WorldWideScience

Sample records for hoc networks ieee

  1. Extending Service Area of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.

  2. A time-based admission control mechanism for IEEE 802.11 ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Luís Henrique M. K.; Cerveira, Carlos Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a time-based admission control mechanism (TAC) for IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. The proposed mechanism was adapted to the QoS AODV routing protocol, which takes the quality of service requirements of the data flow into account in the route discovery process. TAC-AODV estimates the idle time of the physical medium based on the frames listened. The incoming traffic is admitted according to the offered load as well as the intra-flow interference, calculated based on the numbe...

  3. Signaling-Free Max-Min Airtime Fairness in IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel media access control (MAC protocol, referred to as signaling-free max-min airtime fair (SMAF MAC, to improve fairness and channel utilization in ad hoc networks based on IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs. We introduce busy time ratio (BTR as a measure for max-min airtime fairness. Each node estimates its BTR and adjusts the transmission duration by means of frame aggregation and fragmentation, so that it can implicitly announce the BTR to neighbor nodes. Based on the announced BTR, each of the neighbor nodes controls its contention window. In this way, the SMAF MAC works in a distributed manner without the need to know the max-min fair share of airtime, and it does not require exchanging explicit control messages among nodes to attain fairness. Moreover, we successfully incorporate the hidden node detection and resolution mechanisms into the SMAF MAC to deal with the hidden node problem in ad hoc networks. The simulation results confirm that the SMAF MAC enhances airtime fairness without degrading channel utilization, and it effectively resolves several serious problems in ad hoc networks such as the starvation, performance anomaly, and hidden node problems.

  4. Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11p Multichannel MAC Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia

    2017-12-12

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The safety applications require timely and reliable transmissions, while the non-safety applications require efficient and high throughput. In the IEEE 1609.4 protocol, operating interval is divided into alternating Control Channel (CCH) interval and Service Channel (SCH) interval with an identical length. During the CCH interval, nodes transmit safety-related messages and control messages, and Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism is employed to allow four Access Categories (ACs) within a station with different priorities according to their criticality for the vehicle's safety. During the SCH interval, the non-safety massages are transmitted. An analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance, reliability and efficiency of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The proposed model improves the existing work by taking serval aspects and the character of multichannel switching into design consideration. Extensive performance evaluations based on analysis and simulation help to validate the accuracy of the proposed model and analyze the capabilities and limitations of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols, and enhancement suggestions are given.

  5. Real-Time Support on IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: Reality vs. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mikyung; Kang, Dong-In; Suh, Jinwoo

    The usable throughput of an IEEE 802.11 system for an application is much less than the raw bandwidth. Although 802.11b has a theoretical maximum of 11Mbps, more than half of the bandwidth is consumed by overhead leaving at most 5Mbps of usable bandwidth. Considering this characteristic, this paper proposes and analyzes a real-time distributed scheduling scheme based on the existing IEEE 802.11 wireless ad-hoc networks, using USC/ISI's Power Aware Sensing Tracking and Analysis (PASTA) hardware platform. We compared the distributed real-time scheduling scheme with the real-time polling scheme to meet deadline, and compared a measured real bandwidth with a theoretical result. The theoretical and experimental results show that the distributed scheduling scheme can guarantee real-time traffic and enhances the performance up to 74% compared with polling scheme.

  6. Comparison of Analytical and Measured Performance Results on Network Coding in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Fang; Médard, Muriel; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    CATWOMAN that can run on standard WiFi hardware. We present an analytical model to evaluate the performance of COPE in simple networks, and our results show the excellent predictive quality of this model. By closely examining the performance in two simple topologies, we observe that the coding gain results...

  7. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  8. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  9. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  10. 2012 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintas, Onur; Chen, Wai; Heijenk, Geert; Oh, Hyun Seo; Chung, Jong-Moon; Dressler, Falko; Kargl, Frank; Pau, Giovanni; Schoch, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we would like to welcome you to the fourth edition of the IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference in Seoul, Korea. IEEE VNC is a unique conference sponsored by both IEEE Communications Society and Intelligent Transportation Systems Society. It brings together

  11. Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong

    Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.

  12. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  13. Ad-hoc networking towards seamless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilovska, Liljana

    2006-01-01

    Ad-Hoc Networking Towards Seamless Communications is dedicated to an area that attracts growing interest in academia and industry and concentrates on wireless ad hoc networking paradigm. The persistent efforts to acquire the ability to establish dynamic wireless connections from anywhere to anyone with any device without prerequisite imbedded infrastructure move the communications boundaries towards ad-hoc networks. Recently, ad hoc networking has attracted growing interest due to advances in wireless communications, and developed framework for running IP based protocols. The expected degree of penetration of these networks will depend on the successful resolution of the key features. Ad-hoc networks pose many complex and open problems for researchers. Ad-Hoc Networking Towards Seamless Communications reveals the state-of-the-art in wireless ad-hoc networking and discusses some of the key research topics that are expected to promote and accelerate the commercial applications of these networks (e.g., MAC, rout...

  14. Queueing Models for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: \\emph{mobile ad hoc networking}. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of

  15. Context discovery in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless technology and portable devices, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are more and more present in our daily life. Ad-hoc networks are often composed of mobile and battery-supplied devices, like laptops, mobile phones, and PDAs. With no requirement for

  16. Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ma

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

  17. BLESSED with Opportunistic Beacons: A Lightweight Data Dissemination Model for Smart Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces BLESSED, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the complementary utilization of the IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth Low Energy standards. As a

  18. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  19. Model checking mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, Fatemeh; Fokkink, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Modeling arbitrary connectivity changes within mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) makes application of automated formal verification challenging. We use constrained labeled transition systems as a semantic model to represent mobility. To model check MANET protocols with respect to the underlying

  20. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj

    2015-01-01

    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  1. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  2. A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode:Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut; David, Pointcheval

    2005-10-01

    The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networkinginfrastructures and enable employers to accesscorporate networks whiletraveling. These standards provide two modes of communication calledinfrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity andfirmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc modeneeds to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in thisdirection. It leverages the latest developments in the area ofpassword-based authentication and (group) Diffie-Hellman key exchange todevelop a provably-secure key-exchange protocol for IEEE 802.11's ad-hocmode. The protocol allows users to securely join and leave the wirelessgroup at time, accommodates either a single-shared password orpairwise-shared passwords among the group members, or at least with acentral server; achieves security against dictionary attacks in theideal-hash model (i.e. random-oracles). This is, to the best of ourknowledge, the first such protocol to appear in the cryptographicliterature.

  3. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Describes how evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to identify, model, and minimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular networks (VANETs), sensor networks (SNs), and hybrid networks—each of these require a designer’s keen sense and knowledge of evolutionary algorithms in order to help with the common issues that plague professionals involved in optimization and mobile networking. This book introduces readers to both mobile ad hoc networks and evolutionary algorithms, presenting basic concepts as well as detailed descriptions of each. It demonstrates how metaheuristics and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to help provide low-cost operations in the optimization process—allowing designers to put some “intelligence” or sophistication into the design. It also offers efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the ...

  4. On Throughput Improvement of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Hidden Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Lim, Jong-Tae

    In this letter, we present the throughput analysis of the wireless ad hoc networks based on the IEEE 802.11 MAC (Medium Access Control). Especially, our analysis includes the case with the hidden node problem so that it can be applied to the multi-hop networks. In addition, we suggest a new channel access control algorithm to maximize the network throughput and show the usefulness of the proposed algorithm through simulations.

  5. Adaptive Probabilistic Broadcasting over Dense Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an idle probability-based broadcasting method, iPro, which employs an adaptive probabilistic mechanism to improve performance of data broadcasting over dense wireless ad hoc networks. In multisource one-hop broadcast scenarios, the modeling and simulation results of the proposed iPro are shown to significantly outperform the standard IEEE 802.11 under saturated condition. Moreover, the results also show that without estimating the number of competing nodes and changing the contention window size, the performance of the proposed iPro can still approach the theoretical bound. We further apply iPro to multihop broadcasting scenarios, and the experiment results show that within the same elapsed time after the broadcasting, the proposed iPro has significantly higher Packet-Delivery Ratios (PDR than traditional methods.

  6. Quantum load balancing in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, M.; Shariat, S.; Barnaghi, P.; Hoseinitabatabaei, S. A.; Vahid, S.; Tafazolli, R.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The quantum load balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load balancing properties of the proposed theory.

  7. AD HOC Networks for the Autonomous Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Davidescu; Negrus, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    The future of the vehicle is made of cars, roads and infrastructures connected in a two way automated communication in a holistic system. It is a mandatory to use Encryption to maintain Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability in an ad hoc vehicle network. Vehicle to Vehicle communication, requires multichannel interaction between mobile, moving and changing parties to insure the full benefit from data sharing and real time decision making, a network of such users referred as mobile ad hoc network (MANET), however as ad hoc networks were not implemented in such a scale, it is not clear what is the best method and protocol to apply. Furthermore the visibility of secure preferred asymmetric encrypted ad hoc networks in a real time environment of dense moving autonomous vehicles has to be demonstrated, In order to evaluate the performance of Ad Hoc networks in changing conditions a simulation of multiple protocols was performed on large number of mobile nodes. The following common routing protocols were tested, DSDV is a proactive protocol, every mobile station maintains a routing table with all available destinations, DSR is a reactive routing protocol which allows nodes in the MANET to dynamically discover a source route across multiple network hops, AODV is a reactive routing protocol Instead of being proactive. It minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating routes based on demand, SAODV is a secure version of AODV, requires heavyweight asymmetric cryptographic, ARIANDE is a routing protocol that relies on highly efficient symmetric cryptography the concept is primarily based on DSR. A methodical evolution was performed in a various density of transportation, based on known communication bench mark parameters including, Throughput Vs. time, Routing Load per packets and bytes. Out of the none encrypted protocols, It is clear that in terms of performance of throughput and routing load DSR protocol has a clear advantage the high node number mode. The encrypted

  8. Distributed optimization of a multisubchannel Ad Hoc cognitive radio network

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we study the distributed-duality-based optimization of a multisubchannel ad hoc cognitive radio network (CRN) that coexists with a multicell primary radio network (PRN). For radio resource allocation in multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) systems, the orthogonal-access-based exclusive subchannel assignment (ESA) technique has been a popular method, but it is suboptimal in ad hoc networks, because nonorthogonal access between multiple secondary-user links by using shared subchannel assignment (SSA) can bring a higher weighted sum rate. We utilize the Lagrangian dual composition tool and design low-complexity near-optimal SSA resource allocation methods, assuming practical discrete-rate modulation and that the CRN-to-PRN interference constraint has to strictly be satisfied. However, available SSA methods for CRNs are either suboptimal or involve high complexity and suffer from slow convergence. To address this problem, we design fast-convergence SSA duality schemes and introduce several novel methods to increase the speed of convergence and to satisfy various system constraints with low complexity. For practical implementation in ad hoc CRNs, we design distributed-duality schemes that involve only a small number of CRN local information exchanges for dual update. The effects of many system parameters are presented through simulation results, which show that the near-optimal SSA duality scheme can perform significantly better than the suboptimal ESA duality and SSA-iterative waterfilling schemes and that the performance loss of the distributed schemes is small, compared with their centralized counterparts. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  10. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekovee, Maziar [BT Research, Polaris 134, Adastral Park, Martlesham, Suffolk IP5 3RE (United Kingdom); Centre for Computational Science, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  11. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  12. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-01-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet

  13. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks with Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Alshbatat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential of creating an ad hoc communication network in the air. Most UAVs used in communication networks are equipped with wireless transceivers using omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we consider a collection of UAVs that communicate through wireless links as a mobile ad-hoc network using directional antennas. The network design goal is to maximize the throughput and minimize the end-to-end delay. In this respect, we propose a new medium access control protocol for a network of UAVs with directional antennas. We analyze the communication channel between the UAVs and the effect of aircraft attitude on the network performance. Using the optimized network engineering tool (OPNET, we compare our protocol with the IEEE 802.11 protocol for omnidirectional antennas. The simulation results show performance improvement in end-to-end delay as well as throughput.

  14. Ad Hoc Wireless Networking and Shared Computation for Autonomous Multirobot Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Hall, Jason S.; Horning, James; Romano, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.40734 A wireless ad hoc network is introduced that enables inter-robot communication and shared computation among multiple robots with PC/104-based single board computers running the real-time application interface patched Linux operating system. Through the use of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc technology and User Datagram Protocol, each robot is able to exchange data without the need of a centralized router ...

  15. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  16. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  17. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  18. Ad hoc laser networks component technology for modular spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiujun; Shi, Dele; Shen, Jingshi

    2017-10-01

    Distributed reconfigurable satellite is a new kind of spacecraft system, which is based on a flexible platform of modularization and standardization. Based on the module data flow analysis of the spacecraft, this paper proposes a network component of ad hoc Laser networks architecture. Low speed control network with high speed load network of Microwave-Laser communication mode, no mesh network mode, to improve the flexibility of the network. Ad hoc Laser networks component technology was developed, and carried out the related performance testing and experiment. The results showed that ad hoc Laser networks components can meet the demand of future networking between the module of spacecraft.

  19. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  20. The 11th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitsillides, A.; Douligeris, C.; Vassiliou, V.; Heijenk, Geert; Cavalcante de Oliveira, J.

    Message from the General Chairs Welcome to the 2012 Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop in Ayia Napa, Cyprus. We are excited to host Med-Hoc-Net. As a major annual international workshop, following recent successful workshops in Sicily (2006), Corfu (2007), Palma de Mallorca (2008), Haifa

  1. Spectrum-efficient multi-channel design for coexisting IEEE 802.15.4 networks: A stochastic geometry approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2014-07-01

    For networks with random topologies (e.g., wireless ad-hoc and sensor networks) and dynamically varying channel gains, choosing the long term operating parameters that optimize the network performance metrics is very challenging. In this paper, we use stochastic geometry analysis to develop a novel framework to design spectrum-efficient multi-channel random wireless networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed framework maximizes both spatial and time domain frequency utilization under channel gain uncertainties to minimize the number of frequency channels required to accommodate a certain population of coexisting IEEE 802.15.4 networks. The performance metrics are the outage probability and the self admission failure probability. We relax the single channel assumption that has been used traditionally in the stochastic geometry analysis. We show that the intensity of the admitted networks does not increase linearly with the number of channels and the rate of increase of the intensity of the admitted networks decreases with the number of channels. By using graph theory, we obtain the minimum required number of channels to accommodate a certain intensity of coexisting networks under a self admission failure probability constraint. To this end, we design a superframe structure for the coexisting IEEE 802.15.4 networks and a method for time-domain interference alignment. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  2. Performance comparison of IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11n in the presence of interference from 802.15.4 networks

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Syed Haani

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we compare the packet error rate (PER) and maximum throughput of IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11g under interference from IEEE 802.15.4 by using MATLAB to simulate the IEEE PHY for 802.11n and 802.11g networks.

