47 bar, 1 + 3 days to 66 bar), the H reflex recruitment ratio (Hmax/Mmax) was increased in 2 out of 3 subjects and reduced in the 3rd, while the usual facilitatory effect on the H reflex of a hand-grip reinforcement maneuver was reduced in all subjects. These results are similar to those previously seen in He-O2 dives and suggest a slight hyperreflexia mediated by an increase in alpha motoneuron excitability. In Atlantis III (1.5 days to 47 bar, 7 days to 66 bar) H recruitment ratios were normal in 2 subjects, and reduced in 1 subject (P less than 0.001). Early (III) and late (V) inhibitory phases of the H reflex recovery cycle were not significantly altered, while a 50-ms delay in the recovery cycle rebound (phase IV) in 5 out of 6 subjects at 66 bar (P less than 0.01) is attributed to the slowed muscle contraction. However, the increased amplitude of the rebound and the presence of clonic electromyographic potentials in Atlantis III are evidence of stretch receptor hyperexcitability that apparently persisted when H reflex excitability was normal. It is concluded that increased reflex responsiveness at depth is not promoted exclusively by either enhanced alpha motoneuron excitability or stretch receptor sensitivity but is mediated via both systems. Slower compression and the presence of N2 appear to preserve normal spinal inhibitory feedback and alpha motoneuron excitability but do not prevent increases in stretch receptor sensitivity.

  3. Variation of volatiles in Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (Lamiaceae). (United States)

    Ali, Imen Ben El Hadj; Guetat, Arbi; Boussaid, Mohamed


    Volatiles from 14 wild Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (=Thymus capitatus Hoffmanns. et Link=Coridothymus capitatus Rchb.f.), sampled in five ecological areas (sub-humid, upper semi-arid, mean semi-arid, lower semi-arid, and upper arid areas) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. Thirty-nine constituents representing 94.2 to 99.5% of the total oil were identified. Carvacrol (38; 51.1-75.9%), p-cymene (13; 3.7-15%), γ-terpinene (12; 1.4-11.9%), and trans-β-caryophyllene (22; 2.9-4.6%) are the major compounds. A significant variation among populations and population's bioclimatic stage for the majority of compounds was shown. The chemical population structure, estimated using a principal-component analysis (PCA) and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis performed on all populations and compounds and based on Euclidean distances among populations, was high. Both methods allowed separation of the populations into distinct groups defined rather by minor than by major compounds. The spatial compound distribution is linked to ecological factors, indicating that local selective environmental factors influence chemical-composition diversity. Conservation strategies should involve all populations because of their low size and their high level of destruction. Populations exhibiting particular compounds other than the major ones should first be protected. In situ conservation of populations should be accomplished appropriately according to bioclimate. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Working Memory Capacity and Surgical Performance While Exposed to Mild Hypoxic Hypoxemia. (United States)

    Parker, Paul J; Manley, Andrew J; Shand, Ross; O'Hara, John P; Mellor, Adrian


    Medical Emergency Response Team (MERT) helicopters fly at altitudes of 3000 m in Afghanistan (9843 ft). Civilian hospitals and disaster-relief surgical teams may have to operate at such altitudes or even higher. Mild hypoxia has been seen to affect the performance of novel tasks at flight levels as low as 5000 ft. Aeromedical teams frequently work in unpressurized environments; it is important to understand the implications of this mild hypoxia and investigate whether supplementary oxygen systems are required for some or all of the team members. Ten UK orthopedic surgeons were recruited and in a double blind randomized experimental protocol, were acutely exposed for 45 min to normobaric hypoxia [fraction of inspired oxygen (FIo2) ∼14.1%, equivalent to 3000 m (10,000 ft)] or normobaric normoxia (sea-level). Basic physiological parameters were recorded. Subjects completed validated tests of verbal working memory capacity (VWMC) and also applied an orthopedic external fixator (Hoffmann® 3, Stryker, UK) to a plastic tibia under test conditions. Significant hypoxia was induced with the reduction of FIo2 to ∼14.1% (Spo2 87% vs. 98%). No effect of hypoxia on VWMC was observed. The pin-divergence score (a measure of frame asymmetry) was significantly greater in hypoxic conditions (4.6 mm) compared to sea level (3.0 mm); there was no significant difference in the penetrance depth (16.9 vs. 17.2 mm). One hypoxic frame would have failed early. We believe that surgery at an altitude of 3000 m, when unacclimated individuals are acutely exposed to atmospheric hypoxia for 45 min, can likely take place without supplemental oxygen use but further work is required.Parker PJ, Manley AJ, Shand R, O'Hara JP, Mellor A. Working memory capacity and surgical performance while exposed to mild hypoxic hypoxemia. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):918-923.

  5. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy of a Gas-Phase Oxo-Molybdenum Complex with 1,2-Dithiolene Ligands (United States)


    Electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative ion mode was used to create anionic, gas-phase oxo-molybdenum complexes with dithiolene ligands. By varying ESI and ion transfer conditions, both doubly and singly charged forms of the complex, with identical formulas, could be observed. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dianion generated exclusively the monoanion, while fragmentation of the monoanion involved decomposition of the dithiolene ligands. The intrinsic structure of the monoanion and the dianion were determined by using wavelength-selective infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The IRMPD spectrum for the dianion exhibits absorptions that can be assigned to (ligand) C=C, C–S, C—C≡N, and Mo=O stretches. Comparison of the IRMPD spectrum to spectra predicted for various possible conformations allows assignment of a pseudo square pyramidal structure with C2v symmetry, equatorial coordination of MoO2+ by the S atoms of the dithiolene ligands, and a singlet spin state. A single absorption was observed for the oxidized complex. When the same scaling factor employed for the dianion is used for the oxidized version, theoretical spectra suggest that the absorption is the Mo=O stretch for a distorted square pyramidal structure and doublet spin state. A predicted change in conformation upon oxidation of the dianion is consistent with a proposed bonding scheme for the bent-metallocene dithiolene compounds [Lauher, J. W.; Hoffmann, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1976, 98, 1729−1742], where a large folding of the dithiolene moiety along the S···S vector is dependent on the occupancy of the in-plane metal d-orbital. PMID:24988369

  6. The Evolution of the Galactic Disk: The Stellar Component (United States)

    Schmidtobreick, L.; Vallenari, A.; Bertelli, G.

    We present deep V and I photometry of stellar field populations in several regions of the Galactic disk. They are selected on the basis of large scale surface photometries of the Milky Way (Kimeswenger et al., 1993, A&AS, 97, 517; Hoffmann et al., 1998, A&AS, 128, 417). The observational colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and luminosity functions are analyzed using a revised version of the Padova software described in Bertelli et al. (1995). The reddening along the line of sight is derived and found to be in reasonable agreement with the maps of Mendez & van Altena (1998, A&A, 330, 910). Structural parameters like the scale height and the scale length of the various populations are discussed. Due to the low galactic latitude of the fields, not much information about the thick disk's parameters could be gained. For the thin disk, values around hz = 250± 0.60pc have been found for the scale height, the scale length is favoured to be larger than 1100 pc. The data are very sensitive to the star formation history of the thin disk. A decreasing star formation rate is necessary to reproduce the distribution of the stars in the colour-magnitude diagrams as well as the luminosity functions. Constant or a strongly increasing star formation rates as derived using Hipparcos data for the solar neighbourhood (Bertelli et al. 1999, Balt. Astr., 8, 271) do principally agree with the luminosity functions but do not reproduce the CMDs, as they require too many blue stars. The analysis of field populations gives evidence that star formation rates, derived from the solar neighbourhood, cannot be considered as representative for the whole thin disk.

  7. Efecto de la movilización articular sobre la amplitud del Reflejo H en personas con espasticidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ernesto Pérez Parra


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of ankle joint mobilization on the H reflex amplitude of the soleus muscle in people with spasticity. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental study with crossover design and simple masking was conducted in 24 randomized subjects to initiate the control or experimental group. Traction and rhythmic oscillation were applied for five minutes to the ankle joint. H wave amplitude changes of Hoffmann reflex (electrical equivalent of the monosynaptic spinal reflex was assessed, stimulating the tibial nerve at the level of the popliteal fossa and recording in the soleusmuscle. In each subject 12 measurements were taken: basalrate, during and after mobilization. Changes in H reflex amplitudewere calculated in relation to basal measurement. For each measurement a hypothesis test was performed (Student t test. Results: In groups of patients with brain injury and incomplete spinal cord injury, a significant difference was found between measurements of both studies, concerning variation in H reflex amplitude during the application of joint mobilization techniques, with a decrease in the experimental group and an increase in the control group. In contrast, no significant differences were found after mobilization therapy. Patients with complete spinal cord injuryshowed no significant differences in any measurements. Conclusion: Wedemonstrate the effectiveness of joint mobilization in the decreaseof H reflex amplitude in patients with brain injury or incompletespinal cord injury during the mobilization maneuver, but no residualeffect after completion of the trial. This research showed noevidence regarding excitability reduction in complete spinal cordinjury. We suggest that therapeutic interventions to decrease muscletone based on the joint mobilization should be reconsidered.

  8. Four-spacecraft determination of magnetopause orientation, motion and thickness: comparison with results from single-spacecraft methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Haaland


    Full Text Available In this paper, we use Cluster data from one magnetopause event on 5 July 2001 to compare predictions from various methods for determination of the velocity, orientation, and thickness of the magnetopause current layer. We employ established as well as new multi-spacecraft techniques, in which time differences between the crossings by the four spacecraft, along with the duration of each crossing, are used to calculate magnetopause speed, normal vector, and width. The timing is based on data from either the Cluster Magnetic Field Experiment (FGM or the Electric Field Experiment (EFW instruments. The multi-spacecraft results are compared with those derived from various single-spacecraft techniques, including minimum-variance analysis of the magnetic field and deHoffmann-Teller, as well as Minimum-Faraday-Residue analysis of plasma velocities and magnetic fields measured during the crossings. In order to improve the overall consistency between multi- and single-spacecraft results, we have also explored the use of hybrid techniques, in which timing information from the four spacecraft is combined with certain limited results from single-spacecraft methods, the remaining results being left for consistency checks. The results show good agreement between magnetopause orientations derived from appropriately chosen single-spacecraft techniques and those obtained from multi-spacecraft timing. The agreement between magnetopause speeds derived from single- and multi-spacecraft methods is quantitatively somewhat less good but it is evident that the speed can change substantially from one crossing to the next within an event. The magnetopause thickness varied substantially from one crossing to the next, within an event. It ranged from 5 to 10 ion gyroradii. The density profile was sharper than the magnetic profile: most of the density change occured in the earthward half of the magnetopause.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and

  9. Plantarflexor stretch training increases reciprocal inhibition measured during voluntary dorsiflexion. (United States)

    Blazevich, A J; Kay, A D; Waugh, C; Fath, F; Miller, S; Cannavan, D


    Agonist-mediated reciprocal inhibition (RI) in distal skeletal muscles is an important neurophysiological phenomenon leading to improved movement coordination and efficiency. It has been shown to be reduced in aged and clinical populations, so the development of interventions augmenting RI is an important research goal. We examined the efficacy of using chronic passive muscle stretching to augment RI. The influence of 3 wk of plantarflexor stretching (4 × 30 s, two times/day) on RI of soleus and gastrocnemius initiated by tonic, voluntary dorsiflexion contractions [20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] was examined in 11 healthy men who performed stretch training and in nine nontraining controls. Hoffmann's reflexes (H-reflexes) were elicited by tibial nerve stimulation during both weak isometric (2% MVC) plantarflexions and dorsiflexion contractions at 20% MVC. Changes were examined at three joint angles, normalized to each subject's range of motion (ROM; plantarflexed = 10 ± 0°, neutral = -3.3 ± 2.9°, dorsiflexed = -16.5 ± 5.6°). No changes were detected in controls. A 20% increase in ROM in the stretch subjects was associated with a significant decrease in maximum H-reflex (H(max)): maximum evoked potential (M(max)), measured during 2% plantarflexion at the plantarflexed and neutral angles in soleus and at the plantarflexed angle in gastrocnemius (P dorsiflexion contract were also seen at each angle in soleus and at the dorsiflexed angle in gastrocnemius. However, a greater decrease in H(max):M(max) measured during voluntary dorsiflexion rather than during plantarflexion, which indicates a specific change in RI, was detected only at the dorsiflexed angle (-30.7 ± 9.4% and -35.8 ± 6.8% for soleus and gastrocnemius, respectively). These results demonstrate the efficacy of soleus-gastrocnemius stretch training in increasing agonist-mediated RI from tibialis anterior onto soleus-gastrocnemius in young, healthy individuals at dorsiflexed, but not

  10. Three-dimensional solution structure of mu-conotoxin GIIIB, a specific blocker of skeletal muscle sodium channels. (United States)

    Hill, J M; Alewood, P F; Craik, D J


    The three-dimensional solution structure of mu-conotoxin GIIIB, a 22-residue polypeptide from the venom of the piscivorous cone snail Conus geographus, has been determined using 2D 1H NMR spectroscopy. GIIIB binds with high affinity and selectivity to skeletal muscle sodium channels and is a valuable tool for characterizing both the structure and function of these channels. Structural restraints consisting of 289 interproton distances inferred from NOEs and 9 backbone and 5 side chain dihedral angle restraints from spin-spin coupling constants were used as input for simulated annealing calculations and energy minimization in the program X-PLOR. In addition to the 1H NMR derived information, the 13C resonances of GIIIB were assigned at natural abundance, and hydroxyproline C beta and C gamma chemical shifts were used to distinguish between the cis and trans peptide bond conformations. The final set of 20 structures had mean pairwise rms differences over the whole molecule of 1.22 A for the backbone atoms and 2.48 A for all heavy atoms. For the well-defined region encompassing residues 3-21, the corresponding values were 0.74 and 2.54 A, respectively. GIIIB adopts a compact structure consisting of a distorted 310-helix, a small beta-hairpin, a cis-hydroxyproline, and several turns. The molecule is stabilized by three disulfide bonds, two of which connect the helix and the beta-sheet, forming a structural core with similarities to the CS alpha beta motif [Cornet, B., Bonmatin, J.-M., Hetru, C., Hoffmann, J. A., Ptak, M., & Vovelle, F. (1995) Structure 3, 435-448]. This motif is common to several families of small proteins including scorpion toxins and insect defensins. Other structural features of GIIIB include the presence of eight arginine and lysine side chains that project into the solvent in a radial orientation relative to the core of the molecule. These cationic side chains form potential sites of interaction with anionic sites on sodium channels. The global

  11. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO 48-8071 suppresses growth of hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y


    Full Text Available Yayun Liang,1 Benford Mafuvadze,1 Johannes D Aebi,2 Salman M Hyder1 1Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA; 2Medicinal Chemistry, Roche Pharma Research and Early Development (pRED, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Standard treatment for primary prostate cancer includes systemic exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs that target androgen receptor or antihormone therapy (chemical castration; however, drug-resistant cancer cells generally emerge during treatment, limiting the continued use of systemic chemotherapy. Patients are then treated with more toxic standard therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel and more effective treatments for prostate cancer. The cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is an attractive therapeutic target for treating endocrine-dependent cancers because cholesterol is an essential structural and functional component of cell membranes as well as the metabolic precursor of endogenous steroid hormones. In this study, we have examined the effects of RO 48-8071 (4'-[6-(allylmethylaminohexyloxy]-4-bromo-2'-fluorobenzophenone fumarate; Roche Pharmaceuticals internal reference: RO0488071 (RO, which is an inhibitor of 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclase (a key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, on prostate cancer cells. Exposure of both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant human prostate cancer cells to RO reduced prostate cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis in vitro. RO treatment reduced androgen receptor protein expression in hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells and increased estrogen receptor β (ERβ protein expression in both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Combining RO with an ERβ agonist increased its ability to reduce castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability. In addition, RO effectively suppressed the

  12. FISHing Out the Hidden Enemy: Advances in Detecting and Measuring Latent HIV-Infected Cells. (United States)

    Prasad, Vinayaka R; Kalpana, Ganjam V


    The indomitable aspect of HIV-1 infection is not that HIV-1 proviral DNA is integrated into host DNA but that it can also turn itself off, remaining invisible to drug or immune surveillance. Thus, the goals of eradication include ways to precisely excise HIV-1 DNA or wake up the silent HIV-1 provirus and eliminate the infected cells thus identified. Methods to identify and fish out the latently infected cells or to delineate their characteristics are being rapidly developed. In 2016, Baxter et al. (A. E. Baxter, J. Niessl, R. Fromentin, J. Richard, F. Porichis, R. Charlebois, M. Massanella, N. Brassard, N. Alsahafi, G. G. Delgado, J. P. Routy, B. D. Walker, A. Finzi, N. Chomont, and D. E. Kaufmann, Cell Host Microbe 20:368-380, 2016, and Martrus et al. (G. Martrus, A. Niehrs, R. Cornelis, A. Rechtien, W. García-Beltran, M. Lütgehetmann, C. Hoffmann, and M. Altfeld, J Virol 90:9018-9028, 2016, reported using the fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry technique to identify and quantify cells expressing HIV-1 RNA and Gag protein, as well as bearing unique cell surface markers. In a recent article in mBio , Grau-Expósito et al. (J. Grau-Expósito, C. Serra-Peinado, L. Miguel, J. Navarro, A. Curran, J. Burgos, I. Ocaña, E. Ribera, A. Torrella, B. Planas, R. Badía, J. Castellví, V. Falcó, M. Crespo, and M. J. Buzon, mBio 8:e00876-17, 2017, reported a similar method that they claim to be more sensitive. With these methods, researchers are one step closer to measuring latent reservoirs and eliminating critical barriers to HIV eradication. Copyright © 2017 Prasad and Kalpana.

  13. Quantum chemical investigation on the catalytic mechanism of vanadium iodoperoxidase and the iodination of common organic compounds (United States)

    Gálvez, Óscar; Pacios, Luis F.


    , L.; Kulmala, M.; Jennings, S.G.; Hoffmann, T. Nature, 2002, 417, 632-636.

  14. Links Between the Oxidation of Glyoxal and Sulfur Dioxide, the Production of Brown Carbon, and Geoengineering Schemes (United States)

    De Haan, D. O.; Sueme, W. R.; Rynaski, A.; Torkelson, A.; Czer, E. T.


    A correlation between oxalic acid and sulfate in atmospheric aerosol was reported by J. Z. Yu et al. in 2005. It was suggested that this correlation could be explained by the dominance of in-cloud oxidation pathways forming both species from their major precursors, SO2 and glyoxal. The chemistry of these two precursors is linked via the rapid, reversible formation of an adduct molecule reported by Olson and Hoffmann in 1988. We show that at pH > 4, the oxidation of solutions containing both sulfite ions and glyoxal generates a series of redox-active quinones that absorb visible light. Using LCMS in negative ion mode, we quantify the formation of the colored compounds tetrahydroquinone, rhodizonic acid, and croconic acid (CrA) in glyoxal + bisulfite aqueous reaction mixtures as a function of pH. Of these three compounds, CrA would be expected to have the longest lifetime in the atmosphere. Ultimately, the same oxidation products are formed as when SO2 and glyoxal are oxidized separately (e.g. sulfate, oxalate, malonic acid). There are no other reported colored compounds in the oxidation series after CrA. However, comparisons between LCMS and UV-Vis absorbance measurements indicate that even after the three known colored compounds have oxidized, glyoxal / bisulfite reaction samples remain yellow for many days. This suggests the production of additional, unknown compounds that absorb visible light. These experiments show that the linked oxidation of glyoxal and SO2 in clouds and aqueous aerosol is capable of producing brown carbon. This process has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of proposed geoengineering schemes where SO2 would be intentionally added to the atmosphere in order to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo through sulfate aerosol formation. The presence of glyoxal in the atmosphere (produced from the oxidation of biogenic gases) could partially cancel the desired cooling effect due to the unintended production of brown carbon

  15. The Hydrometallurgical Extraction and Recovery of High-Purity Silver (United States)

    Hoffmann, James E.


    -bearing inputs, will be described in detail to demonstrate how typical chemical engineering unit process and unit operations have supplanted classic smelting and fire refining techniques. The Kennecott Copper Company, which has operated a hydrometallurgical circuit successfully for the recovery of high-purity silver from the slimes wet chlorination residue, has permitted me to provide some operation information and results using the technology. Both Phelps Dodge and Kennecott should be recognized for their forward-looking attitude in undertaking the conversion of conceptual chemistry into successful, full-scale plants. The process as employed at Phelps Dodge is discussed at length in reference (J.E. Hoffmann and B. Wesstrom: Hydrometallurgy, 1994, vol. 94, pp. 69-105).

  16. Avaliação epidemiológica de doenças negligenciadas em escolares: filariose linfática e parasitoses intestinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Aguiar-Santos


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de infecção filarial e de parasitoses intestinais em escolares numa área endêmica de filariose e refletir sobre a opção terapêutica utilizada no Brasil no tratamento coletivo para filariose. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 508 alunos na faixa etária de 5-18 anos cadastrados em escolas públicas do município de Olinda-PE. Realizou-se a investigação da parasitose intestinal em três amostras de fezes, analisadas pelo método de Hoffmann, Pons e Janer. A investigação filarial foi feita com teste antigênico pela técnica de imunocromatográfica rápida (ICT e pesquisa de microfilárias, utilizando filtração em membrana de policarbonato. Para análise de dados utilizou-se a estatística descritiva através do programa EpiInfo versão 7. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de filariose por ICT foi de 13,8% e por microfilaremia de 1,2%, enquanto a de parasitoses intestinais foi 64,2%. A concomitância do diagnóstico filarial e de parasitoses intestinais foi de 9,4% e, 31,5% eram isentos de ambas as parasitoses. Entre os indivíduos com parasitoses intestinais, 55% eram monoparasitados e 45% poliparasitados. A presença de geohelmintos ocorreu em 72,5% dos parasitados. No grupo com infecção filarial a ocorrência de geohelmintíase foi de 54,5%. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico simultâneo de infecção filarial e parasitose intestinal, bem como a elevada frequência de geohelmintos justificam uma reavaliação da estratégia terapêutica do tratamento coletivo no programa de filariose no Brasil.

