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Sample records for hochenergetischer kosmischer schauer

  1. Antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer

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    Cynthia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil (EO of Lippia gracilis Schauer over fungi and heliconia endophytic bacteria was evaluated. For the fungi Geotrichum candidum; Trichoderma viride; Torula herbarum; Paecillomyces sp.; Fusicoccum sp.; P. aeruginens; Curvularia lunata; Aspergillus nidulans; A. flavus; and A. niger mycelial discs were inoculated in PDA medium with oil (0; 420; 440; 460; 480 e 500 µL L-1. The inhibition percentage in 420 µL L-1 was 100% for all fungi, except for C. lunata and A. niger, which was 95.58% and 89.40% , respectively. In other experiment, a suspension of the Salmonella choleraceuis-diarizonae, Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus thuringiensis, B. pumilus, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. hormaechei was individually added to the solid NYDA medium dishes. In each dish, wells were drilled in medium and filled with water or EO (420 µL L-1. The diameter of the inhibition halo was assessed. K. pneumoniae was the bacterial species less sensitive and E. hormaechei was the most sensitive.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial (OE de Lippia gracilis Schauer sobre fungos contaminantes de laboratórios de cultura de tecidos vegetais e bactérias endofíticas de helicônias. Discos de micélio dos fungos Geotrichum candidum; Trichoderma viride; Torula herbarum; Paecillomyces sp.; Aspergillus nidulans; Fusicoccum sp.; A. flavus; P. aeruginens; Curvularia lunata e A. niger, foram inoculados em meio BDA com óleo (0; 420; 440; 460; 480 e 500 µL L-1. O percentual de inibição em 420 µL L-1 foi de 100% para todos os fungos exceto paraC. lunata and A. niger, o qual foi de 95.58% and 89.40% respectivamente. Em outro experimento, suspensão das espécies Salmonela choleraceuis-diarizonae, Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus thuringiensis, B. pumilus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. hormaechei, Bacillus pumilus, B. cereus, B. pumilus foi individualmente adicionada ao meio NYDA, que foi vertido em placas de Petri e, ap

  2. Everything we do is tentative. An interview with Prof. Frederick Schauer

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    Zhao, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Professor Schauer covers many topics in this interview. On a general note, the interview covers themes pertaining to his experience in engaging with legal philosophy as a trained lawyer; his views on the present and the future of legal philosophy and how we shall cope with its development; his new

  3. Estabelecimento de protocolo para micropropagação de Lippia gracilis Schauer Establishment of protocol for Lippia gracilis Schauer micropropagation

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    M.J.M Marinho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Lippia gracilis SCHAUER (Verbenaceae é nativa do Nordeste brasileiro e se destaca pela capacidade de acumular nos tricomas glandulares óleos essenciais com atividade antimicrobiana. Tendo em vista que não constam trabalhos na literatura sobre o estabelecimento in vitro dessa espécie, este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer protocolo para micropropagação de L. gracilis. Para tanto, ramos contendo folhas foram coletados de plantas matrizes no habitat natural para a confecção de estacas. Em laboratório, os explantes provenientes do processo de estaquia foram assepticamente tratados e inoculados em meio MS, acrescido de fitorreguladores, com o intuito de se estabelecer a melhor dose para o desenvolvimento dos explantes. Em decorrência de altos níveis de contaminação, avaliou-se o efeito da cefalexina. No entanto, apesar do antibiótico ter apresentado diminuição na contaminação bacteriana, a porcentagem de oxidação foi elevada. Portanto, testou-se o carvão ativado, ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e metade dos sais de MS quanto a eficiência no controle da oxidação. Concluiu-se que, o antibiótico na concentração utilizada provocou a oxidação dos explantes e os fitorreguladores, bem como os métodos antioxidantes testados, não apresentaram resultados consistentes para o melhor desenvolvimento dos explantes e controle da oxidação, respectivamente.The species Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae is native to Northeastern Brazil and has been important for its ability to accumulate essential oils with antimicrobial activity in the glandular trichomes. Since there are no reports in the literature on the micropropagation of this species, the present work aimed to establish a protocol for L. gracilis micropropagation. Thus, branches containing leaves were collected from plant matrices in their natural habitat to prepare cuttings. In the laboratory, explants from cutting were aseptically treated and inoculated

  4. Fungal inactivation by Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Hernández-Zamoran, Erika; López-Mendoza, Ingrid; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-04-01

    Edible films can incorporate antimicrobial agents to provide microbiological stability, since they can be used as carriers of a wide number of additives that can extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of low antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Oregano essential oil was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan, and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. Mold radial growth was evaluated inoculating spores in 2 ways: edible films were placed over inoculated agar, Film/Inoculum mode (F/I), or the edible films were first placed in the agar and then films were inoculated, Inoculum/Film mode (I/F). The modified Gompertz model adequately described growth curves. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth parameters between the 2 modes of inoculation. Antifungal effectiveness of edible films was starch > chitosan > amaranth. In starch edible films, both studied molds were inhibited with 0.50% of essential oil. Edible films added with Mexican oregano essential oil could improve the quality of foods by controlling surface growth of molds.

  5. NÚMERO CROMOSSÔMICO DE Lippia gracilis Schauer (VERBENACEAE OCORRENTES NO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

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    LUIS EDUARDO DE SOUSA SOARES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lippia (Verbenaceae comprises about 200 species of pantropical distribution. Lippia gracilis Schauer, popularly known as the mountain balm, is an aromatic plant, native of northeastern Brazil, used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and to treat dermatitis. Although cytogenetic serve as a tool in taxonomy rate, cytogenetical studies of genus Lippia are restricted. Given the above, the present study aimed to determine, at the first time, the chromosome number of copies of L. gracilis, and thereby contribute to a better taxonomic understanding of this genus. In this sense root tips collected from newly planted specimens were pretreated with a solution of 2mM 8-hydroxyquinoline for 4 hours, fixed in Carnoy 3:1 (ethanol: acetic acid for 24 hours and stored in the same fixative for later analysis. The roots were hydrolyzed in 5N HCl for 20 minutes and the slides, prepared by squashing in acetic acid (45% and stained with 2% Giemsa. The best metaphases were photographed and pointed to the chromosome number 2n = 24. Moreover, were observed metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Because there are several chromosome numbers in the genus, from n=10 to n=30, and as the same is little known cytogenetically, f more comprehensive cytogenetic studies are necessary, involving a larger number of species, so these data may help to clarify taxonomic inconsistencies in the family Verbenaceae.

  6. Foucault und das Recht: Besprechung von: Christian Schauer, Aufforderung zum Spiel. Foucault und das Recht, Böhlau (Weimar, Köln, Wien 2006, 383 Seiten.

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    Thomas Biebricher

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Der Autor rekonstruiert Foucaults Werk zwischen den Jahren 1961 und 1975 und integriert hierbei Perspektiven anderer Autoren (Derrida, Luhmann und Nietzsche, welche zu verwandten Themenkreisen arbeiten und/oder Foucaults Herangehensweise geprägt haben. Eigentliches Ziel der Arbeit ist es, Foucaults Beitrag zur Rechtsgeschichte und –soziologie zu beleuchten. Diese Thematik ist im deutschen Sprachraum bis jetzt kaum systematisch untersucht worden, und dementsprechend gebührt Schauers Studie besondere Beachtung. Der Autor betont Foucaults Ausführungen zum Verhältnis zwischen Recht und Psychiatrie. Dessen Diagnose hebt die “Kolonisierung” des Rechts durch forensisch psychiatrische Diskurse hervor, und Schauer gelingt es, die problematische Dimension dieser Tendenz mit Hinweis auf die schweizerische Rechtspraxis plausibel zu machen. Fluchtpunkt dieser Entwicklung wäre ein bis zum Extrem “vorbeugendes” Recht, das Gefahrenprävention und Risikoregulierung durch präemptive Verhaltensregulierung den Vorzug vor dem Legalitätsprinzip gewährt.

  7. Fungitoxicidade dos extratos vegetais e do óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis Schauer sobre o fungo Monosporascus cannonballus Pollack e Uecker

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    Luciana Cristina Borges Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alecrim da Chapada (Lippia gracilis Schauer é considerada uma planta rica em óleo essencial e possui atividade antimicrobiana comprovada, devido aos monoterpenos fenólicos carvacrol e timol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito in vitro do óleo essencial e dos extratos etanólicos de raízes e folhas de L. gracilis no controle do fungo Monosporasccus cannonballus, causador do colapso do meloeiro. O extratos foram testados nas concentrações de 2500, 5000 e 7500 ppm e o óleo essencial de L. gracilis foi avaliado nas concentrações 255, 340 e 425 ppm tendo também um controle positivo com o fungicida comercial Captan(r e um negativo apenas com meio BDA (batata, dextrose, ágar. Discos de micélio com 3 mm de diâmetro foram inoculados no centro de placas de Petri e as medições do crescimento micelial do fungo foram realizadas 48 horas após a montagem do experimento. Verificou-se que o óleo essencial de L. gracilis nas três concentrações testadas foi eficiente para o controle do fungo, com percentuais de inibição de 100%, em comparação ao tratamento com o controle negativo (0% que não apresentou inibição. O extrato radicular, nas concentrações de 5000 e 7500 ppm e o extrato foliar na concentração de 7500 ppm também proporcionaram um percentual de inibição de 100%.