  3. A Novel Medium Access Control for Ad hoc Networks Based on OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yi-fan; YIN Chang-chuan; YUE Guang-xin

    2005-01-01

    Recently, hosts of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Ad hoc radio networks have been proposed to solve the hidden terminal problem and exposed terminal problem. However most of them take into no account the interactions between physical (PHY) system and MAC protocol. Therefore, the current MAC protocols are either inefficient in the networks with mobile nodes and fading channel or difficult in hardware implementation. In this paper, we present a novel media access control for Ad hoc networks that integrates a media access control protocol termed as Dual Busy Tone Multiple Access (DBTMA) into Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system proposed in IEEE 802.11a standard. The analysis presented in the paper indicates that the proposed MAC scheme achieves performance improvement over IEEE 802.11 protocol about 25%~80% especially in the environment with high mobility and deep fading. The complexity of the proposed scheme is also lower than other implementation of similar busy tone solution. Furthermore, it is compatible with IEEE 802.11a networks.

  4. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Jelena; (Sherman) Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients. PMID:19107184

  5. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić, Jelena; Sherman Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients.

  6. Basic security measures for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento, Oscar P.; Guerrero, Fabio G.; Rey Argote, David

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2. A detailed analysis of the RC4 algorithm supporting WEP is presented, including its vulnerabilities. The WPA and WPA2 encryption protocols’ most relevant aspects and technical characteristics are reviewed for a comparative analysis of the three standards in terms of the security they provide. Special attention has been paid to WEP encryption by using an educat...

  7. Source Authentication for Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramachandran, Prabha

    2003-01-01

    Recent emergence and popularity of mobile ad hoc networks in a host of current-day applications has instigated a suite of research challenges, primarily in routing and security issues for such networks...

  8. Internet-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corson, M. S; Macker, Joseph P; Cirincione, Gregory H

    1999-01-01

    Internet-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an emerging technology that supports self-organizing, mobile networking infrastructures, and is one which appears well-suited for use in future commercial...

  9. Attacks on IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milan Tepšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Security of wireless computer networks was initially secured with the WEP security protocol, which relies on the RC4 encryption algorithm and the CRC algorithm to check the integrity. The basic problems of the WEP are a short initialization vector, unsafe data integrity checking, using a common key, the lack of mechanisms for management and exchange of keys, the lack of protection from the endless insertion of the same package into the network, the lack of authentication of access points and the like. The consequences of these failures are easy attacks against the WEP network, namely their complete insecurity. Therefore, the work began on the IEEE 802.11i protocol, which should radically improve the security of wireless networks. Since the development of a protocol lasted, the WPA standard was released to offset the security gap caused by the WEP. The WPA also relies on RC4 and CRC algorithms, but brings temporary keys and the MIC algorithm for data integrity. The 802.1X authentication was introduced and common keys are no longer needed, since it is possible to use an authentication server. The length of the initialization vector was increased and the vector is obtained based on the packet serial number, in order to prevent the insertion of the same packet into the network. The weakness of the WPA security mechanism is the use of a common key. WPA2 (802.11i later appeared. Unlike the WPA mechanism that worked on old devices with the replacement of software, WPA2 requires new network devices that can perform AES encryption. AES replaces the RC4 algorithm and delivers much greater security. Data integrity is protected by encryption. Despite progress, there are still weaknesses in wireless networks. Attacks for denial of service are possible as well as spoofing package headers attacks. For now, it is not advisable to use wireless networks in environments where unreliability and unavailability are not tolerated. Introduction In the entire history of

  10. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  11. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso-Zárate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  12. EAP-Based Authentication for Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakti, Muhammad Agni Catur; Abdullah, Azween; Jung, Low Tan

    2007-01-01

    Wireless network has been deployed worldwide, but some security issues in wireless network might haveprevented its further acceptance. One of the solutions to overcome the limitation of wireless network security isthe IEEE 802.1X specification, a mechanism for port-based network access control, which is based onExtensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). It is an authentication framework that can support multipleauthentication methods. EAP can run over many types of data-link layer and it is fl...

  13. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical

  14. A New Hybrid Channel Access Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2002-01-01

    Many contention-based channel access schemes have been proposed for multi-hop ad hoc networks in the recent past, and they can be divided into two categories, sender-initiated and receiver-initiated...

  15. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  17. Sensor and ad-hoc networks theoretical and algorithmic aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Makki, S Kami; Pissinou, Niki; Makki, Shamila; Karimi, Masoumeh; Makki, Kia

    2008-01-01

    This book brings together leading researchers and developers in the field of wireless sensor networks to explain the special problems and challenges of the algorithmic aspects of sensor and ad-hoc networks. The book also fosters communication not only between the different sensor and ad-hoc communities, but also between those communities and the distributed systems and information systems communities. The topics addressed pertain to the sensors and mobile environment.

  18. Basic security measures for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar P. Sarmiento

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2. A detailed analysis of the RC4 algorithm supporting WEP is presented, including its vulnera-bilities. The WPA and WPA2 encryption protocols’ most relevant aspects and technical characteristics are reviewed for a comparative analysis of the three standards in terms of the security they provide. Special attention has been paid to WEP encryption by using an educational simulation tool written in C++ Builder for facilitating the unders-tanding of this protocol at academic level. Two practical cases of wireless security configurations using Cisco net-working equipment are also presented: configuring and enabling WPA-Personal and WPA2-Personal (these being security options used by TKIP and AES, respectively.

  19. Enhancing the selection of backoff interval using fuzzy logic over wireless Ad Hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff-BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance.

  20. Capacity, delay and mobility in wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Liu, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Network throughput and packet delay are two important parameters in the design and the evaluation of routing protocols for ad-hoc networks. While mobility has been shown to increase the capacity of a network, it is not clear whether the delay can be kept low without trading off the throughput. We

  1. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  2. Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. B. Nogales

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.

  3. Innovative research of AD HOC network mobility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin

    2017-08-01

    It is difficult for researchers of AD HOC network to conduct actual deployment during experimental stage as the network topology is changeable and location of nodes is unfixed. Thus simulation still remains the main research method of the network. Mobility model is an important component of AD HOC network simulation. It is used to describe the movement pattern of nodes in AD HOC network (including location and velocity, etc.) and decides the movement trail of nodes, playing as the abstraction of the movement modes of nodes. Therefore, mobility model which simulates node movement is an important foundation for simulation research. In AD HOC network research, mobility model shall reflect the movement law of nodes as truly as possible. In this paper, node generally refers to the wireless equipment people carry. The main research contents include how nodes avoid obstacles during movement process and the impacts of obstacles on the mutual relation among nodes, based on which a Node Self Avoiding Obstacle, i.e. NASO model is established in AD HOC network.

  4. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  5. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical and virtual carrier sense networks, which reveals counter-intuitively that receivers in large dense networks with directional antennas can experience larger interference than in omnidirectional networks unless the beamwidth is sufficiently small. Validity of mathematical analysis is confirmed using simulations.

  6. Verification of mobile ad hoc networks : an algebraic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, F.; Fokkink, W.J.; Movaghar, A.

    2011-01-01

    We introduced Computed Network Process Theory to reason about protocols for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Here we explore the applicability of our framework in two regards: model checking and equational reasoning. The operational semantics of our framework is based on constrained labeled

  7. Node counting in wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.H.M.; Kiss, D.; Kowalczyk, W.; Navilarekallu, T.; Renger, D.R.M.; Sella, L.; Timperio, V.; Viorel, A.; Wijk, van A.C.C.; Yzelman, A.J.; Planqué, B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Kager, W.; Rot, T.

    2012-01-01

    We study wireless ad-hoc networks consisting of small microprocessors with limited memory, where the wireless communication between the processors can be highly unreliable. For this setting, we propose a number of algorithms to estimate the number of nodes in the network, and the number of direct

  8. Probabilistic Modelling of Information Propagation in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of broadcasting wireless ad-hoc networks is studied through probabilistic modelling. A randomized transmission discipline is assumed in accordance with existing MAC definitions such as WLAN with Decentralized Coordination or IEEE-802.15.4. Message reception is assumed...... to be governed by node power-down policies and is equivalently assumed to be randomized. Altogether randomization facilitates a probabilistic model in the shape of an integro-differential equation governing the propagation of information, where brownian node mobility may be accounted for by including an extra...... diffusion term. The established model is analyzed for transient behaviour and a travelling wave solution facilitates expressions for propagation speed as well as parametrized analysis of network reliability and node power consumption. Applications of the developed models for node localization and network...

  9. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  10. Topology Control with Anisotropic and Sector Turning Antennas in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Černý

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years, technological advances have allowed the development of small, cheap, embedded, independent and rather powerful radio devices that can self-organise into data networks. Such networks are usually called ad-hoc networks or, sometimes, depending on the application field, sensor networks. One of the first standards for ad-hoc networks to impose itself as a fully industrial framework for data gathering and control over such devices is IEEE 802.15.4 and, on top of it, its pair network architecture: ZigBee. In the case of multiple radio devices clamped into a small geographical area, the lack of radio bandwidth becomes a major problem, leading to multiple data losses and unnecessary power drain from the batteries of these small devices. This problem is usually perceived as interference. The deployment of appropriate topology control mechanisms (TC can solve interference. All of these algorithms calculate TC on the basis of isotropic antenna radiation patterns in the horizontal plane.

  11. Securing DSR with mobile agents in wireless ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abosamra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc wireless network consists of a set of wireless nodes communicating with each other without a pre-defined infrastructure. They communicate by forwarding packets which can reach wireless nodes that do not exist in the range of the direct radio transmission. Designing ad hoc network routing protocols is a challenging task because of its decentralized infrastructure which makes securing ad hoc networks more and more challenging. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol is a popular routing protocol designed for use in wireless ad hoc networks. Mobile agent is a promising technology used in diverse fields of network applications. In this paper, we try to implement DSR using mobile agents for securing this type of wireless network. Hybrid encryption technique (symmetric key encryption/public key encryption is used to improve performance; where symmetric keys are used to encrypt routing data to authenticate and authorize node sending data, while, public keys are used for the exchange of symmetric keys between nodes. We found that DSR may be secured using mobile agents with competitive performance.

  12. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  13. Power control algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraj L. Pradhan

    2011-07-01

    We will also focus on an adaptive distributed power management (DISPOW algorithm as an example of the multi-parameter optimization approach which manages the transmit power of nodes in a wireless ad hoc network to preserve network connectivity and cooperatively reduce interference. We will show that the algorithm in a distributed manner builds a unique stable network topology tailored to its surrounding node density and propagation environment over random topologies in a dynamic mobile wireless channel.

  14. Effects of Data Replication on Data Exfiltration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Utilizing Reactive Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    aerial vehicle VANET vehicular ad hoc network VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol VRR Virtual Ring Routing xiii EFFECTS OF DATA REPLICATION ON DATA...ad hoc networks in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), and flying ad hoc net- works (FANETs). Much of the research...metric, such as capacity, congestion , power, or combinations thereof. Caro refers to two different types of ants, FANTs and BANTs which are analogous to

  15. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  16. Secure Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariadis Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in sensor networks is one of the most relevant research topics in resource constrained wireless devices and networks. Several attacks can be suffered in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks (WSN, which are highly susceptible to attacks, due to the limited resources of the nodes. In this paper, we propose innovative and lightweight localization techniques that allow for intrusion identification and isolation schemes and provide accurate location information. This information is used by our routing protocol which additionally incorporates a distributed trust model to prevent several routing attacks to the network. We finally evaluate our algorithms for accurate localization and for secure routing which have been implemented and tested in real ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.

  17. EFECTO DE LOS OBSTÁCULOS TIPO POLIMERO RESINA EN RENDIMIENTO DE REDES TCP/IP/IEEE 802.11g MODO AD-HOC

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Barriobero, David

    2011-01-01

    La investigación tiene como objetivo primordial el desarrollo de un modelo matemático para evaluar el efecto de los obstáculos de tipo polímero resina en el rendimiento de redes TCP/IP/IEEE 802.11g modo ad-hoc; esto con el propósito de establecer la relación existente entre el diámetro de los obstáculos de tipo polímero resina y el rendimiento de una red inalámbrica en modo ad-hoc, al transmitir datos vía protocolo FTP. El tipo de investigación es explicativa con un diseño experimental. Los t...

  18. Ad Hoc Transient Groups: Instruments for Awareness in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetter, Sibren; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Berlanga, Adriana; Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fetter, S., Rajagopal, K., Berlanga, A. J., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). Ad Hoc Transient Groups: Instruments for Awareness in Learning Networks. In W. Reinhardt, T. D. Ullmann, P. Scott, V. Pammer, O. Conlan, & A. J. Berlanga (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in

  19. ON SECURE FULL DUPLEX COMMUNICATION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. Dutta; Sudha Singh; D. K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to establish Ad Hoc network in mobile phones and start fully secured full duplex communication in any situation. This type of communication will be cost effective and it will be fastest way of communication in case of any server failure or server error.

  20. Authentication and consensus overhead in vehicular ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Jonathan; Mammeri, Zoubir

    Vehicular ad hoc networks aim at increasing passenger safety by exchanging warning messages between vehicles wirelessly. A main challenge is to resist to various malicious abuses and security attacks. However, any security mechanism comes with overhead. We analyze how the authentication algorithm

  1. Challenges of evidence acquisition in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutanga, MB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available a big challenge. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore the challenges of acquiring live evidence in wireless ad-hoc networks. We also give some legal requirements of evidence admissibility as outlined in the Communications and Transactions Act...

  2. Collaboration Layer for Robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e

    2009-01-01

    In many applications multiple robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are required to collaborate in order to solve a task. This paper shows by proof of concept that a Collaboration Layer can be modelled and designed to handle the collaborative communication, which enables robots in small to medium size...

  3. Modelling Mobility in Mobile AD-HOC Network Environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the simulation of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), the probability distribution governing the movement of nodes typically varies over time and converges to a steady state distribution, known as the stationary distribution. This paper presents and evaluates the stationary distribution for location, speed and pause time of a ...

  4. Isolan - A Fibre Optic Network Conforming To IEEE 802.3 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roworth, D. A. A.; Howe, N.

    1986-10-01

    The progress of the IEEE 802.3 standard for fibre optic LANs is indicated with reference to both mixed media networks and full fibre networks. For a fibre optic network the most suitable layout is a "snowflake" topology composed of multiport repeaters and active fibre hubs. A range of components is described which enables the realisation of such a topology in conformance with the IEEE 802.3 standard.