  17. Symposium energy plants 2007; Symposium Energiepflanzen 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Within the meeting ''Symposium energy plants 2007'', held at 24th to 25th October, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Energy plants - contribution to the resources protection and climatic protection as well as to the income safety in the agriculture (Gert Lindemann); (b) State of the art and potentials of utilization of biomass in the Federal Republic of Germany (Martin Kaltschmitt); (c) Requirements at the production of energy plants from the view of the nature protection and environmental protection (Florian Schoene); (d) Support of projects as a contribution for the optimization of cultivation of energy-plants (Andreas Schuette); (e) Development and comparison of optimized cultivation systems for the production of energy plants (Armin Vetter); (f) Country co-operation biomass for SunFuel registered (Martin Lohrmann); (g) Location comparisons to the secondary culture use system (Reinhold Stuelpnagel); (h) field fodder grasses as substrate to biogas (Matthias Benke); (i) Strategies of KWS within the range of cultivation of energy plants (Hinrich Harling); (j) Strategies of the seed union within the range of cultivation of energy plants (Heinrich Wortmann); (k) Sunflowers and rye plants as a substrate for biogas (Volker Hahn); (l) Sorghumarten - sorts and origins comparison (Albrecht Roller); (m) ecological accompanying research to the cultivation of energy plants (Johannes Hufnagel); (n) Strategies for the nature-compatible supply of biomass (Alois Heissenhuber); (o) Renewable raw materials as an option for nature protection (Peter Heck); (p) Rapidly growing species of trees - solutions and problems (Martin Hoffmann); (q) 'Kurzumtriebsplantages' in Sweden (Martin Weih); (r) Agro forest systems as an option in the generation of biomass (Bernd Uwe Schneider); (s) Economical evaluation of different cultivation systems (Friedrich Kuhlmann, Thore Toews); (t) Energy plants as a challenge in

  18. THE USE OF NARRATIVES IN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION: An example of the use of comic strips (narratives) in communicating scientific information about sustainable development. (United States)

    Negrete, Aquiles


    It is quite reasonable to claim that narratives can include, explain and recreate science and that this means of science communication is generally popular. This idea seems to be supported by the fact that many contemporary authors who include science as a theme in their work receive a good reception among the public (at least in Britain). Novels like Fermat's Last Theorem by Simon Singh, Longitude by Dava Sobel and Neuromancer by William Gibson stayed on the best seller lists for weeks. Plays like Copenhagen by Michael Frayn, Arcadia by Tom Stoppard, Oxigen by Carl Djerassi and Ronald Hoffmann, Diary of a steak by Deborah Levy as well as Blue heart by Caryl Churchill enjoyed complete sell-outs in London and other cities in Britain. The explanation for this popularity seems to be that narratives are amusing, attractive, and interesting. Therefore, we can maintain that they are popular. But are they also a long-lasting way of transmitting knowledge? Do people remember scientific information conveyed by this means better than they remember the traditional formats like paradigmatic textbooks? These are questions that need to be addressed. To understand how narratives organize, represent and convey information, it is an important task to evaluate the advantages that this media offers for the communication of science. Narratives include several characteristics that make them memorable, understandable, enjoyable and a good way to present and communicate knowledge. Some of these attributes are achieved through narrative structures, including literary devices. In this research I discuss how the general public is familiar with the narrative structure of a story, how schemas for these narrative structures allow identification, induce emotions and promote understanding - important elements for the learning and memory process. I also look at how individually the narrative resources (or literary devices), in addition to their aesthetic value, can also work as mnemonic

  19. First application of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and hypoiodic acid in maritime aerosol during PEGASO cruise (United States)

    Götz, Sven; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Simó, Rafel; Hoffmann, Thosten


    analysis from the PEGASO cruise (plankton-derived emissions of trace gases and aerosols in the southern ocean) will be shown. [1] Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M.C.; Baker, A. R.; Carpenter, L. J., von Glasow, R.; Gómez Martín, J. C.; McFiggans, G.; Saunders, R. W.; Chem. Rev., 2012, 112, 1773-1804 [2] MacDonald, S. M.; Gómez Martin, J. C.; Chance, R.; Warriner, S.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Carpenter, L. J., Plane, J. M. C.; Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2014, 14, 5841-5852 [3] Huang, R. J.; Hoffmann, T.; Anal. Chemistry, 2009, 81, 1777-1783

  20. Cross-market cost-effectiveness analysis of erlotinib as first-line maintenance treatment for patients with stable non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnenègre A


    Full Text Available Alain Vergnenègre1, Joshua A Ray2, Christos Chouaid3, Francesco Grossi4, Helge G Bischoff5, David F Heigener6, Stefan Walzer21Department of Pneumology, Hôpital du Cluzeau, Limoges, France; 2Global Health Economics and Strategic Pricing, F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland; 3Respiratory Service, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; 4Lung Cancer Unit, National Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy; 5Thoracic Oncology, Onkologie Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Department of Thoracic Oncology, Krankenhaus Großhansdorf, Großhansdorf, GermanyBackground: Platinum-doublet, first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is limited to 4–6 cycles. An alternative strategy used to prolong the duration of first-line treatment and extend survival in metastatic NSCLC is first-line maintenance therapy. Erlotinib was approved for first-line maintenance in a stable disease population following results from a randomized, controlled Phase III trial comparing erlotinib with best supportive care. We aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of erlotinib 150 mg/day versus best supportive care when used as first-line maintenance therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC and stable disease.Methods: An economic decision model was developed using patient-level data for progression-free survival and overall survival from the SATURN (SequentiAl Tarceva in UnResectable NSCLC study. An area under the curve model was developed; all patients entered the model in the progression-free survival health state and, after each month, moved to progression or death. A time horizon of 5 years was used. The model was conducted from the perspective of national health care payers in France, Germany, and Italy. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.Results: Treatment with erlotinib in first-line maintenance resulted in a mean life expectancy of 1.39 years in all countries

  1. Economic evaluation of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil in first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado LF


    Full Text Available Luis Felipe Casado,1 Amparo Burgos,2 Eva González-Haba,3 Javier Loscertales,4 Tania Krivasi,5 Javier Orofino,6 Carlos Rubio-Terres,7 Darío Rubio-Rodríguez7 1Hematology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain; 2Pharmacy Department, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain; 3Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 4Hematology Deparment, Hospital Universitario De La Princesa, Madrid, Spain; 5Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland; 6Roche Farma SA, Madrid, Spain; 7Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb versus rituximab plus chlorambucil (RClb in the treatment of adults with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and with comorbidities that make them unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System.Methods: A Markov model was developed with three mutually exclusive health states: progression-free survival (with or without treatment, progression, and death. Survival time for the two treatments was modeled based on the results of CLL11 clinical trial and external sources. Each health state was associated with a utility value and direct medical costs. The utilities were obtained from a utility elicitation study conducted in the UK. Costs and general background mortality data were obtained from published Spanish sources. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were conducted, with a time frame of 20 years. The health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained. Efficiency was measured as the cost per LY or per QALY gained of the most effective regimen.Results: In the deterministic base case analysis, each patient treated with GClb resulted in 0.717 LYs gained and 0.673 QALYs gained versus RClb. The cost per LY and per QALY gained with GClb versus RClb was

  2. Schmallenberg virus epidemic: impact on milk production, reproductive performance and mortality in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and Kleve district, Germany. (United States)

    Veldhuis, A M B; Santman-Berends, I M G A; Gethmann, J M; Mars, M H; van Wuyckhuise, L; Vellema, P; Holsteg, M; Höreth-Böntgen, D; Conraths, F J; van Schaik, G


    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus that rapidly spread throughout north-western Europe in 2011, caused congenital malformations in lambs and goat kids (Van den Brom et al., 2012) and newborn calves (Hoffmann et al., 2012). The impact of the SBV epidemic seemed limited however, in terms of the number of affected herds with malformed offspring (European Food Safety Authority, 2012b). Nevertheless, little is known with regard to the overall within-herd impact of SBV infection. The objective of the current study was to quantify the impact of the 2011 SBV epidemic on the productivity of dairy cattle in the Netherlands and the district of Kleve, Germany. For the Netherlands, several multilevel multivariable statistical models were applied on eight productivity parameters regarding milk production, reproductive performance and mortality. All four fertility parameters analysed were slightly but significantly reduced between August 1st and November 1st 2011 compared to the reference period in 2009-2010. Between August 15th and September 19th 2011, the average loss in milk production per cow was -0.26kg (95% CI: -0.30; -0.22) per day in dairy herds, compared to the reference period (pNetherlands was -0.43kg (95% CI: -0.59; -0.28) per day (p<0.001). For Germany, a study was carried out in the district of Kleve, situated in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia near the Dutch border. Data on milk yield, two fertility parameters and the number of rendered calves in this specific region were analysed. There was a small but significant increase in the number of secondary and third inseminations between August 1st and November 1st 2011, indicating reduced fertility. No significant change in calf mortality was observed in the assumed SBV period. Milk production at district level did not seem to be affected by SBV in August and September 2011. SBV had no or limited impact on mortality rates, which was as expected given the relatively mild expression of SBV in adult

  3. Essential oils as biological alternatives to protect date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. against Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amri


    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of three Tunisian plants and to evaluate their biological activity against eggs, larvae, and adult insects of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller. The essential oils extracted from leaves of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Rosmarinus officinalis L. and needles of Pinus halepensis Mill. were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; 34, 16, and 56 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were (Z-caryophyllene (23.8%, β-myrcene (20.5% and α-pinene (13.3% in P. halepensis oil, carvacrol (66.9%, p-cymene (9.1%, and δ-terpinene (6.2% in T. capitatus oil and 1,8-cineole (47.5%, camphor (14.9%, α-pinene (14.1%, and borneol (13.1% in R. officinalis oil. The insecticidal effects of essential oils on eggs, larvae, and adults of E. ceratoniae were investigated. Ovicidal activity of oils was studied by spray on eggs while larvicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed by fumigation and spray. Number of hatched eggs was verified after 10 d, larva and adult mortalities were observed after 6, 12, and 24 h. Globally, eggs and larvae were the most resistant to the three different oils, needing higher doses to obtain a higher mortality. The spray method was most effective than fumigation. Essential oil extracted from T. capitatus proved to be very toxic towards E. ceratoniae on all three phases at the dose of 20 μL mL-1 (100% inhibition, followed by the oil from R. officinalis (90-100% inhibition, nevertheless, weak activity was obtained with P. halepensis oil (68.3-85% inhibition. Results obtained may suggest that the essential oils of T. capitatus and R. officinalis possess high insecticidal activity and therefore, can be used in biotechnological application as natural preservative in stored dates and could be useful in managing populations of E. ceratoniae in field.

  4. Results after simple decompression of the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harder, Kristina


    Full Text Available Cubital tunnel syndrome represents the second most common compression neuropathy of the upper limb. For more than four decades there has been a controversy about the best surgical treatment modality for cubital tunnel syndrome. In this study the results of 28 patients with simple ulnar nerve decompression are presented. Data analyses refers to clinical examination, personal interview, DASH-questionnaire, and electrophysiological measurements, which were assessed pre- and postoperatively.28 patients (15 females, 13 males were included in this study. The average age at time of surgery was 47.78 years (31.68–73.10 years. The period from onset of symptoms to surgery ranged from 2 to (mean 6 months. The mean follow-up was 2.11 years (0.91–Postoperatively there was a significant decrease in DASH score from 52.6 points to 13.3 points (p<0.001. Also the electrophysiological findings improved significantly: motor nerve conduction velocity increased from 36.0 m/s to 44.4 m/s (p=0.008 and the motor nerve action potential reached 5,470 mV compared to 3,665 mV preoperatively (p=0.018. A significant increase of grip strength from 59% (in comparison to the healthy hand to 80% was observed (p=0.002. Pain was indicated by means of a visual analog scale from 0 to 100. Preoperatively the median level of pain was 29 and postoperatively it was 0 (p=0.001. The decrease of the two-point-discrimination of the three ulnar finger nerves was also highly significant (p<0.001 from 11.3 mm to 5.0 mm. Significant postoperative improvement was also observed in the clinical examination concerning muscle atrophy (p=0.002, clawing (p=0.008, paresthesia (p=0.004, the sign of Froment (p=0.004, the sign of Hoffmann-Tinel (p=0.021, and clumsiness (p=0.002.Overall nearly 90% of all patients were satisfied with the result of the operation. In 96.4% of all cases, surgery improved the symptoms and in one patient (3.6% the success was noted as “poor” because the symptoms remained

  5. Results after simple decompression of the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel syndrome. (United States)

    Harder, Kristina; Lukschu, Sandra; Dunda, Sebastian E; Krapohl, Björn Dirk


    Cubital tunnel syndrome represents the second most common compression neuropathy of the upper limb. For more than four decades there has been a controversy about the best surgical treatment modality for cubital tunnel syndrome. In this study the results of 28 patients with simple ulnar nerve decompression are presented. Data analyses refers to clinical examination, personal interview, DASH-questionnaire, and electrophysiological measurements, which were assessed pre- and postoperatively. 28 patients (15 females, 13 males) were included in this study. The average age at time of surgery was 47.78 years (31.68-73.10 years). The period from onset of symptoms to surgery ranged from 2 to 24 months (mean 6 months). The mean follow-up was 2.11 years (0.91-4.16 years). Postoperatively there was a significant decrease in DASH score from 52.6 points to 13.3 points (p<0.001). Also the electrophysiological findings improved significantly: motor nerve conduction velocity increased from 36.0 m/s to 44.4 m/s (p=0.008) and the motor nerve action potential reached 5,470 mV compared to 3,665 mV preoperatively (p=0.018). A significant increase of grip strength from 59% (in comparison to the healthy hand) to 80% was observed (p=0.002). Pain was indicated by means of a visual analog scale from 0 to 100. Preoperatively the median level of pain was 29 and postoperatively it was 0 (p=0.001). The decrease of the two-point-discrimination of the three ulnar finger nerves was also highly significant (p<0.001) from 11.3 mm to 5.0 mm. Significant postoperative improvement was also observed in the clinical examination concerning muscle atrophy (p=0.002), clawing (p=0.008), paresthesia (p=0.004), the sign of Froment (p=0.004), the sign of Hoffmann-Tinel (p=0.021), and clumsiness (p=0.002). Overall nearly 90% of all patients were satisfied with the result of the operation. In 96.4% of all cases, surgery improved the symptoms and in one patient (3.6%) the success was noted as "poor" because the

  6. Lumbar paravertebral blockade as intractable pain management method in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I


    Full Text Available Iwona Zaporowska-Stachowiak,1,2 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,3 Grzegorz Kowalski,3 Katarzyna Kosicka,4 Karolina Hoffmann,5 Franciszek Główka,4 Jacek Łuczak2 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Palliative Medicine In-patient Unit, University Hospital of Lord’s Transfiguration, 3Department of Palliative Care, 4Department of Physical Pharmacy and Pharmacokinetics, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Metabolic Disorders and Arterial Hypertension, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Optimal symptoms control in advanced cancer disease, with refractory to conventional pain treatment, needs an interventional procedure. This paper presents coadministration of local anesthetic (LA via paravertebral blockade (PVB as the alternative to an unsuccessful subcutaneous fentanyl pain control in a 71-year old cancer patient with pathological fracture of femoral neck, bone metastases, and contraindications to morphine. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (0.25%, 5 mL · hour-1 or in boluses (10 mL of 0.125%–0.5% solution, used for lumbar PVB, resulted in pain relief, decreased demand for opioids, and led to better social interactions. The factors contributing to an increased risk of systemic toxicity from LA in the patient were: renal impairment; heart failure; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and a complex therapy with possible drug–drug interactions. These factors were taken into consideration during treatment. Bupivacaine’s side effects were absent. Coadministered drugs could mask LA’s toxicity. Elevated plasma α1-acid glycoprotein levels were a protective factor. To evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of the PVB treatment in boluses and in constant infusion, bupivacaine serum levels were determined and the drug plasma half-lives were calculated. Bupivacaine’s elimination was slower when administered in constant infusion than in boluses (t½ = 7.80 hours versus 2.64 hours. Total drug serum concentrations remained within the safe

  7. Diagnóstico diferencial das distrofias musculares com referência especial às alterações enzimáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heick


    Full Text Available Depois de apresentar os dados clínicos e genéticos relativos a 221 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva (125 casos do tipo Duchenne, 63 do tipo cintura pélvica e 25 do tipo fácio-escápulo-umeral, os autores analisam os resultados das dosagens sôro-enzimáticas que fizeram; em alguns casos foram pesquisas também as atividades de 25 enzimas em homogeneizados de tecido muscular. Os mesmos exames foram feitos em casos de miopatias de outra etiologia e de distrofias musculares neuropáticas e mielopáticas. Foi verificado que o teor das sôro-enzimas aumenta em todas as formas de distrofia muscular progressiva hereditária. No tipo Duchenne as-atividades enzimáticas são elevadas desde o nascimento das crianças acometidas, precedendo o aparecimento da sintomatologia clínica. Com o progredir da moléstia e com o decorrer dos anos os teores sôro-enzimáticos tendem a diminuir, podendo reduzir-se aos valores normais nas fases finais da moléstia. No tecido muscular não existe diferença significante, no que respeita à composição enzimática, entre os diversos tipos de distrofia muscular progressiva e hereditária. Com exceção de poucas enzimas cuja atividade é maior nos tecidos conjuntivo e adiposo que progressivamente substituem o tecido muscular que entra em atrofia, o teor das mio-enzimas diminui com o progredir da moléstia, como expressão do crescente esgotamento do citoplasma da célula muscular. Nas distrofias musculares neuropáticas e mielopáticas as alterações são idênticas, embora de menor intensidade. Algumas diferenças quantitativas podem ser explicadas pela idade dos pacientes e pela intensidade do processo. A mesma diferença pode ser demonstrada mediante exames histopatológicos: nas formas que acometem crianças (Werdnig-Hoffmann as fibras musculares ainda não denervadas se apresentam com aspecto normal, ao passo que, nas formas do adulto (Kugelberg-Welander, possivelmente pelo desgaste provocado pelos esfor

  8. Cervical Intradural Disc Herniation Causing Progressive Quadriparesis After Spinal Manipulation Therapy: A Case Report and Literature Review. (United States)

    Yang, Hwan-Seo; Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-Pil


    Cervical intradural disc herniation (IDH) is an extremely rare condition, comprising only 0.27% of all disc herniations. Three percent of IDHs occur in the cervical, 5% in the thoracic, and over 92% in the lumbar spinal canal. There have been a total of 31 cervical IDHs reported in the literature. The pathogenesis and imaging characteristics of IDH are not fully understood. A preoperative diagnosis is key to facilitating prompt intradural exploration in patients with ambivalent findings, as well as in preventing reoperation. The purpose of reporting our case is to remind clinicians to consider the possibility of cervical IDH during spinal manipulation therapy in patient with chronic neck pain.The patient signed informed consent for publication of this case report and any accompanying image. The ethical approval of this study was waived by the ethics committee of Chonbuk National University Hospital, because this study was case report and the number of patients was manipulation for chronic neck pain over the course of a month. The day prior, he had noticed neck pain and tingling in the bilateral upper and lower extremities during the manipulation procedure. The following day, he presented with bilateral weakness of all 4 extremities, which rendered him unable to walk. Neurological examination demonstrated a positive Hoffmann sign and ankle clonus bilaterally, hypoesthesia below the C5 dermatome, 3/5 strength in the bilateral upper extremities, and 2/5 strength in the lower extremities. This motor weakness was progressive, and he further complained of voiding difficulty.Urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed large, central disc herniations at C4-C5 and C5-C6 that caused severe spinal cord compression and surrounding edema. We performed C4-C5-C6 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.The patient's limb weakness improved rapidly within 1 day postoperatively, and he was discharged 4 weeks later. At his 12-month follow-up, the patient had

  9. 2. Sino-German workshop on fuel cells. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The CD-ROM contains the content of 13 lectures and 19 proposals for joint projects, which were presented on the second Sino-German Workshop on fuel cells. The topics of the 13 lectures are: Ab-initio calculations of oxygen species on low-index platinum surfaces (Pachenko, M.T.M. Koper, T.E. Shubina, S.J. Mitchell, E. Roduner). Cross-Linked (Composite) Polyaryl Blend Membranes for Membrane Fuel Cells. (J.A. Kerres, A. Ullrich, W. Zhang, M. Hein, V. Gogel, L. Joerissen, Th. Frey, A. Friedrich). Performance and Methanol Permeation of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Dependence on Operating Conditions and on Electrode Structure(V. Gogel, Th. Frey, K.A. Friedrich, L. Joerissen, J. Garche, Z. Yongsheng). Experimental Investigation of Flow Bed Configuration Effect on Performance of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. (H. Guo, C.F. Ma, M.H. Wang, F. Ye, J. Yu, Y. Wang, C.Y. Wang). Improvement of MEAs for DMFC by a tuned production sequence assisted by mathematical modelling (Lindermeir, G. Rosenthal, U. Kunz, U. Hoffmann). Performance of the self-breathing air DMFC with solution grafted PVDF-g-PSSA membranes (X. Qiu, G. Guo, W. Li, W. Zhu, L. Chen). Modeling the Effects of Methanol Crossover on DMFC (J. Zhang, Y. Wang). The characteristics of 40 kW PEM fuel cell engine for vehicle(M. Hou, P. Ming, H. Zhang). A New and Simple Method for Preparing Biocathode in Biofuel Cells (D. Sun, C. Cai, X. Li, W. Xing, T. Lu). Nonlinear Model Reduction of a Dynamic Two-dimensional Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Model (M. Mangold, M. Sheng). Recent Advances in Design and Fabrication of Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (C. Xia, G. Meng). Novel CVD Techniques for Micro- and IT-SOFC Fabrication (G. Meng, H. Song, Q. Dong, D. Peng). Fundamental properties of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} at high temperatures (S. Wang, T.-L. Wen).

  10. Penetrating Keratoplasty for Keratoconus – Excimer Versus Femtosecond Laser Trephination (United States)

    Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Hager, Tobias; Janunts, Edgar; El-Husseiny, Moatasem; Szentmáry, Nora


    Background: In case of keratoconus, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses as the correction method of first choice allow for a good visual acuity for quite some time. In a severe stage of the disease with major cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea, even specially designed keratoconus contact lenses are no more tolerated. In case of existing contraindications for intrastromal ring segments, corneal transplantation typically has a very good prognosis. Methods: In case of advanced keratoconus – especially after corneal hydrops due to rupture of Descemet’s membrane – penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) still is the surgical method of first choice. Noncontact excimer laser trephination seems to be especially beneficial for eyes with iatrogenic keratectasia after LASIK and those with repeat grafts in case of “keratoconus recurrences” due to small grafts with thin host cornea. For donor trephination from the epithelial side, an artificial chamber is used. Wound closure is achieved with a double running cross-stitch suture according to Hoffmann. Graft size is adapted individually depending on corneal size („as large as possible – as small as necessary“). Limbal centration will be preferred intraoperatively due to optical displacement of the pupil. During the last 10 years femtosecond laser trephination has been introduced from the USA as a potentially advantageous approach. Results: Prospective clinical studies have shown that the technique of non-contact excimer laser PKP improves donor and recipient centration, reduces “vertical tilt” and “horizontal torsion” of the graft in the recipient bed, thus resulting in significantly less “all-sutures-out” keratometric astigmatism (2.8 vs. 5.7 D), higher regularity of the topography (SRI 0.80 vs. 0.98) and better visual acuity (0.80 vs. 0.63) in contrast to the motor trephine. The stage of the disease does not influence functional outcome after excimer laser PKP. Refractive outcomes of femtosecond laser

  11. Cardiac troponin C-L29Q, related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hinders the transduction of the protein kinase A dependent phosphorylation signal from cardiac troponin I to C. (United States)

    Schmidtmann, Anja; Lindow, Christopher; Villard, Sylvie; Heuser, Arnd; Mügge, Andreas; Gessner, Reinhard; Granier, Claude; Jaquet, Kornelia


    We investigated structural and functional aspects of the first mutation in TNNC1, coding for the calcium-binding subunit (cTnC) of cardiac troponin, which was detected in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [ Hoffmann B, Schmidt-Traub H, Perrot A, Osterziel KJ & Gessner R (2001) Hum Mut17, 524]. This mutation leads to a leucine-glutamine exchange at position 29 in the nonfunctional calcium-binding site of cTnC. Interestingly, the mutation is located in a putative interaction site for the nonphosphorylated N-terminal arm of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) [ Finley NL, Abbott MB, Abusamhadneh E, Gaponenko V, Dong W, Seabrook G, Howarth JW, Rana M, Solaro RJ, Cheung HC et al. (1999) EJB Lett453, 107-112]. According to peptide array experiments, the nonphosphorylated cTnI arm interacts with cTnC around L29. This interaction is almost abolished by L29Q, as observed upon protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of cTnI at serine 22 and serine 23 in wild-type troponin. With CD spectroscopy, minor changes are observed in the backbone of Ca2+-free and Ca2+-saturated cTnC upon the L29Q replacement. A small, but significant, reduction in calcium sensitivity was detected upon measuring the Ca2+-dependent actomyosin subfragment 1 (actoS1)-ATPase activity and the sliding velocity of thin filaments. The maximum actoS1-ATPase activity, but not the maximum sliding velocity, was significantly enhanced. In addition, we performed our investigations at different levels of protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of cTnI. The in vitro assays mainly showed that the Ca2+ sensitivity of the actoS1-ATPase activity, and the mean sliding velocity of thin filaments, were no longer affected by protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of cTnI owing to the L29Q exchange in cTnC. The findings imply a hindered transduction of the phosphorylation signal from cTnI to cTnC.