  8. Kosmische Myonen im L3-Detektor

    CERN Document Server

    Saidi, Rachid

    2000-01-01

    Durch die Untersuchung des Mondschattens in der primaren kosmischen Strahlung konnen Informationen uber die Winkelau osung des L3-Detektors gewonnen werden, sowie mit ausreichender Statistik das Verhaltnis von Antiprotonen zu Protonen fur Protonenergien um 1 TeV abgeschatzt werden. Die Bahn der Protonen vom Mond zur Erde wird durch folgende Eekte beein ut: Das Magnetfeld zwischen Mond und Erde lenkt die geladenen Teilchen ab. Fur 1 TeV Protonenenergie wurde ein Wert von 1:70 abgeschatzt. Die Mehrfachstreuung in der 30 m dicken Erdschicht uber L3 verursacht eine Winkelverschmierung von 3.5 mrad fur 100 GeV Myonen. Der Winkel zwischen Proton und den sekundaren Myonen, die durch Wechselwirkung von primaren Kernen mit den oberen Schichten der Atmosphare entstehen, betragt 3 mrad fur 100 GeV Myonen. Die berechnete Winkelau osung dieser Untersuchung fur den L3-Detektor mit verschiedenen Energien betragt einen Wert von 0:170 0:030 fur das starkste Myonschattensignal bei 150 GeV Myonenenergie. Dabei wurde fur den Mon...

  9. Produção de mudas de dois genótipos de alecrim-de-tabuleiro (Lippia gracilis Schauer em função de fertilizante mineral, calcário, substratos e recipientes Seedling production of two "alecrim-de-tabuleiro" (Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes under mineral fertilizer, limestone, substrates and containers

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    A.C.L Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia gracilis Schauer popularmente conhecida como alecrim-de-tabuleiro possui moderada atividade antibacteriana, antimicrobiana e antiséptica. Objetivando avaliar o efeito de doses de fertilizante mineral, calcário, substratos e recipientes na produção de mudas de dois genótipos de alecrim-de-tabuleiro realizou-se experimentos com estacas de dois genótipos de L. gracilis. No experimento 1, foram utilizadas estacas apicais distribuídas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células com o substrato pó-de-coco + areia (1:1, três repetições e oito estacas por repetição. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo quatro doses do fertilizante (6-24-12+micronutrientes (1, 2, 3 e 4 g L-1, duas doses de calcário (0 e 1 g L-1 e dois genótipos (LGRA106 e LGRA201. Aos 35 após plantio, foram avaliadas a sobrevivência (%, enraizamento (%, comprimento de raiz (cm e massa seca de raiz (mg. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas três repetições com oito estacas por repetição. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas onde foram testados nas parcelas dois recipientes (bandeja de poliestireno expandido de 128 alvéolos e tubetes de 110 cm³, na sub parcela foram testadas as combinações de quatro substratos (PC - pó de coco; PCA (1:1 - pó de coco + areia (1:1; PCA (2:1 - pó de coco + areia (2:1 e PCA (3:1 - pó de coco + areia (3:1 e dois genótipos (LGRA106 e LGRA201. Aos 35 dias após o plantio foram analisadas as mesmas variáveis do experimento 1, além de altura de parte aérea (cm e massa seca de parte aérea (mg. A utilização de 1 g L-1 do fertilizante na ausência de calcário foi efetivo para sobrevivência de plantas e enraizamento de estacas de alecrim-de-tabuleiro. Com base nesses experimentos, concluiu-se que o genótipo LGRA106 é superior ao LGRA201 nas variáveis analisadas e recomenda-se a bandeja de poliestireno expandido para

  10. Impact of edible chitosan-cassava starch coatings enriched with Lippia gracilis Schauer genotype mixtures on the shelf life of guavas (Psidium guajava L.) during storage at room temperature.

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    de Aquino, Alana Bezerra; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Santana, Luciana Cristina Lins de Aquino

    2015-03-15

    The effect of edible chitosan-cassava starch (CH-CS) coatings containing a mixture of Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes (EOM) on the shelf life of guavas during storage at room temperature for 10 days was studied. Sixteen formulations were prepared with a range of chitosan and essential oil mixtures concentrations, and the in vitro antimicrobial activity was tested. Formulations containing 2.0% cassava starch, 2.0% chitosan and 1.0%, 2.0% or 3.0% EOM were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the majority of bacteria. The edible CH-CS coating and CH-CS with 1.0% (CH-CS-EOM1) or 3.0% EOM (CH-CS-EOM3) were added to guavas and the shelf life was evaluated. On the tenth day of storage, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and mould and yeast counts were statistically lower (p<0.05) in the CH-CS-EOM1- or CH-CS-EOM3-coated fruits than CH-CS-coated fruits. In addition, fruits coated with CH-CS or CH-CS-EOM showed no significant changes of total soluble solids content, while CH-CS-EOM-coated fruits showed lower titratable acidity than CH-CS-coated fruits at the end of storage. CH-CS-EOM3-coated guavas showed lower a(∗) and b(∗) values and higher L(∗) and hue values than those with other coatings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural background radiation at flight altitudes; Natuerliche Strahlenexposition in Flughoehen durch kosmische Strahlung

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    Wissmann, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). FB Ionenbeschleuniger und Referenzstrahlungsfelder

    2006-12-15

    At sea level, the background radiation of about 40 nSv/h consists of about 80 percent of muons and electrons and about 0 percent of neutrons. The picture is different at an altitude of 10 km. Here, the background dose equivalent of about 5000 nSv/h (= 5 {mu}Sv/h) consists of about 60 percent of neutrons and about 25 percent of muons and electrons. Protons account for about 15 percent. This particle composition makes dosimetric measurements difficult. In addition, the energy emitted by the particles is far beyond the the measuring range of conventional radiation protection dosemeters. For these reasons, conventional dosemeters are not suited for applications in aeroplanes and such. The PTB method for measuring local dose rates uses a proportional counter whose wall consists of a tissue equivalent material and which is operated with tissue equivalent counting gas at very low pressure (about 40 hPa). (orig.)

  12. Star-Forming Galaxies at the Cosmic Dawn = Stervormende sterrenstelsels tijdens het kosmische ochtendgloren

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    Smit, Renske

    2015-01-01

    The question of how the first stars formed and assembled into galaxies lies at the frontier of modern astrophysics. The study of these first sources of cosmic illumination was transformed by the installation of new instrumentation aboard the Hubble Space Telescope during one of the final Space

  13. Measurement of secondary cosmic radiation and calculation of associated dose conversion coefficients for humans; Messung sekundaerer kosmischer Strahlung und Berechnung der zugehoerigen Dosiskonversionskoeffizienten fuer den Menschen

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    Simmer, Gregor

    2012-04-11

    Due to secondary cosmic radiation (SCR), pilots and flight attendants receive elevated effective doses at flight altitudes. For this reason, since 2003 aircrew members are considered as occupationally exposed, in Germany. This work deals with the calculation of dose conversion coefficients (DCC) for protons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, photons and myons, which are crucial for estimation of effective dose from SCR. For the first time, calculations were performed combining Geant4 - a Monte Carlo code developed at CERN - with the voxel phantoms for the reference female and male published in 2008 by ICRP and ICRU. Furthermore, measurements of neutron fluence spectra - which contribute the major part to the effective dose of SCR - were carried out at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) located at 2650 m above sea level nearby the Zugspitze mountain, Germany. These measured neutron spectra, and additionally available calculated spectra, were then folded with the DCC calculated in this work, and effective dose rates for different heights were calculated.

  14. Effects of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer on caulinary shoots of heliconia cultivated in vitro Efeito do óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis Schauer sobre ápices caulinares de heliconia cultivadas in vitro

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    C.C. Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thymol and carvacrol and the essential oil of Lippia gracilis on caulinary shoots of heliconia were evaluated. After disinfection, the shoots were inoculated into MS medium and subjected to the treatments with 420 µL L-1 of essential oil (EO of L. gracilis; 420 µL L-1 of thymol; 420 µL L-1 of carvacrol; 210 µL L-1 of thymol and 210 µL L-1 of carvacrol. The control treatment consisted of the MS medium without any phytoregulators. The main components of EO from L. gracilis are carvacrol, ρ-cimene, and thymol. Seven days after the initiation of the experiments, 36.3% of the control treatment shoots were necrotized, but 90% of the caulinary shoots exposed to EO, thymol, or carvacrol appeared necrotized. Transmission electron microscopy of the shoots revealed that the treatment with EO, thymol, or carvacrol caused the destruction of the plasma cell membranes, and the cell organelles and the nucleus were hardly evident. The EO and its main constituent were toxic to caulinary shoots of heliconia.O efeito do timol, carvacrol e óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis foi observado sobre ápices caulinares de heliconia. Após a desinfestação os ápices foram inoculados em meio MS com os tratamentos de 420 µL L-1 do óleo essencial (OE de L. gracilis; 420 µL L-1 de timol; 420 µL L-1 de carvacrol; 210 µg L-1 de timol e 210 µL L-1 de carvacrol. O tratamento controle consistiu de meio MS sem fitorreguladores. Os principais componentes do OE foram carvacrol, ρ-cimeno e timol. Sete dias após o início do experimento 36,3% dos ápices submetidos ao tratamento controle e 90% dos ápices caulinares expostos ao EO, timol ou carvacrol necrosaram. A microscopia eletrônica de transmissão dos ápices caulinares revelou que os tratamentos com OE, timol e carvacrol provocaram desestruturação da membrana plasmática das células. As organelas e o núcleo não estavam evidentes. O OE e seus principais constituintes foram tóxico para os ápices caulinares de helicônias.