  5. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  6. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  7. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Simeone

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  8. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    expects, trust is dangerous implying the possible betrayal of trust. In his comments on Lagerspetz’s book titled Trust: The Tacit Demand, Lahno [24...AODV Zouridaki et al. (2005 ) [79] (2006) [80] Secure routing Direct observation [79][80] Reputation by secondhand information [80] Packet dropping...areas of signal processing, wireless communications, sensor and mobile ad hoc networks. He is co-editor of the book Wireless Sensor Networks: Signal

  9. Ad hoc Sensor Networks to Support Maritime Interdiction Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Osmundson, John; Bordetsky, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Networking sensors, decision centers, and boarding parties supports success in Maritime Interdiction Operations. Led by a team from Naval Post-graduate School (NPS), experiments were conducted in 2012 to test the use of ad-hoc, self-forming communication networks to link sensors, people, and decision centers. The experiments involved international participants and successfully shared valuable biometric and radiological sensor data between boarding parties and decis...

  10. Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jungeblut

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC for low power wireless applications. The multiprocessor is based on eight 32bit RISC processors that are connected via an Network-On-Chip (NoC. The NoC follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz the total power consumption of the MPSoC that has been fabricated in 180 nm UMC standard cell technology is 772 mW.

  11. The Exploration of Network Coding in IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deze Zeng

    2011-01-01

    communication protocol should be energy efficient. The IEEE 802.15.4 is designed as a standard protocol for low power, low data rate, low complexity, and short range connections in WPANs. The standard supports allocating several numbers of collision-free guarantee time slots (GTSs within a superframe for some time-critical transmissions. Recently, COPE was proposed as a promising network coding architecture to essentially improve the throughput of wireless networks. In this paper, we exploit the network coding technique at coordinators to improve energy efficiency of the WPAN. Some related practical issues, such as GTS allocation and multicast, are also discussed in order to exploit the network coding opportunities efficiently. Since the coding opportunities are mostly exploited, our proposal achieves both higher energy efficiency and throughput performance than the original IEEE 802.15.4.

  12. Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks management, performance, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed across a wide range of applications, there are very few books that emphasize the algorithm description, performance analysis, and applications of network management techniques in WSNs. Filling this need, Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Management, Performance, and Applications summarizes not only traditional and classical network management techniques, but also state-of-the-art techniques in this area. The articles presented are expository, but scholarly in nature, including the appropriate history background, a review of current

  13. Cognitive radio application for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladić Suzana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of cognitive radio technology in vehicular ad-hoc networks aimed to improve the communications between vehicles themselves as well as between vehicles and roadside infrastructure. Due to dynamic approach of spectrum access, cognitive radio is a technology that enables more efficient usage of radio-frequency spectrum. We review actual approaches and discuss research challenges related to the use of cognitive radio technology in vehicular ad hoc networks with emphasis on architecture, spectrum management as well as QoS optimization. The researching on cognitive radio application in vehicular networks is still developing and there are not many experimental platforms due to their complex setups. Some related research projects and cognitive radio realizations are provided in this paper.

  14. Recent development in wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of numerous physically distributed autonomous devices used for sensing and monitoring the physical and/or environmental conditions. A WSN uses a gateway that provides wireless connectivity to the wired world as well as distributed networks. There are many open problems related to Ad-Hoc networks and its applications. Looking at the expansion of the cellular infrastructure, Ad-Hoc network may be acting as the basis of the 4th generation wireless technology with the new paradigm of ‘anytime, anywhere communications’. To realize this, the real challenge would be the security, authorization and management issues of the large scale WSNs. This book is an edited volume in the broad area of WSNs. The book covers various chapters like Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks, its Coverage, Connectivity as well as Deployment. It covers comparison of various communication protocols and algorithms such as MANNET, ODMRP and ADMR Protocols for Ad hoc Multicasting, Location Based C...

  15. Defending IEEE 802.11-Based Networks Against Denial Of Service Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Boon

    2003-01-01

    The convenience of IEEE 8O2.11-based wireless access networks has led to widespread deployment in the consumer, industrial and military sectors However, this use is predicated on an implicit assumption of confidentiality...

  16. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  17. Fiber optics backbone for IEEE 802.3 networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Ron

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years the IEEE 802.3 committee has developed fiber optics inter-repeater link standard called FOIRL. This standard defines the "Fiber Optics Media Access Unit" (FOMAU) which is used to connect two IEEE 802.3 repeaters that are up to 1Km apart. The IEEE 802.3 lOBaseF task force is currently standardizing a full F/O system in two directions: passive and active. The active approach is a compromise between the FOIRL (Asynchronous) approach and the Synchronous approach. As a result of this activity the IEEE 802.3 standard will define three different F/O interfaces and several devices that will not inter-operate. Such a standard will lower the credibility among the IEEE 802.3 user community, as customers will be confused amidst the many chapters and devices with no clear choice. This paper describes a method that can reduce the number of standards to two (passive and active), while proposing a solution for all the requirements of 802.3 F/O LAN. (The question of passive vs active approach will be discussed in this paper).

  18. Real-time-service-based Distributed Scheduling Scheme for IEEE 802.16j Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Feng Huang; Shih-Jung Wu

    2013-01-01

    Supporting Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for diverse multimedia services is the primary concern for IEEE802.16j networks. A scheduling scheme that satisfies the QoS requirements has become more important for wireless communications. We proposed an adaptive nontransparent-based distributed scheduling scheme (ANDS) for IEEE 802.16j networks. ANDS comprises three major components: Priority Assignment, Resource Allocation, Preserved Bandwidth Adjustment. Different service-type connections p...

  19. On the impact of network dynamics on a discovery protocol for ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Heijenk, Geert

    A very promising approach to discovering services and context information in ad-hoc networks is based on the use of Attenuated Bloom filters. In this paper we analyze the impact of changes in the connectivity of an ad-hoc network on this approach. We evaluate the performance of the discovery

  20. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  1. Throughput Capacity of Ad Hoc Networks with Route Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blum Rick S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughput capacity of large ad hoc networks has been shown to scale adversely with the size of network . However the need for the nodes to find or repair routes has not been analyzed in this context. In this paper, we explicitly take route discovery into account and obtain the scaling law for the throughput capacity under general assumptions on the network environment, node behavior, and the quality of route discovery algorithms. We also discuss a number of possible scenarios and show that the need for route discovery may change the scaling for the throughput capacity.

  2. Power-Aware Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.

  3. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    CERN Document Server

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  4. Proposal of interference reduction routing for ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Naito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an interference reduction routing protocol for ad-hoc networks. The interference is one of the degradation factors in wireless communications. In the ad-hoc network, some nodes communicate simultaneously. Therefore, these communications cause interference each other, and some packets are corrupted due to interference from another node. In the proposed protocol, each node estimates required transmission power according to hello messages. Therefore, the node can transmit a data packet with minimum required transmission power. Consequently, the interference against neighbor nodes can be reduced. From simulation results, we can find that the proposed protocol can reduce the number of control messages and can improve the throughput performance.

  5. A framework for reactive optimization in mobile ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClary, Dan; Syrotiuk, Violet; Kulahci, Murat

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework to optimize the performance of a mobile ad hoc network over a wide range of operating conditions. It includes screening experiments to quantify the parameters and interactions among parameters influential to throughput. Profile-driven regression is applied to obtain a model....... The predictive accuracy of the model is monitored and used to update the model dynamically. The results indicate the framework may be useful for the optimization of dynamic systems of high dimension....

  6. 2011 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC): Demo Summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintas, O.; Chen, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Dressler, F.; Ekici, E.; Kargl, Frank; Shigeno, H.; Dietzel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Foreword For the first time in its history, IEEE VNC has included this year’s demonstrations in its program. Demonstrations play an important role to expose the research community to practical aspects of research and to foster cross-fertilization among researchers both in academia and in industry.

  7. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  8. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Elizarraras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15% compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput.

  9. Mobile agents affect worm spreading in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zi-Gang; Sun, Jin-Tu; Wang, Ying-Hai; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Considering the dynamic nature of portable computing devices with wireless communication capability, an extended model is introduced for worm spreading in the wireless ad hoc network, with a population of mobile agents in a planar distribution, starting from an initial infected seed. The effect of agents' mobility on worm spreading is investigated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The threshold behavior and the dynamics of worm epidemics in the wireless networks are greatly affected by both agents' mobility and spatial and temporal correlations. The medium access control mechanism for the wireless communication promotes the sensitivity of the spreading dynamics to agents' mobility

  10. Self-Coexistence among IEEE 802.22 Networks: Distributed Allocation of Power and Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Sayef Azad Sakin; Md. Abdur Razzaque; Mohammad Mehedi Hassan; Atif Alamri; Nguyen H. Tran; Giancarlo Fortino

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring self-coexistence among IEEE 802.22 networks is a challenging problem owing to opportunistic access of incumbent-free radio resources by users in co-located networks. In this study, we propose a fully-distributed non-cooperative approach to ensure self-coexistence in downlink channels of IEEE 802.22 networks. We formulate the self-coexistence problem as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem for maximizing the network data rate, which is an NP-hard one. This work explores a s...

  11. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia; Tan, Guozhen; Yu, Chao

    2017-10-09

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment) applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access) have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC) protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  12. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  13. A Rate-Adaptive MAC Protocol Based on TCP throughput for Ad Hoc Networks in Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Uchida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless technology is becoming a leading option for future Internet access. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is one of the protocols designed on the basis of the transmission characteristics in wired networks. It is known that the TCP performance deteriorates drastically under a wireless communication environment. On the other hand, many wireless networking standards such as IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g have multirate capability. Therefore, adaptive rate control methods have been proposed for ad hoc networks. However, almost methods require the modification of the request to send (RTS and clear to send (CTS packets. Therefore, the conventional methods are not compatible with the standardized system. In this paper, we propose adaptive rate control mechanisms for ad hoc networks. Our mechanisms are based on the RTS/CTS mechanisms. However, no modifications to the RTS and CTS packets are required in the proposed method. Therefore, our proposed method can attempt to satisfy the conventional IEEE 802.11 standards. Moreover, an adequate transmission rate is selected based on an estimated TCP throughput performance. From simulation results, it is observed that the proposed method can improve the throughput performance without any modification of packet structures.

  14. Defending IEEE 802.11-Based Networks Against Denial Of Service Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Boon

    2003-01-01

    ...) attacks targeting its management and media access protocols Computer simulation models have proven to be effective tools in the study of cause and effect in numerous fields This thesis involved the design and implementation of a IEEE 8O2.11-based simulation model using OMNeT++, to investigate the effects of different types of DoS attacks on a IEEE 8O2.11 network, and the effectiveness of corresponding countermeasures.

  15. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2017-06-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  16. Minimizing Broadcast Expenses in Clustered Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeeshan Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One way to minimize the broadcast expenses of routing protocols is to cluster the network. In clustered ad-hoc networks, all resources can be managed easily by resolving scalability issues. However, blind query broadcast is a major issue that leads to the broadcast storm problem in clustered ad-hoc networks. This query broadcast is done to carry out the route-search task that leads to the unnecessary propagation of route-query even after route has been found. Hence, this query propagation poses the problem of congestion in the network. In particular this motivates us to propose a query-control technique in such networks which works based on broadcast repealing. A huge amount of work has been devoted to propose the query control broadcasting techniques. However, such techniques used in traditional broadcasting mechanisms need to be properly extended for use in the cluster based routing architecture. In this paper, query-control technique is proposed for cluster based routing technique to reduce the broadcast expenses. Finally, we report some experiments which compare the proposed technique to other commonly used techniques including standard one-class AODV that follows TTL-sequence based broadcasting technique.

  17. Decentralized session initiation protocol solution in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Dong, Linfang

    2006-10-01

    With the fast development of ad hoc networks, SIP has attracted more and more attention in multimedia service. This paper proposes a new architecture to provide SIP service for ad hoc users, although there is no centralized SIP server deployed. In this solution, we provide the SIP service by the introduction of two nodes: Designated SIP Server (DS) and its Backup Server (BDS). The nodes of ad hoc network designate DS and BDS when they join the session nodes set and when some pre-defined events occur. A new sip message type called REGISTRAR is presented so nodes can send others REGISTRAR message to declare they want to be DS. According to the IP information taken in the message, an algorithm works like the election of DR and BDR in OSPF protocol is used to vote DS and BDS SIP servers. Naturally, the DS will be replaced by BDS when the DS is down for predicable or unpredictable reasons. To facilitate this, the DS should register to the BDS and transfer a backup of the SIP users' database. Considering the possibility DS or BDS may abruptly go down, a special policy is given. When there is no DS and BDS, a new election procedure is triggered just like the startup phase. The paper also describes how SIP works normally in the decentralized model as well as the evaluation of its performance. All sessions based on SIP in ad hoc such as DS voting have been tested in the real experiments within a 500m*500m square area where about 30 random nodes are placed.

  18. Optimum Combining for Rapidly Fading Channels in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Furman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Research and technology in wireless communication systems such as radar and cellular networks have successfully implemented alternative design approaches that utilize antenna array techniques such as optimum combining, to mitigate the degradation effects of multipath in rapid fading channels. In ad hoc networks, these methods have not yet been exploited primarily due to the complexity inherent in the network's architecture. With the high demand for improved signal link quality, devices configured with omnidirectional antennas can no longer meet the growing need for link quality and spectrum efficiency. This study takes an empirical approach to determine an optimum combining antenna array based on 3 variants of interelement spacing. For rapid fading channels, the simulation results show that the performance in the network of devices retrofitted with our antenna arrays consistently exceeded those with an omnidirectional antenna. Further, with the optimum combiner, the performance increased by over 60% compared to that of an omnidirectional antenna in a rapid fading channel.

  19. A Spontaneous Ad Hoc Network to Share WWW Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloret Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a secure spontaneous ad-hoc network, based on direct peer-to-peer interaction, to grant a quick, easy, and secure access to the users to surf the Web. The paper shows the description of our proposal, the procedure of the nodes involved in the system, the security algorithms implemented, and the designed messages. We have taken into account the security and its performance. Although some people have defined and described the main features of spontaneous ad-hoc networks, nobody has published any design and simulation until today. Spontaneous networking will enable a more natural form of wireless computing when people physically meet in the real world. We also validate the success of our proposal through several simulations and comparisons with a regular architecture, taking into account the optimization of the resources of the devices. Finally, we compare our proposal with other caching techniques published in the related literature. The proposal has been developed with the main objective of improving the communication and integration between different study centers of low-resource communities. That is, it lets communicate spontaneous networks, which are working collaboratively and which have been created on different physical places.

  20. LAMAN: Load Adaptable MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realp Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc radio networks, mechanisms on how to access the radio channel are extremely important in order to improve network efficiency. In this paper, the load adaptable medium access control for ad hoc networks (LAMAN protocol is described. LAMAN is a novel decentralized multipacket MAC protocol designed following a cross-layer approach. Basically, this protocol is a hybrid CDMA-TDMA-based protocol that aims at throughput maximization in multipacket communication environments by efficiently combining contention and conflict-free protocol components. Such combination of components is used to adapt the nodes' access priority to changes on the traffic load while, at the same time, accounting for the multipacket reception (MPR capability of the receivers. A theoretical analysis of the system is developed presenting closed expressions of network throughput and packet delay. By simulations the validity of our analysis is shown and the performances of a LAMAN-based system and an Aloha-CDMA-based one are compared.