  12. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krautter M


    Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance

  13. Compatibility of current DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cocaine use disorders. (United States)

    Proctor, Steven L; Kopak, Albert M; Hoffmann, Norman G


    The present study examined the compatibility of the current DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cocaine use disorders (CUD) among state prison inmates, and evaluated the diagnostic utility of the proposed criteria in accounting for DSM-IV "diagnostic orphans" (i.e., individuals who meet one or two of the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence yet fail to report indications of substance abuse). Data were derived from routine clinical assessments of adult male inmates (N=6871) recently admitted to the Minnesota Department of Corrections state prison system from 2000 to 2003. An automated (i.e., computer-prompted) version of the Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV (SUDDS-IV; Hoffmann & Harrison, 1995) was administered to all inmates as part of routine assessments. DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria were coded using proposed guidelines. The past 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV CUDs was 12.7% (Abuse, 3.8%, Dependence, 8.9%), while 11.0% met past 12-month DSM-5 criteria for a CUD (Moderate [MCUD], 1.7%; Severe [SCUD], 9.3%). When DSM-5 criteria were applied, 11.8% of the DSM-IV diagnostic orphans received a MCUD diagnosis. The vast majority of those with no diagnosis (99.6%) continued to have no diagnosis, and a similar proportion who met dependence criteria (98.4%) met SCUD criteria of the proposed DSM-5. Most of the variation in diagnostic classifications was accounted for by those with a current abuse diagnosis. The proposed DSM-5 criteria perform similarly to DSM-IV criteria in terms of the observed past 12-month CUD prevalence and diagnostic classifications. The proposed criteria appear to account for diagnostic orphans that may warrant a diagnosis. DSM-IV abuse cases were most affected when DSM-5 criteria were applied. Additional criteria, beyond those included in the proposed DSM-5 changes, concerning use to relieve emotional stress and preoccupation with use were frequently endorsed by those with a proposed DSM-5 diagnosis. Copyright © 2012

  14. Chemical characterization and antibacterial action of brown propolis extract from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Picoli T., Peter C.M., Hoffmann J.F., Latosinski G.S., Zani J.L., D’Ávila Vargas G., Hüber S. de O. & Fischer G. [Chemical characterization and antibacterial action of brown propolis extract from Southern Brazil.] Caracterização química e ação antibacteriana de extrato de própolis marrom da região sul do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:365-371, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Veterinária, Laboratório de Virologia e Imunologia, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Universitário Capão do Leão s/n, Capão do Leão, RS 96900-010, Brasil. E-mail: The aim of this study was to characterize chemically a sample of brown propolis and determine the time of action needed for eliminating microorganisms causing bovine mastitis. It was prepared hydroalcoholic extract of brown propolis (25 mg/mL and this was evaluated for content of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp. It was found 34.39% and 13.46% of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, respectively, among which stand out ferulic acid (0.09 mg/g, caffeic acid (0.17 mg/g and p-coumaric acid (3.39 mg/g.In the first 15 minutes incubation, all counts differed from the initial counts (p<0.01. With 15 minutes of exposure to the extract, Escherichia coli was inhibited by 38.72% and differed from the other bacterial genus (p<0.01, n=6. Staphylococcus spp. has had inhibition of 46.03% and Streptotococcus spp. of 50.8%. After 2 hours incubation, the genus Streptococcus was totally eliminated, Staphylococcus spp. after 3 hours and E. coli after 4 hours. Clearly, E. coli was more resistant bacteria than S. aureus. The other species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus did not show large differences between

  15. Exploring the understanding of evidence-based concepts in people with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann TC


    Full Text Available Tammy C Hoffmann,1,2 Chris B Del Mar11Centre for Research in Evidence-Based Practice, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, 2School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaBackground: Being able to make informed decisions is a prerequisite to enabling individuals to participate actively in their health care. In turn, an individual’s understanding of relevant health information can influence his/her ability to make informed decisions. However, there are two broad categories of health information, ie, background information (such as the pathophysiology of conditions and foreground information (such as disease behavior, prognosis, and effects of treatment. Questions about foreground information are central to evidence-based practice. The majority of health literacy research has focused on background information, yet foreground information is more useful in decision-making, particularly for evidence-informed decisions. In people with type 2 diabetes, we explored individuals’ knowledge of selected evidence-based concepts in diabetes; beliefs about what they can do to manage their diabetes and sources of this information; and whether these change after diabetes education.Methods: Attendees with type 2 diabetes (n = 95 at a one-day diabetes educational exposition completed a questionnaire before and after the event. We asked participants about evidence-based concepts in diabetes and compared their responses with the current evidence. We also asked participants how they could best manage their diabetes, and then, how they knew this.Results: Most participants underestimated their risk of complications. With the exception of a question about exercise and glycosylated hemoglobin level, nearly all participants provided responses that are not supported by current research evidence. There was no significant change in the percentage of participants who answered questions

  16. Smog chamber experiments to investigate Henry's law constants of glyoxal using different seed aerosols (United States)

    Jakob, Ronit


    -ESI-HR-MS. Additionally, gas-phase glyoxal has been analysed during the campaign. The results will be used to calculate the Henry's law constants. In this work, first results of the glyoxal study are presented. [1] J. Schnelle-Kreis, M. Sklorz, H. Herrmann, R. Zimmermann, Chem. Unserer Zeit, 2007, 41, 220-230 [2] M. M. Galloway, P. S. Chhabra, A. W. H. Chan, J. D. Surratt, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, F. N. Keutsch, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 9, 3331-3345, 2009 [3] C. J. Kampf, E. M. Waxman, J. G. Slowik, J. Dommen, L. Pfaffenberger, A. P. Praplan, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, T. Hoffmann, R. Volkamer, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, 47, 4236-4244

  17. The economic impact of reprocessing external fixation components. (United States)

    Horwitz, Daniel S; Schabel, Kathryn L S; Higgins, Thomas F


    The trend toward temporizing external fixation of complex fractures has resulted in increased expenditures for these devices. Increasing pressure to reduce health-care expenditures has led to exploration of reuse of equipment intended for single use. Devices must be tested and recertified prior to redeployment in hospital stock. We report the rate of manufacturer recertification and institutional cost savings associated with a reuse program approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. All Hoffmann-II external fixation components that had been removed at our institution during the study period were submitted to the manufacturer for visual inspection and mechanical testing. Pass rates for original components and previously recycled components were determined. With use of a conservative pass rate and the assumption of a maximum of three recertifications of each component, the total potential hospital savings on external fixation were calculated. The first pass rate was 76%. The second pass rate (i.e., the rate for components that had already been recertified once and had been sent for a second recertification) was 83%, but that rate was derived from a limited sample. On the basis of a conservative pass-rate estimate of 75%, the predicted average number of uses of a recyclable component was 2.7. The recertified components were sold back to our hospital at 50% of the original price. Because carbon-fiber bars and half-pins are not recycled, 85% of the charges expended on a new external fixation component are spent on portions of the system that are recyclable. The potential total savings on reusable components was found to be 32%, with a total savings of 27% for the whole external fixation system. No recertified components failed in clinical use over the course of the study. With the expansion of cost-control efforts, the recycling of medical devices appears inevitable. Previous data have demonstrated the safety of reuse of external fixation devices, and

  18. Electrical Stimulation of Low-Threshold Proprioceptive Fibers in the Adult Rat Increases Density of Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Terminals on Ankle Extensor α-Motoneurons.

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    Olga Gajewska-Woźniak

    Full Text Available The effects of stimulation of low-threshold proprioceptive afferents in the tibial nerve on two types of excitatory inputs to α-motoneurons were tested. The first input is formed by glutamatergic Ia sensory afferents contacting monosynaptically α-motoneurons. The second one is the cholinergic input originating from V0c-interneurons, located in lamina X of the spinal cord, modulating activity of α-motoneurons via C-terminals. Our aim was to clarify whether enhancement of signaling to ankle extensor α-motoneurons, via direct electrical stimulation addressed predominantly to low-threshold proprioceptive fibers in the tibial nerve of awake rats, will affect Ia glutamatergic and cholinergic innervation of α-motoneurons of lateral gastrocnemius (LG. LG motoneurons were identified with True Blue tracer injected intramuscularly. Tibial nerve was stimulated for 7 days with continuous bursts of three pulses applied in four 20 min sessions daily. The Hoffmann reflex and motor responses recorded from the soleus muscle, LG synergist, allowed controlling stimulation. Ia terminals and C-terminals abutting on LG-labeled α-motoneurons were detected by immunofluorescence (IF using input-specific anti- VGLUT1 and anti-VAChT antibodies, respectively. Quantitative analysis of confocal images revealed that the number of VGLUT1 IF and VAChT IF terminals contacting the soma of LG α-motoneurons increased after stimulation by 35% and by 26%, respectively, comparing to the sham-stimulated side. The aggregate volume of VGLUT1 IF and VAChT IF terminals increased by 35% and by 30%, respectively. Labeling intensity of boutons was also increased, suggesting an increase of signaling to LG α-motoneurons after stimulation. To conclude, one week of continuous burst stimulation of proprioceptive input to LG α-motoneurons is effective in enrichment of their direct glutamatergic but also indirect cholinergic inputs. The effectiveness of such and longer stimulation in models

  19. Mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1: análise clínico-epidemiológica em uma série de casos de 10 anos HTLV-1 associated myelopathy: clinical and epidemiological profile in a 10-year case series study

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    Ana Paula Silva Champs


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mielopatia associada ao retrovírus HTLV-1 (HAM/TSP é uma doença progressiva e incapacitante. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes com HAM/TSP. MÉTODOS: Série de casos admitidos de 01/1998 a 12/ 2007, em hospital de reabilitação utilizando os critérios diagnósticos de HAM/TSP. RESULTADOS: Participaram 206 pacientes, dos quais, 67% eram mulheres, com 53 anos de média de idade, nove anos de média de duração de doença. Os sintomas mais frequentes foram a diminuição da força em membros inferiores, espasticidade, dor, presença de bexiga neurogênica e a constipação intestinal. Os sinais neurológicos foram hiperreflexia, Babinsky, Hoffmann e neuropatia periférica. A presença de dor, de espasticidade muscular e de atrofia medular à ressonância nuclear magnética de medula espinhal foram associadas à duração da doença (pINTRODUCTION: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I myelopathy (HAM/TSP is a progressive disabling disorder. This work aimed to analyze clinical features and epidemiology in a sample of HAM/TSP. METHODS: All HTLV-1 infected patients with diagnostic criteria for HAM/TSP, consecutively admitted to the Sarah Hospital from 1998 to 2007, were included in the study. RESULTS: 206 patients (67% females; mean age: 53.8 years-old were diagnosed with HAM/TSP. The mean time of evolution was 9.0 years. The most common neurological symptoms were chronic progressive spastic paraparesis, spasticity, pain, neurogenic bladder and neurogenic bowel. The neurological findings were hyperreflexia, Babinsky, Hoffman and peripheral neuropathy. Pain, spasticity and spinal cord atrophy, observed in MRI, were associated with time of disease (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HAM/TSP is a very disabling disorder, in which pain is reported early, while spasticity and thoracic spinal cord atrophy appear in a later phase of the disease. Cases of HAM/TSP exist with a

  20. Adjuvant Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab in Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. (United States)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Procter, Marion; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zardavas, Dimitrios; Benyunes, Mark; Viale, Giuseppe; Suter, Thomas; Arahmani, Amal; Rouchet, Nathalie; Clark, Emma; Knott, Adam; Lang, Istvan; Levy, Christelle; Yardley, Denise A; Bines, Jose; Gelber, Richard D; Piccart, Martine; Baselga, Jose


    higher occurred almost exclusively during chemotherapy and was more frequent with pertuzumab than with placebo (9.8% vs. 3.7%). Pertuzumab significantly improved the rates of invasive-disease-free survival among patients with HER2-positive, operable breast cancer when it was added to trastuzumab and chemotherapy. Diarrhea was more common with pertuzumab than with placebo. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; APHINITY number, NCT01358877 .).

  1. Validation of a treatment satisfaction questionnaire in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: assessing the change from intravenous to subcutaneous administration of rituximab

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    Theodore-Oklota C


    Full Text Available Christina Theodore-Oklota,1 Louise Humphrey,2 Christof Wiesner,1 Gabriel Schnetzler,3 Stacie Hudgens,4 Alicyn Campbell1 1Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK; 3F. Hoffmann La-Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland; 4Clinical Outcomes Solutions, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: A subcutaneous (SC formulation of rituximab (MabThera®/Rituxan® has been developed that could reduce administration time and improve patient satisfaction with treatment. The Rituximab Administration Satisfaction Questionnaire (RASQ was created to assess patients’ perceptions and satisfaction with rituximab SC (RASQ-SC or rituximab intravenous (RASQ-IV. We assessed the content validity and psychometric properties of RASQ in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.Methods: Face and content validity of RASQ-SC and RASQ-IV were qualitatively assessed using 60-minute combined concept elicitation and cognitive debriefing interviews. Psychometric validation of RASQ (item performance and reliability was assessed quantitatively against the established Cancer Therapy Satisfaction Questionnaire (CTSQ, using questionnaire data from the PrefMab (NCT01724021 and MabCute (NCT01461928 clinical studies.Results: RASQ-IV demonstrated excellent coverage of concepts relevant to patients’ (n=10 own treatment experiences and no new concepts were identified. Patients’ expectations of rituximab SC were conceptually consistent with items included in the RASQ-SC, suggesting that the tool is also conceptually adequate. In 1,051 patients from PrefMab and MabCute, correlations with domains such as “RASQ: Physical Impacts” and “CTSQ: Feelings About Side Effects”, “RASQ: Physical Impacts” and “CTSQ: Satisfaction With Therapy”, and “RASQ: Satisfaction” and “CTSQ: Satisfaction With Therapy”, achieved moderate-to-high correlations (>0.4 for convergent domains and <0.3 for divergent domains.Conclusion: This study supports the qualitative face and

  2. AIRS high-resolution stratospheric temperature retrievals evaluated with operational Level-2 data and ERA-Interim (United States)

    Meyer, Catrin I.; Hoffmann, Lars


    same in all three data sets, having maximum standard deviations around the polar vortex in the mid and upper stratosphere. The evaluation presented here indicates that the high-resolution temperature retrievals are well-suited for scientific studies and that they will become a valuable asset for further studies of stratospheric gravity waves. Reference: Meyer, C. I. and L. Hoffmann, Validation of AIRS high-resolution stratospheric temperature retrievals, Proc. SPIE 9242, Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XIX; and Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems XVII, 92420L (17 October 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2066967

  3. Systematic, early identification of dementia and dementia care management are highly appreciated by general physicians in primary care – results within a cluster-randomized-controlled trial (DelpHi

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    Thyrian JR


    Full Text Available Jochen René Thyrian,1,* Tilly Eichler,1,* Andrea Pooch,1 Kerstin Albuerne,1 Adina Dreier,2 Bernhard Michalowsky,1 Diana Wucherer,1 Wolfgang Hoffmann1,2 1German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE, Site Greifswald, WG Interventional Health Care Research, Greifswald, 2Department of Epidemiology of Health Care and Community Health, Institute for Community Medicine, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany. *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: There is evidence about the benefits of early detection of dementia and subsequent provision of adequate treatment and care. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptance of detection and intervention procedures. These analyses describe the attitudes of general physicians [GPs] toward 1 dementia in general, 2 systematic detection of people with dementia, and 3 an intervention approach after they have experienced both. Comparisons are made based on experience with systematic screening and dementia-specific intervention. Methods: Postal, cross-sectional survey to all n=1,252 GPs in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. A subsample was drawn based on participation in the randomized, controlled, prospective intervention DelpHi-MV trial (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In this trial, systematic screening is implemented and an intervention group receives support through dementia care management (DCM. GPs were categorized into either GPs with DCM and systematic screening (DCM-GP, GPs with systematic screening only (DelpHi-GP, or GPs not participating in the trial. Data from n=257 GPs were available. Attitudes toward dementia were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Results: There was strong agreement toward the helpfulness of implementing a brief cognitive screening test (89.9% agreed. Approximately two-thirds of the respondents indicated that they had identified at least some patients as being cognitively

  4. Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em feiras livres e supermercados do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514 Occurence of parasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercializaed in the street markets and supermarkets of Campo Mourão, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514

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    Sandra Maria Simonelli


    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou e comparou a contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná. Foram analisadas 150 amostras de alfaces, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann, sendo 75 amostras provenientes de supermercados e 75 amostras de feiras livres. O sedimento foi analisado em microscópio óptico. Das amostras analisadas, 56% (42/75 e 58,7% (44/75 apresentaram contaminação por parasitas, dos supermercados e feiras livres, respectivamente. Os principais parasitas encontrados em supermercados foram: Ascaris spp 54,7%, Toxocara spp 2,4%, Strongyloides spp 4,8%, Entamoeba spp 35,7% e Taenia spp 2,4%; e em feiras livres foram: Ascaris spp 13,6%, Strongyloides spp 11,4%, Entamoeba spp 47,7%, Ancylostoma spp 9,1%, /em>Taenia spp 2,3%, Fasciola hepatica 6,8% e Trichuris spp 9,1%. Esses resultados indicam que as amostras de alfaces estão em desacordo com a legislação vigente e salientam a necessidade de aplicação de um programa de educação sanitária direcionado a horticultores e manipuladores de hortaliçasThis work researched and compared the contamination by enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in the supermarkets and street markets of Campo Mourão, State of Paraná. 150 samples of lettuce were analyzed through sedimentation method (Hoffmam, being 75 samples from supermarkets and 75 from street markets. The sediment was analyzed in optic microscope. The supermarkets samples showed contamination by parasites of 56% (42/75; while contamination of street markets samples showed 58.7% (44/75. The principal parasites observed in supermarkets samples were: Ascaris spp 54.7%, Toxocara spp 2.4%, Strongyloides spp 4.8%, Entamoeba spp 35.7% and Taenia spp 2.4%. Important parasites observed in street markets were: Ascaris spp 13.6%, Strongyloides spp 11.4%, Entamoeba spp 47.7%, Ancylostoma spp 9.1%, Taenia

  5. Mechanistic and synthetic studies of deuterium-labeled vinylcyclopropanes, cyclopropylallenes, and spiropentanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L.P.


    A number of hydrocarbons were prepared and pyrolyzed in the gas phase to study stereochemistry and kinetic isotope effects in the isomerizations. Heating 1-(Z-1[prime]-tert-butyl-2[prime]-deuteriovinyl)-trans-2-trans-3-dideuteriocyclopropane to 290.0[degrees]C leads to the [l brace]1,3[r brace] sigmatropic rearrangement product 1-tert-butyl-3,4,5-trideuteriocyclopentene. Accompanying this rearrangement is a geometric isomerization of the ring deuteriums which occurs in a random fashion and is four times more rapid than rearrangement. The [l brace]1,3[r brace] shift occurs 75--100% via the Woodward-Hoffmann [open quotes]allowed[close quotes] suprafacial-inversion pathway, suggesting a concerted mechanism for rearrangement. At 311.6[degrees]C, there is a normal kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 1.14 upon the [l brace]1,3[r brace] shift of 1[prime]-tert-butyl-2[prime],2[prime]-dideuteriovinylcyclopropane relative to its nondeuterated analogue. At 311.5[degrees]C, there is a normal KIE of 1.15 upon the [l brace]1,3[r brace] shift of 1-cyclopropyl-3,3-dideuterioallene relative to its nondeuterated analogue. trans-1,2-Bis(2[prime],2[prime]-dideuteriovinyl)-cyclopropane and its nondeuterated analogue were pyrolyzed over temperatures from 100 to 191[degrees]C. A normal KIE was observed upon the [l brace]3,3[r brace] shift to 1,4-cycloheptadiene. This KIE is relevant to understanding the mechanism of some [l brace]1,3[r brace] shifts, [l brace]3,3[r brace] shifts, and Diels-Alder reactions. The magnitude of the KIE was found to vary with temperature. trans-1,2-Diallenylcyclopropane rearranges at 196.4[degrees]C to give primarily the [l brace]3,3[r brace] shift product 3,4-dimethylene-1,5-cycloheptadiene. Study of the geometric isomerization of parent spiropentane will require analysis by polarimetry and infrared spectrometry, but in the case of phenylspiropentane, NMR may be used. Synthetic approaches to suitably deuterium-labeled spiropentanes were established.

  6. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara


    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes the intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Adverse effects of air pollution (AP) on cognitive functions have been proposed, but investigations of simultaneous exposure to noise are scarce. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with overall MCI and amnestic (aMCI) and nonamnestic (naMCI) MCI. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, cognitive assessment was completed in 4,086 participants who were 50-80 years old. Of these, 592 participants were diagnosed as having MCI (aMCI, n = 309; naMCI, n = 283) according to previously published criteria using five neuropsychological subtests. We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression, and for traffic noise [weighted 24-hr (LDEN) and night-time (LNIGHT) means]. Logistic regression models adjusted for individual risk factors were calculated to estimate the association of environmental exposures with MCI in single- and two-exposure models. Most air pollutants and traffic noise were associated with overall MCI and aMCI. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and a 10 A-weighted decibel [dB(A)] increase in LDEN were associated with overall MCI as follows [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: 1.16 (1.05, 1.27) and 1.40 (1.03, 1.91), respectively, and with aMCI as follows: 1.22 (1.08, 1.38) and 1.53 (1.05, 2.24), respectively. In two-exposure models, AP and noise associations were attenuated [e.g., for aMCI, PM2.5 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) and LDEN 1.46 (1.11, 1.92)]. Long-term exposures to air pollution and traffic noise were positively associated with MCI, mainly with the amnestic subtype. Tzivian L, Dlugaj M, Winkler A, Weinmayr G, Hennig F, Fuks KB, Vossoughi M, Schikowski T, Weimar C, Erbel R, Jöckel KH, Moebus S, Hoffmann B, on behalf of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study

  7. Residential Road Traffic Noise and High Depressive Symptoms after Five Years of Follow-up: Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. (United States)

    Orban, Ester; McDonald, Kelsey; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Hoffmann, Barbara; Fuks, Kateryna B; Dragano, Nico; Viehmann, Anja; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Pundt, Noreen; Moebus, Susanne


    exposure to residential road traffic noise increases the risk of depressive symptoms. Orban E, McDonald K, Sutcliffe R, Hoffmann B, Fuks KB, Dragano N, Viehmann A, Erbel R, Jöckel KH, Pundt N, Moebus S. 2016. Residential road traffic noise and high depressive symptoms after five years of follow-up: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:578-585;

  8. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygenation and erythropoietin in the treatment of chronic heart failure using myocardial perfusion scintigraphy G-SPECT

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    Baškot Branislav


    Full Text Available Background. The most important predictors of longterm survival in patients with cardiac ischemic disease are left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular volumes, infarction size, presence and extent of residual myocardial ischemia. One of the most important recent developments in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging is the ability to acquire these studies in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG gating (G-SPECT. The ability to asses radionuclide myocardial perfusion and function with ECG G-SPECT imaging has revolutionized this field of nuclear cardiology. Study with G-SPECT development algorithms permits to quantify measures of left ventricular (LV volume, ejection fraction (LVEF and even regional myocardial wall motion and thickening. The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC in its position paper from March 1999 recommends the routine incorporation of G-SPECT during cardiac perfusion scintigraphy. Case report. We presented a 70-year-old male with ischemic heart disease (dilatative, cardiomyopathy and absolute arrhythmia. He was few times hospitally treated by medicamentous therapy with no evidence of improvement. After hospital treatment, we included hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO and erythropoietin injections. Hyperbaric oxygenation was carried out in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber, BLK S-303, by a graduated protocol for patients with severe heart insufficiency, totally 15 treatments. Recombinant erythropoietin beta (RecormonR F. Hoffmann-La Roche was applied deeply subcutaneously, every second day from 2 000 IU to totally 16 000 IU. Before the therapy G-SPECT study was performed with 99m technetium-MIBI, and we obtained the functional parameters and perfusion of the left ventricle to follow-up the therapy effects. The study was performed by an ADAC-VERTEX PLUS-EPIC two-head gamma camera with dedicated quantitatively algorithm Auto-QUANT. The results of LVEF were 15%, with severity