  15. Ecologia da polinização de Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart. Schauer (Lamiaceae em Petrolina, PE, Brasil Pollination ecology of Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart. Schauer (Lamiaceae in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Carla Tatiana de Vasconcelos Dias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Raphiodon echinus é uma espécie de hábito rasteiro, que ocorre espontaneamente em áreas de caatinga. No presente trabalho foram observados a biologia reprodutiva desta espécie com o objetivo de contribuir com informações sobre sua ecologia da polinização. As observações foram feitas em áreas de caatinga da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina, PE. Para os experimentos de autopolinização espontânea, autopolinização manual, apomixia, geitonogamia, xenogamia, botões foram ensacados, emasculados e polinizados, quando necessário. Flores foram marcadas para estimar a polinização em condições naturais. Os visitantes florais foram observados das 7h30 min às 16h00, totalizando 45 horas de observações. As flores de R. echinus são infundibuliformes, de coloração violeta, exalam odor adocicado e estão reunidas em glomérulos. A antese é diurna, assincrônica, sendo mais freqüente no período da manhã, por volta das 07h00. A duração das flores é de aproximadamente 10 horas e cada inflorescência apresenta número variado de flores/dia. As flores são visitadas por abelhas e borboletas. Centris hyptidis foi responsável por 26% do total das visitas e, de acordo com o comportamento e freqüência de visitas, foi considerada como polinizador efetivo desta espécie. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, R. echinus é autógama facultativa, produzindo frutos por autopolinização manual (70%, geitonogamia (63% e xenogamia (40%.Raphiodon echinus is a prostrate weedy species that occurs in the Caatinga. In this work, floral biology and reproductive system were observed in order to understand the pollination ecology of this species. Observations were made at Embrapa Semi-Árido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco. For the self-pollination, apomixis, geitonogamy and xenogamy experiments, buds were protected, emasculated, and pollinated when necessary. Flowers were tagged to estimate pollination success under natural conditions. Floral visitors were observed on different days from 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., for a total of 45 hours. The violet flowers of R. echinus are infundibuliform and give off a sweet scent; they are grouped in long-pedunculate spherical heads. Anthesis is diurnal and is more frequent in the morning around 7:00 a.m. Flowers last for about ten hours and the number of flowers that open daily on each inflorescence varies. The flowers are visited by bees and butterflies. Centris hyptidis was responsible for 26% of total visits. Based on behavior and frequency of visits, this bee was considered to be the effective pollinator of R. echinus. As regards the reproductive system, R. echinus is self-compatible and produces fruits by manual self-pollination (70%, geitonogamy (63% and xenogamy (40%.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and Modulatory Effect of Essential Oil from the Leaf of Rhaphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart) Schauer on Some Antimicrobial Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Antonia Eliene; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Bezerra Morais Braga, Maria Flaviana; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Pessoa da Silva, Maria Arlene; Boligon, Aline; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Escobar Burger, Marilise

    2016-06-08

    Rhaphiodon echinus is a weed plant used in the Brazilian folk medicinal for the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, the essential oil of R. echinus leaf was investigated for its antimicrobial properties. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were characterized by GC-MS. The antimicrobial properties were determined by studying by the microdilution method the effect of the oil alone, and in combination with antifungal or antibiotic drugs against the fungi Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis and the microbes Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. In addition, the iron (II) chelation potential of the oil was determined. The results showed the presence of β-caryophyllene and bicyclogermacrene in major compounds, and revealed a low antifungal and antibacterial activity of the essential oil, but a strong modulatory effect on antimicrobial drugs when associated with the oil. The essential oil showed iron (II) chelation activity. The GC-MS characterization revealed the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the essential oil and metal chelation potential, which may be responsible in part for the modulatory effect of the oil. These findings suggest that essential oil of R. echinus is a natural product capable of enhancing the antibacterial and antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs.

  17. Calibration measurements and systematic studies on the detection of cosmic particles in the IceTop tank; Eichmessungen und systematische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis kosmischer Teilchen im IceTop-Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Christian

    2012-05-15

    IceCube is an 1 km{sup 3} large observatory at the south pole. It consists of the surface detector IceTop and the underground detector In-Ice. By the detection of Cherenkov Radiation iceCube tries to determine the sources of cosmic radiation and cosmic neutrinos. IceTop possesses a large number of IceTop tanks (ITT), which are filled with ice. In these tanks the Cherenkov radiation of the cosmic radiation can be detected with so-called digital optical modules. By this it is possible to determine the chemical composition of the cosmic radiation. Simultaneously this surface detector serves also as veto for the In-Ice detector. In this bachelor thesis the charge spectra in the ITT at DESY were studied under regardment of the electromagnetic, hadronic, and muonic component. Additionally in cooperation with 6 1 m{sup 2} large scintillator planes by different coincidence conditions a direction selection of the cosmic radiation could be performed. By this the positions of the muon peaks could be considered for different conditions.

  18. Analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from Lippia lacunosa Mart. and Schauer and Lippia rotundifolia Cham. (Verbenaceae) by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, Suzana G.; Barbosa, Ymira Galico; Viccini, Lyderson F.; Salimena, Fatima R.G.; Peixoto, Paulo H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Lippia lacunosa and L. rotundifolia (Verbenaceae) are two Brazilian species of complex taxonomic delimitation. The composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of these plants was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major components of the essential oils of flowers and leaves of L. lacunosa were: myrcene (14.7% and 11.9%), myrcenone (45.2% and 64.2%), Z-ocimenone (5.7% and 5.2%), and E-ocimenone (14.7% and 4.1%), respectively; whereas in L. rotundifolia (flowers and leaves) were ..-pinene (8.7% and 1.8%), myrcene (5.1% and 3.6%), limonene (26.0% and 7.9 %), cis-pinocamphone (4.5% and 3.1%) and myrtenal (22.3% and 16.7%), respectively. The essential oils from L. lacunosa exhibited a strong and pleasant mango aroma, which was related to the presence of myrcene and myrcenone. The marked differences in the chemical composition of their essential oils may represent a powerful tool for the botanical classification. (author)

  19. Analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from Lippia lacunosa Mart. and Schauer and Lippia rotundifolia Cham. (Verbenaceae) by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Suzana G.; Barbosa, Ymira Galico [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Danilo R. de; Leitao, Gilda G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: sgleitao@pharma.ufrj.br; Suelsen, Valeria; Martino, Virginia [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Lopes, Daise [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Viccini, Lyderson F.; Salimena, Fatima R.G.; Peixoto, Paulo H.P. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biolgicas

    2008-07-01

    Lippia lacunosa and L. rotundifolia (Verbenaceae) are two Brazilian species of complex taxonomic delimitation. The composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of these plants was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major components of the essential oils of flowers and leaves of L. lacunosa were: myrcene (14.7% and 11.9%), myrcenone (45.2% and 64.2%), Z-ocimenone (5.7% and 5.2%), and E-ocimenone (14.7% and 4.1%), respectively; whereas in L. rotundifolia (flowers and leaves) were ..-pinene (8.7% and 1.8%), myrcene (5.1% and 3.6%), limonene (26.0% and 7.9 %), cis-pinocamphone (4.5% and 3.1%) and myrtenal (22.3% and 16.7%), respectively. The essential oils from L. lacunosa exhibited a strong and pleasant mango aroma, which was related to the presence of myrcene and myrcenone. The marked differences in the chemical composition of their essential oils may represent a powerful tool for the botanical classification. (author)

  20. Study of CeO{sub x}, PrO{sub x}, and Ce{sub x}Pr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-{delta}} films on Si(111) by means of high-energetic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Untersuchung von CeO{sub x}-, PrO{sub x}- und Ce{sub x}Pr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-{delta}}- Filmen auf Si (111) mittels hochenergetischer Roentgen-Photoelektronenspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahgholi, Aschkan

    2013-03-15

    The intention of this work is to shed light on two much discussed topics in the study of rare earth oxides (REO) by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES): (i) Due to the complex spectral shape of the Ce3d region, there have been many discussions on proper approaches to determine the concentration of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} species in CeO{sub x} over the last decades. (ii) Recently, the true electron structure of rare earth oxides gained new attention, since ab initio calculations showed the necessity of considering additional inter atomic charge transfer to Ce5d levels. Using HAXPES and resonant HAXPES, the question of the true electronic structure of rare earth oxides is approached from the experimental side. As a third topic, the obtained results for cerium oxide and praseodymium oxide are applied in order to investigate the plasma oxidized mixed oxide Ce{sub x}Pr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-{delta}} grown on Si(111) during thermal reduction. (orig.)

  1. Neue Laser und Strahlquellen - alte und neue Risiken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Uwe; Schwandt, Antje; Seeber, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    Die Entwicklungen im Bereich dermatologischer Laser, hochenergetischer Blitzlampen, LED und neuer Energie- und Strahlquellen der letzten Jahre haben gezeigt, dass mit neuen Wellenlängen, Konzepten und Kombinationen zusätzliche, zum Teil über den ästhetischen Bereich hinaus gehende therapeutische ...

  2. Symmetriebrechung und Emergenz in der Kosmologie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, K.

    Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen und regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung und strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie und Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.

  3. Etika vědy a otázky národa v kontextu působení H. G. Schauera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drozenová, Wendy; Kučírek, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, 3-4 (2009), s. 435-450 ISSN 1211-7617 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Czech traditions of ethics of science * H. G. Schauer * T. G. Masaryk Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. African Health Sciences - Vol 4, No 2 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder amongst Sudanese nationals, refugees and Ugandans in the West Nile · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Unni Krishnan Karunakara, Frank Neuner, Margarete Schauer, Kavita Singh, ...

  5. Oregano powder substitution and shelf life in pork chorizo using Mexican oregano essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) from Mexican oregano, Lippia berlandieri Schauer, as a substitute for oregano powder on pork chorizo physicochemical characteristics, texture, antioxidant capacity, aerobic bacteria colony counts, and sensory evaluation ...