  1. Performance Analysis of Non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Linbo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Gang

    This letter presents a model with queueing theory to analyze the performance of non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF networks. We use the closed queueing network model and derive an approximate representation of throughput which can reveal the relationship between the throughput and the total offered load under finite traffic load conditions. The accuracy of the model is verified by extensive simulations.

  2. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  3. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  4. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  5. Reliability analysis of cluster-based ad-hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jason L.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    The mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN) is a new and emerging network scheme that is being employed in a variety of applications. The MAWN varies from traditional networks because it is a self-forming and dynamic network. The MAWN is free of infrastructure and, as such, only the mobile nodes comprise the network. Pairs of nodes communicate either directly or through other nodes. To do so, each node acts, in turn, as a source, destination, and relay of messages. The virtue of a MAWN is the flexibility this provides; however, the challenge for reliability analyses is also brought about by this unique feature. The variability and volatility of the MAWN configuration makes typical reliability methods (e.g. reliability block diagram) inappropriate because no single structure or configuration represents all manifestations of a MAWN. For this reason, new methods are being developed to analyze the reliability of this new networking technology. New published methods adapt to this feature by treating the configuration probabilistically or by inclusion of embedded mobility models. This paper joins both methods together and expands upon these works by modifying the problem formulation to address the reliability analysis of a cluster-based MAWN. The cluster-based MAWN is deployed in applications with constraints on networking resources such as bandwidth and energy. This paper presents the problem's formulation, a discussion of applicable reliability metrics for the MAWN, and illustration of a Monte Carlo simulation method through the analysis of several example networks

  6. Increased longevity of wireless Ad hoc network through fuzzy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Abdali Larki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ad hoc network is one of the multistep-based self-organizing networks, which are dynamically changing and are taken more into account as the ways of connecting the terminals through the development of wireless communication terminals. We are faced with numerous challenges in designing a wireless network such as the dynamic topology, common and limited bandwidth, and the limited energy. The nodes are moving according to the continuous changes in the topology and the source-to-destination paths are completely broken. Therefore, the repeated route discovery enhances the delay and overload of routing. Thus, it is essential to consider the link stability while designing the path in order to choose the routing protocol. Providing the multiple paths may lead to the better performance than a path. The transmission energy control in the wireless Ad hoc networks is the option for the level of transmission energy in order to transmit each node packet in this system. Therefore, transmission energy control affects the wireless medium interface. Because of choosing the appropriate protocol, the routing operation can be improved and the energy consumption can be controlled properly as well as enhancing the durability and longevity of network. The main objective of this study is to enhance the network longevity. The proposed algorithm in this research considers the combination of 2 parameters including the rate of node energy and number of steps in Fuzzy System applied on AOMDV Protocol, which is a Multipath Routing Protocol. The results of simulation also indicate the improved performance of proposed algorithm (AOMDV-F compared to AODV and AOMDV Protocols in NS2 simulator.

  7. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  8. A Dynamic Reputation Management System for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chiejina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are mandated to utilize their limited energy resources in forwarding routing control and data packets for other nodes. Since a MANET lacks a centralized administration and control, a node may decide to act selfishly, either by refusing to respond to route requests from other nodes or deceitfully by responding to some route requests, but dropping the corresponding data packets that are presented for forwarding. A significant increase in the presence of these misbehaving nodes in a MANET can subsequently degrade network performance. In this paper, we propose a dynamic reputation management system for detecting and isolating misbehaving nodes in MANETs. Our model employs a novel direct monitoring technique to evaluate the reputation of a node in the network, which ensures that nodes that expend their energy in transmitting data and routing control packets for others are allowed to carry out their network activities while the misbehaving nodes are detected and isolated from the network. Simulation results show that our model is effective at curbing and mitigating the effects of misbehaving nodes in the network.

  9. A Hybrid Energy Efficient Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Kumar Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed an energy conservation technique called Location Based Topology Control with Sleep Scheduling for ad hoc networks. It uses the feature of both topology control approach and power management approach. Like the topology control approach, it attempts to reduce the transmission power of a node, which is determined from its neighborhood location information. A node goes to sleep state based on the traffic condition as that of power management approach. In the proposed scheme, a node goes to sleep state only when its absence does not create local partition in its neighborhood. We preformed extensive simulation to compare the proposed scheme with existing ones. Simulation results show that the energy consumption is lower with increase in the network lifetime and higher throughput in the proposed scheme.

  10. An ad hoc wireless sensor network for tele medicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheltami, Tarek R.; Mahmoud, Ashraf S.; Abu-Amara, Marwan H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in embedded computing systems have led to the emergence of wireless sensor networks (SNETs), consisting of small, battery-powered motes with limited computation and radio communication capabilities. SNETs permit data gathering and computation to be deeply embedded in the physical environment. Large scale ad hoc sensor networks (ASNET), when deployed among mobile patients, can provide dynamic data query architecture to allow medical specialists to monitor patients at any place via the web or cellular network. In case of an emergency, doctors and/or nurses will be contacted automatically through their handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) or cellular phones. In specific, the proposed network consists of sensor nodes at the first layer whose responsibility is to measure, collect and communicate, via wired or wireless interface, readings to a microcontroller presenting the second layer of architecture. Deployed microcontrollers process incoming readings and report to a central system via a wireless interface. The implemented network distinguishes between periodic sensor readings and critical or event driven readings where higher priorities is given for the latter. In this paper we implement 3 special cases for tracking and monitoring patients and doctors using SNETs. In addition, the performance of a large scale of our implementation has been tested by means of mathematical analysis. (author)

  11. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Kanakala; Venugopal Reddy Ananthula; Prashanthi Vempaty

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing proto...

  12. Cross-Layer Resource Allocation for Wireless Visual Sensor Networks and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    are applied to video sequences in order to reduce the bit rate required for storage and/or transmission, while network congestion may result in packet...Wheatley, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 40, pp. 303–312, May 1991. [41] K. Pandremmenou

  13. Energy-aware path selection metric for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, MM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11s working group has commenced activities, which would lead to the development of a standard for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The draft of 802.11s introduces a new path selection metric called airtime link metric. However...

  14. Energy-aware path selection metric for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, MM

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11s working group has commenced activities, which would lead to the development of a standard for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The draft of 802.11s introduces a new path selection metric called airtime link metric. However...

  15. Further Development of Synchronous Array Method for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Hua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A further development of the synchronous array method (SAM as a medium access control scheme for large-scale ad hoc wireless networks is presented. Under SAM, all transmissions of data packets between adjacent nodes are synchronized on a frame-by-frame basis, and the spacing between concurrent cochannel transmissions of data packets is properly controlled. An opportunistic SAM (O-SAM is presented which allows concurrent cochannel transmissions to be locally adaptive to channel gain variations. A distributed SAM (D-SAM is discussed that schedules all concurrent cochannel transmissions in a distributed fashion. For networks of low mobility, the control overhead required by SAM can be made much smaller than the payload. By analysis and simulation, the intranetwork throughput of O-SAM and D-SAM is evaluated. The effects of traffic load and multiple antennas on the intranetwork throughput are studied. The throughput of ALOHA is also analyzed and compared with that of O-SAM and D-SAM. By a distance-weighted throughput, a comparison of long distance transmission versus short distance transmission is also presented. The study of D-SAM reveals an important insight into the MSH-DSCH protocol adopted in IEEE 802.16 standards.

  16. Data management issues in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Research on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) has become a hot research topic since the middle 1990's. Over the first decade, most research focused on networking techniques, ignoring data management issues. We, however, realized early the importance of data management in MANETs, and have been conducting studies in this area for 15 years. In this review, we summarize some key technical issues related to data management in MANETs, and the studies we have done in addressing these issues, which include placement of data replicas, update management, and query processing with security management. The techniques proposed in our studies have been designed with deep considerations of MANET features including network partitioning, node participation/disappearance, limited network bandwidth, and energy efficiency. Our studies published in early 2000's have developed a new research field as data management in MANETs. Also, our recent studies are expected to be significant guidelines of new research directions. We conclude the review by discussing some future directions for research.

  17. A flow level model for wireless multihop ad hoc network throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom Johannes Maria; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    A flow level model for multihop wireless ad hoc networks is presented in this paper. Using a flow level view, we show the main properties and modeling challenges for ad hoc networks. Considering different scenarios, a multihop WLAN and a serial network with a TCP-like flow control protocol, we

  18. An IEEE 802.11 EDCA Model with Support for Analysing Networks with Misbehaving Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szott Szymon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel model of IEEE 802.11 EDCA with support for analysing networks with misbehaving nodes. In particular, we consider backoff misbehaviour. Firstly, we verify the model by extensive simulation analysis and by comparing it to three other IEEE 802.11 models. The results show that our model behaves satisfactorily and outperforms other widely acknowledged models. Secondly, a comparison with simulation results in several scenarios with misbehaving nodes proves that our model performs correctly for these scenarios. The proposed model can, therefore, be considered as an original contribution to the area of EDCA models and backoff misbehaviour.

  19. Reputation-Based Internet Protocol Security: A Multilayer Security Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    motivated research in behavior grading systems [56]. Peer-to-peer eCommerce appli- cations such as eBay, Amazon, uBid, and Yahoo have performed research that...Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. IEEE Security & Privacy , 72–75, 2008. 15. Chakeres, ID and EM Belding-Royer. “AODV Routing Protocol Implementa...Detection System”. Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Symposium on Research in Security and Privacy , 240–250. 1992. 21. Devore, J.L. and N.R. Farnum

  20. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  1. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  2. An Integrated Multi-layer Approach for Seamless Soft Handoff in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    network to showcase how to leverage the IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover ( MIH ) framework [3] in our handoff solution. Moreover, to further...to the seamless handoff problem. The architecture leverages the IEEE 802.21 MIH standard to facilitate handover related decisions on multiple...provided by the MIH function (MIHF), the topology control manager dynamically activates/deactivates the wireless interfaces to ensure the network is

  3. Building Realistic Mobility Models for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pullin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring wireless network in which each node could act as a router, as well as a data source or sink. Its application areas include battlefields and vehicular and disaster areas. Many techniques applied to infrastructure-based networks are less effective in MANETs, with routing being a particular challenge. This paper presents a rigorous study into simulation techniques for evaluating routing solutions for MANETs with the aim of producing more realistic simulation models and thereby, more accurate protocol evaluations. MANET simulations require models that reflect the world in which the MANET is to operate. Much of the published research uses movement models, such as the random waypoint (RWP model, with arbitrary world sizes and node counts. This paper presents a technique for developing more realistic simulation models to test and evaluate MANET protocols. The technique is animation, which is applied to a realistic scenario to produce a model that accurately reflects the size and shape of the world, node count, movement patterns, and time period over which the MANET may operate. The animation technique has been used to develop a battlefield model based on established military tactics. Trace data has been used to build a model of maritime movements in the Irish Sea. Similar world models have been built using the random waypoint movement model for comparison. All models have been built using the ns-2 simulator. These models have been used to compare the performance of three routing protocols: dynamic source routing (DSR, destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV, and ad hoc n-demand distance vector routing (AODV. The findings reveal that protocol performance is dependent on the model used. In particular, it is shown that RWP models do not reflect the performance of these protocols under realistic circumstances, and protocol selection is subject to the scenario to which it is applied. To

  4. NDN-CRAHNs: Named Data Networking for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Asif Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Named data networking (NDN is a newly proposed paradigm for future Internet, in which communication among nodes is based on data names, decoupling from their locations. In dynamic and self-organized cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs, it is difficult to maintain end-to-end connectivity between ad hoc nodes especially in the presence of licensed users and intermittent wireless channels. Moreover, IP-based CRAHNs have several issues like scalability, inefficient-mapping, poor resource utilization, and location dependence. By leveraging the advantages of NDN, in this paper, we propose a new cross layer fine-grained architecture called named data networking for cognitive radio ad hoc networks (NDN-CRAHNs. The proposed architecture provides distinct features such as in-networking caching, security, scalability, and multipath routing. The performances of the proposed scheme are evaluated comparing to IP-based scheme in terms of average end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is effective in terms of average contents download time and packet delivery ratios comparing to conventional cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Beacon-Enabled Mode for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.5 standard support structure of star and peer-to-peer network formation. Strating from these, the cluster tree network can be built as a special case of peer-to-peer network to increse coverage area. In this paper, we provide an performance evaluation of beacon- enabled mode for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network on star and cluster topology in order to get the maximum result to apply the appropriate topology model as needed. We conduct analysis on each topology model by using the numbers of nodes from 10 nodes to 100 nodes to analyze throughput, delay, energy consumption, and probability success packet by using NS2 simulator. The simulation results show that the throughput and the probability of success packet of cluster topology are higher than that of star topology, and the energy consumption of cluster topology is lesser than that of star topology. However, cluster topology increases the delay more than star topology. Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, wireless sensor network, beacon-enabled mode, topology, csma/ca

  6. A peer-to-peer file search and download protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekkalmaz, M.; Korpeoglu, I.

    Deployment of traditional peer-to-peer file sharing systems on a wireless ad-hoc network introduces several challenges. Information and workload distribution as well as routing are major problems for members of a wireless ad-hoc network, which are only aware of their immediate neighborhood. In this

  7. Contribution to design a communication framework for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp Barba, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The constant mobility of people, the growing need to be always connected, the large number of vehicles that nowadays can be found in the roads and the advances in technology make Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) be a major area of research. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are a special type of wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), which allow a group of mobile nodes configure a temporary network and maintain it without the need of a fixed infrastructure. A vehicular network presents some spec...

  8. The effect of DAD timeout period on address autoconfiguration in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutanga, MB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of manual management mechanisms in wireless ad-hoc networks means that automatic configuration of IP addresses and other related network parameters are very crucial. Many IP address autoconfiguration mechanisms have been proposed in literature...

  9. Design Optimization of Cyber-Physical Distributed Systems using IEEE Time-sensitive Networks (TSN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Lander Raagaard, Michael; Craciunas, Silviu S.

    2016-01-01

    to the optimization of distributed cyber-physical systems using real-time Ethernet for communication. Then, we formulate two novel optimization problems related to the scheduling and routing of TT and AVB traffic in TSN. Thus, we consider that we know the topology of the network as well as the set of TT and AVB flows......In this paper we are interested in safety-critical real-time applications implemented on distributed architectures supporting the Time-SensitiveNetworking (TSN) standard. The ongoing standardization of TSN is an IEEE effort to bring deterministic real-time capabilities into the IEEE 802.1 Ethernet...... standard supporting safety-critical systems and guaranteed Quality-of-Service. TSN will support Time-Triggered (TT) communication based on schedule tables, Audio-Video-Bridging (AVB) flows with bounded end-to-end latency as well as Best-Effort messages. We first present a survey of research related...