  9. Effects of complexation between organic matter (OM) and clay mineral on OM pyrolysis (United States)

    Bu, Hongling; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jinzhong; He, Hongping; Zhou, Junming; Song, Hongzhe; Li, Zhaohui


    The stability and persistence of organic matter (OM) in source rocks are of great significance for hydrocarbon generation and the global carbon cycle. Clay-OM associations commonly occur in sedimentation and diagenesis processes and can influence the pyrolytic behaviors of OM. In this study, clay-OM complexes, i.e., interlayer clay-OM complexes and clay-OM mixture, were prepared and exposed to high-pressure pyrolysis conditions in confined gold capsule reactors to assess variations in OM pyrolysis products in the presence of clay minerals. Three model organic compounds, octadecanoic acid (OA), octadecy trimethyl ammonium bromide (OTAB), and octadecylamine (ODA), were employed and montmorillonite (Mt) was selected as the representative clay mineral. The solid acidity of Mt plays a key role in affecting the amount and composition of the pyrolysis gases generated by the clay-OM complexes. The Brønsted acid sites significantly promote the cracking of hydrocarbons through a carbocation mechanism and the isomerization of normal hydrocarbons. The Lewis acid sites are primarily involved in the decarboxylation reaction during pyrolysis and are responsible for CO2 generation. Mt exhibits either a catalysis effect or pyrolysis-inhibiting during pyrolysis of a given OM depending on the nature of the model organic compound and the nature of the clay-OM complexation. The amounts of C1-5 hydrocarbons and CO2 that are released from the Mt-OA and Mt-ODA complexes were higher than those of the parent OA and ODA, respectively, indicating a catalysis effect of Mt. In contrast, the amount of C1-5 hydrocarbons produced from the pyrolysis of Mt-OTAB complexes was lower than that of OTAB, which we attribute to an inhibiting effect of Mt. This pyrolysis-inhibiting effect works through the Hoffmann elimination that is promoted by the catalysis of the Brønsted acid sites of Mt, therefore releasing smaller amounts of gas hydrocarbons than the nucleophilic reaction that is induced by the

  10. Quadriceps Neuromuscular Function and Jump-Landing Sagittal-Plane Knee Biomechanics After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. (United States)

    Ward, Sarah H; Blackburn, Troy; Padua, Darin A; Stanley, Laura E; Harkey, Matthew S; Luc-Harkey, Brittney A; Pietrosimone, Brian G


      Aberrant biomechanics may affect force attenuation at the knee during dynamic activities, potentially increasing the risk of sustaining a knee injury or hastening the development of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Impaired quadriceps neuromuscular function has been hypothesized to influence the development of aberrant biomechanics.   To determine the association between quadriceps neuromuscular function (strength, voluntary activation, and spinal-reflex and corticomotor excitability) and sagittal-plane knee biomechanics during jump landings in individuals with ACLR.   Cross-sectional study.   Research laboratory.   Twenty-eight individuals with unilateral ACLR (7 men, 21 women; age = 22.4 ± 3.7 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.10 m, mass = 69.4 ± 10.1 kg, time postsurgery = 52 ± 42 months).   We quantified quadriceps spinal-reflex excitability via the Hoffmann reflex normalized to maximal muscle response (H : M ratio), corticomotor excitability via active motor threshold, strength as knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and voluntary activation using the central activation ratio (CAR). In a separate session, sagittal-plane kinetics (peak vertical ground reaction force [vGRF] and peak internal knee-extension moment) and kinematics (knee-flexion angle at initial contact, peak knee-flexion angle, and knee-flexion excursion) were collected during the loading phase of a jump-landing task. Separate bivariate associations were performed between the neuromuscular and biomechanical variables.   In the ACLR limb, greater MVIC was associated with greater peak knee-flexion angle ( r = 0.38, P = .045) and less peak vGRF ( r = -0.41, P = .03). Greater CAR was associated with greater peak internal knee-extension moment (ρ = -0.38, P = .045), and greater H : M ratios were associated with greater peak vGRF ( r = 0.45, P = .02).   Greater quadriceps MVIC and CAR may provide better energy

  11. Quantification of rock slope terrain properties (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner


    Q paper ( 32 p. [3] Hoffmann P. (2015) Härte von Böden. Bsc thesis, ZHAW Waedenswil.

  12. Bilderpolitik - Der gewöhnliche Faschismus im Kontext der Produktion und der Rezeption

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    Sabine Hänsgen


    Full Text Available Obyknovennyi fashizm / Der gewöhnliche Faschismus war ein sowjetisches Filmprojekt, das im Jahr 1965 von Michail Romm gemeinsam mit Jurij Chanjutin und Maja Turovskaja auf der Grundlage vom während der NS-Zeit entstandenen Bildmaterial realisiert wurde. Bei dem Projekt handelt es sich um den ersten umfassenden Versuch einer filmischen Reflexion über den Faschismus und implizit auch über die eigene totalitäre Vergangenheit in der nachstalinistischen Sowjetunion. Dieser Schlüsselfilm der 1960er Jahre löste eine breite internationale Diskussion aus, die Einblick in das diskursive Feld der wechselseitigen politisch-ideologischen Spiegelungen während der Zeit des Kalten Krieges gewährt. Obyknovennyi fashizm gehört zum Genre des „Kompilationsfilms“, das eine Wiederveröffentlichung und Neuinterpretation historischen Bildmaterials leistet. Montiert wurde der Film aus NS-Wochenschauen, Dokumentarfilmen und Kulturfilmen (2 Mio Meter Film, die 1945 von der Roten Armee aus den Beständen des Reichsfilmarchivs konfisziert und nach Moskau gebracht worden waren. Dieses Filmmaterial wurde ergänzt durch Fotografien, etwa die Fotoporträts des Hitler-Leibfotografen Heinrich Hoffmann oder private Schnappschüsse von Soldaten der deutschen Wehrmacht, die Jahrzehnte später im Zusammenhang mit der ersten Wehrmachtsausstellung großes Aufsehen erregten. In dem Artikel von Wolfgang Beilenhoff und Sabine Hänsgen werden die langwierige Produktionsgeschichte und die kontroverse Rezeption des Films in BRD und DDR behandelt. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit finden bei der Filmanalyse die medialen Strategien, mit denen dieser Kompilationsfilm das NS-Bildmaterial einer kritischen Lektüre unterzieht. Im Zentrum stehen das Zusammenspiel von visueller Montage und mündlichem Autorenkommentar sowie die Verwendung anderer Medien (Fotografie und Buch im Film. Im Schlussteil des Artikels wird Romms Film im Kontext anderer filmischer Auseinandersetzungen mit

  13. EMS in Viracept--the course of events in 2007 and 2008 from the non-clinical safety point of view. (United States)

    Müller, Lutz; Singer, Thomas


    Viracept (nelfinavir) is an HIV protease inhibitor supplied by Roche outside the US, Canada and Japan. Viracept was first introduced by Roche in 1998. Although newer protease inhibitors have become available for the treatment of HIV, it is viewed as a useful medicine for patients who are intolerant to ritonavir (since it does not require ritonavir boosting), pregnant women, and patients in resource-limited settings, since the formulation is heat-stable and does not require refrigeration. The relatively high prevalence of HIV in some of the third world countries means that it was also a product of choice for young women of childbearing age, pregnant and nursing women and young children. On 18 May 2007 F. Hoffmann-La Roche received first reports of a "bad smell" of blisterpacked Viracept tablets and one adverse drug report of nausea and vomiting from patients in Spain. Subsequently, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), an established mutagen, carcinogen and teratogen was identified as the potential source of the bad smell. On 6 June 2007, Viracept was globally recalled as the extent of the contamination exceeded the guidances for permissible levels set by regulatory authorities by more than 1000-fold and hence human risk was not readily assessable. In the following, a compilation of the course of events from a non-clinical point of view is presented. This compilation only partially reflects the complexity of the case and the interactions between all parties between May/June 2007 and September 2008 and hence necessarily remains partly a subjective compilation of the authors of this article. This compilation serves also as an introduction into this Special Issue of Toxicology Letters. The data on the cause and levels of contamination, likely duration of intake and affected patient population can be found in the subsequent contributions. Most importantly, we share in other parts of this Special Issue with the scientific community the data and risk assessment arguments that

  14. The Viracept (nelfinavir)--ethyl methanesulfonate case: a threshold risk assessment for human exposure to a genotoxic drug contamination? (United States)

    Lutz, Werner K


    In May 2007, the F. Hoffmann-La Roche Company became aware of a contamination of Viracept (nelfinavir) tablets by the mutagenic DNA-ethylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a result of a production incident. HIV-patients could have been exposed for 3 months to daily doses of up to 2.75 mg EMS, i.e., about 50 microg/kg per day. In this special issue, 12 manuscripts have been assembled to provide comprehensive insight in what happened and how the incident was managed by Roche and handled by the regulatory agencies. In the first four papers, the course of events and the toxicological information available at the outset are summarized and a traditional cancer risk assessment on the basis of a linear default dose-response is made. Three articles then report on the experiments performed for an improved risk assessment. A standard 4-week toxicity study with EMS in the rat indicated an NOAEL of 20mg/kg per day. Extensive studies on the genotoxicity showed threshold-like dose responses for both chromosome damage (bone marrow micronucleus test) and gene mutation (lacZ transgenic MutaMouse test) in various organs of mice treated for up to 4 weeks, whereas ethylation of hemoglobin at the N-terminal valine increased linearly with dose. The difference between adduct formation in DNA and protein was interpreted by repair of DNA adducts that becomes saturated above a threshold concentration of EMS, regarded as the metrics for the rate of DNA ethylation. Elaborate toxicokinetic investigations in various animal species, coupled to appropriate modeling, were performed in order to extrapolate the animal data to humans. Using a threshold risk assessment based on estimated c(max) of EMS, a safety factor of 370 was derived for maximum doses ingested by Viracept patients. A number of critical points are addressed in this editorial, concerning (i) definitions and types of "thresholds", (ii) estimation of a confidence limit for a slope below the threshold dose, interpreted as an

  15. Phases in development of an interactive mobile phone-based system to support self-management of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallberg I


    Full Text Available Inger Hallberg,1,11 Charles Taft,1,11 Agneta Ranerup,2,11 Ulrika Bengtsson,1,11 Mikael Hoffmann,3,10 Stefan Höfer,4 Dick Kasperowski,5 Åsa Mäkitalo,6 Mona Lundin,6 Lena Ring,7,8 Ulf Rosenqvist,9 Karin Kjellgren1,10,11 1Institute of Health and Care Sciences, 2Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3The NEPI Foundation, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Medical Psychology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria; 5Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, 6Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 7Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, 8Department of Use of Medical Products, Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, 9Department of Medical Specialist and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Motala, 10Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 11Centre for Person-Centred Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: Hypertension is a significant risk factor for heart disease and stroke worldwide. Effective treatment regimens exist; however, treatment adherence rates are poor (30%–50%. Improving self-management may be a way to increase adherence to treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the phases in the development and preliminary evaluation of an interactive mobile phone-based system aimed at supporting patients in self-managing their hypertension. A person-centered and participatory framework emphasizing patient involvement was used. An interdisciplinary group of researchers, patients with hypertension, and health care professionals who were specialized in hypertension care designed and developed a set of questions and motivational messages for use in an interactive mobile phone-based system. Guided by the US Food and Drug Administration framework for the development of patient-reported outcome

  16. Ferromagnet / superconductor oxide superlattices (United States)

    Santamaria, Jacobo


    The growth of heterostructures combining oxide materials is a new strategy to design novel artificial multifunctional materials with interesting behaviors ruled by the interface. With the (re)discovery of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) materials, there has been renewed interest in heterostructures involving oxide superconductors and CMR ferromagnets where ferromagnetism (F) and superconductivity (S) compete within nanometric distances from the interface. In F/S/F structures involving oxides, interfaces are especially complex and various factors like interface disorder and roughness, epitaxial strain, polarity mismatch etc., are responsible for depressed magnetic and superconducting properties at the interface over nanometer length scales. In this talk I will focus in F/S/F structures made of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO). The high degree of spin polarization of the LCMO conduction band, together with the d-wave superconductivity of the YBCO make this F/S system an adequate candidate for the search of novel spin dependent effects in transport. We show that superconductivity at the interface is depressed by various factors like charge transfer, spin injection or ferromagnetic superconducting proximity effect. I will present experiments to examine the characteristic distances of the various mechanisms of superconductivity depression. In particular, I will discuss that the critical temperature of the superconductor depends on the relative orientation of the magnetization of the F layers, giving rise to a new giant magnetoresistance effect which might be of interest for spintronic applications. Work done in collaboration with V. Peña^1, Z. Sefrioui^1, J. Garcia-Barriocanal^1, C. Visani^1, D. Arias^1, C. Leon^1 , N. Nemes^2, M. Garcia Hernandez^2, S. G. E. te Velthuis^3, A. Hoffmann^3, M. Varela^4, S. J. Pennycook^4. Work supported by MCYT MAT 2005-06024, CAM GR- MAT-0771/2004, UCM PR3/04-12399 Work at Argonne supported by the Department of Energy, Basic

  17. Obinutuzumab for the First-Line Treatment of Follicular Lymphoma. (United States)

    Marcus, Robert; Davies, Andrew; Ando, Kiyoshi; Klapper, Wolfram; Opat, Stephen; Owen, Carolyn; Phillips, Elizabeth; Sangha, Randeep; Schlag, Rudolf; Seymour, John F; Townsend, William; Trněný, Marek; Wenger, Michael; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter; Rufibach, Kaspar; Moore, Tom; Herold, Michael; Hiddemann, Wolfgang


    <0.001). Nausea and neutropenia were common. A total of 35 patients (5.8%) in the obinutuzumab group and 46 (7.7%) in the rituximab group died. Obinutuzumab-based immunochemotherapy and maintenance therapy resulted in longer progression-free survival than rituximab-based therapy. High-grade adverse events were more common with obinutuzumab-based chemotherapy. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche; GALLIUM number, NCT01332968 .).

  18. One-Year Observation of Water-Soluble Organic Aerosol Components in Fine and Coarse Aerosol Particle Samples (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Winterhalter, R.; Su, H.; Moortgat, G. K.; Pöschl, U.


    In this study, fine and coarse aerosol particle filter samples (3 µm cut-off diameter) were collected with a high-volume dichotomous sampler over a period of one year from May 2006 to May 2007 in Mainz, Germany. The water-soluble organic components have been extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The detected and quantified compounds comprise nitrophenols, aliphatic and aromatic dicarboxylic acids, and a C8-tricarboxylic acid (204 Da) which is likely to be formed upon oxidation of pinic acid and may be useful as a tracer of aerosol aging processes. Kubátová et al. (2000) found the C8-tricarboxylic acid as a major component of pinene SOA in tropical rainforest aerosol from the Amazon basin and summertime aerosol from Ghent, Belgium. Recently, Szmigielski et al. (2007) identified it as 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid. The concentrations of the C8-tricarboxylic were closely correlated with the concentrations of pinic acid in the coarse particle samples, but not in the fine particle samples. Seasonal variations and the influence of solar radiation and atmospheric oxidizing capacity on the ratios of the C8-tricarboxylic acid to pinic acid and to other quantified compounds will be discussed. Acknowledgement: We thank M. Claeys for providing a reference sample of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid and T. Hoffmann for helpful discussions. References: A. Kubátová, R. Vermeylen, M. Claeys, J. Cafmeyer, W. Maenhaut, G. Roberts, and P. Artaxo (2000). Carbonaceous aerosol characterisation in the Amazon basin, Brazil: Novel dicarboxylic acids and related compounds, Atmos. Environ., 34, 5037-5051. R. Szmigielski, J.D. Surratt, Y. Gómez-González, P. Van der Veken, I. Kourtchev, R. Vermeylen, F. Blockhuys, M. Jaoui, T.E. Kleindienst, M. Lewandowski, J.H. Offenberg, E.O. Edney, J.H. Seinfeld, W. Maenhaut, M. Claeys (2007). 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid: an atmospheric tracer for

  19. Predictors of overall satisfaction of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker-Schiebe M


    Full Text Available Martina Becker-Schiebe,1,2 Uwe Pinkert,1 Tahera Ahmad,1 Christof Schäfer,3 Wolfgang Hoffmann,1 Heiko Franz4 1Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Städtisches Klinikum Braunschweig gGmbH, Braunschweig, 2Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 3Radiation Oncology Straubing, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Städtisches Klinikum Braunschweig gGmbH, Braunschweig, Germany Background: Reporting the experiences and satisfaction of patients, as well as their quality of care scores is an emerging recommendation in health care systems. Many aspects of patients’ experience determine their overall satisfaction. The aim of this evaluation was to define the main factors contributing to the satisfaction of patients undergoing radiotherapy in an outpatient setting. Patients and methods: A total of 1,710 patients with a histologically proven cancer, who were treated in our department between 2012 and 2014, were recruited for this prospective evaluation. At the end of therapy, each patient was asked to grade the skills and the care provided by radiation therapists, physicians, and physician’s assistants, as well as the overall satisfaction during therapy. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which parameters had the greatest influence on overall satisfaction. Results: Overall satisfaction with the provided care was high with a mean satisfaction score of 1.4. Significant correlations were found between overall satisfaction and each of the following survey items: courtesy, protection of privacy, professional skills and care provided by the radiation therapists and physicians, accuracy of provided information, and cleanliness. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that courteous behavior and the protection of privacy were the strongest predictors for overall satisfaction (P<0.001, followed by care and skills of physicians and radiation therapists. Patients suffering from head

  20. Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents. (United States)

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Markevych, Iana; Brüske, Irene; Fuertes, Elaine; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Sugiri, Dorothea; Hoffmann, Barbara; von Berg, Andrea; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim


    , Kratzsch J, Sugiri D, Hoffmann B, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Koletzko S, Berdel D, Heinrich J. 2016. Associations of residential long-term air pollution exposures and satellite-derived greenness with insulin resistance in German adolescents. Environ Health Perspect 124:1291-1298;

  1. Zorn: Avant/Après/Passé [przekład

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lowell Brackett


    Full Text Available Krótki wywiad Witolda Wachowskiego z Johnem Zornem zawiera wiele cennych spostrzeżeń związanych z estetyką tego kompozytora. Rzekoma niechęć Zorna do publiczności, jego wiara w kreatywny instynkt „artysty” oraz jego przekonanie o transcendentalnej naturze dzieł muzycznych (które są bramą do świata „prawdy” i „piękna” niczym refren powtarzają się w wielu wywiadach z muzykiem. Zorn w krótkim wywiadzie z Wachowskim podkreśla właśnie te przekonania, dlatego możemy przyjąć, że stanowią one fundament jego muzycznej i artystycznej estetyki. Dla każdego, kto posiadł choćby podstawową wiedzę o zachodniej tradycji estetycznej, jest jasne, że te same cechy i stanowiska estetyczne charakteryzują muzyczne instytucje wspólne dla zachodniej tradycji artystycznej, a w szczególności „romantyczny” ideał muzyki i kompozytora rozwinięty w XIX wieku. Filozofowie (głównie Hegel i Kant razem z krytykami muzycznymi i kompozytorami (Schiller, Hoffmann, Schlegel, Schuman, Hanslick przyczynili się do stworzenia romantycznej estetyki muzycznej w XIX wieku, akcentującej rolę artysty („geniusza” lub „boga”, który tworzy „dzieła” odsłaniające – poprzez czysto muzyczne związki istniejące niezależnie od wrażliwości słuchacza – ukryte światy prawdy i piękna, światy odległe od trosk życia codziennego. Zważywszy na bliskie związki Zorna z estetykami/filozofami XIX-wiecznymi, można powiedzieć, że wyznaje on „romantyczny” pogląd na muzykę i sztukę.

  2. Generalized Graphs, Methods for Obtaining Graph Spectra. Application of Graph Spectra in Chemistry (United States)

    Shen, Mingzuo

    , in addition to some more quantitative discussions. From these applications, we conclude that the graphical method, based on the three-dimensional extension of the Huckel molecular orbital theory, can obtain useful information when compared with experiments and other qualitative theories such as Hoffmann's orbital-interaction diagram method.

  3. Conceptual DFT: the chemical relevance of higher response functions. (United States)

    Geerlings, P; De Proft, F


    In recent years conceptual density functional theory offered a perspective for the interpretation/prediction of experimental/theoretical reactivity data on the basis of a series of response functions to perturbations in the number of electrons and/or external potential. This approach has enabled the sharp definition and computation, from first principles, of a series of well-known but sometimes vaguely defined chemical concepts such as electronegativity and hardness. In this contribution, a short overview of the shortcomings of the simplest, first order response functions is illustrated leading to a description of chemical bonding in a covalent interaction in terms of interacting atoms or groups, governed by electrostatics with the tendency to polarize bonds on the basis of electronegativity differences. The second order approach, well known until now, introduces the hardness/softness and Fukui function concepts related to polarizability and frontier MO theory, respectively. The introduction of polarizability/softness is also considered in a historical perspective in which polarizability was, with some exceptions, mainly put forward in non covalent interactions. A particular series of response functions, arising when the changes in the external potential are solely provoked by changes in nuclear configurations (the "R-analogues") are also systematically considered. The main part of the contribution is devoted to third order response functions which, at first sight, may be expected not to yield chemically significant information, as turns out to be for the hyperhardness. A counterexample is the dual descriptor and its R analogue, the initial hardness response, which turns out to yield a firm basis to regain the Woodward-Hoffmann rules for pericyclic reactions based on a density-only basis, i.e. without involving the phase, sign, symmetry of the wavefunction. Even the second order nonlinear response functions are shown possibly to bear interesting information, e

  4. Diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow in a German lowland catchment (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola


    úbiková, P. Matgen, F. Fenicia, L. Ector, and L. Hoffmann. 2009. The rivers are alive: on the potential for diatoms as a tracer of water source and hydrological connectivity. Hydrological Processes 23:2841-2845. van Dam, H., A. Mertens, and J. Sinkeldam. 1994. A coded checklist and ecological indicator values of freshwater diatoms from the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology 28:117-133.

  5. The influence of wearing schemes and supportive telephone calls on adherence in accelerometry measurement: results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg N


    Full Text Available Neeltje van den Berg,1,2 Sabina Ulbricht,2,3 Thea Schwaneberg,1,2 Kerstin Weitmann,1,2 Franziska Weymar,1–3 Stefan Groß,2,4 Marcus Dörr,2,4 Wolfgang Hoffmann1,2 1Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, 2German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK, Partner Site Greifswald, 3Institute of Social Medicine and Prevention, University Medicine Greifswald, 4Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany Background: Physical activity (PA can be assessed by accelerometer monitors. However, a high adherence to wearing this device is essential to obtain valid data. In this study, the influence of different wearing schemes and additional supportive phone calls (SPCs on adherence was examined. Methods: A randomized study with four groups was conducted in the context of a health examination program among participants aged 40–75 years without a history of cardiovascular diseases. Participants were recruited in different settings (general medical practices, job center, and health insurance. The participants were asked to wear an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days according to the wearing scheme “day and night” or “day only” and received or did not receive SPCs. Full adherence was defined as a total wearing time of 98 hours (between 8 am and 10 pm during 7 days. A generalized linear model was used to calculate the difference between the maximum possible and the observed adherence. Results: Adherence could be assessed for 249 participants (mean age: 56.40 years; standard deviation [SD] 9.83, 40% males. The mean wearing time was 84.04 hours (SD 20.75. Participants with the wearing scheme day and night were significantly more adherent than participants with the wearing scheme day only (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.63; P=0.005. SPCs had no additional effect on adherence (IRR 0.80; P=0.168. Conclusion: To assess PA, the wearing scheme day and night provides the best possible

  6. Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance in arbitrarily magnetized thin films (United States)

    Sklenar, Joseph

    number DE-SC0014424. Work at Argonne was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, OS, Materials Science and Engineering Division. Lithography was carried out at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, which is supported by DOE, OS-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This work is in collaboration with: W. Zhang, M. B. Jungfleisch, W. Jiang, H. Saglam, S. Grudichak, J. E. Pearson, J. B. Ketterson, and A. Hoffmann.