  6. and middle- income countries: a meta-analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria, with a total of 3,010 participants. ...... Ito LM, de Araujo LA, Tess VLC, de Barros-Neto TP, Asbahr FR, Marks I. ... Revista. Brasilileira de Psiquiatria 2004;26(2):77-81. 47. Neuner F, Schauer ...

  7. Extrakorporale Stoßwellentherapie (ESWT aus orthopädischer und traumatologischer Sicht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auersperg V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Die ESWT ist eine derzeit sehr intensiv erforschte Therapieform und im Vergleich mit anderen Therapien auch durchaus hohen EBM-Kriterien entsprechend. Die Wirkungsweise der ESWT ist bis heute nicht ganz geklärt, aus den bisher durchgeführten Untersuchungen (meist Tierversuche lassen sich folgende Wirkungen unterscheiden: ● Zerreißungen (Steindesintegration, Knochenfissuren, Gewebszerreißung ● Kavitation (mit Bildung von Jet streams und freien Radikalen ● Thermische und chemische Effekte ● Molekularbiologische und zelluläre Veränderungen ● Hyperstimulationsanalgesie (gate-control-Mechanismus Diese Wirkungen rufen sehr komplexe Veränderungen im Gewebe hervor, die beispielsweise zur Knochenneubildung führen, aber auch Neoangiogenese und Nervenveränderungen, die beim Verständnis der Effekte der ESWT an den Weichteil-Indikationen durchaus auch Erklärungshilfen sind. Die meisten, bisher veröffentlichten, klinischen Studien haben biometrische Mängel und ihre Ergebnisse sind sehr kontrovers. Die angeführten Indikationen sind die am meisten erforschten und sollen hier bewertet werden. Da für weitere Indikationen die Studien-Daten so spärlich sind, werden sie hier nicht diskutiert. Die Indikationen mit statistisch signifikant guten Behandlungsergebnissen sind: ● Die Tendinitis calcarea (mit niedrigenergetischer und hochenergetischer ESWT ● Die Fasciitis plantaris mit und ohne plantarem Fersensporn (mit niedrigenergetischer und hochenergetischer ESWT ● Die Epicondylitis humeri lateralis (mit niedrigenergetischer und hochenergetischer ESWT ● Verzögerte Knochenbruchheilung (mit hochenergetischer ESWT ● Pseudoarthrosen (mit hochenergetischer ESWT Für die Durchführung, die Anzahl der Impulse und die Intervallänge zwischen den ESWT-Sitzungen läßt sich keine Regel ableiten, dies wird sich vernünftigerweise hauptsächlich an den lokalen Gegebenheiten orientieren. Die bisher (als Richtlinie der ISMST von 2000 → http

  8. Reversing the trend toward failure/Revirtiendo la tendencia al fracaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Schauer (Estados Unidos de América

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve a problem or reverse a trend, the researcher must first identify the problem, and then suggest solutions or resolutions for that problem so as to offer hope for the future. From all indications, African American students are lagging behind in college education. Of those who do come to college, a troubling percentage do not persevere to graduation. Among those most at risk for failure to succeed in college are African American males. On the average, Black males in America appear to be in deep trouble: For example, many more college aged Black men are in prison than are enrolled in higher education. A Justice Policy study in 2000 (Associated Press, March 28, 2006 reported that fewer African American men were in higher education (603,000 than were in prison and jail (791,600; and the rate continues to diverge (Schauer & Schauer, 2006 & 2007a. This debilitating trend must be reversed and one available alternative is to support those who choose education. Therefore, it would seem to make sense that once these young people are in college, every effort should be made to keep them there. By studying some of the correlates of Black male success, it is hoped that more African American men can be aided toward attaining college degrees and greater career mobility through interventions more accurately focused upon meeting their precise needs (Schauer & Schauer, 2007a. Con el fin de resolver un problema o revertir una tendencia, el investigador debe primero identificar el problema y luego sugerir soluciones o resoluciones para ese problema con el fin de ofrecer esperanzas para el futuro. De todas las indicaciones, los estudiantes afroamericanos están quedando rezagados en la educación universitaria. De los que llegan a la Universidad, un porcentaje preocupante no perseverar a la graduación. Entre quienes más en riesgo por la falta de éxito en la Universidad están los hombres afroamericanos. En promedio, los varones negros en Estados

  9. Plasma Assisted Combustion: Flame Regimes and Kinetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Schauer, Yiguang Ju, Schlieren Imaging and Pulsed Detonation Engine Testing of Ignition by a Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharge , submitted to...diffusional cool flames • A heated counterflow burner integrated with vaporization system1 • n-heptane/nitrogen vs. oxygen/ ozone • Ozone generator...micro-DBD) produces 2- 5 % of ozone in oxygen stream, depending on oxygen flow rate • Speciation profiles by using a micro-probe sampling with a

  10. Methylobacteria isolated from bryophytes and the 2-fold description of the same microbial species

    OpenAIRE

    Schauer, S.; Kutschera, U.

    2013-01-01

    On the surface of healthy land plants (embryophytes), numerous non-pathogenic bacteria have been discovered and described. Among these epiphytic microbes, pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic microbes of the genus Methylobacterium are of special significance, because these microorganisms consume methanol emitted via the stomatal pores and secrete growth-promoting phytohormones. Methylobacterium funariae, Schauer and Kutschera 2011, a species isolated in our lab from the common cord moss,...

  11. Rotating Detonation Engine Research at NRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Bykovskii, Wolanski, Falempin, Hayashi, Schauer, Yi, Wang, Brophy, Wu, Clafin, Smith, Tsuboi, Frolov, et al.) Recant RDE Studies at NRL Flow-field...Symposium) Injection/inflow effects (JPC 2011~044; ASM 2012-0617, ASM 2013-1178) the expansion region change RDE performance. Can this model be...Efficient Complex Configuration Simulation Capability 158 BASELINE SOLUTION • Basetine configUration Stoichiometric hydrogen-air RDE of Wolanski

  12. Bariatric Outcomes and Obesity Modeling: Study Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA...developed a cost-effectiveness model and a payer-based budget and fiscal impact tool to compare bariatric surgical procedures to non- operative ...SURVIVAL MODELED FROM NHIS -NDI • Statistical analysis adapts the methods from Schauer 2010. • Logistic regression model is used to predict the 5-year

  13. Isotrope und homogene Materie - Kosmen; On Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Isotropic Matter-Universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, H.-J.

    Die Dynamik und Thermodynamik großer kosmischer Systeme ist fast unabhängig von den besonderen Theorien über die Gravitation. Nur die Feinstruktur der Kosmologie und Kosmonogie reflektiert die speziellen Hypothesen. Diese Neutralität gegenüber den konkreten Gravodynamiken ist die Konsequenz der fundamentalen Eigenschaften der Gravitation: Der Prinzipien der Äquivalenz von Trägheit und Schwere. The dynamics and thermodynamics of great cosmical systems are nearly independent of the theory of gravitation and only the fine-structure of cosmogony and cosmology reflects the special hypotheses.The neutrality against the concret gravodynamics is a consequence of the fundamental properties of gravitation: the principlies of equivalence of gravity and inertia.

  14. Supersonic Jet Studies of Benzyl Alcohols: Minimum Energy Conformations and Torsional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-13

    New York: 1980. (46) Bernstein, E. R.; Law, K.; Schauer, M. J. Chem. Phys. 1984, 80, 207. (47) Hanzlik , R. P.; Schaefer , A. R.; Moon , J. B.; Judson , C...M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987 , 109 , 4926 . -32- Table I. Conformations of substituted benzenes as established by laser jet spectroscopy. jY x 1 ortho T...Chem. Soc. 1987 , 109 , 3453. -29- (11) Breen, P. J.; Bernstein, E. R.; Seeman, J. I. J. Chem, Phys. 1987 , 87, 3269. (12) Breen, P. J.; Warren, J. A

  15. Zum Erleben von Thrills und anderen starken emotionalen Reaktionen beim Musikhören

    OpenAIRE

    Schönberger, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Obwohl unbestritten ist, dass Musik in der Lage ist, starke emotionale Reaktionen auszulösen, hat sich die Musikpsychologie wenig mit den Emotionen beschäftigt, die Menschen beim Musikhören erleben. Zwei mögliche Zugänge zum Erfassen solch starker emotionaler Reaktionen sind die Ansätze von John A. Sloboda und Alf Gabrielsson. Sloboda nutzt für seinen Ansatz das Phänomen der "Thrills" — physiologische Begleiterscheinungen starker emotionaler Reaktionen wie z.B. Gänsehaut, Schauer, die ü...

  16. Jogando com os precedentes: regras, analogias, princípios Playing with precedents: rules, analogies, principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moreira Maués

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa decisões recentes do STF envolvendo a aplicação de súmulas vinculantes à luz de três concepções de precedentes, desenvolvidas por F. Schauer (precedentes como regras, C. Sunstein (precedentes como analogias e R. Dworkin (precedentes como princípios. Após a exposição dos principais aspectos de cada uma dessas teorias baseadas, respectivamente, nos conceitos de generalizações enraizadas, acordos teóricos incompletos e romance em cadeia, e discute os fundamentos que elas podem oferecer para o uso de precedentes no direito brasileiro.This article analyses the use of binding precedents by the Brazilian Supreme Court in the light of three conceptions of precedents, which are developed by F. Schauer (precedents as rules, C. Sunstein (precedents as analogies and R. Dworkin (precedents as principles. After the exposition of the main aspects of each theory, based respectively on the concepts of entrenched generalizations, incompletely theorized agreements and chain novel, the article debates the arguments that they can provide for the use of precedents in Brazilian law.