  10. A Novel IEEE 802.15.4e DSME MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Pattanaik, Sudhir Ranjan; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2017-01-16

    IEEE 802.15.4e standard proposes Deterministic and Synchronous Multichannel Extension (DSME) mode for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to support industrial, commercial and health care applications. In this paper, a new channel access scheme and beacon scheduling schemes are designed for the IEEE 802.15.4e enabled WSNs in star topology to reduce the network discovery time and energy consumption. In addition, a new dynamic guaranteed retransmission slot allocation scheme is designed for devices with the failure Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) transmission to reduce the retransmission delay. To evaluate our schemes, analytical models are designed to analyze the performance of WSNs in terms of reliability, delay, throughput and energy consumption. Our schemes are validated with simulation and analytical results and are observed that simulation results well match with the analytical one. The evaluated results of our designed schemes can improve the reliability, throughput, delay, and energy consumptions significantly.

  11. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  12. A Novel Prioritization Scheme to Improve QoS in IEEE 802.11e Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Tadayon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11 WLAN utilizes a distributed function at its MAC layer, namely, DCF to access the wireless medium. Due to its distributed nature, DCF is able to guarantee working stability in a wireless medium while maintaining the assembling and maintenance cost in a low level. However, DCF is inefficient in dealing with real-time traffics due to its incapability on providing QoS. IEEE 802.11e was introduced as a supplementary standard to cope with this problem. This standard introduces an Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function (EDCF that works based on diff-Serve model and can serve multiple classes of traffics (by using different prioritizations schemes. With the emergence of new time-sensitive applications, EDCF has proved to be yet inefficient in dealing with these kinds of traffics because it could not provide network with well-differentiated QoS. In this study, we propose a novel prioritization scheme to improve QoS level in IEEE 802.11e network. In this scheme, we replace Uniform PDF with Gamma PDF, which has salient differentiating properties. We investigate the suitability and superiority of this scheme on furnishing network with well-differentiated QoS using probabilistic analysis. We strengthen our claims by extensive simulation runs.

  13. Analysis and Enhancements of Leader Elections algorithms in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shayeji, Mohammad H. Al; Al-Azmi, AbdulRahman R.; Al-Azmi, AbdulAziz R.; Samrajesh, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc networks (MANET), distinct from traditional distributed systems, are dynamic and self-organizing networks. MANET requires a leader to coordinate and organize tasks. The challenge is to have the right election algorithm that chooses the right leader based on various factors in MANET. In this paper, we analyze four leader election algorithms used in mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Factors considered in our analysis are time complexity, message complexity, assumptions considered, fault tol...

  14. Study on Additional Carrier Sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Hwang Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs. The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  15. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  16. Self-Coexistence among IEEE 802.22 Networks: Distributed Allocation of Power and Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Sayef Azad; Razzaque, Md Abdur; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Alamri, Atif; Tran, Nguyen H; Fortino, Giancarlo

    2017-12-07

    Ensuring self-coexistence among IEEE 802.22 networks is a challenging problem owing to opportunistic access of incumbent-free radio resources by users in co-located networks. In this study, we propose a fully-distributed non-cooperative approach to ensure self-coexistence in downlink channels of IEEE 802.22 networks. We formulate the self-coexistence problem as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem for maximizing the network data rate, which is an NP-hard one. This work explores a sub-optimal solution by dividing the optimization problem into downlink channel allocation and power assignment sub-problems. Considering fairness, quality of service and minimum interference for customer-premises-equipment, we also develop a greedy algorithm for channel allocation and a non-cooperative game-theoretic framework for near-optimal power allocation. The base stations of networks are treated as players in a game, where they try to increase spectrum utilization by controlling power and reaching a Nash equilibrium point. We further develop a utility function for the game to increase the data rate by minimizing the transmission power and, subsequently, the interference from neighboring networks. A theoretical proof of the uniqueness and existence of the Nash equilibrium has been presented. Performance improvements in terms of data-rate with a degree of fairness compared to a cooperative branch-and-bound-based algorithm and a non-cooperative greedy approach have been shown through simulation studies.

  17. Self-Coexistence among IEEE 802.22 Networks: Distributed Allocation of Power and Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayef Azad Sakin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring self-coexistence among IEEE 802.22 networks is a challenging problem owing to opportunistic access of incumbent-free radio resources by users in co-located networks. In this study, we propose a fully-distributed non-cooperative approach to ensure self-coexistence in downlink channels of IEEE 802.22 networks. We formulate the self-coexistence problem as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem for maximizing the network data rate, which is an NP-hard one. This work explores a sub-optimal solution by dividing the optimization problem into downlink channel allocation and power assignment sub-problems. Considering fairness, quality of service and minimum interference for customer-premises-equipment, we also develop a greedy algorithm for channel allocation and a non-cooperative game-theoretic framework for near-optimal power allocation. The base stations of networks are treated as players in a game, where they try to increase spectrum utilization by controlling power and reaching a Nash equilibrium point. We further develop a utility function for the game to increase the data rate by minimizing the transmission power and, subsequently, the interference from neighboring networks. A theoretical proof of the uniqueness and existence of the Nash equilibrium has been presented. Performance improvements in terms of data-rate with a degree of fairness compared to a cooperative branch-and-bound-based algorithm and a non-cooperative greedy approach have been shown through simulation studies.

  18. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ramratan Ahirwal; Leeladhar Mahour

    2012-01-01

    In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the...

  19. Study of Allocation Guaranteed Time Slot Wireless Body Area Networks Based on IEEE 802.15.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yundra, E.; Harsono, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to determine the size of the Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) on the super frame structure required for each sensor as well as to know the performance of the GTS resized system compared to the GTS standard on IEEE 802.15.4. This article proposes a scheme to improve IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control, called allocation Guaranteed Time Slot (ALGATIS). ALGATIS is expected to effectively allocate guaranteed time slot to the requested sensors, it adjusts the length of the slot in super frame duration based on the length of the packet data. This article presents a simulation experiment of IEEE 802.15.4, especially for star network, to predict the throughput of networks and average energy consumption. The simulation experiments show that the performance of ALGATIS is better than that of IEEE 802.15.4 standard in term of the throughput of networks and average energy consumption

  20. Adjusting Sensing Range to Maximize Throughput on Ad-Hoc Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    .... Such a network is referred to as a multi-hop ad-hoc network, or simply a multi-hop network. Most multi-hop network protocols use some form of carrier sensing to determine if the wireless channel is in use...

  1. Packets Distributing Evolutionary Algorithm Based on PSO for Ad Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Feng

    2018-03-01

    Wireless communication network has such features as limited bandwidth, changeful channel and dynamic topology, etc. Ad hoc network has lots of difficulties in accessing control, bandwidth distribution, resource assign and congestion control. Therefore, a wireless packets distributing Evolutionary algorithm based on PSO (DPSO)for Ad Hoc Network is proposed. Firstly, parameters impact on performance of network are analyzed and researched to obtain network performance effective function. Secondly, the improved PSO Evolutionary Algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem from local to global in the process of network packets distributing. The simulation results show that the algorithm can ensure fairness and timeliness of network transmission, as well as improve ad hoc network resource integrated utilization efficiency.

  2. Adaptive, Tactical Mesh Networking: Control Base MANET Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    pp. 316–320 Available: IEEE Xplore , http://ieeexplore.ieee.org [Accessed: June 9, 2010]. [5] N. Sidiropoulos, “Multiuser Transmit Beamforming...Mobile Mesh Segments of TNT Testbed .......... 11 Figure 5. Infrastructure and Ad Hoc Mode of IEEE 802.11................................ 13 Figure...6. The Power Spectral Density of OFDM................................................ 14 Figure 7. A Typical IEEE 802.16 Network

  3. Strategies for Optimal MAC Parameters Tuning in IEEE 802.15.6 Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2015-09-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio.

  4. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-06-03

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method.

  5. A Tool for Visualizing Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Topology Definitions Files

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Binh Q

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a research and development effort that the U.S. Army Research Laboratory conducted in FY05 in support of the building of an emulated tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) research test bed...

  6. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim; Saeed, Nasir; Haq, Mian Imtiaz Ul; Cho, Sunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic

  7. DESAIN ALGORITMA DAN SIMULASI ROUTING UNTUK GATEWAY AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixson Meok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   Routing protocol to the wireless ad hoc networks is very needed in the communication process between some terminals, to send the data packet through one or several node(s to the destination address where the network typology is always changing. Many previous works that discussed about routing ad hoc both for manet (mobile ad hoc networks and wireless networks, but the emphasis have more focus on comparing the performance of several routing ad hoc. While in this work, there is a bulding of routing algorithm model to gateway in land to the nodes that analogized as a boat that move on the sea. With the assumption that the communication inter terminals to radio band of Very High Frequency, thus algorithm that built in the simulation based on the range gap of the HF frequency. The result of this simulation will be developed as the platform to implement the service development of multiuser communication

  8. Analysis for Ad Hoc Network Attack-Defense Based on Stochastic Game Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The attack actions analysis for Ad Hoc networks can provide a reference for the design security mechanisms. This paper presents an analysis method of security of Ad Hoc networks based on Stochastic Game Nets (SGN. This method can establish a SGN model of Ad Hoc networks and calculate to get the Nash equilibrium strategy. After transforming the SGN model into a continuous-time Markov Chain (CTMC, the security of Ad Hoc networks can be evaluated and analyzed quantitatively by calculating the stationary probability of CTMC. Finally, the Matlab simulation results show that the probability of successful attack is related to the attack intensity and expected payoffs, but not attack rate.

  9. Energy-Aware Broadcasting and Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Cross-Layering Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wieselthier, Jeffrey E; Nguyen, Gam D; Ephremides, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    ...) problems, especially when energy-aware operation is required. To address the specific problem of energy-aware tree construction in wireless ad hoc networks, we have developed the Broadcast Incremental Power (BIP...

  10. A Group Based Key Sharing and Management Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Shafi Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs are one special type of ad hoc networks that involves vehicles on roads. Typically like ad hoc networks, broadcast approach is used for data dissemination. Blind broadcast to each and every node results in exchange of useless and irrelevant messages and hence creates an overhead. Unicasting is not preferred in ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic topology and the resource requirements as compared to broadcasting. Simple broadcasting techniques create several problems on privacy, disturbance, and resource utilization. In this paper, we propose media mixing algorithm to decide what information should be provided to each user and how to provide such information. Results obtained through simulation show that fewer number of keys are needed to share compared to simple broadcasting. Privacy is also enhanced through this approach.

  11. On-Demand Routing in Multi-hop Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maltz, David A

    2001-01-01

    .... Routing protocols used in ad hoc networks must automatically adjust to environments that can vary between the extremes of high mobility with low bandwidth, and low mobility with high bandwidth...

  12. Throughput and Fairness of Collision Avoidance Protocols in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J; Wang, Yu

    2004-01-01

    .... In Section 1, The authors present an analytical modeling to derive the saturation throughput of these sender-initiated collision avoidance protocols in multi-hop ad hoc networks with nodes randomly...

  13. Handbook on theoretical and algorithmic aspects of sensor, ad hoc wireless, and peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceAD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKSA Modular Cross Layer Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, M. Conti, J. Crowcroft, G. Maselli, and G. TuriRouting Scalability in MANETs, J. Eriksson, S. Krishnamurthy and M. FaloutsosUniformly Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, D.S. KimMaximum Necessary Hop Count for Packet Routing in MANET, X. Chen and J. ShenEfficient Strategyproof Multicast in Selfish Wireless Networks, X.-Yang LiGeocasting in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, I. StojmenovicTopology Control for Ad hoc Networks: Present Solutions and Open Issues, C.-C. Shen a

  14. Synchronous ethernet and IEEE 1588 in telecoms next generation synchronization networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the multiple technical aspects of the distribution of synchronization in new generation telecommunication networks, focusing in particular on synchronous Ethernet and IEEE1588 technologies. Many packet network engineers struggle with understanding the challenges that precise synchronization distribution can impose on networks. The usual “why”, “when” and particularly “how” can cause problems for many engineers. In parallel to this, some other markets have identical synchronization requirements, but with their own design requirements, generating further questions. This book attempts to respond to the different questions by providing background technical information. Invaluable information on state of-the-art packet network synchronization and timing architectures is provided, as well as an unbiased view on the synchronization technologies that have been internationally standardized over recent years, with the aim of providing the average reader (who is not skilled in the art) wi...

  15. Experimental video signals distribution MMF network based on IEEE 802.11 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Maksymiuk, Lukasz; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    The article was focused on presentation the achievements in a scope of experimental research on transmission of digital video streams in the frame of specially realized for this purpose ROF (Radio over Fiber) network. Its construction was based on the merge of wireless IEEE 802.11 network, popularly referred as Wi-Fi, with a passive optical network PON based on multimode fibers MMF. The proposed approach can constitute interesting proposal in area of solutions in the scope of the systems monitoring extensive, within which is required covering of a large area with ensuring of a relatively high degree of immunity on the interferences transmitted signals from video IP cameras to the monitoring center and a high configuration flexibility (easily change the deployment of cameras) of such network.

  16. Service for fault tolerance in the Ad Hoc Networks based on Multi Agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalem Belalem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ad hoc networks are distributed networks, self-organized and does not require infrastructure. In such network, mobile infrastructures are subject of disconnections. This situation may concern a voluntary or involuntary disconnection of nodes caused by the high mobility in the Ad hoc network. In these problems we are trying through this work to contribute to solving these problems in order to ensure continuous service by proposing our service for faults tolerance based on Multi Agent Systems (MAS, which predict a problem and decision making in relation to critical nodes. Our work contributes to study the prediction of voluntary and involuntary disconnections in the Ad hoc network; therefore we propose our service for faults tolerance that allows for effective distribution of information in the Network by selecting some objects of the network to be duplicates of information.

  17. User-centred and context-aware identity management in mobile ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Arabo, Abdullahi

    2013-01-01

    The emergent notion of ubiquitous computing makes it possible for mobile devices to communicate and provide services via networks connected in an ad-hoc manner. These have resulted in the proliferation of wireless technologies such as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANets), which offer attractive solutions for services that need flexible setup as well as dynamic and low cost wireless connectivity. However, the growing trend outlined above also raises serious concerns over Identity Management (IM) du...

  18. Real-Time-Simulation of IEEE-5-Bus Network on OPAL-RT-OP4510 Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atul Bhandakkar, Anjali; Mathew, Lini, Dr.