  7. Inactivation of C4orf26 in toothless placental mammals. (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Starrett, James; Morin, Phillip A; Lanzetti, Agnese; Hayashi, Cheryl; Gatesy, John


    Previous studies have reported inactivated copies of six enamel-related genes (AMBN, AMEL, AMTN, ENAM, KLK4, MMP20) and one dentin-related gene (DSPP) in one or more toothless vertebrates and/or vertebrates with enamelless teeth, thereby providing evidence that these genes are enamel or tooth-specific with respect to their critical functions that are maintained by natural selection. Here, we employ available genome sequences for edentulous and enamelless mammals to evaluate the enamel specificity of four genes (WDR72, SLC24A4, FAM83H, C4orf26) that have been implicated in amelogenesis imperfecta, a condition in which proper enamel formation is abrogated during tooth development. Coding sequences for WDR72, SCL24A4, and FAM83H are intact in four edentulous taxa (Chinese pangolin, three baleen whales) and three taxa (aardvark, nine-banded armadillo, Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) with enamelless teeth, suggesting that these genes have critical functions beyond their involvement in tooth development. By contrast, genomic data for C4orf26 reveal inactivating mutations in pangolin and bowhead whale as well as evidence for deletion of this gene in two minke whale species. Hybridization capture of exonic regions and PCR screens provide evidence for inactivation of C4orf26 in eight additional baleen whale species. However, C4orf26 is intact in all three species with enamelless teeth that were surveyed, as well as in 95 additional mammalian species with enamel-capped teeth. Estimates of selection intensity suggest that dN/dS ratios on branches leading to taxa with enamelless teeth are similar to the dN/dS ratio on branches leading to taxa with enamel-capped teeth. Based on these results, we conclude that C4orf26 is tooth-specific, but not enamel-specific, with respect to its essential functions that are maintained by natural selection. A caveat is that an alternative splice site variant, which translates exon 3 in a different reading frame, is putatively functional in

  8. Diagnóstico diferencial das distrofias musculares com referência especial às alterações enzimáticas Differential diagnosis of muscular dystrophies with special reference to enzymatic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heick


    Full Text Available Depois de apresentar os dados clínicos e genéticos relativos a 221 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva (125 casos do tipo Duchenne, 63 do tipo cintura pélvica e 25 do tipo fácio-escápulo-umeral, os autores analisam os resultados das dosagens sôro-enzimáticas que fizeram; em alguns casos foram pesquisas também as atividades de 25 enzimas em homogeneizados de tecido muscular. Os mesmos exames foram feitos em casos de miopatias de outra etiologia e de distrofias musculares neuropáticas e mielopáticas. Foi verificado que o teor das sôro-enzimas aumenta em todas as formas de distrofia muscular progressiva hereditária. No tipo Duchenne as-atividades enzimáticas são elevadas desde o nascimento das crianças acometidas, precedendo o aparecimento da sintomatologia clínica. Com o progredir da moléstia e com o decorrer dos anos os teores sôro-enzimáticos tendem a diminuir, podendo reduzir-se aos valores normais nas fases finais da moléstia. No tecido muscular não existe diferença significante, no que respeita à composição enzimática, entre os diversos tipos de distrofia muscular progressiva e hereditária. Com exceção de poucas enzimas cuja atividade é maior nos tecidos conjuntivo e adiposo que progressivamente substituem o tecido muscular que entra em atrofia, o teor das mio-enzimas diminui com o progredir da moléstia, como expressão do crescente esgotamento do citoplasma da célula muscular. Nas distrofias musculares neuropáticas e mielopáticas as alterações são idênticas, embora de menor intensidade. Algumas diferenças quantitativas podem ser explicadas pela idade dos pacientes e pela intensidade do processo. A mesma diferença pode ser demonstrada mediante exames histopatológicos: nas formas que acometem crianças (Werdnig-Hoffmann as fibras musculares ainda não denervadas se apresentam com aspecto normal, ao passo que, nas formas do adulto (Kugelberg-Welander, possivelmente pelo desgaste provocado pelos esfor

  9. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto


    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  10. Ipatasertib plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (LOTUS): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Dent, Rebecca; Im, Seock-Ah; Espié, Marc; Blau, Sibel; Tan, Antoinette R; Isakoff, Steven J; Oliveira, Mafalda; Saura, Cristina; Wongchenko, Matthew J; Kapp, Amy V; Chan, Wai Y; Singel, Stina M; Maslyar, Daniel J; Baselga, José


    -free survival was 6·2 months (95% CI 3·6-9·1) with ipatasertib versus 3·7 months (1·9-7·3) with placebo (stratified HR 0·59, 95% CI 0·26-1·32, p=0·18). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were diarrhoea (14 [23%] of 61 ipatasertib-treated patients vs none of 62 placebo-treated patients), neutrophil count decreased (five [8%] vs four [6%]), and neutropenia (six [10%] vs one [2%]). No colitis, grade 4 diarrhoea, or treatment-related deaths were reported with ipatasertib. One treatment-related death occurred in the placebo group. Serious adverse events were reported in 17 (28%) of 61 patients in the ipatasertib group and nine (15%) of 62 patients in the placebo group. Progression-free survival was longer in patients who received ipatasertib than in those who received placebo. To our knowledge, these are the first results supporting AKT-targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer. Ipatasertib warrants further investigation for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. F Hoffmann-La Roche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of the multidisciplinary health care team in the management of patients with Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kodolitsch Y


    Full Text Available Yskert von Kodolitsch,1 Meike Rybczynski,1 Marina Vogler,2 Thomas S Mir,3 Helke Schüler,1 Kerstin Kutsche,4 Georg Rosenberger,4 Christian Detter,5 Alexander M Bernhardt,5 Axel Larena-Avellaneda,6 Tilo Kölbel,6 E Sebastian Debus,6 Malte Schroeder,7,8 Stephan J Linke,9,10 Bettina Fuisting,9 Barbara Napp,1 Anna Lena Kammal,11 Klaus Püschel,11 Peter Bannas,12 Boris A Hoffmann,13 Nele Gessler,13 Eva Vahle-Hinz,14 Bärbel Kahl-Nieke,14 Götz Thomalla,15 Christina Weiler-Normann,16 Gunda Ohm,17 Stefan Neumann,18 Dieter Benninghoven,19 Stefan Blankenberg,1 Reed E Pyeritz20 1Clinic of Cardiology, University Heart Centre, 2Marfan Hilfe Deutschland e.V., Zentrumsehstärke, 3Clinic for Pediatric Cardiology, University Heart Centre, 4Institute of Human Genetics, 5Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Centre, 6Clinic of Vascular Medicine, University Heart Centre, 7Department of Trauma, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery, 8Department of Orthopedics, 9Clinic of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 10Smilow Center for Translational Research, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 11Department of Legal Medicine, 12Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department and Clinic, 13Clinic of Electrophysiology, University Heart Centre, 14Department of Orthodontics, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, 15Clinic of Neurology, 16Martin Zeitz Center for Rare Diseases, 17Strategic Business Development, 18Business Unit Quality Management, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 19Mühlenberg-Clinic for Rehabilitation, Bad Malente-Gremsmühlen, 20Zentrumsehstärke, Hamburg, Germany Abstract: Marfan syndrome (MFS is a rare, severe, chronic, life-threatening disease with multiorgan involvement that requires optimal multidisciplinary care to normalize both prognosis and quality of life. In this article, each key team member of all the medical disciplines of a multidisciplinary

  12. The lived experiences of late-adolescent female suicide survivors: ‘A part of me died’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Poggenpoel


    by ’n Suid-Afrikaanse tersiêre instelling en jeugkampe. Data-insameling het geskied aan die hand van collage-gefasiliteerde, aangesig-tot-aangesig fenomenologiese onderhoude. Sommige deelnemers het addisionele dokumente in die vorm van persoonlike dagboeke, briewe en gedigte beskikbaar gestel vir data-analise. Die data is geanaliseer volgens Giorgi se fenomenologiese metode. Die volgende belewenisse het na vore getree tydens die data-analise: skuldgevoelens, self-blaam/spyt, blameer ander/God, woede, verlies/inperking van ‘self’, depressie, sub-optimale gedragshanteringspatrone, veranderinge in verhoudingsdinamika, en selfmoordneigings. Die resultate van hierdie studie kan deur geestesgesondheidwerkers en versorgers aangewend word om adolessente selfmoordagtergeblewenes effektief te ondersteun in die rouproses.

    How to cite this article: Hoffmann, W.A., Myburgh, C. & Poggenpoel, M., 2010, ‘The lived experiences of late-adolescent female suicide survivors: “A part of me died”’, Health SA Gesondheid 15(1, Art #493, 9 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v15i1.493

  13. New insights into the radiocarbon calibration based on 14C and U-Th dating of corals drilled offshore Tahiti (IODP Expedition #310) (United States)

    Durand, Nicolas; Deschamps, Pierre; Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Camoin, Gilbert; Thomas, Alexander L.; Henderson, Gideon M.; Yokoyama, Yusuke


    tuned to a dated target, with a special emphasise for the Heinrich 1 event for which there is a debate about interpretating the discrepancies observed between the different records [7]. For this time period, 15,000 - 17,500 cal ky BP, the Tahiti record supports the few data from the Iberian Margin record and from the Bahamas speleothems, but is in clear conflict with the Cariaco Basin record. The Tahiti record also allows to refine the significant variations of the atmospheric ?14C during the Bølling warming period, that might be interpreted as changes in the global carbon cycle due to variations in the rates of exchange between the different carbon pools. [1] Sepulcre S, Durand N, Bard E. 2009, Glob. Planet. Sci. 66, 1. [2] Bard et al. 1996, Nature 382, 241. [3] Bard E, Hamelin B, Delanghe-Sabatier D. 2010, Science DOI:10.1126/science.1180557. [4] Fairbanks RG et al. 2005, Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 1781. [5] Peltier WR & Fairbanks RG. 2006, Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 3322. [6] Hughen et al. 2006, Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 3216. [7] Reimer et al. 2009, Radiocarbon 51, 1111. [8] Bard E, Rostek F, Ménot-Combes G. 2004, Science 303, 178. [9] Bard E, Ménot-Combes G, Rostek F. 2004, Radiocarbon 46, 1189. [10] Hoffmann et al. 2010, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 289, 1.

  14. 6th Conference 'Anaerobic treatment of biological wastes'. New tendencies in the biogas technology; 6. Fachtagung Anaerobe biologische Abfallbehandlung. Neue Tendenzen in der Biogastechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilitewski, B.; Werner, P.; Dornack, Christina; Stegmann, R.; Rettenberger, G.; Faulstich, M.; Wittmaier, M. (eds.)


    nitrogen and sulphur as an example (C. Dornack); (17) Biocorrosion due to sulphur and nitrogen - causes and solutions (A. Weger, T. Neddemeyer, M. Mocker); (18) Siloxane in the treatment of biological wastes (S. Mattersteig, L. Brunn, F. Hohmann, B. Bilitewski); (19) Biofuels from biological wastes (A. Schnapke, B. Bilitewski); (20) Fermentative generation of bio hydrogen and bio methane (D. Rechtenbach, M. Meyer, R. Segmann); (21) Possibilities and limits of testing the yield of biogas according to VDI 4630 (T. Fritz, D. Banemann, N. Engler, M. Nelles); (22) Generation of biogas from renewable raw materials in a laboratory biogas plant (S. Wesolowski, E. Ferchau, D. Trimis, N. Ohly); (23) Dry fermentation in the agriculture: Which substrates and technologies are applied (P. Weiland, J. H. von Thuenen); (24) Semi-technical investigations according to the operation at limiting load of a solid reactor used in the fermentation of maize silage (M. Tietze, V. Kuehn, G. Langhans); (25) Industrial-scale experiences in the high-load operation of dry fermenters in the fermentation of renewable raw materials - mono fraction (G. Langhans); (26) Processing and feeding of biogas in Europe - Becomes the idea the trend? (M. Weithaeuser, F. Scholwin); (27) Processing of biogas and power supply to the public grid (M. Harasek, A. Makaruk, M. Miltner); (28) Design for the drying of waste sludge with waste heat from biogas plants for the supply of a cement work (U. Eymann); (29) Comparison of fermentation and combustion of biomass (G. Hoffmann).

  15. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited) (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.


    Pitman, 2012). We will report on recent results, including spectra of sulfate hydrates, simple organic molecules, and volatile ices measured at PICL in support of past, present and planned missions. We gratefully acknowledge the support of JPL's Research and Technology Development and Strategic Hire Programs, and of the NASA Outer Planets Research and Planetary Geology and Geophysics programs. Dalton, III, J.B., Spectroscopy of icy moon surface materials, Space Sci. Rev. 153:219-247, 2010. Dalton, III, J.B., and Pitman, K.M., Low temperature optical constants of some hydrated sulfates relevant to planetary surfaces, J. Geophys. Res. 117:E09001, doi:10.1029/2011JE004036, 2012. Hapke, B.W., Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy I. Theory, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3039-3054, 1981. Shkuratov, Y., L. Starukhina, H. Hoffmann, and G. Arnold, A model of spectral albedo of particulate surfaces: Implications for optical properties of the Moon, Icarus 137, 235-246, 1999.

  16. Vismodegib in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (STEVIE): a pre-planned interim analysis of an international, open-label trial. (United States)

    Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Hauschild, Axel; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Kunstfeld, Rainer; Dréno, Brigitte; Mortier, Laurent; Ascierto, Paolo A; Licitra, Lisa; Dutriaux, Caroline; Thomas, Luc; Jouary, Thomas; Meyer, Nicolas; Guillot, Bernard; Dummer, Reinhard; Fife, Kate; Ernst, D Scott; Williams, Sarah; Fittipaldo, Alberto; Xynos, Ioannis; Hansson, Johan


    %) patients; 180 (36%) had adverse events, 70 (14%) had progressive disease, and 51 (10%) requested to stop treatment. Median duration of vismodegib exposure was 36·4 weeks (IQR 17·7-62·0). Adverse events happened in 491 (98%) patients; the most common were muscle spasms (317 [64%]), alopecia (307 [62%]), dysgeusia (269 [54%]), weight loss (162 [33%]), asthenia (141 [28%]), decreased appetite (126 [25%]), ageusia (112 [22%]), diarrhoea (83 [17%]), nausea (80 [16%]), and fatigue (80 [16%]). Most adverse events were grade 1 or 2. We recorded serious adverse events in 108 (22%) of 499 patients. Of the 31 patients who died, 21 were the result of adverse events. As assessed by investigators, 302 (66·7%, 62·1-71·0) of 453 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma had an overall response (153 complete responses and 149 partial responses); 11 (37·9%; 20·7-57·7) of 29 patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma had an overall response (two complete responses, nine partial responses). This study assessed the use of vismodegib in a setting representative of routine clinical practice for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma. Our results show that treatment with vismodegib adds a novel therapeutic modality from which patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma can benefit substantially. F Hoffmann-La Roche. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine containing inorganic compounds (United States)

    Götz, Sven; Hoffmann, Thorsten


    iodine diffusion source and aqueous solution of hypoiodic acid [6]. Preliminary results will be shown. [1] Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M.C.; Baker, A. R.; Carpenter, L. J., von Glasow, R.; Gómez Martín, J. C.; McFiggans, G.; Saunders, R. W.; Chem. Rev., 2012, 112, 1773 1804 [2] Carpenter, L. J.; MacDonald, S. M.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R.W.; Parthipan, R.; Wilson, J.; Plane, J. M. C.; Nature Geoscience, 2013, 6, 108 111 [3] Huang, R. J.; Hoffmann, T.; Anal. Chemistry, 2009, 81, 1777 1783 [4] Liu, M.; Da, S. L.; Feng, Y. Q.; Li, L. S.; Anal. Chim. Acta, 2005, 533, 89 95. [5] Tsai, M.-Y.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, P. H.; Lin, C. S.; Chen, A.; Surface Science, 2011, 257, 8640-8646. [6] Muntean, N.; Thuy, L. B.; Kály-Kullai, K.; Wittmann, M.; Noszticzius, Z.; Onel, L.; Furrow, S. D.; J. Phys. Chem. A, 2012, 116, 6630 6642

  18. Development of a New Research Data Infrastructure for Collaboration in Earth Observation and Global Change Science (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Briese, Christian


    processing Petabytes of satellite data. One central site of this infrastructure is the Science Centre Arsenal in Vienna, where a cloud platform and storage system were set up and connected to the Vienna Scientific Cluster (VSC). To provide functionality, this facility connects several hardware components including a Petabyte-scale frontend storage for making data available for scientific analysis and high-performance-computing on the VSC, and robotic tape libraries for mirroring and archiving tens of Petabyte of data. In this contribution, the EODC approach for building a federated IT infrastructure and collaborative data storage and analysis capabilities are presented. REFERENCES Wagner, W. (2015) Big Data infrastructures for processing Sentinel data, in Photogrammetric Week 2015, Dieter Fritsch (Ed.), Wichmann/VDE, Berlin Offenbach, 93-104. Wagner, W., J. Fröhlich, G. Wotawa, R. Stowasser, M. Staudinger, C. Hoffmann, A. Walli, C. Federspiel, M. Aspetsberger, C. Atzberger, C. Briese, C. Notarnicola, M. Zebisch, A. Boresch, M. Enenkel, R. Kidd, A. von Beringe, S. Hasenauer, V. Naeimi, W. Mücke (2014) Addressing grand challenges in earth observation science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring, ISPRS Commission VII Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, 29 September-2 October 2014, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (ISPRS Annals), Volume II-7, 81-88.

  19. Maintenance erlotinib in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: cost-effectiveness in EGFR wild-type across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walleser S


    Full Text Available Silke Walleser,1 Joshua Ray,2 Helge Bischoff,3 Alain Vergnenègre,4 Hubertus Rosery,5 Christos Chouaid,6 David Heigener,7 Javier de Castro Carpeño,8 Marcello Tiseo,9 Stefan Walzer21Health Economic Consultancy, Renens, Switzerland; 2F Hoffmann-La Roche Pharmaceuticals AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Thoracic Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Limoges University Hospital, Limoges, France; 5Assessment-in-Medicine GmbH, Loerrach, Germany; 6Hospital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; 7Hospital Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 8University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 9University Hospital of Parma, Parma, ItalyBackground: First-line maintenance erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC has demonstrated significant overall survival and progression-free survival benefits compared with best supportive care plus placebo, irrespective of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR status (SATURN trial. The cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib in the overall SATURN population has been assessed and published recently, but analyses according to EGFR mutation status have not been performed yet, which was the rationale for assessing the cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib specifically in EGFR wild-type metastatic NSCLC.Methods: The incremental cost per life-year gained of first-line maintenance erlotinib compared with best supportive care in patients with EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC was assessed for five European countries (the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy with an area-under-the-curve model consisting of three health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease, death. Log-logistic survival functions were fitted to Phase III patient-level data (SATURN to model progression-free survival and overall survival. The first-line maintenance erlotinib therapy cost (modeled for time to treatment cessation, medication cost in later lines, and

  20. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes (United States)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka


    .L. Edwards, M. Friedrich, P.M. Grootes, T.P. Guilderson, H. Haflidason, I. Hajdas, C. Hatté, T.J. Heaton, D.L. Hoffmann, A.G. Hogg, K.A. Hughen, K.F. Kaiser, B. Kromer, S.W. Manning, M. Niu, R.W. Reimer, D.A. Richards, E.M. Scott, J. R. Southon, R.A. Staff, C.S.M. Turney, J. van der Plicht (2013). IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0-50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):1869-1887. [3] A.G. Hogg, Q. Hua, P.G. Blackwell, M. Niu, C.E. Buck, T.P. Guilderson, T.J. Heaton, J.G. Palmer, P.J. Reimer, R.W. Reimer, C.S.M. Turney, S.R.H. Zimmerman (2013). Shcal13 southern hemisphere calibration, 0-50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon, 55(2):1-15.

  1. Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity (United States)

    Beck, C.; Benedek, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    the glass transition in thermal systems / A. Coniglio ... [et al.] -- Supersymmetry and metastability in disordered systems / I. Giardinu, A. Cavagna and G. Parisi -- The metastable liquid-liquid phase transition: from water to colloids and liquid metals / G. Franzese and H. E. Stanley -- Optimization by thermal cycling / A. Möbius, K. H. Hoffmann and C. Schön -- Ultra-thin magnetic films and the structural glass transition: a modelling analogy / S. A. Cannas ... [et al.] -- Non-extensivity of inhomogeneous magnetic systems / M. S. Reis ... [et al.] -- Multifractal analysis of turbulence and granular flow / T. Arimitsu and N. Arimitsu -- Application of superstatistics to atmospheric turbulence / S. Rizzo and A. Rapisarda -- Complexity of perceptual processes / F. T. Arecchi -- Energetic model of tumor growth / P. Castorina and D. Zappalá -- Active Brownian motion - stochastic dynamics of swarms / W. Ebeling and U. Erdmann -- Complexity in the collective behaviour of humans / T. Vicsek -- Monte Carlo simulations of opinion dynamics / S. Fortunato -- A Merton-like approach to pricing debt based on a non-Gaussian asset model / L. Borland, J. Evnine and B. Pochart -- The subtle nature of market efficiency / J.-P. Bouchaud -- Correlation based hierarchical clustering in financial time series / S. Miccichè, F. Lillo and R. N. Mantegna -- Path integrals and exotic options: methods and numerical results / G. Bormetti ... [et al.] -- Aging of event-event correlation of earthquake aftershocks / S. Abe and N. Suzuki -- Aging in earthquakes model / U. Tirnakli -- The Olami-Feder-Christensen model on a small-world topology / F. Caruso ... [et al.] -- Networks as Renormalized models for emergent behavior in physical systems / M. Paczuski -- Energy landscapes, scale-free networks and Apollonian packings / J. P. K. Doye and C. P. Massen -- Epidemic modeling and complex realities / M. Barthélemy ... [et al.] -- The importance of being central / P. Crucitti and V. Latora.

  2. Geological Mapping of the Ac-H-3 Dantu Quadrangle of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission. (United States)

    Kneissl, Thomas; Schmedemann, Nico; Neesemann, Adrian; Williams, David A.; Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Frigeri, Allessandro; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald; Walter, Sebastian H. G.; Jaumann, Ralf; Roatsch, Thomas; Preusker, Frank; Kersten, Elke; Naß, Andrea; Nathues, Andreas; Platz, Thomas; Russell, Chistopher T.


    characterized by relatively dark ejecta material. The albedo variations and differences in color data indicate materials of different compositions in the subsurface. Interestingly, Dantu is located in a longitude range where the Herschel space telescope might have observed the release of water vapor [7]. In the course of the mission, analyses of LAMO imagery as well as VIR spectral data will help to identify potential water sources, constrain the compositional variations, and the overall geologic history of the Dantu crater region. Further CSFD measurements we will help to determine the formation ages of other impact structures in the quadrangle. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the support of M. Hoffmann, M. Schaefer, M.C. De Sanctis, C.A. Raymond, and the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams. This work is partly supported by the German Space Agency (DLR), grant 50 OW 1101. References: [1] Williams D.A. et al. (2014) Icarus, 244, 1-12. [2] Yingst R.A. et al. (2014) PSS, 103, 2-23. [3] Preusker, F. et al. (2016), LPSC abstract. [4] Scully, J.E.C. et al. (2016), this meeting. [5] Buczkowski D. L. et al. (2015), AGU abstract #P44B-05. [6] Li, J-Y. et al. (2006), Icarus, 182, 143-160. [7] Küppers, M., et al. (2014), Nature, v. 505, 525-527.