  17. Two- and three-particle azimuthal correlations of high-p{sub t} charged hadrons in Pb+Au collisons at 158 GeV per nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniege, Stefan

    2009-07-14

    An essential goal of physics with heavy ions is the study of the state of nuclear matter at high densities respectively temperatures. Such states can be generated and studied by collisions of high-energetic heavy ions in particle accelerators like the Super Proton Synchrotron SPS at the European nuclear research center CERN in Geneve. The present thesis deals with the analysis of the influence of the medium generated in such a collision on high-energetic particles, which pass this medium. For this correlations between particles with high transverse momentum p{sub t} as function of the centrality of the collisions and the charge of the contributing particles are studied. Aim is to establish an experimental base for the theoretical description of the properties of the medium in such collisions. [German] Ein wesentliches Ziel der Physik mit schweren Ionen ist die Untersuchung der Zustaende von Kernmaterie bei hohen Dichten bzw. Temperaturen. Solche Zustaende lassen sich durch Kollisionen von hochenergetischen schweren Ionen in Teilchenbeschleunigern wie dem Super Proton Synchrotron SPS am Europaeischen Kernforschungszentrum CERN in Genf erzeugen und untersuchen. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Analyse des Einflusses des in einer solchen Kollision erzeugten Mediums auf hochenergetische Teilchen, welche dieses Medium durchqueren. Hierzu werden Korrelationen zwischen Teilchen mit hohem Transversalimpuls p{sub t} als Funktion der Zentralitaet der Kollisionen und der Ladung der beteiligten Teilchen untersucht. Ziel ist es, hierdurch eine experimentelle Grundlage fuer die theoretische Beschreibung der Eigenschaften des Mediums in solchen Kollisionen bereitzustellen. (orig.)

  18. Radiation dosimetry of an accidental overexposure using EPR spectrometry and imaging of human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Desrosiers, M.F.; Kuppusamy, P.; Zweier, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    On 11 December 1991 a radiation accident occurred at an industrial accelerator facility. 'A description of the facility and details of the accident are reported in Schauer et al., 1993a)'?. In brief, during maintenance on the lower window pressure plate of a 3 MV potential drop accelerator, an operator placed his hands, head, and feet in the radiation beam. The filament voltage of the electron source was turned ''off'', but the full accelerating potential was on the high voltage terminal. The operator's body, especially his extremities and head, were exposed to electron dark current. At approx. 3 months post-irradiation, the four digits of the victim's right hand and most of the four digits of his left hand were amputated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry was used to estimate the radiation dose to the victim's extremities. Extremity dose estimates ranged from 55.0 Gy (±4.7 Gy) to 108 Gy (±24.1 Gy). (Author)

  19. The Ethics of User Experience Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa

    Design has in recent years been an increasing area in focus when developing digital interactive systems and services (Kolko 2010). Given the specific nature of material involved in designing digital media as ‘the material without qualities’ (Lowgreen & Stolterman 2007), and namely its total lack...... that the chosen point-of-view corresponds with the users, and thus ensures that the designed user experience actually is preferable for the user (Schauer & Merholz 2009). However, there has been a lack of discussions surrounding the ethical dimension of creating and maintaining an empathic point......-centered design process. Exemplifying the differences and ethical implications for the designer in the interaction with the user through the design of interactive digital systems. Finally the article discusses the need to understand design as a development of empathy for a given user or group of users by giving...

  20. The Ethics of User Experience Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa

    2013-01-01

    Design has in recent years been an increasing area in focus when developing digital interactive systems and services (Kolko 2010). Given the specific nature of material involved in designing digital media as ‘the material without qualities’ (Lowgreen & Stolterman 2007), and namely its total lack...... that the chosen point-of-view corresponds with the users, and thus ensures that the designed user experience actually is preferable for the user (Schauer & Merholz 2009). However, there has been a lack of discussions surrounding the ethical dimension of creating and maintaining an empathic point......-centered design process. Exemplifying the differences and ethical implications for the designer in the interaction with the user through the design of interactive digital systems. Finally the article discusses the need to understand design as a development of empathy for a given user or group of users by giving...

  1. Private is Public?! Der Umgang von 14- bis 18-Jährigen mit Sozialen Medien. - Eine explorativ-empirische Untersuchung im gymnasialen Kontext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Filk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Die explorative Studie „Private is Public?!“ fokussiert sich auf das Mediennutzungsverhalten von 14- bis 18-jährigen Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Schwerpunkt soziale Medien. Das Forscherteam führte seine empirische Untersuchung am Mons-Tabor-Gymnasium im ländlich gelegenen Montabaur, Rheinland-Pfalz (Deutschland durch. Gestützt auf Forschungshypothesen erhoben Christian Filk, Hanno Schauer und Amina Ovcina Cajacob mit Hilfe des Instruments der schriftlichen Befragung aktuelle Trends zu Frequenz und Intensität der Nutzung sozialer Medien, zur zweckbezogenen Nutzung sozialer Medien, zu Informationsverhaltensschemata in sozialen Medien sowie zu Erfahrungen mit Cyber-Mobbing. Die gewonnenen Daten werden mittels deskriptiv-statistischer Analysen ausgewertet. Schliesslich diskutieren Verfasser und Verfasserin den innovativen Einsatz privater sozialer Medien für den Unterricht in öffentlichen Schulen. The explorative study “Private is Public?!” focuses on the use of media of 14- to 18-years-old students with a special focus on social media. The research team conducted its empirical investigation at Mons Tabor High School in the rural area of Montabaur, Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany. Based on research hypothesis Christian Filk, Hanno Schauer and Amina Ovcina Cajacob are using written surveys in order to identify current trends in frequency and intensity of performing social media, purpose-oriented use of social media, information-seeking behavior patterns in social media, and last but not least experiences with cyber-bullying. The collected data are evaluated by using descriptive statistical analysis. Finally, the authors discuss the innovative use of private social media for teaching in public schools.

  2. Acute diagnosis of spinal trauma; Akutdiagnostik des Wirbelsaeulentraumas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, M.; Mallouhi, A.; Jaschke, W. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Innsbruck (Austria); El Attal, R.; Kathrein, A.; Knop, C.; Blauth, M. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2006-06-15

    Most traumatic spinal injuries result from a high-energy process and are accompanied by other injuries. Following the CCSPR study, the presence of all low-risk factors (simple trauma mechanism, fully conscious, ambulatory at any time since trauma, neck rotation exceeding 45 bilaterally) obviates the need to acutely image the cervical spine. Imaging is indicated in all other patients. Emergency spiral CT should be performed as the first imaging method in high-risk and moderate-risk patients; only in low-risk patients should conventional radiography be performed and trusted as the sole modality. The AO classification according to Magerl et al. is used for the subaxial spine, whereas the upper cervical spine should be classified separately because the anatomy is different at each level. Radiological evaluation of traumatic spinal injuries should be done systematically using the ''ABCS'' scheme. (orig.) [German] Wirbelsaeulentraumen entstehen zumeist infolge hochenergetischer Mechanismen und sind haeufig von weiteren Verletzungen begleitet. Auf eine Diagnostik der Wirbelsaeule kann laut CCSPR-Studie nur dann verzichtet werden, wenn alle Niedrigrisikofaktoren (bewusstseinsklar, gehfaehig, ausreichender Bewegungsumfang, einfacher Unfallmechanismus) erfuellt sind. Alle anderen Patienten muessen radiologisch abgeklaert werden. Dabei sollten Patienten mit einer hohen und mittleren Verletzungswahrscheinlichkeit primaer computertomographisch untersucht werden, nur bei einer geringen Verletzungswahrscheinlichkeit kann der konventionellen Diagnostik vertraut werden. Die Frakturen der subaxialen Wirbelsaeule werden nach der Magerl-AO-Klassifikation eingeteilt, wohingegen fuer die obere HWS separate Einteilungen angewandt werden. Die radiologische Beurteilung des Wirbelsaeulentraumas sollte systematisch anhand des ''ABCS''-Schemas erfolgen. (orig.)

  3. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  4. Residual stresses in microwave sintered Ni/8Y-ZrO{sub 2} and NiCr8020/8Y-ZrO{sub 2} gradient materials; Eigenspannungen in mikrowellengesinterten Ni/8Y-ZrO{sub 2} und NiCr8020/8Y-ZrO{sub 2} Gradientenwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantz, D.

    2000-07-01

    Untersuchung der Eigenspannungsverteilung im Inneren der Sinterkoerper kam ein energiedispersives Verfahren mit sehr hoher Ortsaufloesung unter der Nutzung hochenergetischer Synchrotronstrahlung zum Einsatz, so dass selbst die Eigenspannungsverteilung in einer homogen zusammengesetzten Einzelschicht eines gradierten Verbundsystems ermittelt werden konnte. Begleitend wurden Linienprofilanalysen durchgefuehrt und fuer die Untersuchungen des Gefueges licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Verfahren eingesetzt. (orig.)