    2018-03-01

    The Real-Time Simulator tools have high computing technologies, improved performance. They are widely used for design and improvement of electrical systems. The advancement of the software tools like MATLAB/SIMULINK with its Real-Time Workshop (RTW) and Real-Time Windows Target (RTWT), real-time simulators are used extensively in many engineering fields, such as industry, education, and research institutions. OPAL-RT-OP4510 is a Real-Time Simulator which is used in both industry and academia. In this paper, the real-time simulation of IEEE-5-Bus network is carried out by means of OPAL-RT-OP4510 with CRO and other hardware. The performance of the network is observed with the introduction of fault at various locations. The waveforms of voltage, current, active and reactive power are observed in the MATLAB simulation environment and on the CRO. Also, Load Flow Analysis (LFA) of IEEE-5-Bus network is computed using MATLAB/Simulink power-gui load flow tool.

  19. Cognitive radio network in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Mun-Yee Lim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio network and Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET are recent emerging concepts in wireless networking. Cognitive radio network obtains knowledge of its operational geographical environment to manage sharing of spectrum between primary and secondary users, while VANET shares emergency safety messages among vehicles to ensure safety of users on the road. Cognitive radio network is employed in VANET to ensure the efficient use of spectrum, as well as to support VANET’s deployment. Random increase and decrease of spectrum users, unpredictable nature of VANET, high mobility, varying interference, security, packet scheduling and priority assignment are the challenges encountered in a typical cognitive VANET environment. This paper provides survey and critical analysis on different challenges of cognitive radio VANET, with discussion on the open issues, challenges and performance metrics, for different cognitive radio VANET applications.

  20. Fault-Tolerant Topology and Routing Synthesis for IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavrilut, Voica Maria; Zarrin, Bahram; Pop, Paul

    2017-01-01

    of the applications are satisffied. We propose three approaches to solve this optimization problem: (1) a heuristic solution, (2) a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) metaheuristic, and (3) a Constraint Programmingbased model. The approaches are evaluated on several test cases, including a test case......Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of IEEE standards that extend Ethernet for safety-critical and real-time applications. TSN is envisioned to be widely used in several applications areas, from industrial automation to in-vehicle networking. A TSN network is composed of end systems...... interconnected by physical links and bridges (switches). The data in TSN is exchanged via streams. We address safety-critical real-time systems, and we consider that the streams use the Urgency-Based Scheduler (UBS) traffic-type, suitable for hard real-time traffic. We are interested in determining a fault...

  1. Information Sharing Modalities for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Spindler, Alexandre; Grossniklaus, Michael; Lins, Christoph; Norrie, Moira C.

    Current mobile phone technologies have fostered the emergence of a new generation of mobile applications. Such applications allow users to interact and share information opportunistically when their mobile devices are in physical proximity or close to fixed installations. It has been shown how mobile applications such as collaborative filtering and location-based services can take advantage of ad-hoc connectivity to use physical proximity as a filter mechanism inherent to the application logic. We discuss the different modes of information sharing that arise in such settings based on the models of persistence and synchronisation. We present a platform that supports the development of applications that can exploit these modes of ad-hoc information sharing and, by means of an example, show how such an application can be realised based on the supported event model.

  2. Deny-by-Default Distributed Security Policy Enforcement in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicherry, Mansoor; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stavrou, Angelos

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasingly employed in tactical military and civil rapid-deployment networks, including emergency rescue operations and ad hoc disaster-relief networks. However, this flexibility of MANETs comes at a price, when compared to wired and base station-based wireless networks: MANETs are susceptible to both insider and outsider attacks. This is mainly because of the lack of a well-defined defense perimeter preventing the effective use of wired defenses including firewalls and intrusion detection systems.

  3. An empirical evaluation of bufferbloat in IEEE 802.11n wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad

    2014-04-06

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of large, persistently-full buffers (`bufferbloat\\') on various network dynamics in IEEE 802.11n wireless networks. Bufferbloat has mostly been studied in the context of wired networks. We study the impact of bufferbloat on a variety of wireless network topologies, including wireless LAN (WLAN) and multi-hop wireless networks. Our results show that a single FTP transfer between two Linux wireless hosts can saturate the buffers in the network stack, leading to RTT delays exceeding 4.5 s in multi-hop configurations. We show that well-designed Aggregate MAC Protocol Data Unit (A-MPDU) MAC-layer frame aggregation can reduce RTT delays while simultaneously increasing network throughput. However, additional measures may still be required to meet the constraints of real-time flows (such as VoIP). Our experiments show that large buffers can deteriorate the fairness in rate allocation in parking lot based multi-hop networks.

  4. An empirical evaluation of bufferbloat in IEEE 802.11n wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of large, persistently-full buffers (`bufferbloat') on various network dynamics in IEEE 802.11n wireless networks. Bufferbloat has mostly been studied in the context of wired networks. We study the impact of bufferbloat on a variety of wireless network topologies, including wireless LAN (WLAN) and multi-hop wireless networks. Our results show that a single FTP transfer between two Linux wireless hosts can saturate the buffers in the network stack, leading to RTT delays exceeding 4.5 s in multi-hop configurations. We show that well-designed Aggregate MAC Protocol Data Unit (A-MPDU) MAC-layer frame aggregation can reduce RTT delays while simultaneously increasing network throughput. However, additional measures may still be required to meet the constraints of real-time flows (such as VoIP). Our experiments show that large buffers can deteriorate the fairness in rate allocation in parking lot based multi-hop networks.

  5. SURVEI TEKNIK CLUSTERING ROUTING BERDASARKAN MOBILITAS PADA WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Trisna Wirawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad-hoc merupakan sebuah skema jaringan yang didesain supaya mampu beroperasi tanpa membutuhkan infrastruktur tetap serta bersifat otonom. Teknik flooding pada proses path discovery dalam kasus wireless ad-hoc network dapat menimbulkan masalah beban jaringan yang berlebihan. Oleh karena itu, sebuah skema clustering diusulkan untuk mengurangi adanya flooding paket yang berlebihan dengan membagi node-node dalam jaringan menjadi beberapa bagian berdasarkan parameter tertentu. Teknik ini efektifuntuk mengurangi paket yang harus dilewatkan dalam jaringan. Namun masalah muncul ketika sebuah jaringan wireless ad-hoc harus membentuk sebuah cluster dengan mempertimbangkan beberapa parameter khusus. Parameter tersebut harus disesuaikan dengan kasus yang dihadapi. Pada tulisan ini akan dibahas secara khusus mengenai penerapan skema clustering dalam lingkungan wireless ad-hoc network, baik pada MANETdan penyesuaian skema clustering yang harus dilakukan pada VANET berdasarkan mobilitasnya.

  6. Contribution to design a communication framework for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp Barba, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    La movilidad constante de las personas y la creciente necesidad de estar conectados en todo momento ha hecho de las redes vehiculares un área cuyo interés ha ido en aumento. La gran cantidad de vehículos que hay en la actualidad, y los avances tecnológicos han hecho de las redes vehiculares (VANETS, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) un gran campo de investigación. Las redes vehiculares son un tipo especial de redes móviles ad hoc inalámbricas, las cuales, al igual que las redes MANET (Mobile Ad hoc ...

  7. Efficient Beacon Collision Resolution Procedure for IEEE 802.15.4 /Zigbee Wireless Personal Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam A. Zafar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee is a promising technology for Wireless Personal Area Networks, several transmission problems are not yet resolved. In particular, the problem of beacon transmission interferences is causing the device connection loss to the network. In order to resolve this problem, we present a new distributed and reactive procedure for beacon collision resolution. It is an extension of the alignment procedure to reorganize randomly the beacon transmission time when a collision has occurred. The detail of the proposed procedure will be fully described and analyzed. The performance of our approach is performed by simulations. The results show that our approach reduces the collision probability and the device disconnections consequently.

  8. A Proposal and Evaluation of Security Camera System at a Car Park in an Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Wataru; Murata, Masashi

    In recent year, ad-hoc network technology has gained attention, which consists of not access points and base stations but of wireless nodes. In this network, it is difficult to maintain the whole data flow because of the absence of access points as the network administrator when nodes share the data. This paper proposes the security camera system which has only nodes sharing the taken pictures and has the robustness against the data destroying. The sender node cannot know whether packets are received or not by neighboring nodes in broadcasting because of a unidirectional communication. So in our proposed method, the sender node selects the receiver node from neighboring nodes, and they communicate with each other. On the other hand, neighboring nodes listen to packets between the sender node and the receiver node. After that, this method guarantees nodes of more than 1 which receive a data in broadcasting. We construct the security camera system using wireless nodes with the IEEE 802.15.4 specification and show the performance for security. At last, using the simulator we show the efficiency in the large environment, and conclude this paper.

  9. Centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Disaster relief networks have to be highly adaptable and resilient. Cognitive radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as a candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing is the cornerstone of the cognitive radio paradigm, and it has been the target of intensive research....... The main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, spectrum sensing cooperative schemes are paramount. A centralized cluster...

  10. A Novel Routing Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aquino Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina la importancia de las redes inalámbricas ad hoc y el algoritmo de enrutamiento con inundación basada en grupos (LORA-CBF para la comunicación inter-vehicular con la finalidad de optimizar el flujo de tráfico e incrementar la seguridad en las autopistas. Se discute el algoritmo de enrutamiento LORA-CBF y se presentan los resultados de simulaciones realizadas en OPNET de una autopista con alta movilidad vehicular. Primero, el modelo de simulación propuesto se valida a pequeña escala con resultados experimentales. Posteriormente, se emplean simulaciones de nuestro modelo comparándolos con Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV y Dynamic Source Routing (DSR. Finalmente, se emplea un modelo de tráfico microscópico desarrollado en OPNET para simular la movilidad de 250 vehículos en una autopista y se aplica el algoritmo de enrutamiento LORA-CBF en un escenario vehicular.

  11. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-05-05

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks.

  12. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks.

  13. Energy Consumption Model and Measurement Results for Network Coding-enabled IEEE 802.11 Meshed Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Rasmussen, Ulrik Wilken; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an energy model and energy measurements for network coding enabled wireless meshed networks based on IEEE 802.11 technology. The energy model and the energy measurement testbed is limited to a simple Alice and Bob scenario. For this toy scenario we compare the energy usages...... for a system with and without network coding support. While network coding reduces the number of radio transmissions, the operational activity on the devices due to coding will be increased. We derive an analytical model for the energy consumption and compare it to real measurements for which we build...... a flexible, low cost tool to be able to measure at any given node in a meshed network. We verify the precision of our tool by comparing it to a sophisticated device. Our main results in this paper are the derivation of an analytical energy model, the implementation of a distributed energy measurement testbed...

  14. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  15. New grid based test bed environment for carrying out ad-hoc networking experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available and the third is to do analysis on a real test bed network which has implemented the ad-hoc networking protocol. This paper concerns the third option. Most researchers who have done work on test bed environments have used either indoor Wifi inter-office links...

  16. On the Geometrical Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless ad hoc network, messages are transmitted, received, and forwarded in a finite geometrical region and the transmission of messages is highly dependent on the locations of the nodes. Therefore the study of geometrical relationship between nodes in wireless ad hoc networks is of fundamental importance in the network architecture design and performance evaluation. However, most previous works concentrated on the networks deployed in the two-dimensional region or in the infinite three-dimensional space, while in many cases wireless ad hoc networks are deployed in the finite three-dimensional space. In this paper, we analyze the geometrical characteristics of the three-dimensional wireless ad hoc network in a finite space in the framework of random graph and deduce an expression to calculate the distance probability distribution between network nodes that are independently and uniformly distributed in a finite cuboid space. Based on the theoretical result, we present some meaningful results on the finite three-dimensional network performance, including the node degree and the max-flow capacity. Furthermore, we investigate some approximation properties of the distance probability distribution function derived in the paper.

  17. Model-based prototyping of an interoperability protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, L.M.; Westergaard, M.; Norgaard, P.C.; Romijn, J.; Smith, G.; Pol, van de J.

    2005-01-01

    We present an industrial project conducted at Ericsson Danmark A/S, Telebit where formal methods in the form of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the specification of an interoperability protocol for routing packets between fixed core networks and mobile ad-hoc networks. The

  18. A tandem queueing model for delay analysis in disconnected ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; de Haan, Roland; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc network routing protocols may fail to operate in the absence of an end-to-end connection from source to destination. This deficiency can be resolved by so-called opportunistic networking which exploits the mobility of the nodes by letting them operate as relays according to the

  19. PSO-Optimized Hopfield Neural Network-Based Multipath Routing for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Sheikhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a dynamic collection of mobile computers without the need for any existing infrastructure. Nodes in a MANET act as hosts and routers. Designing of robust routing algorithms for MANETs is a challenging task. Disjoint multipath routing protocols address this problem and increase the reliability, security and lifetime of network. However, selecting an optimal multipath is an NP-complete problem. In this paper, Hopfield neural network (HNN which its parameters are optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed as multipath routing algorithm. Link expiration time (LET between each two nodes is used as the link reliability estimation metric. This approach can find either node-disjoint or link-disjoint paths in singlephase route discovery. Simulation results confirm that PSO-HNN routing algorithm has better performance as compared to backup path set selection algorithm (BPSA in terms of the path set reliability and number of paths in the set.

  20. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kanakala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing protocol to further reduce the energy consumption. The proposed energy-efficient coding-aware cluster based routing protocol (ECCRP scheme applies network coding at cluster heads to reduce number of transmissions. We also modify the queue management procedure of COPE protocol to further improve coding opportunities. We also use an energy efficient scheme while selecting the cluster head. It helps to increase the life time of the network. We evaluate the performance of proposed energy efficient cluster based protocol using simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed ECCRP algorithm reduces energy consumption and increases life time of the network.

  1. BOB-RED queue management for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jean-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multimedia services over resource constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs face a performance bottleneck issue from the gateway node to the sink node. Therefore, the queue management at the gateway node is crucial for diversified messages conveyed from the front nodes to the sink node. In this article, beacon order-based random early detection (BOB-RED queue management is proposed. BOB-RED is a dynamic adaptation scheme based on adjusting beacon interval and superframe duration in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC superframe accompanied with RED queue management scheme to increase the transmission efficiency of multimedia over WSNs. We focus on the performance improvement upon different traffic loads over WSNs. Evaluation metrics include end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption in IEEE 802.15.4 beacon enabled mode. Simulation results show that BOB-RED can effectively decrease end-to-end delay and energy consumption compared to the DropTail scheme.

  2. Performance of Group Communication Over Ad-Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosko, Marc; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2002-01-01

    ... through a network of cluster trees, where a spanning tree joins groups of fully connected nodes. Through numerical analysis and simulations in GloMoSim, we show throughput, goodput, and loss rates for reliable and unreliable networks...