  3. 23. Symposium photovoltaic solar energy; 23. Symposium Photovoltaische Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Within the 23rd symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie Transfer Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 5th to 7th March, 2008, in Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Technical and economical further development in the photovoltaics: Strategies and projects (J. Nick-Leptin); (2) The future of photovoltaics technology: Solution of the silicon problem, concentrator technology and thin-film technology (E.R. Weber); (3) Financing of technology - Thin-film processes versus crystalline silicon? (N. Brinkmann); (4) The German market of solar power at the test stand: Evaluation of the state of the art 2008 (K. Freier); (5) Point of view photon (A. Kreutzmann); (6) Viewpoint of the branch of industry (W. Hoffmann); (7) EEG novella: Kind blows for the solar industry (S. Droxner); (8) Priority of photovoltaic power - Use by substitution of the conventional park of power plants as well as consumption near generation (M. Braun); (9) Launch of photovoltaics: The EEG as a model of success with small disturbances of growth? The outer view (R. Wuestenhagen); (10) Current converter for the solar technology - 20-year-balance and future perspectives (P. Zacharias); (11) Damages at bypass diodes in photovoltaic modules by means of induced voltages and currents caused by nearby lightning currents (N. Henze); (12) A photovoltaic a.c. module in high voltage technology (N. Henze); (13) 98.5 % degree of efficiency at inverters with SiC MOSFETs (B. Burger); (14) 99.9 % MPP tracking performance - only the ''half truth''? (R. Bruendlinger); (15) Photovoltaics for network far electrification (H. Gabler); (16) 10 years hybrid system ''Starkenburger Huette'' - operational experiences with an innovative system concept (M. Landau); (17) Photovoltaics-wind-fuel cell-hybrid systems for the supply of measuring stations at offshore drilling platforms (M. Vetter); (18) Requirement and reality

  4. Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D): a multicohort collaboration. (United States)

    Smith, Colette J; Ryom, Lene; Weber, Rainer; Morlat, Philippe; Pradier, Christian; Reiss, Peter; Kowalska, Justyna D; de Wit, Stephane; Law, Matthew; el Sadr, Wafaa; Kirk, Ole; Friis-Moller, Nina; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Phillips, Andrew N; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D


    disease (0.33 [0.20-0.53) death rates still decreased over time. The percentage of all deaths that were AIDS-related (87/256 [34%] in 1999-2000 and 141/627 [22%] in 2009-11) and liver-related (40/256 [16%] in 1999-2000 and 64/627 [10%] in 2009-11) decreased over time, whereas non-AIDS cancers increased (24/256 [9%] in 1999-2000 to 142/627 [23%] in 2009-11). Recent reductions in rates of AIDS-related deaths are linked with continued improvement in CD4 cell count. We hypothesise that the substantially reduced rates of liver disease and cardiovascular disease deaths over time could be explained by improved use of non-HIV-specific preventive interventions. Non-AIDS cancer is now the leading non-AIDS cause and without any evidence of improvement. Oversight Committee for the Evaluation of Metabolic Complications of HAART, with representatives from academia, patient community, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency and consortium of AbbVie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, ViiV Healthcare, Merck, Pfizer, F Hoffmann-La Roche, and Janssen Pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deciphering Selectivity in Organic Reactions: A Multifaceted Problem. (United States)

    Balcells, David; Clot, Eric; Eisenstein, Odile; Nova, Ainara; Perrin, Lionel


    Computational chemistry has made a sustained contribution to the understanding of chemical reactions. In earlier times, half a century ago, the goal was to distinguish allowed from forbidden reactions (e.g., Woodward-Hoffmann rules), that is, reactions with low or high to very high activation barriers. A great achievement of computational chemistry was also to contribute to the determination of structures with the bonus of proposing a rationalization (e.g., anomeric effect, isolobal analogy, Gillespie valence shell pair electron repulsion rules and counter examples, Wade-Mingos rules for molecular clusters). With the development of new methods and the constant increase in computing power, computational chemists move to more challenging problems, close to the daily concerns of the experimental chemists, in determining the factors that make a reaction both efficient and selective: a key issue in organic synthesis. For this purpose, experimental chemists use advanced synthetic and analytical techniques to which computational chemists added other ways of determining reaction pathways. The transition states and intermediates contributing to the transformation of reactants into the desired and undesired products can now be determined, including their geometries, energies, charges, spin densities, spectroscopy properties, etc. Such studies remain challenging due to the large number of chemical species commonly present in the reactive media whose role may have to be determined. Calculating chemical systems as they are in the experiment is not always possible, bringing its own share of complexity through the large number of atoms and the associated large number of conformers to consider. Modeling the chemical species with smaller systems is an alternative that historically led to artifacts. Another important topic is the choice of the computational method. While DFT is widely used, the vast diversity of functionals available is both an opportunity and a challenge. Though

  6. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in advanced HER2-positive breast cancer treated with pertuzumab or placebo in addition to trastuzumab and docetaxel: a retrospective analysis of the CLEOPATRA study. (United States)

    Luen, Stephen J; Salgado, Roberto; Fox, Stephen; Savas, Peter; Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Clark, Emma; Kiermaier, Astrid; Swain, Sandra M; Baselga, Jose; Michiels, Stefan; Loi, Sherene


    longer overall survival (adjusted HR 0·89, 95% CI 0·83-0·96, p=0·0014). The treatment effect of pertuzumab did not differ significantly by stromal TIL value for either progression-free survival (pinteraction=0·23) or overall survival (pinteraction=0·21). In patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer treated with docetaxel, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab or placebo, higher TIL values are significantly associated with improved overall survival, suggesting that the effect of antitumour immunity extends to the advanced setting. Future clinical studies in this cancer subtype should consider TILs as a stratification factor and investigate whether therapies that can augment immunity could potentially further improve survival. F Hoffmann-La Roche-Genentech and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug-eluting stents with biodegradable polymer for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus: clinical outcome at 2 years in a large population of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiemer M


    Full Text Available Marcus Wiemer,1 Gian Battista Danzi,2 Nick West,3 Vassilios Voudris,4 René Koning,5 Stefan Hoffmann,6 Mario Lombardi,7 Josepa Mauri,8 Rade Babic,9 Fraser Witherow10On behalf of the NOBORI 2 Investigators 1Department of Cardiology, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine–Westphalia, Ruhr University Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany; 2Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; 3Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK; 4Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece; 5Clinique Saint Hilaire, Rouen, France; 6Vivantes Netzwerk für Gesundheit GmbH, Berlin, Germany; 7Azienda Ospedaliera Villa Sofia, Palermo, Italy; 8Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain; 9Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases Dedinje, Belgrade, Serbia; 10Dorset County Hospital, Dorchester, UK Objective: This study investigates the safety and efficacy of a third-generation drug-eluting stent (DES with biodegradable polymer in the complex patient population of diabetes mellitus (DM. Clinical trial registration: ISRCTN81649913. Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with DM are associated with a higher incidence of death, restenosis, and stent thrombosis as compared to non-diabetic patients. The use of a DES has been shown to improve outcomes in diabetic patients. Methods: Out of 3,067 patients, enrolled in 126 centers worldwide in the NOBORI 2 registry, 888 patients suffered from DM, 213 of them (14% being insulin-dependent DM (IDDM. Two years’ follow-up has been completed in this study. Results: At 1- and 2-year follow-up, 97% and 95% of the patients, respectively, were available. The reported target lesion failure (TLF rates at 1- and 2-year follow-up were 6.0% and 7.2% in the DM group, respectively, and 3.0% and 4.2% in the non-DM group, respectively (P<0.001 for both years. Inside the DM group, the TLF rates of 9.9% and 11.7% at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups, respectively, in patients with IDDM were significantly higher than the TLF rates of 4

  8. Effect of ageing of K-feldspar on its ice nucleating efficiency in immersion, deposition and contact freezing modes (United States)

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Bachmann, Felix; Hoffmann, Nadine; Koch, Michael; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas


    between freshly cleaved and aged mineral surfaces. This effect is especially pronounced for surfaces having different crystallographic orientations (001 and 010), with 001 being clearly preferential for ice nucleation. The factor two change of the BET effective area of the naturally aged feldspar particles is also indicative for the change in the surface morphology. Based on the IC analysis of framework cations removal from the surface of feldspar, we discuss the possible implications of this process for the interpretation of observed freezing behavior of feldspars. [1] Atkinson, J.D., Murray, B.J., Woodhouse, M.T., Whale, T.F., Baustian, K.J., Carslaw, K.S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T.L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds. Nature, 498, 355-358, 2013 [2] Hoffmann, N., Kiselev, A., Rzesanke, D., Duft, D., and Leisner, T.: Experimental quantification of contact freezing in an electrodynamic balance. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2373-2382, 2013.

  9. Regionalism and political pepresentation in comparativeperspective: the European Union and MERCOSUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Tostes


    in the integration process. The dialogue with different points of view will be fundamental, especially in order to draft analytical dimensions of the impact of the changes that occurred with the emergence of a new form of regional representation (FAWCETT; HURRELL, 2003; MALAMUD; SOUZA, 2005; DRI, 2009; 2010; LINDBERG, 1963. Could an extra form of representation come at a cost of the suppression of less opportunity for participation? In the third section, the relation between representation and sovereignty is evaluated, as well as the role of representative institutions in policy making (KEOHANE; HOFFMANN, 1991; RITTBERGER, 2012; JACOB, 2007. In this section, the experience of the European Parliament will shed light on the analysis of the constitution of a representative institution on a regional level, such as the one expected by the PARLASUL. Finally, the article traces a few conclusions on representation in the context of regional integration processes and the importance of information and social awareness of such processes as a measure of democratic legitimacy.


    Ramaroson, R.


    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  11. 11 years' follow-up of trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive early breast cancer: final analysis of the HERceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial. (United States)

    Cameron, David; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J; Gelber, Richard D; Procter, Marion; Goldhirsch, Aron; de Azambuja, Evandro; Castro, Gilberto; Untch, Michael; Smith, Ian; Gianni, Luca; Baselga, Jose; Al-Sakaff, Nedal; Lauer, Sabine; McFadden, Eleanor; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Bell, Richard; Dowsett, Mitch; Jackisch, Christian


    -survival outcomes compared with 1 year of this drug (HR 1·02, 95% CI 0·89-1·17). Estimates of 10-year disease-free survival were 63% for observation, 69% for 1 year of trastuzumab, and 69% for 2 years of trastuzumab. 884 (52%) patients assigned to the observation group selectively crossed over to receive trastuzumab. Cardiac toxicity remained low in all groups and occurred mostly during the treatment phase. The incidence of secondary cardiac endpoints was 122 (7·3%) in the 2-years trastuzumab group, 74 (4·4%) in the 1-year trastuzumab group, and 15 (0·9%) in the observation group. 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab after chemotherapy for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer significantly improves long-term disease-free survival, compared with observation. 2 years of trastuzumab had no additional benefit. F Hoffmann-La Roche (Roche). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermodynamics at work - on the limits and potentials of biogeochemical processes (United States)

    Peiffer, Stefan


    on the Fe and S side (Peiffer & Wan, 2016; Wan et al, 2014) which will allow for the occurrence of cryptic sulphur cycles, i. e. high turnover of sulphide and sulfate without the appearance of dissolved sulphide species. References Beer, J; Blodau, C (2007): Transport and thermodynamics constrain belowground carbon turover in a northern peatland, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 2989-3002 Blodau, C. (2002). "Carbon cycling in peatlands: A review of processes and controls." Environmental Reviews 10(2): 111-134. Blodau, C; Hoffmann, S; Peine, A; Peiffer, S (1998): Iron and sulfate reduction in the sediments of acid mine lake 116 (Brandenburg, Germany): Rates and geochemical evaluation, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 108, 249-270 Peiffer, S., Wan M. (2016) Reductive Dissolution and Reactivity of Ferric (Hydr)oxides, in Faivre, D., Iron Oxides: From Nature to Applications, Wiley-VCH, chapter 3, 29-51 Peine, A; Küsel, K; Tritschler, A; Peiffer, S (2000): Electron flow in an iron-rich acidic sedimant - evidence for an acidity-driven iron cycle, Limnol. Oceanogr., 45(5), 1077-1087 Stumm, W.; Morgan, J. J. (1996): Aquatic Chemistry, Wiley Wan, M., Shchukarev, A., Lohmayer, R., Planer-Friedrich, B., Peiffer, S. (2014) Occurrence of surface polysulfides during the interaction between ferric (hydr)oxides and aqueous sulfide. Environmental Science and Technology, 48, 5076-5084

  13. Revisiting the dry depositional sink of oxidized organic vapors to vegetation (United States)

    Karl, Thomas; Harley, Peter; Emmons, Luisa; Thornton, Brenda; Guenther, Alex; Basu, Chhandak; Turnipseed, Andrew; Jardine, Kolby


    , 2003. Atmospheric Degradation of Volatile Organic Compounds, Chemical Reviews, 103, 4605-4638. Goldstein AH, and I. Galbally 2007. Known and Unexplored organic constituents in the Earth's Atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology, 1515-1521. Hallquist M, Wenger JC, Baltensperger U, Rudich Y, Simpson D, Claeys M, Dommen J, Donahue NM, George C, Goldstein AH, Hamilton JF, Herrmann H, Hoffmann T, Iinuma Y, Jang M, Jenkin ME, Jimenez JL, Kiendler-Scharr A, Maenhaut W, McFiggans G, Mentel TF, Monod A, Prévôt ASH, Seinfeld JH, Surratt JD, Szmigielski R, and J Wildt 2009. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5155-5235. Paulot, F., Crounse, J.D., Kjaergaard, H.G., Kurten, A., St Clair, J.M., Seinfeld, J.H., and Wennberg, P.O. 2009: Unexpected epoxide formation in the gas-phase photooxidation of isoprene, Science, 325, 730-733. Lelieveld J, Butler TM, Crowley JN, Dillon TJ, Fischer H, Ganzeveld L, Harder H, Lawrence MG, Martinez M, Taraborrelli D, and J. Williams 2008. Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustainted by a tropical forest. Nature, 452, 737-740.

  14. Combination of vemurafenib and cobimetinib in patients with advanced BRAF(V600)-mutated melanoma: a phase 1b study. (United States)

    Ribas, Antoni; Gonzalez, Rene; Pavlick, Anna; Hamid, Omid; Gajewski, Thomas F; Daud, Adil; Flaherty, Lawrence; Logan, Theodore; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Lewis, Karl; Kee, Damien; Boasberg, Peter; Yin, Ming; Chan, Iris; Musib, Luna; Choong, Nicholas; Puzanov, Igor; McArthur, Grant A


    dose was established as vemurafenib 960 mg twice a day in combination with cobimetinib 60 mg 21/7. Across all dosing regimens, the most common adverse events were diarrhoea (83 patients, 64%), non-acneiform rash (77 patients, 60%), liver enzyme abnormalities (64 patients, 50%), fatigue (62 patients, 48%), nausea (58 patients, 45%), and photosensitivity (52 patients, 40%). Most adverse events were mild-to-moderate in severity. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma (12 patients, 9%; all grade 3), raised amounts of alkaline phosphatase (11 patients, 9%]), and anaemia (nine patients, 7%). Confirmed objective responses were recorded in ten (15%) of 66 patients who had recently progressed on vemurafenib, with a median progression-free survival of 2·8 months (95% CI 2·6-3·4). Confirmed objective responses were noted in 55 (87%) of 63 patients who had never received a BRAF inhibitor, including six (10%) who had a complete response; median progression-free survival was 13·7 months (95% CI 10·1-17·5). The combination of vemurafenib and cobimetinib was safe and tolerable when administered at the respective maximum tolerated doses. The combination has promising antitumour activity and further clinical development is warranted in patients with advanced BRAF(V600)-mutated melanoma, particularly in those who have never received a BRAF inhibitor; confirmatory clinical testing is ongoing. F Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CSF1R inhibition with emactuzumab in locally advanced diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumours of the soft tissue: a dose-escalation and dose-expansion phase 1 study. (United States)

    Cassier, Philippe A; Italiano, Antoine; Gomez-Roca, Carlos A; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Toulmonde, Maud; Cannarile, Michael A; Ries, Carola; Brillouet, Anne; Müller, Claudia; Jegg, Anna-Maria; Bröske, Ann-Marie; Dembowski, Markus; Bray-French, Katharine; Freilinger, Christine; Meneses-Lorente, Georgina; Baehner, Monika; Harding, Ross; Ratnayake, Jayantha; Abiraj, Keelara; Gass, Nathalie; Noh, Karen; Christen, Randolph D; Ukarma, Lidia; Bompas, Emmanuelle; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Blay, Jean-Yves; Rüttinger, Dominik


    . Owing to different cutoff dates for safety and efficacy readouts, the safety population comprised 25 patients. Common adverse events after emactuzumab treatment were facial oedema (16 [64%] of 25 patients), asthenia (14 [56%]), and pruritus (14 [56%]). Five serious adverse events (periorbital oedema, lupus erythematosus [occurring twice], erythema, and dermohypodermitis all experienced by one [4%] patient each) were reported in five patients. Three of the five serious adverse events-periorbital oedema (one [4%]), lupus erythematosus (one [4%]), and dermohypodermitis (one [4%])-were assessed as grade 3. Two other grade 3 events were reported: mucositis (one [4%]) and fatigue (one [4%]). 24 (86%) of 28 patients achieved an objective response; two (7%) patients achieved a complete response. Further study of dt-GCT is warranted and different possibilities, such as an international collaboration with cooperative groups to assure appropriate recruitment in this rare disease, are currently being assessed. F Hoffmann-La Roche. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine versus bendamustine monotherapy in patients with rituximab-refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (GADOLIN): a randomised, controlled, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. (United States)

    Sehn, Laurie H; Chua, Neil; Mayer, Jiri; Dueck, Gregg; Trněný, Marek; Bouabdallah, Kamal; Fowler, Nathan; Delwail, Vincent; Press, Oliver; Salles, Gilles; Gribben, John; Lennard, Anne; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J; Dimier, Natalie; Wassner-Fritsch, Elisabeth; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter; Cheson, Bruce D


    months (IQR 12·1-31·0) in the obinutuzumab plus bendamustine group and 20·3 months (9·5-29·7) in the bendamustine monotherapy group, progression-free survival was significantly longer with obinutuzumab plus bendamustine (median not reached [95% CI 22·5 months-not estimable]) than with bendamustine monotherapy (14·9 months [12·8-16·6]; hazard ratio 0·55 [95% CI 0·40-0·74]; p=0·0001). Grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 132 (68%) of 194 patients in the obinutuzumab plus bendamustine group and in 123 (62%) of 198 patients in the bendamustine monotherapy group. The most frequent grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (64 [33%] in the obinutuzumab plus bendamustine group vs 52 [26%] in the bendamustine monotherapy group), thrombocytopenia (21 [11%] vs 32 [16%]), anaemia (15 [8%] vs 20 [10%]) and infusion-related reactions (21 [11%] vs 11 [6%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 74 patients (38%) in the obinutuzumab plus bendamustine group and in 65 patients (33%) in the bendamustine monotherapy group, and deaths due to adverse events occurred in 12 patients (6%) and 12 patients (6%), respectively. Three (25%) of 12 adverse event-related deaths in the obinutuzumab plus bendamustine group and five (42%) of 12 in the bendamustine monotherapy group were treatment related. Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance has improved efficacy over bendamustine monotherapy in rituximab-refractory patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with manageable toxicity, and is a new treatment option for patients who have relapsed after or are no longer responding to rituximab-based therapy. F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous rituximab versus intravenous rituximab for first-line treatment of follicular lymphoma (SABRINA): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Merli, Francesco; Mihaljević, Biljana; Mercadal, Santiago; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Boehnke, Axel; Berge, Claude; Genevray, Magali; Zharkov, Artem; Dixon, Mark; Brewster, Michael; Barrett, Martin; MacDonald, David


    patients are no longer being recruited, but some patients are still being followed up. Between Feb 15, 2011, and May 15, 2013, 410 patients were randomly assigned, 205 to intravenous rituximab and 205 to subcutaneous rituximab. Investigator-assessed overall response at the end of induction was 84·9% (95% CI 79·2-89·5) in the intravenous group and 84·4% (78·7-89·1) in the subcutaneous group. The frequency of adverse events was similar in both groups (199 [95%] of 210 in the intravenous group vs 189 [96%] of 197 in the subcutaneous group); the frequency of adverse events of grade 3 or higher was also similar (116 [55%] vs 111 [56%]). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse event was neutropenia, which occurred in 44 patients (21%) in the intravenous group and 52 (26%) in the subcutaneous group. Serious adverse events occurred in 72 patients (34%) in the intravenous group and 73 (37%) in the subcutaneous group. Administration-related reactions occurred in 73 patients (35%) in the intravenous group and 95 (48%) patients in the subcutaneous group (mainly grade 1 or 2 local injection-site reactions). Intravenous and subcutaneous rituximab had similar efficacy and safety profiles, and no new safety concerns were noted. Subcutaneous administration does not compromise the anti-lymphoma activity of rituximab when given with chemotherapy. F Hoffmann-La Roche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and quantification of bioaerosols in Saharan dust transported across the Atlantic (United States)

    Yordanova, Petya; Maier, Stefanie; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Ditas, Florian; Klimach, Thomas; Prass, Maria; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Blades, Edmund; Holanda, Bruna; Pöhlker, Mira; Maurus, Isabel; Kopper, Gila; Farrell, David; Stevens, Bjorn; Prospero, Joseph M.; Ulrich, Pöschl; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöhlker, Christopher; Weber, Bettina


    complementary approach, soil material was collected in dust source regions in the African Sahel. These filter and soil samples are currently being used to investigate the microbial composition of the aerosols by means of genetic techniques (NGS-sequencing). We also investigate and characterize the IN properties of the filter samples utilizing filtration, thermal, chemical and enzyme treatments. Immersion freezing experiments are performed at relatively high subzero temperatures (-1 to -15˚ C) using the mono ice nucleation array (MINA). Utilizing microscopy, we want to understand the connection between biological organisms and dust particles. Cited literature: Conen, F., Morris, C.E., Leifeld, J., Yakutin, M.V., Alewell, C.: Biological residues define the ice nucleation properties of soil dust. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 9643-9648, 2011. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Kampf, C.J., Weber, B., Huffman, A., Pöhlker, C., Andreae, M.O., Lang-Yona, N., Gunthe, S.S., Elbert, W., Su, H., Hoor, P., Thines, E., Hoffmann, T., Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: Bioaerosols in the Earth System: Climate, Health, and Ecosystem Interactions. Atmospheric Research 182, 346-376, 2016. Prospero, J. M., Blades, E., Mathison, G., and Naidu, R.: Interhemispheric transport of viable fungi and bacteria from Africa to the Caribbean with soil dust, Aerobiologia, 21, 1-19, 2005.

  19. Is rock slope instability in high-mountain systems driven by topo-climatic, paraglacial or rock mechanical factors? - A question of scale! (United States)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Dikau, Richard


    spacing, persistence and orientation of joints turned out to be the most causative bedrock properties for the higher-scale rock mass strength. Rock temperature data suggest that high-frequent, surficial thermal processes, daily freeze-thaw cycles and seasonal ice segregation coupled with a winter snow cover are the major rock breakdown mechanisms. By linking the rockwalls' joint geometric pattern to the size and shape of rockfall blocks lying on the corresponding talus slopes, different rockfall magnitudes and frequencies were identified. Here we show, that the decrease in spatial scale is linked with a shift in variable importance, from topo-climatic and paraglacial factors at the largest scale to rock mechanical parameters at the smallest scale. Therefore, to understand the key destabilising factors of rock slopes in mountain systems and the resulting landforms, a holistic research approach is needed which considers the nested, hierarchical structure of geomorphic systems. Messenzehl, K., Meyer, H., Otto, J.-C., Hoffmann, T., Dikau, R., 2015. Regional-scale controls on the spatial activity of rockfalls. (Turtmann valley, Swiss Alps) - A multivariate modelling approach. In: Geomorphology. Messenzehl, K., Draebing, D., 2015. Multidisciplinary investigations on coupled rockwall talus-systems (Turtmann valley, Swiss Alps). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 17 (EGU2015-1935, 2015).