  5. Prehospital Interventions During Mass-Casualty Events in Afghanistan: A Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; April, Michael D; Simon, Erica; Maddry, Joseph K; Carter, Robert; Delorenzo, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    Mass-casualty (MASCAL) events are known to occur in the combat setting. There are very limited data at this time from the Joint Theater (Iraq and Afghanistan) wars specific to MASCAL events. The purpose of this report was to provide preliminary data for the development of prehospital planning and guidelines. Cases were identified using the Department of Defense (DoD; Virginia USA) Trauma Registry (DoDTR) and the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR). These cases were identified as part of a research study evaluating Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines. Cases that were designated as or associated with denoted MASCAL events were included. Data Fifty subjects were identified during the course of this project. Explosives were the most common cause of injuries. There was a wide range of vital signs. Tourniquet placement and pressure dressings were the most common interventions, followed by analgesia administration. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) was the most common parenteral analgesic drug administered. Most were evacuated as "routine." Follow-up data were available for 36 of the subjects and 97% were discharged alive. The most common prehospital interventions were tourniquet and pressure dressing hemorrhage control, along with pain medication administration. Larger data sets are needed to guide development of MASCAL in-theater clinical practice guidelines. Schauer SG , April MD , Simon E , Maddry JK , Carter R III , Delorenzo RA . Prehospital interventions during mass-casualty events in Afghanistan: a case analysis. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):465-468.

  6. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  7. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, S S; Bomfim, R R; Jesus, H C R; Alves, P B; Blank, A F; Estevam, C S; Antoniolli, A R; Thomazzi, S M

    2010-06-16

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of essential oil (EO) of Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae) leaves to support the medicinal uses claimed by folklore practitioners in the caatinga region (semi-arid) of Northeastern Brazil. The chemical composition and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the EO of Lippia gracilis leaves (50-200 mg/kg) were investigated. Antinociceptive activity of the EO was evaluated by writhing test. Anti-inflammatory activity of the EO was evaluated using paw oedema and peritonitis methods. Oral treatment with the EO of Lippia gracilis leaves elicited inhibitory activity on acetic acid effect at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (30.33+/-2.36, 25.20+/-1.48, and 21.00+/-1.54 abdominal writhes, respectively, Pleaves at 200 mg/kg (0.72+/-0.06 mL h, Pleaves at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (13.81+/-0.61, 11.77+/-0.91, and 10.30+/-0.60 leukocytes x 10(6)/mL, respectively, Pessential oil allowed the identification of Lippia gracilis as a thymol-p-cymene chemotype (32.68% and 17.82%, respectively). The EO of Lippia gracilis leaves shows antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Noleto Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  9. Methylobacteria isolated from bryophytes and the 2-fold description of the same microbial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, S; Kutschera, U

    2013-02-01

    On the surface of healthy land plants (embryophytes), numerous non-pathogenic bacteria have been discovered and described. Among these epiphytic microbes, pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic microbes of the genus Methylobacterium are of special significance, because these microorganisms consume methanol emitted via the stomatal pores and secrete growth-promoting phytohormones. Methylobacterium funariae, Schauer and Kutschera 2011, a species isolated in our lab from the common cord moss, described as a nova species in this journal, was recently characterized for a second time as a "new taxon" under a different name, "M. bullatum." Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show that these taxa are identical. In addition, we provide novel information on the exact cell size, and describe the correct type locality of this bacterial species, which was classified as a phytosymbiont. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that certain methylobacteria may preferentially colonize bryophytes. With reference to our recent discovery that thalli of ferns form, like liverworts and moss protonemata, associations with methylobacteria, we argue that the haploid phase of cryptogames are preferred host organisms of these pink-pigmented microbial phytosymbionts.

  10. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Individual and Combined Essential Oils against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jurado, Fatima; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), mustard (Brassica nigra), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated alone and in binary combinations against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or Salmonella Enteritidis. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The MICs of the evaluated essential oils ranged from 0.05 to 0.50% (vol/vol). Mustard essential oil was the most effective, likely due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate, identified as its major component. Furthermore, mustard essential oil exhibited synergistic effects when combined with either Mexican oregano or thyme essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.75); an additive effect was obtained by combining thyme and Mexican oregano essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 1.00). These results suggest the potential of studied essential oil mixtures to inhibit microbial growth and preserve foods; however, their effect on sensory quality in selected foods compatible with their flavor needs to be assessed.

  12. A Pilot Project Demonstrating that Combat Medics Can Safely Administer Parenteral Medications in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; Cunningham, Cord W; Fisher, Andrew D; DeLorenzo, Robert A

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration. Project Design This was a quality assurance project that monitored training of combat medics to administer parenteral medications and to ensure patient safety. Combat medics were provided training that included direct supervision during medication administration. Once proficiency was demonstrated, combat medics would prepare the medications under direct supervision, followed by indirect supervision during administration. As part of the quality assurance and safety processes, combat medics were required to document all medication administrations, supervising provider, and unexpected adverse events. Additional quality assurance follow-up occurred via complete chart review by the project lead. Data During the project period, the combat medics administered the following medications: ketamine (n=13), morphine (n=8), ketorolac (n=7), fentanyl (n=5), ondansetron (n=4), and other (n=6). No adverse events or patient safety events were reported by the combat medics or discovered during the quality assurance process. In this limited case series, combat medics safely administered parenteral medications under indirect provider supervision. Future research is needed to further develop this training model for both the military and civilian setting. Schauer SG , Cunningham C W, Fisher AD , DeLorenzo RA . A pilot project demonstrating that combat medics can safely administer parenteral medications in the emergency department. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):679-681.

  13. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  14. Narrative exposure therapy: an evidence-based treatment for multiple and complex trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud A. Jongedijk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Narrative exposure therapy (NET is a recently developed, short-term treatment for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a result of multiple trauma. NET can be applied very successfully in patients with complex trauma complaints (Jongedijk, 2014; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011.An important feature of NET is that trauma processing is never an isolated event but is always embedded in the context of a traumatic event and in the life history as a whole. At the start, the lifeline is laid. The lifeline is made up of a rope, with flowers (happy events, stones (traumatic events, sometimes candles (grief, or recently also sticks for aggressive acts (NET for offenders; see Stenmark, Cuneyt Guzey, Elbert, & Holen, 2014. These symbols are laid down along the rope, in chronological order. Subsequently, in the subsequent therapy sessions the lifeline is processed in chronological order, giving attention to all the important events a person has experienced in his or her life, both the adverse as well as the pleasurable ones. The narration ends with a written testimony.To date, there is good evidence NET is effective in the treatment of PTSD patients, with support from 18 RCTs (N=950. For culturally diverse populations, NET is recommended as the most evidence-based trauma treatment, besides culturally adapted CBT. NET has been investigated in different populations in Africa, Europe, and Asia. In Asia, research has been carried out in Sri Lanka as well as in China. In China, NET was conducted and investigated with survivors of the Sichuan earthquake (Zang, Hunt, & Cox, 2013, 2014. NET is understandable, even appealing and also supportive for patients with multiple trauma. In this presentation, the treatment principles and the practice of NET will be explained.

  15. Ethnomedicine and ethnobotany of fright, a Caribbean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinlan Marsha B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Fright" is an English-speaking Caribbean idiom for an illness, or ethnomedical syndrome, of persistent distress. A parallel ethnopsychiatric idiom exists in the French Antilles as sésisma. Fright is distinct from susto among Hispanics, though both develop in the wake of traumatic events. West Indian ethnophysiology (ethnoanatomy theorizes that an overload of stressful emotions (fear, panic, anguish or worry causes a cold humoral state in which blood coagulates causing prolonged distress and increased risks of other humorally cold illnesses. Methods Qualitative data on local explanatory models and treatment of fright were collected using participant-observation, informal key informant interviews and a village health survey. Ethnobotanical and epidemiological data come from freelist (or "free-list" tasks, analyzed for salience, with nearly all adults (N = 112 of an eastern village in Dominica, and a village survey on medicinal plant recognition and use (N = 106. Results Along with prayer and exercise, three herbs are salient fright treatments: Gossypium barbadense L., Lippia micromera Schauer, and, Plectranthus [Coleus] amboinicus [Loureiro] Sprengel. The survey indicated that 27% of village adults had medicated themselves for fright. Logistic regression of fright suffering onto demographic variables of age, education, gender, parental status and wealth measured in consumer goods found age to be the only significant predictor of having had fright. The probability of having (and medicating for fright thus increases with every year. Conclusions While sufferers are often uncomfortable recalling personal fright experiences, reporting use of medicinal plants is less problematic. Inquiry on fright medical ethnobotany (or phytotherapies serves as a proxy measurement for fright occurrence. Cross-cultural and ethnopharmacology literature on the medicinal plants suggests probable efficacy in accord with Dominican ethnomedical notions

  16. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010 provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity.A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups from healthy controls.The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.

  17. Antioxidant capacity and larvicidal activity of essential oil and extracts from Lippia grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Ivana T. Damasceno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves and thin branches of Lippia grandis Schauer, Verbenaceae, are used for flavoring of food in the Brazilian Amazon, as substitute for oregano. In this study the constituents of the essential oil were identified and the antioxidant capacity and larvicidal activity of the oil and methanol extract and its sub-fractions were evaluated. A sensory evaluation was determined in view of absence of toxicity. The oil showed a yield of 2.1% and its main constituents were thymol (45.8%, p-cymene (14.3%, γ-terpinene (10.5%, carvacrol (9.9% and thymol methyl ether (4.8%, totalizing 85%. The DPPH radical scavenging activity showed values for the EC50 between 9.0 and 130.5 µg mL-1 and the TEAC/ABTS values varied from 131.1 to 336.0 mg TE/g, indicating significant antioxidant activity for the plant. The total phenolic content ranged from 223.0 to 761.4 mg GAE/g, contributing to the antioxidant activity observed. The crude extracts inhibited the bleaching of β-carotene and the oil showed the greatest inhibition (42.5%. The oil (LgO, 7.6±2.4 µg mL-1 showed strong larvicidal activity against the brine shrimp bioassay. The sensory evaluation was highly satisfactory in comparison to oregano. The results are very promising for the use of L. grandis in seasoning and antioxidant products.