  3. Low-power secure body area network for vital sensors toward IEEE802.15.6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Qiu, Shuye; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare/medical services have started using personal area networks, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee; these networks consist of various types of vital sensors. These works focus on generalized functions for sensor networks that expect enough battery capacity and low-power CPU/RF (Radio Frequency) modules, but less attention to easy-to-use privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a commercially-deployable secure body area network (S-BAN) with reduced computational burden on a real sensor that has limited RAM/ROM sizes and CPU/RF power consumption under a light-weight battery. Our proposed S-BAN provides vital data ordering among sensors that are involved in an S-BAN and also provides low-power networking with zero-administration security by automatic private key generation. We design and implement the power-efficient media access control (MAC) with resource-constraint security in sensors. Then, we evaluate the power efficiency of the S-BAN consisting of small sensors, such as an accessory type ECG and ring-type SpO2. The evaluation of power efficiency of the S-BAN using real sensors convinces us in deploying S-BAN and will also help us in providing feedbacks to the IEEE802.15.6 MAC, which will be the standard for BANs.

  4. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-01-01

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X aut...

  5. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  6. Delay efficient cooperation in public safety vehicular networks using LTE and IEEE 802.11p

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative schemes for critical content distribution over vehicular networks are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range communications with the base station (BS) and 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range. A high mobility environment with correlated shadowing is adopted. Both schemes are shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, respectively, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Planning of Efficient Wireless Access with IEEE 802.16 for Connecting Home Network to the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichet Ritthisoonthorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of IEEE802.16 wireless standard technology (WiMAX has significantly increased the choice to operators for the provisioning of wireless broadband access network. WiMAX is being deployed to compliment with xDSL in underserved or lack of the broadband network area, in both developed and developing countries. Many incumbent operators in developing countries are considering the deployment of WiMAX as part of their broadband access strategy. This paper presents an efficient and simple method for planning of broadband fixed wireless access (BFWA with IEEE802.16 standard to support home connection to Internet. The study formulates the framework for planning both coverage and capacity designs. The relationship between coverage area and access rate from subscriber in each environment area is presented. The study also presents the throughput and channel capacity of IEEE802.16 in different access rates. An extensive analysis is performed and the results are applied to the real case study to demonstrate the practicality of using IEEE 802.16 for connecting home to Internet. Using empirical data and original subscriber traffic from measurement, it is shown that the BFWA with IEEE802.16 standard is a capacity limited system. The capacity of IEEE802.16 is related to different factors including frequency bandwidth, spectrum allocation, estimation of traffic per subscriber, and choice of adaptive modulation from subscriber terminal. The wireless access methods and procedures evolved in this research work and set out in this paper are shown to be well suited for planning BFWA system based on IEEE802.16 which supports broadband home to Internet connections.

  8. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC, Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP and Contention Free Period (CFP parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period. As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN.

  9. A study of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN.

  10. Mitigate DoS and DDoS attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in Ad Hoc Networks. The technique is divided into two main parts and with game theory and cryptographic puzzles. Introduced first is a new client puzzle to prevent DoS attacks...... in DoS and DDoS attacks. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the approach for devices with limited resources and for environments like ad hoc networks where nodes must exchange information quickly....

  11. Multicasting in Wireless Communications (Ad-Hoc Networks): Comparison against a Tree-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, G. E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    We examine on-demand multicasting in ad hoc networks. The Core Assisted Mesh Protocol (CAMP) is a well-known protocol for multicast routing in ad-hoc networks, generalizing the notion of core-based trees employed for internet multicasting into multicast meshes that have much richer connectivity than trees. On the other hand, wireless tree-based multicast routing protocols use much simpler structures for determining route paths, using only parent-child relationships. In this work, we compare the performance of the CAMP protocol against the performance of wireless tree-based multicast routing protocols, in terms of two important factors, namely packet delay and ratio of dropped packets.

  12. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    hop-count; (3) the connectivity distance, expressing the geographic distance that a message can be propagated in the network on multi-hop paths; (4) the connectivity hops, which corresponds to the number of hops that are necessary to reach all nodes in the connected network. The paper develops...

  13. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgsted, Martin; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    distance, expressing the geographic distance that a message can be propagated in the network on multi-hop paths; (4) the connectivity hops, which corresponds to the number of hops that are necessary to reach all nodes in the connected network. The paper develops analytic expressions for the distributions...

  14. A Performance Evaluation Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng LUO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential applications in areas such as military sites and disaster relief fields that are characterized by absence of prefixed infrastructure justify the development of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs and wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, unfavorable wireless links and dynamic topology are still challenging, leading to the proposal of a collection of routing protocols for MANETs and WSNs. Nevertheless the performance of algorithms may vary with deployment scenario due to the application dependent philosophy behind algorithms. In this paper, the performance evaluation problem for MANETs and WSNs is investigated and a novel performance ranking model, termed AHP-SAW, is proposed. For simplicity but without loss of generality, the performance of two routing protocols DSDV and DSR are studies based on which ranking results are provided. Extensive simulations show that an overall 37.2 %, at most, gain may be achieved based on the AHP-SAW model.

  15. Research on Propagation Model of Malicious Programs in Ad Hoc Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin GAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless network faces more security threats than traditional network due to its P2P system structure and the limited node resources. In recent years, malicious program has become one of the most important researches on international network security and information security. The research of malicious programs on wireless network has become a new research hotspot in the field of malicious programs. This paper first analyzed the Ad Hoc network system structure, security threats, the common classification of malicious programs and the bionic propagation model. Then starting from the differential equations of the SEIR virus propagation model, the question caused by introducing the SEIR virus propagation model in Ad Hoc wireless network was analyzed. This paper improved the malicious program propagation model through introducing the network topology features and concepts such as immunization delay, and designed an improved algorithm combined with the dynamic evolution of malware propagation process. Considering of the network virus propagation characteristics, network characteristics and immunization strategy to improve simulation model experiment analysis, the experimental results show that both the immunization strategy and the degrees of node can affect the propagation of malicious program.

  16. Ad hoc networking scheme for mobile cyber-physical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide techniques for packet routing. In an embodiment, when a transmitting communication device injects a packet into a communication network, a receiving communication device that is closer to a sink

  17. Simplified Multicast Forwarding in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macker, Joseph P; Dean, Justin; Chao, William

    2004-01-01

    ...) based upon flooding mechanisms. We present the design of a working experimental prototype and some initial performance results using the NRL mobile network emulation system and various optional flooding approaches within the design framework...

  18. The Performance Evaluation of an IEEE 802.11 Network Containing Misbehavior Nodes under Different Backoff Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Minh Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of any wireless network is always an important issue due to its serious impacts on network performance. Practically, the IEEE 802.11 medium access control can be violated by several native or smart attacks that result in downgrading network performance. In recent years, there are several studies using analytical model to analyze medium access control (MAC layer misbehavior issue to explore this problem but they have focused on binary exponential backoff only. Moreover, a practical condition such as the freezing backoff issue is not included in the previous models. Hence, this paper presents a novel analytical model of the IEEE 802.11 MAC to thoroughly understand impacts of misbehaving node on network throughput and delay parameters. Particularly, the model can express detailed backoff algorithms so that the evaluation of the network performance under some typical attacks through numerical simulation results would be easy.

  19. Reinforcement Learning for Routing in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. A. Al-Rawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio (CR enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs. Reinforcement learning (RL is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs’ network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs’ network performance, specifically SUs’ interference to PUs.

  20. Optimal design of cluster-based ad-hoc networks using probabilistic solution discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jason L.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of ad-hoc networks is gaining popularity in two areas: as a topic of academic interest and as a key performance parameter for defense systems employing this type of network. The ad-hoc network is dynamic and scalable and these descriptions are what attract its users. However, these descriptions are also synonymous for undefined and unpredictable when considering the impacts to the reliability of the system. The configuration of an ad-hoc network changes continuously and this fact implies that no single mathematical expression or graphical depiction can describe the system reliability-wise. Previous research has used mobility and stochastic models to address this challenge successfully. In this paper, the authors leverage the stochastic approach and build upon it a probabilistic solution discovery (PSD) algorithm to optimize the topology for a cluster-based mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN). Specifically, the membership of nodes within the back-bone network or networks will be assigned in such as way as to maximize reliability subject to a constraint on cost. The constraint may also be considered as a non-monetary cost, such as weight, volume, power, or the like. When a cost is assigned to each component, a maximum cost threshold is assigned to the network, and the method is run; the result is an optimized allocation of the radios enabling back-bone network(s) to provide the most reliable network possible without exceeding the allowable cost. The method is intended for use directly as part of the architectural design process of a cluster-based MAWN to efficiently determine an optimal or near-optimal design solution. It is capable of optimizing the topology based upon all-terminal reliability (ATR), all-operating terminal reliability (AoTR), or two-terminal reliability (2TR)

  1. Mathematical modeling of a radio-frequency path for IEEE 802.11ah based wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyshchenko, Igor; Cherepanov, Alexander; Dmitrii, Vakhnin; Popova, Mariia

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses the process of creating the mathematical model of a radio-frequency path for an IEEE 802.11ah based wireless sensor networks using M atLab Simulink CAD tools. In addition, it describes occurring perturbing effects and determining the presence of a useful signal in the received mixture.

  2. Low-cost RAU with Optical Power Supply Used in a Hybrid RoF IEEE 802.11 Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.; Siuzdak, J.

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of a low-cost RAU (Remote Antenna Unit) device. It was designed to work in a hybrid Wi-Fi/optical network based on the IEEE 802.11b/g standard. An unique feature of the device is the possibility of optical power supply.

  3. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments.

  4. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: The multilevel case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Forum Contributions 97-0766 and 97-0933. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. A previous contribution (97-1073) covered the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all resided at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. This contribution covers the more general case wherein those top-most LGNs may reside at different PNNI hierarchy levels. Both of the SNL contributions consider flat ad hoc network architectures in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the pre-configured level of its top-most LGN.

  5. Cross-Layer Design Approach for Power Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, communication among mobile nodes occurs through wireless medium The design of ad hoc network protocol, generally based on a traditional “layered approach”, has been found ineffective to deal with receiving signal strength (RSS-related problems, affecting the physical layer, the network layer and transport layer. This paper proposes a design approach, deviating from the traditional network design, toward enhancing the cross-layer interaction among different layers, namely physical, MAC and network. The Cross-Layer design approach for Power control (CLPC would help to enhance the transmission power by averaging the RSS values and to find an effective route between the source and the destination. This cross-layer design approach was tested by simulation (NS2 simulator and its performance over AODV was found to be better.

  6. On the Network Convergence Process in RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 Multihop Networks: Improvement and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kermajani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL has been recently developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF. Given its crucial role in enabling the Internet of Things, a significant amount of research effort has already been devoted to RPL. However, the RPL network convergence process has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper we study the influence of the main RPL parameters and mechanisms on the network convergence process of this protocol in IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. We also propose and evaluate a mechanism that leverages an option available in RPL for accelerating the network convergence process. We carry out extensive simulations for a wide range of conditions, considering different network scenarios in terms of size and density. Results show that network convergence performance depends dramatically on the use and adequate configuration of key RPL parameters and mechanisms. The findings and contributions of this work provide a RPL configuration guideline for network convergence performance tuning, as well as a characterization of the related performance trade-offs.

  7. On the network convergence process in RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks: improvement and trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermajani, Hamidreza; Gomez, Carles

    2014-07-07

    The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL) has been recently developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Given its crucial role in enabling the Internet of Things, a significant amount of research effort has already been devoted to RPL. However, the RPL network convergence process has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper we study the influence of the main RPL parameters and mechanisms on the network convergence process of this protocol in IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. We also propose and evaluate a mechanism that leverages an option available in RPL for accelerating the network convergence process. We carry out extensive simulations for a wide range of conditions, considering different network scenarios in terms of size and density. Results show that network convergence performance depends dramatically on the use and adequate configuration of key RPL parameters and mechanisms. The findings and contributions of this work provide a RPL configuration guideline for network convergence performance tuning, as well as a characterization of the related performance trade-offs.

  8. A game-theoretic approach to optimize ad hoc networks inspired by small-world network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mian; Yang, Tinghong; Chen, Xing; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Guoqing; Holme, Petter; Zhao, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Nodes in ad hoc networks are connected in a self-organized manner. Limited communication radius makes information transmit in multi-hop mode, and each forwarding needs to consume the energy of nodes. Insufficient communication radius or exhaustion of energy may cause the absence of some relay nodes and links, further breaking network connectivity. On the other hand, nodes in the network may refuse to cooperate due to objective faulty or personal selfish, hindering regular communication in the network. This paper proposes a model called Repeated Game in Small World Networks (RGSWN). In this model, we first construct ad hoc networks with small-world feature by forming "communication shortcuts" between multiple-radio nodes. Small characteristic path length reduces average forwarding times in networks; meanwhile high clustering coefficient enhances network robustness. Such networks still maintain relative low global power consumption, which is beneficial to extend the network survival time. Then we use MTTFT strategy (Mend-Tolerance Tit-for-Tat) for repeated game as a rule for the interactions between neighbors in the small-world networks. Compared with other five strategies of repeated game, this strategy not only punishes the nodes' selfishness more reasonably, but also has the best tolerance to the network failure. This work is insightful for designing an efficient and robust ad hoc network.

  9. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    , thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...

  10. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks : Protocols and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  11. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem...

  12. Peer-to-peer over mobile ad hoc networks (Chapter 11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qadri, N.N.; Liotta, A.; Pierre, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we review various approaches for the convergence of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), identifying strengths and weaknesses, and putting things in perspective. P2P and MANETs are among the most active research topics in pervasive computing. The convergence of P2P

  13. Specification and Validation of an Edge Router Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    We present an industrial project at Ericsson Telebit A/S where Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the design and specification of an edge router discovery protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. The Edge Router Discovery Protocol (ERDP) supports an edge router in a stationary...

  14. Performance analysis of differentiated resource-sharing in a wireless ad-hoc network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, F.; van den Berg, H.; Mandjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we model and analyze a relay node in a wireless ad-hoc network; the capacity available at this node is used to both transmit traffic from the source nodes (towards the relay node), and to serve traffic at the relay node (so that it can be forwarded to successor nodes). Clearly, a

  15. Integrated Social and Quality of Service Trust Management of Mobile Groups in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    high resiliency to malicious attacks and misbehaving nodes. Keywords—trust management; mobile ad hoc networks; QoS trust; social trust; trust...paper we address an importance issue of trust management protocol design for MANETs: trust bias minimization despite misbehaving nodes performing

  16. PUCA: A Pseudonym Scheme with User-Controlled Anonymity for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, David; Kargl, Frank; Löhr, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Envisioned vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET) standards use pseudonym certificates to provide secure and privacy-friendly message authentication. Revocation of long-term credentials is required to remove participants from the system, e.g. in case of vehicle theft. However, the current approach to

  17. Impact of mobility on the performance of relaying in ad hoc networks (Extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.; Kherani, A.A.; Groenevelt, R.; Nain, P.; Altman, E.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a mobile ad hoc network consisting of three types of nodes: source, destination, and relay nodes. All the nodes are moving over a bounded region with possibly different mobility patterns. We introduce and study the notion of relay throughput, i.e. the maximum rate at which a node can

  18. Impact of Mobility on the Performance of Relaying in Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Kherani, A.A.; Groenevelt, R.; Nain, P.; Altman, E

    2006-01-01

    We consider a mobile ad hoc network consisting of three types of nodes: source, destination, and relay nodes. All the nodes are moving over a bounded region with possibly different mobility patterns. We introduce and study the notion of relay throughput, i.e. the maximum rate at which a node can

  19. Impact of mobility on the performance7 of relaying in ad hoc networks – Extended version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Kherani, A.A.; Groenevelt, R.; Nain, P.; Altman, E

    2007-01-01

    We consider a mobile ad hoc network consisting of three types of nodes: source, destination, and relay nodes. All the nodes are moving over a bounded region with possibly different mobility patterns. We introduce and study the notion of relay throughput, i.e. the maximum rate at which a node can

  20. Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jetcheva, Jorjeta G

    2004-01-01

    ...) nodes that wish to communicate. Each node in the ad hoc network acts as a router and forwards packets on behalf of other nodes, allowing nodes that are not within wireless range of each other to communicate over multi-hop paths...