  20. CHOP-like chemotherapy with or without rituximab in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma: 6-year results of an open-label randomised study of the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. (United States)

    Pfreundschuh, Michael; Kuhnt, Evelyn; Trümper, Lorenz; Osterborg, Anders; Trneny, Marek; Shepherd, Lois; Gill, Devinder S; Walewski, Jan; Pettengell, Ruth; Jaeger, Ulrich; Zinzani, Pier-Luigi; Shpilberg, Ofer; Kvaloy, Stein; de Nully Brown, Peter; Stahel, Rolf; Milpied, Noel; López-Guillermo, Armando; Poeschel, Viola; Grass, Sandra; Loeffler, Markus; Murawski, Niels


    -alone group and 16 (3·9%, 2·2-6·2) in the chemotherapy and rituximab group (Fisher's exact p=0·730). Rituximab added to six cycles of CHOP-like chemotherapy improved long-term outcomes for young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. The definition of two prognostic subgroups allows a more refined therapeutic approach to these patients than does assessment by IPI alone. Hoffmann-La Roche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multicomponent Hetero-[4 + 2] Cycloaddition/Allylboration Reaction: From Natural Product Synthesis to Drug Discovery. (United States)

    Hall, Dennis G; Rybak, Taras; Verdelet, Tristan


    Multicomponent reactions (MCR), transformations employing three or more simple substrates in a single and highly atom-economical operation, are very attractive in both natural product synthesis and diversity-oriented synthesis of druglike molecules. Several popular multicomponent reactions were designed by combining two well-established individual reactions that utilize mutually compatible substrates. In this regard, it is not surprising that the merging of two reactions deemed as workhorses of stereoselective synthesis, the Diels-Alder cycloaddition and carbonyl allylboration, would produce a powerful and highly versatile tandem MCR process. The idea of using 1,3-dienylboronates in [4 + 2] cycloadditions as a means to produce cyclic allylic boronates was first reported by Vaultier and Hoffmann in 1987. In their seminal study, a 1-boronodiene was reacted with electron-poor alkenes, and the intermediate cycloadducts were isolated and added to aldehydes in a separate step leading to α-hydroxyalkylated carbocycles via a highly diastereoselective allylboration reaction. The one-pot three-component variant was realized in 1999 by Lallemand and co-workers, and soon after groups led by Hall and Carboni reported heterocyclic variants of the tandem [4 + 2] cycloaddition/allylboration to prepare α-hydroxyalkylated piperidine and pyran containing compounds, respectively. These classes of heterocycles are ubiquitous in Nature and are important components of pharmaceuticals. This Account summarizes the development and evolution of this powerful multicomponent reaction for accessing nonaromatic heterocycles and its many applications in natural products synthesis and drug discovery. The aza[4 + 2]cycloaddition/allylboration MCR was first optimized in our laboratory using 4-boronylhydrazonobutadienes and N-substituted maleimides, and it was exploited in the preparation of combinatorial libraries of polysubstituted imidopiperidines that feature as many as four elements of

  2. Cellular prion protein is required for neuritogenesis: fine-tuning of multiple signaling pathways involved in focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleaume-Butaux A


    Full Text Available Aurélie Alleaume-Butaux,1,2 Caroline Dakowski,1,2 Mathéa Pietri,1,2 Sophie Mouillet-Richard,1,2 Jean-Marie Launay,3,4 Odile Kellermann,1,2 Benoit Schneider1,2 1INSERM, UMR-S 747, 2Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR-S 747, 3Public Hospital of Paris, Department of Biochemistry, INSERM UMR-S 942, Lariboisière Hospital, Paris, France; 4Pharma Research Department, Hoffmann La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Neuritogenesis is a dynamic phenomenon associated with neuronal differentiation that allows a rather spherical neuronal stem cell to develop dendrites and axon, a prerequisite for the integration and transmission of signals. The acquisition of neuronal polarity occurs in three steps: (1 neurite sprouting, which consists of the formation of buds emerging from the postmitotic neuronal soma; (2 neurite outgrowth, which represents the conversion of buds into neurites, their elongation and evolution into axon or dendrites; and (3 the stability and plasticity of neuronal polarity. In neuronal stem cells, remodeling and activation of focal adhesions (FAs associated with deep modifications of the actin cytoskeleton is a prerequisite for neurite sprouting and subsequent neurite outgrowth. A multiple set of growth factors and interactors located in the extracellular matrix and the plasma membrane orchestrate neuritogenesis by acting on intracellular signaling effectors, notably small G proteins such as RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42, which are involved in actin turnover and the dynamics of FAs. The cellular prion protein (PrPC, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored membrane protein mainly known for its role in a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases, has emerged as a central player in neuritogenesis. Here, we review the contribution of PrPC to neuronal polarization and detail the current knowledge on the signaling pathways fine-tuned by PrPC to promote neurite sprouting, outgrowth, and maintenance. We emphasize that Pr

  3. Anterior transcorporeal approach of percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy for disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels: a technical note. (United States)

    Deng, Zhong-Liang; Chu, Lei; Chen, Liang; Yang, Jun-Song


    With the continuous development of the spinal endoscopic technique in recent years, percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) has emerged, which bridges the gap between conservative therapy and traditional surgery and has been mainly divided into the anterior transdiscal approach and the posterior interlaminar access. Because of the relatively greater violation to the anterior nucleus pulposus, there is a higher potential of postoperative intervertebral space decrease in the anterior transdiscal approach than in the posterior interlaminar access. In addition, when the herniated lesion is migrated upward or downward behind the vertebral body, both approaches, and even anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, are impractical, and corpectomy is commonly considered as the only efficacious treatment. Anterior transcorporeal approach under endoscopy could enable an individual and adjustable trajectory within the vertebral body under different conditions of disc herniation preserving the motion of adjacent segment, especially in a migrated or sequestered lesion. This report aimed to first describe a novel anterior transcorporeal approach under endoscopy in which we addressed a migrated disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels. A technical report was carried out. A 37-year-old woman presented with posterior neck pain and weakness of extremities for 9 months. On neurologic examination, tingling sensation and numbness were not obvious. However, the power of extremities was dramatically decreased at a level of 3. Hoffmann sign was positive in the bilateral hand. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a huge herniation of the C4-C5 disc compressing the median area of the spinal cord. Besides the C4-C5 disc herniation, preoperative computer tomography (CT) also detected that the herniated disc had partial calcification. A novel anterior transcorporeal approach of PECD, through the vertebral body of C5, was performed to address a migrated disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels

  4. Investigating the Microscopic Location of Trace Elements in High-Alpine Glacier Ice (United States)

    Avak, Sven Erik; Birrer, Mario; Laurent, Oscar; Guillong, Marcel; Wälle, Markus; Jenk, Theo Manuel; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Schwikowski, Margit; Eichler, Anja


    proxies in glaciers partially affected by melting. References Della Lunga, D., Müller, W., Rasmussen, S. O. & Svensson, A. 2014: Location of cation impurities in NGRIP deep ice revealed by cryo-cell UV-laser-ablation ICPMS, Journal of Glaciology, 60, 970-988. Eichler, A., Schwikowski, M., Gäggeler, H. W. 2001: Meltwater-induced relocation of chemical species in Alpine firn, Tellus B, 53, 192-203. Reinhardt, H., Kriews, M., Miller, H., Schrems, O., Lüdke, C., Hoffmann, E. & Skole, J. 2001: Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a new tool for trace element analysis in ice cores, Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 370, 629-636. Schwikowski, M., Barbante, C., Doering, T., Gäggeler, H. W., Boutron, C., Schotterer, U., Tobler, L., van de Velde, K., Ferrari, C., Cozzi, G., Rosman, K., Cescon, P. 2004: Post-17th-Century Changes of European Lead Emissions Recorded in High-Altitude Alpine Snow and Ice, Environmental Science & Technology, 38, 957-964. Sneed, S. B., Mayewski, P. A., Sayre, W. G., Handley, M. J., Kurbatov, A. V., Taylor, K. C., Bohleber, P., Wagenbach, D., Erhardt, T. & Spaulding, N. E. 2015: New LA-ICP-MS cryocell and calibration technique for sub-millimeter analysis of ice cores, Journal of Glaciology, 61, 233-242.

  5. 7. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 7. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)


    the generation of biofuels (K. Schiemenz); (20) BioBoost - Biomass based energy intermediates boosting bio-fuel production (A. Niebel); (21) Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources (M. Kroeger); (22) Production of diesel fuels from vegetable oils by means of homogenous catalysed metathesis of methyl oleate (F. Erben); (23) Investigation on application properties of liquid fuels with biogenic compounds (M. Neulen); (24) ENIAK - Development of a non-motor injector coking test facility for alternative fuels (H. Hoffmann); (25) Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors (K. Thuneke); (26) Plasma regeneration of mineral adsorbents for the precipitation of formaldehyde from exhaust gases of biogas engines (S. Mueller); (27) Economical efficiency of bio energy as the level of prices in the agricultural sector rises (H. Heilmann); (28) Sorghum as an alternative of cultivation to maize (K. Jaekel); (29) New findings on the biogas production from sugar beets (H. Bormann); (30) Losses of the potential in methane formation during the storage of sugar beet pulp in open ground basins (F. Weissbach); (31) Overlapping effects during the fermentation of substrate mixtures (N. Engler); (32) Rising the exploitation of substrates by thermal digestate processing (I. Seick); (33) Application of a qualitative image analysis on the evaluation of microbial process parameters of biogas plants (Y.S. Kim); (34) Practical application of the microbial activity analysis on the monitoring of the process biological stability of biogas plants (L. Neumann); (35) Requirement-specific use of trace element biogas additives under consideration of the bioavailability (A. Feher); (36) Application of the membrane technology on the exhaustive fermentation of renewable raw materials in biogas plants (A. Schreiber); (37) The opportunity of rising efficiency at biogas plants without BHKW (K. Wemken); (38) Quantification of diffuse

  6. Trastuzumab emtansine versus taxane use for previously treated HER2-positive locally advanced or metastatic gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GATSBY): an international randomised, open-label, adaptive, phase 2/3 study. (United States)

    Thuss-Patience, Peter C; Shah, Manish A; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Van Cutsem, Eric; Ajani, Jaffer A; Castro, Hugo; Mansoor, Wasat; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Bodoky, Gyorgy; Shitara, Kohei; Phillips, Gail D Lewis; van der Horst, Tina; Harle-Yge, Marie-Laurence; Althaus, Betsy L; Kang, Yoon-Koo


    trastuzumab emtansine 2·4 mg/kg weekly and a further 80 to receive a taxane. At data cutoff, median follow-up was 17·5 months (IQR 12·1-23·0) for the trastuzumab emtansine 2·4 mg/kg weekly group and 15·4 months (9·2-18·1) in the taxane group. Median overall survival was 7·9 months (95% CI 6·7-9·5) with trastuzumab emtansine 2·4 mg/kg weekly and 8·6 months (7·1-11·2) with taxane treatment (hazard ratio 1·15, 95% CI 0·87-1·51, one-sided p=0·86). The trastuzumab emtansine 2·4 mg/kg group had lower incidences of grade 3 or more adverse events (134 [60%] of 224 patients treated with trastuzumab emtansine vs 78 [70%] of 111 patients treated with a taxane), and similar incidences of adverse events leading to death (eight [4%] vs four [4%]), serious adverse events (65 [29%] vs 31 [28%]), and adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation (31 [14%] vs 15 [14%]) than did taxane treatment. The most common grade 3 or more adverse events in the trastuzumab emtansine 2·4 mg/kg weekly group were anaemia (59 [26%]) and thrombocytopenia (25 [11%]) compared with neutropenia (43 [39%]), and anaemia (20 [18%]), in the taxane group. The most common serious adverse events were anaemia (eight [4%]), upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (eight [4%]), pneumonia (seven [3%]), gastric haemorrhage (six [3%]), and gastrointestinal haemorrhage (five [2%]) in the trastuzumab emtansine 2·4 mg/kg weekly group compared with pneumonia (four [4%]), febrile neutropenia (four [4%]), anaemia (three [3%]), and neutropenia (three [3%]) in the taxane group. Trastuzumab emtansine was not superior to taxane in patients with previously treated, HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer. There is still an unmet need in this patient group and therapeutic options remain limited. F Hoffmann-La Roche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analyzing the impact of changing size and composition of a crop model ensemble (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alfredo


    on IRS features. References Martre, P., Wallach, D., Asseng, S., Ewert, F., Jones, J.W., Rötter, R.P., Boote, K.J., Ruane, A.C., Thorburn, P.J., Cammarano, D., Hatfield, J.L., Rosenzweig, C., Aggarwal, P.K., Angulo, C., Basso, B., Bertuzzi, P., Biernath, C., Brisson, N., Challinor, A.J., Doltra, J., Gayler, S., Goldberg, R., Grant, R.F., Heng, L., Hooker, J., Hunt, L.A., Ingwersen, J., Izaurralde, R.C., Kersebaum, K.C., Muller, C., Kumar, S.N., Nendel, C., O'Leary, G., Olesen, J.E., Osborne, T.M., Palosuo, T., Priesack, E., Ripoche, D., Semenov, M.A., Shcherbak, I., Steduto, P., Stockle, C.O., Stratonovitch, P., Streck, T., Supit, I., Tao, F.L., Travasso, M., Waha, K., White, J.W., Wolf, J., 2015. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth: many models are better than one. Glob. Change Biol. 21, 911-925. Pirttioja N., Carter T., Fronzek S., Bindi M., Hoffmann H., Palosuo T., Ruiz-Ramos, M., Tao F., Trnka M., Acutis M., Asseng S., Baranowski P., Basso B., Bodin P., Buis S., Cammarano D., Deligios P., Destain M.-F., Doro L., Dumont B., Ewert F., Ferrise R., Francois L., Gaiser T., Hlavinka P., Jacquemin I., Kersebaum K.-C., Kollas C., Krzyszczak J., Lorite I. J., Minet J., Minguez M. I., Montesion M., Moriondo M., Müller C., Nendel C., Öztürk I., Perego A., Rodriguez, A., Ruane A.C., Ruget F., Sanna M., Semenov M., Slawinski C., Stratonovitch P., Supit I., Waha K., Wang E., Wu L., Zhao Z., Rötter R.P, 2015. A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65:87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322 Wallach, D., Mearns, L.O. Ruane, A.C., Rötter, R.P., Asseng, S. (2016). Lessons from climate modeling on the design and use of ensembles for crop modeling. Climate Change (in press) doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1803-1.

  8. Towards better understanding of the response of Sphagnum peatland to increased temperature and reduced precipitation in Central Europe (United States)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Basińska, Anna; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Gąbka, Maciej; Hoffmann, Mathias; Józefczyk, Damian; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Leśny, Jacek; Łuców, Dominika; Moni, Christophe; Reczuga, Monika; Samson, Mateusz; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Stróżecki, Marcin; Urbaniak, Marek; Zielińska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Janusz


    With respect to climate change peatlands are highly vulnerable ecosystems. Especially a potential drying in future might result in a major carbon source and release to the atmosphere. We carried out a field climate manipulation experiment at Rzecin peatland in western Poland to assess how increased temperature and reduced precipitation may impact carbon balance, vegetation, microbes and water chemistry of the Sphagnum peatland. Here, we present results of measurements conducted in two contrasting years (417 mm and 678 mm of precipitation in very dry 2015 and wet 2016, respectively). The experimental design consists of four treatments, each one replicated three times (control, CO; simulated warming, W; prolonged drought, D and warming & drought, W+D). Increased temperatures (T) during the year were achieved by infrared heaters (400W × 4 per site, approx. 60 Wṡm-2 addition of LW radiation). Precipitation was reduced using an automatic curtain, covering the site during nighttime hours of the growth seasons. The manipulation experiment was successful during both years, increasing the air (30 cm height) and soil temperature (5 cm depth, sites W and D) by up to 0.2 oC and 1.0 oC, respectively. Precipitation was reduced to 37 % during both years. At W+D site the peat temperature was nearly two times higher than on W site indicating the impact of drought on T increase. To study the C exchange we developed an automatic mobile platform for measuring CO2/CH4/H2O fluxes (LGR) as well as 13CO2 and 13CH4 fluxes (PICARRO CRDS G2201-i). Measurements were performed, using dynamic ecosystem chambers (for NEE and Reco) and combined with simultaneous measurements of surface spectral properties. Flux calculation and gap filling was done according to Hoffmann et al. 2015. Methane emissions were significantly higher on manipulated plots than on CO (25 gCṡm-2yr-1) during both years, but only in the very dry 2015, CH4 fluxes were the highest on W+D site (33 gC gCṡm-2yr-1). Besides

  9. Evaluation of the interaction between plant roots and preferential flow paths (United States)

    Zhang, Yinghu; Niu, Jianzhi; Zhang, Mingxiang; Xiao, Zixing; Zhu, Weili


    maintaining (1) a constant hydraulic head of 1ṡ0 cm of water with various solution concentrations of 0ṡ5, 1ṡ0, and 1ṡ5 g L-1, and (2) a constant solution concentration of 1ṡ0 g L-1 with various hydraulic heads of 0ṡ5, 1ṡ0, and 1ṡ5 cm of water, and those columns were conducted under saturated and unsaturated soil conditions, respectively. The effluent samples were measured with an ultraviolet spectrometer subsystem to determine the relative concentration. The plant root-water interaction (PRWI) was recognized as an indicator of the influences of plant roots on soil water flow. Results Our study showed that (1) fine plant roots in preferential flow paths decreased with soil depth and was mostly recorded in the upper soil layers to a depth of 20 cm for all experimental plots. The root length density of preferential flow paths made up at least 50% of the total root length density at each soil depth; (2) preferential flow effects were most apparent on soil water flow at the 0-20-cm soil depth compared with the other depths (20-40 and 40-60 cm); (3) positive correlations between fine plant roots and the plant root-water interaction (PRWI) were observed. References Brevik EC, Cerdà A, Mataix-Solera J, Pereg L, Quinton JN, Six J, Van Oost K. 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL. SOIL 1: 117-129. DOI: 10.5194/soil-1-117-2015. Singh YP, Nayak AK, Sharma DK, Singh G, Mishra VK, Singh D. 2015. Evaluation of Jatropha curcas genotypes for rehabilitation of degraded sodic lands. Land Degradation & Development 26(5): 510-520. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2398. Ola A, Dodd IC, Quinton JN. 2015. Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion? SOIL 1: 603-612. DOI: 10.5194/soild-2-265-2015. Tracy SR, Black CR, Roberts JA, Mooney SJ. 2011. Soil compaction: a review of past and present techniques for investigating effects on root growth. Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture 91: 1528-1537. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4424. Jørgensen PR, Hoffmann M, Kistrup JP, Bryde C

  10. 6th International Symposium on Molecular Allergology (ISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hilger


    complex clinical pattern syndrome Inês Mota, Filipe Benito Garcia, Angela Gaspar, Cristina Arêde, Susana Piedade, Graça Sampaio, Graça Pires, Luís Miguel Borrego, Cristina Santa-Marta, Mário Morais-Almeida CC2 IgE sensitization profile in a patient with asteraceae pollen-exotic fruits association Florin-Dan Popescu, Mariana Vieru, Florin-Adrian Secureanu CC3 Food-dependent: exercise induced anaphylaxis. Which component to blame? Rosa Anita Rodrigues Fernandes, Isabel Carrapatoso, Raquel Gomes, Celso Pereira, Ana Todo-Bom CC4 Anaphylaxis to intravenous iron preparations in a patient that tolerates oral administration María Cecilia Martín Fernández De Basoa, Javier Barrios Regio, Juan De Castro Cordova, Antón Fernández Ferreiro CC5 IgE sensitization pattern in an adult patient with oral allergy syndrome to peanuts and pollinosis from southern Romania Florin-Dan Popescu, Mariana Vieru, Florin-Adrian Secureanu CC6 Evidence of specific IgE to plant-derived cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant in a patient with delayed anaphylaxis to red meat Mariana Vieru, Florin-Dan Popescu, Florin-Adrian Secureanu POSTER PRESENTATIONS Poster Session 1: Molecular allergology and epidemiology P1 Atopic children produce stronger and more frequent IgG responses than non-atopic children: longitudinal data from the German MAS birth cohort Olympia Tsilochristou, Serena Perna, Alina Schwarz, Alexander Rohrbach, Antonio Cappella, Laura Hatzler, Carl-Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffmann, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Antje Schuster, Raffael D’amelio, Ulrich Wahn, Thomas Keil, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi P2 The IgG sensitization profiles against 112 allergenic components support the absence of a protective role of IgG in allergic individuals, outside of the context of SIT Pol André Apoil, Claire Mailhol, Anne Broué-Chabbert, Agnès Juchet, Alain Didier, Elodie Carrer, Thomas Lanot, Antoine Blancher P3 The immune response against the timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 in non

  11. EDITORIAL: Ice in the environment: connections to atmospheric chemistry Ice in the environment: connections to atmospheric chemistry (United States)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Hastings, Meredith G.


    understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of ice: the role of a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) or quasi-brine layer (QBL) at the ice surface. The studies presented here advance our understanding of the complex interactions of snow and ice with important reactive components in our atmosphere. It has become clear in recent years that the polar regions do not act as an ultimate sink for many compounds—the release of halogens and reactive nitrogen oxides from ice and snow are examples of this. Two notable implications arise from these findings (i) the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in our environment may extend further than we fully appreciate with current global atmospheric chemistry models and (ii) our interpretation of chemical records in ice cores requires that we fundamentally understand and quantify air-snow and air-ice interactions. Additionally, laboratory studies are elucidating the details of heterogeneous reactions that are prevalent on ice and snow surfaces throughout the troposphere, and we are poised to make significant strides in the near future quantifying these effects on regional and global scales. We look forward to continued progress in this field in the coming years, and we will continue to work to connect those conducting modeling, field and laboratory studies. Focus on Connections between Atmospheric Chemistry and Snow and Ice Contents HONO emissions from snow surfaces Harry Beine, Agustín J Colussi, Antonio Amoroso, Giulio Esposito, Mauro Montagnoli and Michael R Hoffmann Heterogeneous ozonation kinetics of phenanthrene at the air-ice interface T F Kahan and D J Donaldson Release of gas-phase halogens from sodium halide substrates: heterogeneous oxidation of frozen solutions and desiccated salts by hydroxyl radicals S J Sjostedt and J P D Abbatt Uptake of acetone, ethanol and benzene to snow and ice: effects of surface area and temperature J P D Abbatt, T Bartels-Rausch, M Ullerstam and T J Ye Interaction of gaseous elemental mercury with snow surfaces

  12. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010) Selected papers from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010) (United States)

    Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vullers, Ruud


    collaboration with the staff of IOP Publishing. PowerMEMS 2010 contents Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator S P Matova, R Elfrink, R J M Vullers and R van Schaijk Analysis and characterization of triangular electrode structures for electrostatic energy harvestingDaniel Hoffmann, Bernd Folkmer and Yiannos Manoli A smart and self-sufficient frequency tunable vibration energy harvesterC Eichhorn, R Tchagsim, N Wilhelm and P Woias Power output enhancement of a vibration-driven electret generator for wireless sensor applicationsTatsuakira Masaki, Kenji Sakurai, Toru Yokoyama, Masayo Ikuta, Hiroshi Sameshima, Masashi Doi, Tomonori Seki and Masatoshi Oba Harvesting traffic-induced vibrations for structural health monitoring of bridgesT V Galchev, J McCullagh, R L Peterson and K Najafi Dispenser-printed planar thick-film thermoelectric energy generatorsA Chen, D Madan, P K Wright and J W Evans Silicon nanowire arrays as thermoelectric material for a power microgeneratorD Dávila, A Tarancón, M Fernández-Regúlez, C Calaza, M Salleras, A San Paulo and L Fonseca A micro thermal switch with a stiffness-enhanced thermal isolation structureTakashiro Tsukamoto, Masayoshi Esashi and Shuji Tanaka A dielectric liquid contact thermal switch with electrowetting actuationA R McLanahan, C D Richards and R F Richards A self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronicsRadu Donose, Michaël De Volder, Jan Peirs and Dominiek Reynaerts A MEMS-enabled 3D zinc-air microbattery with improved discharge characteristics based on a multilayer metallic substructureA Armutlulu, Y Fang, S H Kim, C H Ji, S A Bidstrup Allen and M G Allen Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow fieldLuwen Wang, Yufeng Zhang, Youran Zhao, Zijiang An, Zhiping Zhou and Xiaowei Liu A shadow-mask evaporated pyroMEMS igniterD A de Koninck, D Briand and N F de Rooij Aerodynamic