  18. Ethnomedicine and ethnobotany of fright, a Caribbean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Marsha B

    2010-02-17

    "Fright" is an English-speaking Caribbean idiom for an illness, or ethnomedical syndrome, of persistent distress. A parallel ethnopsychiatric idiom exists in the French Antilles as sésisma. Fright is distinct from susto among Hispanics, though both develop in the wake of traumatic events. West Indian ethnophysiology (ethnoanatomy) theorizes that an overload of stressful emotions (fear, panic, anguish or worry) causes a cold humoral state in which blood coagulates causing prolonged distress and increased risks of other humorally cold illnesses. Qualitative data on local explanatory models and treatment of fright were collected using participant-observation, informal key informant interviews and a village health survey. Ethnobotanical and epidemiological data come from freelist (or "free-list") tasks, analyzed for salience, with nearly all adults (N = 112) of an eastern village in Dominica, and a village survey on medicinal plant recognition and use (N = 106). Along with prayer and exercise, three herbs are salient fright treatments: Gossypium barbadense L., Lippia micromera Schauer, and, Plectranthus [Coleus] amboinicus [Loureiro] Sprengel. The survey indicated that 27% of village adults had medicated themselves for fright. Logistic regression of fright suffering onto demographic variables of age, education, gender, parental status and wealth measured in consumer goods found age to be the only significant predictor of having had fright. The probability of having (and medicating for) fright thus increases with every year. While sufferers are often uncomfortable recalling personal fright experiences, reporting use of medicinal plants is less problematic. Inquiry on fright medical ethnobotany (or phytotherapies) serves as a proxy measurement for fright occurrence. Cross-cultural and ethnopharmacology literature on the medicinal plants suggests probable efficacy in accord with Dominican ethnomedical notions of fright. Further, the cultural salience and beliefs about

  19. Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUBHANGI NAGORAO INGOLE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingole SN (2011 Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India. Biodiversitas 12: 146-163. Verbenaceae is a large family of very diverse habit. The present study deals with detailed characteristics, distribution and economically important products of some verbenaceous members of Melghat and Amravati regions. During the survey twenty members belonging to fourteen genera of Verbenaceae were collected. Some members occur abundantly either in wild or cultivated state like Lantana camara L. var. aculeata Mold., Lantana flava Medik., L. nivea Vent., Glandularia bipinnatifida (Schauer Nutt., Duranta erecta L., Vitex negundo L., Volkameria inermis L., Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f., Clerodendrum splendens G. Don, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. etc. while Petrea volubilis L., Gmelina arborea Roxb., G. phillippensis Cham., Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl., S. mutabilis (Jacq. Vahl., Rotheca serrata (L. Steane & Mabb., Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. are not much common and occur in limited locations. Phyla nodiflora (L. Greene, a creeping much-branched herb is found typically in wet places. Tectona grandis L. f. occurs very variable in size according to its habitat and is common dominant tree in forest of Melghat and also planted in plains. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., a gregarious tomentose shrub is exclusively found in shades of forest at limited spots in higher elevations of Melghat. The various members are not only beautiful ornamentals but also the source of important medicinal products useful in a broad range of diseases including skin disorders and snake remedies; they contain alkaloids, sterols, saponin, glucosides, dyes etc. and are economically quite important e.g. as high quality timber. On basis of morphological diversity the generic key is provided.

  20. The world-line. Albert Einstein and modern physics; Die Weltlinie. Albert Einstein und die moderne Physik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalampi, Jukka [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    2008-07-01

    und seine wissenschaftlichen Leistungen ziehen sich als roter Faden durch den Text. Der Autor erlaeutert zentrale Begriffe und Ergebnisse der modernen Physik in populaerwissenschaftlicher Form aus der historischen Perspektive. Dem Leser wird in humorvoller Form eine Vorstellung davon vermittelt, wie sich die moderne Physik entwickelt hat. Wir erfahren von den berauschenden Nachwirkungen des Aethers, wir hoeren von Faraday und Magnetnadeln, von Maxwells Vorhersage der elektromagnetischen Wellen, von Heinrich Hertz und vom photoelektrischen Effekt. War das Michelson-Morley-Experiment ein Messerfolg oder ein Misserfolg? Warum hat Einstein auf den Aether verzichtet? Wie hat Einstein im Wunderjahr 1905 die Physik revolutioniert und warum hat er Newton um Verzeihung gebeten? Gibt es Atome? Was ist Bewegung? Was ist Licht und was ist unter ''jetzt'' und ''hier'' zu verstehen? Lichtablenkung oder Nichtablenkung? Wie wirken die Gezeitenkraefte? Und vor allem: Wie hat Einstein diese Fragen beantwortet? Wir begegnen Poincare, Lorentz und Hilbert, Boltzmann und Bohr, Minkowski, Planck, de Broglie, Hubble und Weyl, Gamow, Hahn und Meitner, Kapiza und Landau, Fermi und vielen anderen beruehmten Wissenschaftlern. Was hatte Eddington gegen Chandrasekhar und was hatte Einstein gegen Schwarze Loecher? Warum sollten Raumtouristen, Traumtouristen und Weltraumtraumtouristen nicht am Loch Ness, sondern auf der sicheren Seite eines Schwarzen Loches Urlaub machen? Warum wetterte Pauli gegen Einstein? Stimmt die Sache mit der Atombombenformel? Vermatschte Materie, Urknall und kosmische Hintergrundstrahlung, Gravitationswellen und Doppelpulsare, die kosmologische Konstante und die Expansion des Universums sind weitere Themen, die den Leser in Atem halten und kein geistiges Vakuum aufkommen lassen. (orig.)

  1. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  2. Phase transformation and local mechanical properties of TRIP steel in a simulated and real resistance spot weld process; Phasenumwandlung und lokale mechanische Eigenschaften von TRIP Stahl beim simulierten und realen Widerstandspunktschweissprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauser, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    area of spot welded TRIP steels. The established mechanical characteristics were used as input data for numerical simulation of the spot weld ductility and strength performance. Here, the attention was focused on the necessity of implementing mechanical characteristics of the heat-affected zone for realistic tensile shear test modelling. [German] TRIP Staehle realisieren durch eine unter mechanischer Beanspruchung hervorgerufene Phasenumwandlung von metastabilen Austenit in Martensit (TRIP-Effekt) hohe Festigkeiten bei gleichzeitig guten Verformungseigenschaften. Waehrend der Verarbeitung dieser Werkstoffe mittels Widerstandspunktschweissen koennen unter den prozessspezifischen extremen Aufheiz- und Abkuehlraten Modifikationen des Austenitanteils hervorgerufen werden die als Folge lokal zu einer Aenderung der mechanisch-technologischen Eigenschaften fuehren. Wesentliche Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Arbeit war daher die Analyse der Gefuegestruktur im Bereich einer Punktschweissverbindung hinsichtlich der Aenderung des Austenitanteils und den daraus resultierenden Aenderungen der lokalen mechanischen Eigenschaften unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des TRIP-Effekts. Durch in-situ Beugungsuntersuchungen mittels hochenergetischer Synchrotronstrahlung erfolgte zunaechst die Quantifizierung des metastabilen Austenitanteils im unbehandelten Grundwerkstoff. Darauf aufbauend wurden unter definierten Temperaturprofilen in Ofenversuchen die grundlegenden Aspekte der thermisch bedingten Austenitumwandlung im Aufheiz- und Abkuehlprozess untersucht. Durch Gleeble-Versuche und Ofenexperimente wurden weiterfuehrend verschiedene Temperaturprofile mit unterschiedlichen im Punktschweissprozess lokal vorliegende Spitzentemperaturen genutzt um eine systematische Bewertung des Einflusses der Temperatur und der Aufheiz- sowie der Abkuehlbedingungen auf den Austenitgehalt unter realen Bedingungen zu ermoeglichen. Durch Korrelationsuntersuchungen zwischen den mechanischen Kennwerten thermisch

  3. Traditional knowledge and uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the islands of the São Francisco river, Brazil and preliminary analysis of Rhaphiodon echinus (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. S. L. Pio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by inhabitants of the Rodeadouro Island, Jatoba Island and Massangano Island, located in The Submedium São Francisco River Valley. Also phytochemicals and preliminary pharmacological tests were performed to species most cited by the community. Ethnobotanical data were collected through observation visits and semi-structured interviews with 12 key informants. We calculated the relative importance (RI, the percentage of agreement related to the main uses (cAMU and use value (UV. The aerial parts of Rhaphiodon echinus (Ness & Mart. Schauer were used to obtain the lyophilizate (LYO-Re, crude ethanol extract (CEE-Re and their hexanic (HEX-Re, chloroform (CLO-Re and ethyl acetate (EA-Re fractions. The microdilution technique was used for determining Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for selected microorganisms. Already the spasmolytic effect was evaluated in isolated uterus fragments of Wistar rats, pre contracted with KCl 60 mM. We found 34 species cited, belonging to 22 families. The most plants were grown by locals. There were 51 different diseases, but the main indication was infectious and parasitic diseases. The species R. echinus was the most reported and it was indicated for urinary tract infection and dysmenorrhea. The screening revealed a higher prevalence of flavonoids, tannins, lignans and saponins in LYO-Re and AE-Re. Already terpene compounds were more present in HEX-Re and CLO-Re. The RE-Re fraction stood out with strong effect against E. coli and S. aureus while CEE-Re has moderate effect against gram-negative bacteria. The evaluation of the spasmolytic activity showed that LYO-Re, CEE-Re and HEX-Re fractions have similar activity, with partial effect and concentration-dependent response. This work brought about knowledge and use of medicinal plants by the riparian of the São Francisco River. It also revealed the importance of other