  13. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 22nd MicroMechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2011) Selected papers from the 22nd MicroMechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2011) (United States)

    Ohlckers, Per


    three-axis gyroscopes as the most recent 'killer' application. Regardless of application, low cost, high performance and high reliability seem to give us the winning hand leaving competing technology platforms in the dust, for instance in automotive applications. First, I would like to thank the authors of the selected papers for each of their individual excellent contributions. My gratitude also goes to my fellow members in the programme committee (Leon Abelmann, Marin Hill and Martin Hoffmann) for their devotion in the selection of invited speakers and submitted papers, as well as the anonymous JMM reviewers for their careful selection of the final 13 papers included here. Last, but not least, it has been an honour and pleasure for me to collaborate with the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, with the selected best papers presented at MME 2011 included in this special section. This collaboration will continue also for MME 2012, and hopefully also for many future MME workshops. References [1] Morante J R 1997 Preface J. Micromech. Microeng. 7 [2] Evans A G R 1998 Preface J. Micromech. Microeng. 8 [3] Ohlckers P 1999 Introduction J. Micromech. Microeng. 9 [4] Bosseboeuf A 2000 Editorial J. Micromech. Microeng. 10 [5] Hill M 2002 Preface J. Micromech. Microeng. 12 [6] Dascalu D and Muller A 2003 Preface J. Micromech. Microeng. 13 [7] Wolffenbuttel R F 2004 14th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2003) J. Micromech. Microeng. 14 [8] Puers R 2005 15th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2004) J. Micromech. Microeng. 15 [9] Enoksson P 2006 16th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2005) J. Micromech. Microeng. 16 [10] Morgan H 2007 The 17th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2006) J. Micromech. Microeng. 17 [11] Correia J H 2008 The 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2007) J. Micromech. Microeng. 18 060201 [12] Schnakenberg U 2009 The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008) J. Micromech. Microeng. 19 070201

  14. Halogen speciation in volcanic plumes - Development of compact denuder sampling techniques with in-situ derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their application at Mt. Etna, Mt. Nyiragongo and Mt. Nyamulagira in 2015. (United States)

    Rüdiger, Julian; Bobrowski, Nicole; Hoffmann, Thorsten


    products. The diffusion denuder technique allows sampling of gaseous compounds exclusively without collecting particulate matter. Solvent elution of the derivatized analytes and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gives a limit of detection below 1 ng of bromine. The method was applied in 2015 on volcanic gas plumes at Mt. Etna (Italy), Mt. Nyiragongo and Mt. Nyamulagira (DR Congo) giving reactive bromine mixing ratios from 0.3 ppb (Nyiragongo) up to 22 ppb (Etna, NEC). Compared with total halogen data derived by alkaline trap sampling (Raschig-tube) and ion-chromatography analysis the reactive bromine mixing ratios allow the investigation of the conversion of HBr into reactive species due to plume chemistry with progressing plume age. The new method will be described in detail and the first results on the reactive halogen to total halogen output will be discussed (for bromine and chlorine) and compared to earlier volcanic plume chemistry model studies. References Bobrowski, N. and G. Giuffrida: Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006-2009. Solid Earth, 3, 433-445, 2012 Bobrowski, N., R. von Glasow, A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, I. Louban, O. W. Ibrahim and U. Platt: Reactive halogen chemistry in volcanic plumes. J. Geophys. Res., 112, 2007 Donovan A., V. Tsanev, C. Oppenheimer and M. Edmonds: Reactive halogens (BrO and OClO) detected in the plume of Soufrière Hills Volcano during an eruption hiatus. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 15, 3346-3363, 2014 Rüdiger, J., N. Bobrowski, T. Hoffmann (2015), Development and application of compact denuder sampling techniques with in situ derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for halogen speciation in volcanic plumes (EGU2015-2392-2), EGU General Assembly 2015

  15. Könyvszemle [Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas, Tamás (ed.


    megye helységneveinek etimológiai szótára [Etymological dictionary of settlement names in Ung county] 13. Bárth M., János: István Hoffmann: Mikrotoponímiai vizsgálatok 1. Tapolcafő helynevei [Microtoponymic surveys 1. Place names in Tapolcafő] 14. Demjén, Izabella: János Pesti: Hosszúhetény nyelvi kincseiről. Névtani és dialektológiai tanulmányok [The linguistic treasures of Hosszúhetény. Onomastic and dialectological studies] 15. T. Somogyi, Magdolna: Erzsébet Erdélyi: Kincsvadászat Nagykőrösön. Helyneveink nyomában [Treasure hunt in Nagykőrös. Investigating local place names] 16. Balogh, Erna: Judit Szilvia Várnai: A fehér barátok földjén [In the land of the Pauline Fathers] 17. Publications on Hungarian onomastics received in 2015

  16. Proceedings of the 2015 WAO Symposium on Food Allergy and the Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Lázaro Castro Almarales


    Ross Bell, Chandini Revanna, Constantine Saadeh, Jeff Bennert, Danius Bouyi, Mitsy Veloz, Nelofar Sherali A10 Characteristics of patients with food allergy in health public service Magna Coelho A11 Allergic rhinitis and asthma index increased in Texas panhandle and AHPCO and plasma nanotechnology as solutions Nabarun Ghosh, Jeff Bennert, Danius Bouyi, Constantine Saadeh, Clinton Ross Bell, Mitsy Veloz, Chandini Revanna, Nelofar Sherali A12 Antigen-specific T follicular helper cells mediate peanut allergy in mice Joseph J. Dolence, Takao Kobayashi, Koji Iijima, Hirohito Kita, Hirohito Kita, Ashli Moore, James Krempski A13 Production of recombinant Mal d 3, a major apple allergen, in Pichia Pastoris, to investigate the impact of the food matrix and post-translational modifications on Mal d 3 immuno-reactivity Roberta Aina, Riccardo Asero, Sabine Pfeifer, Pawel Dubiela, Merima Bublin, Christian Radauer, Piotr Humeniuk, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber A14 Reaction to sports drink: no whey! Whey allergy in absence of clinical cow’s milk allergy Frank Eidelman, Ves Dimov, Charl Khalil A15 Food allergy on Tumblr: focus on teenage audience may increase educational impact Ves Dimov, Frank Eidelman, Charl Khalil A16 Changes in IgE levels following one-year immunizations in two children with food allergy Alice E. W. Hoyt, Peter Heymann, Alexander Schuyler, Scott Commins, Thomas Platts-Mills A17 IgE and IgG4 antibodies to cow's milk components in children with eosinophilic esophagitis: higher specific IgG4 antibodies and IgG4:IgE ratios compared with subjects with IgE-mediated food allergy Alexander Schuyler, Patrice Kruszewski, John Russo, Lisa Workman, Thomas Platts-Mills, Elizabeth Erwin, Anubha Tripathi A18 Frequency of Sensitization to Food Allergens in Patients with Rhinitis and Asthma in the National Medical Center La Raza “Dr. Antonio Fraga Mouret”, Mexico City Gabriela Yvette Castellanos, Elizabeth Mendieta, Martín Becerril-Angeles

  17. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing (United States)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.; Jiang, Yi; Wall, Michael E.; Zilman, Anton


    an evaluation of simulation methods for rule-based models. Delmotte et al follow with new methods for analysis of protein interaction dynamics. Finally, Schmidt et al present a novel method for automated experimental design for inference of metabolic networks. Acknowledgments We thank the authors who contributed to this special issue and the over 25 anonymous reviewers of manuscripts, as well as the staff of Physical Biology for their continued support of the q-bio conference. Additionally, we would like to thank the staff of St John's College Conference Services and the staff of the Center for Nonlinear Studies and the Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group in Los Alamos, especially Adam Shipman, Don Thompson and Ellie Vigil. We also thank the Center for Nonlinear Studies and the Institute for Advanced Studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the NIGMS-funded Center for the Spatiotemporal Modeling of Cell Signaling at the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Consortium, and NIGMS (NIH grant GM082162) for generous financial support. Finally, we thank the advisory and program committee members, who helped the organizers to assemble the program, recruit speakers, review submitted abstracts and publicize the event: Blagoy Blagoev (University of Southern Denmark), Naama Brenner (Technion), Thierry Emonet (Yale University), Alexander Hoffmann (University of California, San Diego), Diane S Lidke (University of New Mexico School of Medicine), Orna Resnekov (Molecular Sciences Institute), Thomas S Shimizu (FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics), Jin Zhang (Johns Hopkins University), Robert H Austin (Princeton University), Barbara A Baird (Cornell University), Elaine L Bearer (University of New Mexico School of Medicine), Michael E Berens (Translational Genomics Research Institute), Howard C Berg (Harvard University), Hans Frauenfelder (Los Alamos National Laboratory), Byron Goldstein (Los Alamos National Laboratory), Arthur D Lander (University of California

  18. Glacial recession in the Tropical Andes from the Little Ice Age: the case of Ampato Volcanic Complex (Southern Peru (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.


    Europa (Cordillera Cantábrica, NO de España). Análisis morfológico y reconstrucción del avance glaciar histórico. Rev. C & G., 19 (3-4), 79-94. Hastenrath, S. L. (2009): Past glaciation in the tropics. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28: 790-798. Jomelli, V.; Favier, V.; Rabatel, A.; Brunstein, D.; Hoffmann, G.; and Francou, B. (2009): Fluctuations of glaciers in the tropical Andes over the last millennium and palaeoclimatic implications: A review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.10.033. Kaser, G., Osmaston, H.A., 2002. Tropical glaciers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Mark, B. (2008): Tracing tropical Andean glaciers over space and time: Some lessons and transdisciplinary implications. Global and Planetary Change, 60: 101-114. Osmaston, H. (2005): Estimates of glacier equilibrium line altitudes by the Area _ Altitude, the Area _ Altitude Balance Ratio and the Area _ Altitude Balance Index Methods and their validation. Quaternary International, 138-139: 22-31. Rabatel, A., Jomelli, V., Naveau, P., Francou, B., Grancher, D. (2005). Dating of Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in the tropical Andes: Charquini glaciers, Bolivia, 16ºS. C. R. Geoscience, 337: 1311-1322. Rabatel, A., Francou, B., Jomelli, V., Naveau, P., Grancher, D. (2008). A chronology of the Little Ice Age in the tropical Andes of Bolivia (16º S) and its implications for climate reconstruction. Quaternary Research, 70: 198-212. Ramirez, E., Francou, B., Ribstein, P., Descloitres, M., Guerin, R., Mendoza, J., Gallaire, R., Pouyaud, B., Jordan, E., 2001. Small glaciers disappearing in the tropical Andes: a case study in Bolivia: Glaciar Chacaltaya (16°S). Journal of Glaciology 47 (157), 187-194. Soruco, A.; Vincent, C.; Francou, B.; Ribstein, P.; Berger, T.; Sicart, J. E.; Wagnon, P.; Arnaud, Y.; Favier, V.; and Lejeune, Y. (2009): Mass balance of Glacier Zongo, Bolivia, between 1956 and 2006, using glaciological, hydrological and geodetic methods

  19. Improvement of logistics education from the point of view environmental management (United States)

    Bányai, Á.


    cooperation of the higher education institutes and companies of the three counties. This publication was supported by the National Office for Research and Technology within the frame of Pázmány Péter programme. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Office for Research and Technology. Literature: [1] J. Cselényi, Gy. Fischer, J. Murvai, B. Mang: Typical models of the recycling logistics of worn out product. Proceedings of XIV. International Conference on Material Handling and Warehousing in Belgrade, 1996. pp. 138-143. [2] R. Knoth, M. Hoffmann, B. Kopacek, P. Kopacek: A logistic concept to improve the re-usability of electric and electronic equipment, Electronics and the Environment, 2001. Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Symposium. 2001. pp. 115 - 118. [3] L. Cser, B. Mang: Cleaner Technologies and Recycling in Hungary. Proceedings of Int. Workshop on Environmental Conscious Manufacturing in Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands, 1997. pp. 48-56.

  20. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale? (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.


    deforestation Environ. Res. Lett. 4 034013 Langner A and Siegert F 2009 Spatiotemporal fire occurrence in Borneo over a period of 10 years Glob. Change Biol. 15 48-62 Ramankutty N, Gibbs H K, Achard F, Defries R, Foley J A and Houghton R A 2007 Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestation Glob. Change Biol. 13 51-66 Siegert F, Ruecker G, Hinrichs A and Hoffmann A A 2001 Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Nino Nature 414 437-40 Soares-Filho B S, Nepstad D C, Curran L M, Cerqueira G C, Garcia R A, Ramos C A, Voll E, Mcdonald A, Lefebvre P and Schlesinger P 2006 Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin Nature 440 520-3 World Bank 2008 State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2008 (Washington, DC: World Bank)

  1. Selected Abstracts of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 26-31, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors


    Cagliari (Italy, Matsumoto (Japan, and Leuven (Belgium ABS 52. Congenital remnants as a cause of airway obstruction in newborns • F. Carta, R.A. Caria, C. Gerosa, R. Puxeddu • Cagliari (Italy ABS 53. Involvement of the family in the process of care in pediatric wards perception of nursing and medical staff • L. Cauli, B. Congiu • Cagliari (Italy ABS 54. Investigating the metabolome for monitoring PKU patients under treatment using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS in urine • C. Cannet, F.K. Trefz, J.G. Okun, A. Bayat, H. Schäfer, M. Spraul, G.F. Hoffmann • Heidelberg and Rheinstetten (Germany, and Glostrup (Denmark ABS 55. Administration of surfactant in spontaneously breathing preterm infants: LISA in Verona • C.A. Forcellini, M. Castellani, M. Ventola, G. Giustozzi, F. Bissolo, R. Beghini, E.M. Padovani • Verona (Italy ABS 56. Posterior quadrant dysplasia (PQD and epileptic encephalopathy with onset in the first month of life: presentation of a clinical case • F. Madeddu, S. Cossu, M. Lai, M. Scioni, A. Chabert, D. Pruna • Cagliari (Italy ABS 57. HCMV infection in pregnancy: from classic data towards metabolomics • M. Zavattoni • Pavia (Italy ABS 58. Basic life support training for a Sardinian Scout group • L. Cauli, I. Piras, G. Piras, G. Ragatzu • Cagliari (Italy ABS 59. Developmental trends in preterm children: an integrate model of follow-up in the 1st year of life • G. Papadia, M.R. Morales, G. Perricone, C. Polizzi, A. Faucetta, G. Sulliotti, E. Bellante, B. Giuffrè, F. D’Aleo, R. Mignano Marù • Palermo (Italy ABS 60. Targeted analysis in urine by high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS in the selective screening program for inborn errors of metabolism • C. Cannet, L. Beedgen, F.K. Trefz, J.G. Okun, C.D. Langhans, H. Schäfer, M. Spraul, G.F. Hoffmann • Heidelberg and Rheinstetten (Germany ABS 61. Exploring the role of different

  2. EDITORIAL: Photonic terahertz technology (United States)

    Lisauskas, Alvydas; Löffler, Torsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.


    the state of the art which relies on single-point LT-GaAs photoconductive antennae as THz sources and detectors driven by semiconductor lasers operating at wavelengths around 0.8 m. As laser-induced damage to the sources currently limits the achievable output power, researchers have early-on tried to develop travelling-wave mixers with distributed THz-power generation. Michael describes the status quo of this approach. The replacement of lifetime-limited photoconductive antennae with transit-time-limited p-i-n photomixers can be another way towards higher conversion efficiency if the RC frequency roll-off can be controlled. Döhler et al introduce a novel lumped-element device, a quasi-ballistic cascaded p-i-n photomixer, which promises a significantly better conversion efficiency than standard LT-GaAs photomixers at all frequencies. At laser wavelengths in the telecommunication windows, especially at 1.55 m, where InP-based compound semiconductors exhibit an extremely favourable electron mobility, p-i-n mixers have already established themselves as a powerful THz source. The group of Ito et al have set the standards here and describe their achievements in the fourth paper of this subtopic. The challenge remains to develop a similarly effective optoelectronic detector for these operating wavelengths. This, as Brown et al show in their contribution, turns out to be mainly a materials research issue, and as novel ultrafast materials such as those containing ErAs clusters emerge, so do sensitive detectors and photoconductive sources. The section closes with a paper by Hoffmann et al, which is more speculative in its scope but targets a fascinating goal: THz photomixing directly in a dual-colour semiconductor laser itself, and thus the ultimate miniaturization of a THz source based on photomixing. The third topic is 'THz Laser Technology' and addresses direct laser action at THz frequencies. Hübers et al guide the reader into the topic with a paper presenting the state

  3. PREFACE: Cell-substrate interactions Cell-substrate interactions (United States)

    Gardel, Margaret; Schwarz, Ulrich


    cytoskeleton-bound microbeads—the effect of bead-receptor binding dynamics J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194105 [10] Ryzhkov P, Prass M, Gummich M, Kühn J-S, Oettmeier C and Döbereiner H-G 2010 Adhesion patterns in early cell spreading J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194106 [11] Cretel E, Touchard D, Benoliel A M, Bongrand P and Pierres A 2010 Early contacts between T lymphocytes and activating surfaces J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194107 [12] Heil P and Spatz J P 2010 Lateral shear forces applied to cells with single elastic micropillars to influence focal adhesion dynamics J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194108 [13] Kirchenbüchler D, Born S, Kirchgeßner N, Houben S, Hoffmann B and Merkel R 2010 Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194109 [14] Zemel A, Rehfeldt F, Brown A E X, Discher D E and Safran S A 2010 Cell shape, spreading symmetry, and the polarization of stress-fibers in cells J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194110 [15] Biton Y Y and Safran S A 2010 Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194111 [16] Sabass B and Schwarz U S 2010 Modeling cytoskeletal flow over adhesion sites: competition between stochastic bond dynamics and intracellular relaxation J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194112 [17] Li Y, Bhimalapuram P and Dinner A R 2010 Model for how retrograde actin flow regulates adhesion traction stresses J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194113 [18] Moshayedi P, da F Costa L, Christ A, Lacour S P, Fawcett J, Guck J and Franze K 2010 Mechanosensitivity of astrocytes on optimized polyacrylamide gels analyzed by quantitative morphometry J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194114 [19] Lee S, Zeiger A, Maloney J M, Kotecki M, Van Vliet K J and Herman I M 2010 Pericyte contraction at the cell-material interface can modulate the microvascular niche J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 194115 [20] Buxboim A, Rajagopal K, Brown A E X and

  4. The use of new technologies in Cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva


    estudosepidemiológicos: conceitos básicos e aplicaçõesna área do envelhecimento. Epidemiol Serv Saúde.2003;12(3:189-201.10. Muñoz A, Schrager LK, Bacellar H, et al. Trendsin the incidence of outcomes defining acquiredimmunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in the MulticenterAIDS Cohort Study: 1985-1991. Am J Epidemiol.1993;137:423-38.11. Tager IB. Outcomes in cohort studies. Epidemiol Rev.1998;20(1:15-28.12. Moura KS, Bessa OAACB, Nuto SAS, Sá HLC, VerasFMF, Braga JU. Projeto Coorte dendê: diagnosticodemográfico e condições de moradia de umacomunidade de baixa renda em Fortaleza- Ceará. RevBras Promoção Saúde. 2010;23(1:17-23.13. Preis SR, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U, D’Agostino RBSr, Levy D, Robins SJ, et al. Neck Circumferenceas a Novel Measure of Cardiometabolic Risk: TheFramingham Heart Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2010 May 19. [Epub ahead of print].14. Zomer E, Owen A, Magliano DJ, Liew D, Reid C.Validation of two Framingham cardiovascular riskprediction algorithms in an Australian population: the‘old’ versus the ‘new’ Framingham equation. Eur JCardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010 May 13. [Epub aheadof print

  5. PREFACE: Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter (United States)

    Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut


    functional theory versus kinetic theory of simple fluids J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364110 [28] Majaniemi S, Provatas N and Nonomura M 2010 Effective model hierarchies for dynamic and static classical density functional theories J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364111 [29] Warshavsky V B and Song X 2010 Perturbation theory for solid-liquid interfacial free energies J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 364112 [30] Rosenfeld Y, Schmidt M, Löwen H and Tarazona P 1997 Phys. Rev. E 55 4245 [31] Roth R, Evans R, Lang A and Kahl G 2002 J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14 12063 [32] Tarazona P, Cuesta J A and Martinez-Raton Y 2008 Density Functional Theories of Hard Particle Systems (Springer Lecture Notes in Physics vol 753) (Berlin: Springer) p 247 [33] Roth R 2010 J. Phys: Condens. Matter 22 063102 [34] Schmidt M, Löwen H, Brader J M and Evans R 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1934 [35] Schmidt M, Löwen H, Brader J M and Evans R 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 9353 [36] Hansen-Goos H and Mecke K 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 018302 [37] Esztermann A, Reich H and Schmidt M 2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 011409 [38] Ramakrishnan T V and Yussouff M 1979 Phys. Rev. B 19 2775 [39] Denton A R and Ashcroft N W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 4701 [40] Hasegawa M 1994 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 63 2215 [41] Kol A and Laird B B 1997 Mol. Phys. 90 951 [42] van Teeffelen S, Löwen H and Likos C N 2008 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 404217 [43] van Teeffelen S, Hoffmann N, Likos C N and Löwen H 2006 Europhys. Lett. 75 583 [44] Likos C N, Hoffmann N, Löwen H and Louis A A 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 7681 [45] Curtin W A and Ashcroft N W 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 2775 [46] Likos C N, Németh Z T and Löwen H 1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 10965 [47] Poniewierski A and Holyst R 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 2461 [48] Graf H and Löwen H 1999 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11 1435 [49] Bolhuis P and Frenkel D 1997 J. Chem. Phys. 106 666 [50] Frenkel D, Mulder B M and McTague J P 1984 Phys. Rev. Lett. 52 287 [51] Härtel A and Löwen H 2010 J. Phys

  6. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neurology and Follow-up"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors


    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neurology and Follow-up"ABS 1. PRETERM BIRTH AND THE TIMING OF PUBERTY • E. James, C. Wood, H. Nair, T. WilliamsABS 2. NEONATAL PAIN, OPIOID AND ANAESTHETIC EXPOSURE; WHAT REMAINS IN THE HUMAN BRAIN AFTER THE WHEELS OF TIME? • G.E. van den Bosch, D. Tibboel, J.C. de Graaff, H. El Marroun, A. van der Lugt, T. White, M. van DijkABS 3. DEPRESSION DURING PREGNANCY AND DNA METHYLATION CHANGES IN CORD BLOOD • A.-C. Viuff, G. Sharp, D. Raj, K.J. Kyng, L.H. Pedersen, T.B. Henriksen, C.L. ReltonABS 4. PREVENTION OF CEREBRAL PALSY: FEASIBILITY OF UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD STEM CELLS AND UMBILICAL CORD MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS • H. Shintaku, M. Nabetani, T. Hamazaki, S. Kusuda, M. Tamura, S. Watabe, M. Hayakawa, Y. Sato, M. Tsuji, A. Taguchi, H. Ichiba, O. Akira, R. Mori, A.Taki, T. Mukai, T. Nagamura-InoueABS 5. NO GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN FETAL CORPUS CALLOSUM THICKNESS: IN-UTERO MRI STUDY • R. Bercovitz, R. Achiron, C. Hoffmann, A. AchironABS 6. NEUROMOTOR PROFILE OF HIGH-RISK INFANTS AT TERM OR NEAR TERM • I. Ereno, W.Y. TehABS 7. THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF SEVERE BRONCHOPULMONARY