  4. Swift heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-15

    species. While the irradiation of polymers with high energy heavy ions represents a enforced simulation test of the radiation damage in accelerators, they correspond to real situation in space where devices are directly being hit by very high energy heavy ions. [German] In dieser Arbeit wird die Veraenderung aliphatischer Polymere durch hochenergetische Schwerionenbestrahlung untersucht. Zwei Polymergruppen, naemlich Polyvinyl-Polymere (PVF, PVAc, PVA und PMMA) und Fluor-Polymere (PVDF, ETFE, PFA und FEP) wurden betrachtet. Polyvinyl-Polymere werden als Isolationsmaterial in supraleitenden Magneten der geplanten internationalen Beschleuniger-Anlage Forschung mit Antiprotonen und Ionen (FAIR) an der GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Scherionenforschung Verwendung finden. Um die ioneninduzierten Aenderungen zu studieren, wurden alle Polymerfolien am Linearbeschleuniger UNILAC an der GSI bestrahlt. Um die Degradation untersuchen zu koennen, wurden verschiedene Ionensorten (U, Au, Sm, Xe), Experimentierstaende (Strahlzweige X0 und M3) und ein weiter Ionen-Fluenz-Bereich (1 x 10{sup 10} - 5 x 10{sup 12} Ionen/cm{sup 2}) Ionen/cm2 genutzt. Fuenf unabhaengige Techniken, Infrarot (FTIR) - und (UV-Vis) Spektroskopie, Restgasanalyse (RGA), Thermogravimetrie (TGA) und Massenverlustanalyse (ML), dienten zur Untersuchung der Materialveraenderungen. Durch die FT-IR-Spektroskopie konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Ionenbestrahlung zu einem Rueckgang der charakteristischen Banden fuehrt, die durch Abbau der Polymere hervorgerufen wird, mit Abspaltung der Seitenketten und Bruch des Polymerrueckgrats. Als Konsequenz der strukturellen Aenderung erschienen neue Banden. UV-Vis Absorptionsspektrometrie zeigt eine Verschiebung der Absorptionskante vom ultravioletten Spektralbereich ins Sichtbare, welcher auf die Entstehung von Doppelbindungen und konjugierten Doppelbindungen hinweist. On-line Restgasanalyse zeigt, dass als Fragmente kleine Gasmolekuele freigesetzt werden. TGA weist auf veraenderte

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available -Timothy P. Barnard, Cynthia Chou, Indonesian sea nomads; Money, magic, and fear of the Orang Suku Laut. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, xii + 159 pp. -R.H. Barnes, Toos van Dijk, Gouden eiland in de Bandazee; Socio-kosmische ideeën op Marsela, Maluku Tenggara, Indonesië. Leiden: Onderzoekschool voor Aziatische, Afrikaanse en Amerindische studies (CNWS, Universiteit Leiden, 2000, 458 pp. [CNWS Publications 94.] -Andrew Beatty, Peter G. Riddell, Islam and the Malay-Indonesian world; Transmission and responses. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2001, xvii + 349 pp. -Peter Boomgaard, Richard H. Grove ,El Niño - history and crisis; Studies from the Asia-Pacific region. Cambridge: White Horse Press, 2000, 230 pp., John Chappell (eds -Bernardita Reyes Churchill, Florentino Rodao, Franco y el imperio japonés; Imágenes y propaganda en tiempos de guerra. Barcelona: Plaza and Janés, 2002, 669 pp. -Matthew Cohen, Stuart Robson, The Kraton; Selected essays on Javanese courts. Translated by Rosemary Robson-McKillop. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2003, xxvi + 397 pp. [Translation series 28.] -Serge Dunis, Ben Finney, Sailing in the wake of the ancestors; Reviving Polynesian voyaging. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 2003, 176 pp. [Legacy of excellence.] -Heleen Gall, Jan A. Somers, De VOC als volkenrechtelijke actor. Deventer: Gouda Quint, Rotterdam: Sanders Instituut, 2001, x + 350 pp. -David Henley, Harold Brookfield, Exploring agrodiversity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001, xix + 348 pp. -David Hicks, Ernst van Veen ,A guide to the sources of the history of Dutch-Portuguese relations in Asia (1594-1797. With a foreword by Leonard Blussé. Leiden: Institute for the history of European expansion, 2001, iv + 378 pp. [Intercontinenta 24.], Daniël Klijn (eds -Nico Kaptein, Donald J. Porter, Managing politics and Islam in Indonesia. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002, xxi + 264 pp. -Victor T. King, Monica Janowski, The forest, source of life; The Kelabit of

  6. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  7. Radiative charge transfer in He{sup +}+ H{sub 2} collisions in the milli- to nano-electron-volt range: A theoretical study within state-to-state and optical potential approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrugala, Felicja [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, PL 87-100 Torun (Poland); Kraemer, Wolfgang P. [Max-Planck-Institute of Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-03-14

    developed to allow inclusion of all three vibrational modes in the atom-diatom system. This three-dimensional optical potential model is used to check to which extent the state-to-state RCT rate constant is influenced by the possibility to access ground state continuum levels well above the opening of the HeH{sup +}+ H arrangement channel. The results indicate that these transitions contribute about 30% to the 'true' rate constant k{sup RCT} whereas their impact on the populations of the vibration-rotational states of the product H{sub 2}{sup +} ion is only minor. Present theoretical rate constant functions k{sup RCT}(T) obtained at different approximation levels are compared to experimental data: 1-1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} s{sup -1} cm{sup 3} at T= 15-35 K and {approx}7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s{sup -1} cm{sup 3} at 40 K [M. M. Schauer, S. R. Jefferts, S. E. Barlow, and G. H. Dunn, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 4593 (1989)]. The most reliable theoretical values of k{sup RCT}, obtained by combining results from the state-to-state and the optical potential calculations, are between 2.5 and 3.5 times larger than these experimental numbers. Possible sources for discrepancies are discussed.

  8. Comparison Between Elemental Carbon Measured Using Thermal-Optical Analysis and Black Carbon Measurements Using A Novel Cellphone-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Khan, B.; Leong, I.; Lukac, M.

    2011-12-01

    provides an affordable real-time method for gathering BC data on a mass scale. The CBMS' scalability should enable dense deployments near emissions sources and reduce uncertainty in emissions inventories due to undersampling. Bond, T. C., E. Bhardwaj, R. Dong, R. Jogani, S. Jung, C. Roden, D. G. Streets, and N. M. Trautmann (2007), Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840. Birch, M. E. and R.A. Cary (1996), Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 25, 221-241. NIOSH (1996). Elemental carbon (diesel particulate) method 5040. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 4th ed. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio (1st Suppl.). Ramanathan, N., M. Lukac, T. Ahmed, A. Kar, P.S. Praveen, T. Honles, I. Leong, I.H. Rehman, J.J. Schauer, V. Ramanathan (2011), A cellphone based system for large-scale monitoring of black carbon, Atmos. Environ., 45 (26), 4481-4487.

  9. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  10. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, George A.; Swartz, Harold M.; Amundson, Sally A.; Blakely, William F.; Buddemeier, Brooke; Gallez, Bernard; Dainiak, Nicholas; Goans, Ronald E.; Hayes, Robert B.; Lowry, Patrick C.; Noska, Michael A.; Okunieff, Paul; Salner, Andrew L.; Schauer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  11. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    , Song L, Zhang W, Norm C, Cao W, Wilfred H T, Liu H, Wang S, Du J, Xin H and Chang Li 2011 Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades Environ. Res. Lett. 6 045404 Qian Y, Flanner M G, Leung L R and Wang W 2011 Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 1929-48 Ramanathan V, Li F, Ramana M V, Praveen P S, Kim D, Corrigan C E, Nguyen H, Stone E A, Schauer J J, Carmichael G R, Adhikary B and Yoon S C 2007 Atmospheric brown clouds: Hemispherical and regional variations in long-range transport, absorption, and radiative forcing J. Geophys. Res. 112 D22S21 Sakai A, Nakawo M and Fujita K 1998 Melt rate of ice cliffs on the Lirung Glacier, Nepal Himalayas, 1996 Bull. Glaciol. Res. 16 57-66 Sakai A, Nishimura K, Kadota T and Takeuchi N 2009 Onset of calving at supraglacial lakes on debris covered glaciers of the Nepal Himalayas J. Glaciol. 55 909-17 Scherler D, Bookhagen B and Strecker M R 2011 Spatially variable response of Himalayan glaciers to climate change affected by debris cover Nature Geosci. 4 156-9 Takeuchi N, Kohshima S and Seko K 2001 Structure, formation, darkening process of albedo reducing material (cryoconite) on a Himalayan glacier: a granular algal mat growing on the glacier Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. 33 115-22 Warren S G and Wiscombe W J 1980 A model for the spectral albedo of snow. II: Snow containing atmospheric aerosols J. Atmos. Sci. 37 2734-45 Wiscombe W J and Warren S G 1980 A model for the spectral albedo of snow. I: Pure snow J. Atmos. Sci. 37 2712-3 Yao T D, Wang Y, Liu S, Pu J, Shen Y and Lu A 2004 Recent glacial retreat in high Asia in China and its impact on water resource in Northwest China Sci. China Ser. D 47 1065-75 Yasunari T J, Bonasoni P, Laj P, Fujita K, Vuillermoz E, Marinoni A, Cristofanelli P, Duchi R, Tartari G and Lau K M 2010 Estimated impact of black carbon deposition during pre-monsoon season