  1. System optimization for peer-to-peer multi hop video broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedeoglu, V.; Atici, C.; Salman, F.S.; Sunay, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    We consider peer-to-peer video broadcasting using cooperation among peers in an ad hoc wireless network. As opposed to the traditional single hop broadcasting, multiple hops cause an increase in broadcast video quality while creating interference and increasing transmission delay. We develop

  2. Enabling content distribution in vehicular ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Tom H; Bai, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents key enabling technologies and state-of-the-art research on delivering efficient content distribution services to fast moving vehicles. It describes recent research developments and proposals towards the efficient, resilient and scalable content distribution to vehicles through both infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less vehicular networks. The authors focus on the rich multimedia services provided by vehicular environment content distribution including vehicular communications and media playback, giving passengers many infotainment applications. Common problem

  3. Wireless ad hoc networks access for aeronautical communications

    OpenAIRE

    Besse , Frédéric; Garcia , Fabien; Pirovano , Alain; Radzik , José

    2010-01-01

    International audience; There is an increasing interest in the current aeronautical context to offer new services for civil aircraft passengers. For example, airlines want to offer their customers the opportunity to access the Internet, to manage their mails, to watch video on demand, to access corporate VPNs.... All these services represent a new type of air-ground communications called APC (Aeronautical Passenger Communications) in the ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunication Network) context. I...

  4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DSR ROUTING PROTOCOL UNDER ENERGY BASED SELFISH ATTACK IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.P.Sundararajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the cooperation of all participating nodes to provide the fundamental operations such as routing and data forwarding. However, due to the open structure and scarcely available battery-based energy, node misbehaviors may exist.[1]. One such routing misbehavior is that some selfish nodes will participate in the route discovery and maintenance processes but refuse to forward data packets. This paper pointed out Energy based selfish nodes (EBSN where these selfish nodes tend to use the network but do not cooperate, saving battery life for their own communications [2],[3]. We present a simulation study of the effects of Energy based selfish nodes (EBSN on DSR routing protocol and its impact over network performance in terms of throughput and delay of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes were misbehaving.

  5. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  6. Formal reconstruction of attack scenarios in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhis Slim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several techniques of theoretical digital investigation are presented in the literature but most of them are unsuitable to cope with attacks in wireless networks, especially in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (MASNets. In this article, we propose a formal approach for digital investigation of security attacks in wireless networks. We provide a model for describing attack scenarios in a wireless environment, and system and network evidence generated consequently. The use of formal approaches is motivated by the need to avoid ad hoc generation of results that impedes the accuracy of analysis and integrity of investigation. We develop an inference system that integrates the two types of evidence, handles incompleteness and duplication of information in them, and allows possible and provable actions and attack scenarios to be generated. To illustrate the proposal, we consider a case study dealing with the investigation of a remote buffer overflow attack.

  7. Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Group Key Management Integrated with Adaptive Intrusion Detection in Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    applications in wireless networks such as military battlefields, emergency response, mobile commerce , online gaming, and collaborative work are based on the...www.elsevier.com/locate/peva Performance analysis of hierarchical group key management integrated with adaptive intrusion detection in mobile ad hoc...Accepted 19 September 2010 Available online 26 September 2010 Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks Intrusion detection Group communication systems Group

  8. Protocols for Detection and Removal of Wormholes for Secure Routing and Neighborhood Creation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Thaier Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are suitable and sometimes the only solution for several applications. Many applications, particularly those in military and critical civilian domains (such as battlefield surveillance and emergency rescue) require that ad hoc networks be secure and stable. In fact, security is one of the main barriers to the extensive use…

  9. Green Frame Aggregation Scheme for IEEE 802.11n Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslani, Maha S.

    2015-04-01

    Frame aggregation is one of the major MAC layer enhancements in the IEEE 802.11 family that boosts the network throughput performance. It aims to achieve higher throughput by transmitting huge amount of data in a single transmit oppor- tunity. With the increasing awareness of energy e ciency, it has become vital to rethink about the design of such frame aggregation protocol. Aggregation techniques help to reduce energy consumption over ideal channel conditions. However, in a noisy channel environment, a new energy-aware frame aggregation scheme is required. In this thesis, a novel Green Frame Aggregation (GFA) scheduling scheme has been proposed and evaluated. GFA optimizes the aggregate size based on channel quality in order to minimize the consumed energy. GFA selects the optimal sub-frame size that satisfies the loss constraint for real-time applications as well as the energy budget of the ideal channel situations. The design, the implementation, and evaluation of GFA using testbed deployment is done. The experimental analysis shows that GFA outperforms the conventional frame aggregation methodology in terms of energy e ciency by about 6⇥ in the presence of severe interference conditions. Moreover, GFA also outperforms the static frame sizing method in terms of network goodput and maintains almost the same end- to-end latency.

  10. Achievable Throughput-Based MAC Layer Handoff in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Haitao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a MAC layer handoff mechanism for IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN to give benefit to bandwidth-greedy applications at STAs. The proposed mechanism determines an optimal AP with the maximum achievable throughput rather than the best signal condition by estimating the AP's bandwidth with a new on-the-fly measurement method, Transient Frame Capture (TFC, and predicting the actual throughput could be achieved at STAs. Since the TFC is employed based on the promiscuous mode of WLAN NIC, STAs can avoid the service degradation through the current associated AP. In addition, the proposed mechanism is a client-only solution which does not require any modification of network protocol on APs. To evaluate the performance of the proposed mechanism, we develop an analytic model to estimate reliable and accurate bandwidth of the AP and demonstrate through testbed measurement with various experimental study methods. We also validate the fairness of the proposed mechanism through simulation studies.

  11. Multiplayer Game for DDoS Attacks Resilience in Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiplayer game to prevent Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) in ad hoc networks. The multiplayer game is based on game theory and cryptographic puzzles. We divide requests from nodes into separate groups which decreases the ability of malicious nodes to cooperate...... with one another in order to effectively make a DDoS attack. Finally, through our experiments we have shown that the total overhead of the multiplayer game as well as the the total time that each node needs to be served is affordable for devices that have limited resources and for environments like ad hoc...

  12. Position-Based Packet Forwarding for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Füßler, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, or MANETs, are data communication networks between (potentially) mobile computer systems equipped with wireless communication devices and — in their purest form — in complete absence of communication infrastructure. Usage scenarios for these systems include communication during disaster recovery or battlefield communications. One of the great research challenges concerning MANETs is the Packet Forwarding Problem, i.e., the question to which neighbor node a data packet ...

  13. Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pérez-Solano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments.

  14. Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Solano, Juan J; Claver, Jose M; Ezpeleta, Santiago

    2017-07-06

    Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI) values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments.

  15. Ad hoc networking scheme for mobile cyber-physical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-08-17

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide techniques for packet routing. In an embodiment, when a transmitting communication device injects a packet into a communication network, a receiving communication device that is closer to a sink or destination than the transmitting communication device relays the packet in a first hop. In a subsequent hop, a receiving communication device evaluates position information conveyed by the transmitting communication device of the first hop to determine whether to forward the packet. Accordingly, a receiving communication device receiver that offers progress towards the sink can elect to forward the packet.

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  17. Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11ah Networks With High-Throughput Bidirectional Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šljivo, Amina; Kerkhove, Dwight; Tian, Le; Famaey, Jeroen; Munteanu, Adrian; Moerman, Ingrid; Hoebeke, Jeroen; De Poorter, Eli

    2018-01-23

    So far, existing sub-GHz wireless communication technologies focused on low-bandwidth, long-range communication with large numbers of constrained devices. Although these characteristics are fine for many Internet of Things (IoT) applications, more demanding application requirements could not be met and legacy Internet technologies such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) could not be used. This has changed with the advent of the new IEEE 802.11ah Wi-Fi standard, which is much more suitable for reliable bidirectional communication and high-throughput applications over a wide area (up to 1 km). The standard offers great possibilities for network performance optimization through a number of physical- and link-layer configurable features. However, given that the optimal configuration parameters depend on traffic patterns, the standard does not dictate how to determine them. Such a large number of configuration options can lead to sub-optimal or even incorrect configurations. Therefore, we investigated how two key mechanisms, Restricted Access Window (RAW) grouping and Traffic Indication Map (TIM) segmentation, influence scalability, throughput, latency and energy efficiency in the presence of bidirectional TCP/IP traffic. We considered both high-throughput video streaming traffic and large-scale reliable sensing traffic and investigated TCP behavior in both scenarios when the link layer introduces long delays. This article presents the relations between attainable throughput per station and attainable number of stations, as well as the influence of RAW, TIM and TCP parameters on both. We found that up to 20 continuously streaming IP-cameras can be reliably connected via IEEE 802.11ah with a maximum average data rate of 160 kbps, whereas 10 IP-cameras can achieve average data rates of up to 255 kbps over 200 m. Up to 6960 stations transmitting every 60 s can be connected over 1 km with no lost packets. The presented results enable the fine tuning

  18. Improvement over the OLSR Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks by Eliminating the Unnecessary Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Behzad; Reza Fotohi; Shahram Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are type of wireless networks in which any kind of infrastructure is not used, i.e. there are no infrastructures such as routers or switches or anything else on the network that can be used to support the network structure and the nodes has mobility. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better quality of the package delivery rate and the throughput, that is in need of powerful routing protocol standards, which can guarantee delivering of the packages to destination...

  19. Energy-aware architecture for multi-rate ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yahya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The backbone of ad hoc network design is energy performance and bandwidth resources limitations. Multi-rate adaptation architectures have been proposed to reduce the control overhead and to increase bandwidth utilization efficiency. In this paper, we propose a multi-rate protocol to provide the highest network performance under very low control overhead. The efficiency of the proposed auto multi-rate protocol is validated extensive simulations using QualNet network simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution significantly improves the overall network performance.

  20. Reorganization of intruder Using Ad-Hoc Network And RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Hagawane

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This system is to develop a centralized computer application that needs to identify moving person in a specific area using wireless network. In this paper, we develop a new indoor tracking algorithm using received signal strength. The RFID is able to detect the humans and provide information about the direction of the movement. The gathered information from the node is to be given to the base station for processing. . This application is able to detect and track person, and report direction of the intruder to a central base station. In this system we design nodes through which we are able to track the person. The human intruder is detected using Zigbee.

  1. Collaboration Layer for Robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e

    2009-01-01

    networks to solve tasks collaboratively. In this proposal the Collaboration Layer is modelled to handle service and position discovery, group management, and synchronisation among robots, but the layer is also designed to be extendable. Based on this model of the Collaboration Layer, generic services...... are provided to the application running on the robot. The services are generic because they can be used by many different applications, independent of the task to be solved. Likewise, specific services are requested from the underlying Virtual Machine, such as broadcast, multicast, and reliable unicast....... A prototype of the Collaboration Layer has been developed to run in a simulated environment and tested in an evaluation scenario. In the scenario five robots solve the tasks of vacuum cleaning and entrance guarding, which involves the ability to discover potential co-workers, form groups, shift from one group...

  2. A Cross Layer Solution to Address TCP Intra-flow Performance Degradation in Multihop Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rakocevic, V.; Hamadani, E.

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating the concept of TCP end-to-end congestion control for wireless networks is one of the primary concerns in designing ad hoc networks since TCP was primarily designed and optimized based on the assumptions for wired networks. In this study, our interest lies on tackling the TCP instability and in particular intra-flow instability problem since due to the nature of applications in multihop ad hoc networks, connection instability or starvation even for a short period of time can have...

  3. Cross-layer model design in wireless ad hoc networks for the Internet of Things.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc networks can experience extreme fluctuations in transmission traffic in the Internet of Things, which is widely used today. Currently, the most crucial issues requiring attention for wireless ad hoc networks are making the best use of low traffic periods, reducing congestion during high traffic periods, and improving transmission performance. To solve these problems, the present paper proposes a novel cross-layer transmission model based on decentralized coded caching in the physical layer and a content division multiplexing scheme in the media access control layer. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model effectively addresses these issues by substantially increasing the throughput and successful transmission rate compared to existing protocols without a negative influence on delay, particularly for large scale networks under conditions of highly contrasting high and low traffic periods.

  4. Cross-layer model design in wireless ad hoc networks for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Wang, Ling; Xie, Jian; Zhang, Zhaolin

    2018-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks can experience extreme fluctuations in transmission traffic in the Internet of Things, which is widely used today. Currently, the most crucial issues requiring attention for wireless ad hoc networks are making the best use of low traffic periods, reducing congestion during high traffic periods, and improving transmission performance. To solve these problems, the present paper proposes a novel cross-layer transmission model based on decentralized coded caching in the physical layer and a content division multiplexing scheme in the media access control layer. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model effectively addresses these issues by substantially increasing the throughput and successful transmission rate compared to existing protocols without a negative influence on delay, particularly for large scale networks under conditions of highly contrasting high and low traffic periods.

  5. Enhancing On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocols using Mobility Prediction in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Makhlouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organizing wireless communication network in which mobile devices are based on no infrastructure like base stations or access points. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like disaster recovery or military conflict. Since node mobility may cause links to be broken frequently, a very important issue for routing in MANETs is how to set reliable paths which can last as long as possible. To solve this problem, non-random behaviors for the mobility patterns that mobile users exhibit are exploited. This paper introduces a scheme to improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP performances by using mobility prediction. 

  6. Selective epidemic broadcast algorithm to suppress broadcast storm in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chitra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks is the best way to spread emergency messages all over the network. With the dynamic nature of vehicular ad hoc networks, simple broadcast or flooding faces the problem called as Broadcast Storm Problem (BSP. The issue of the BSP will degrade the performance of a message broadcasting process like increased overhead, collision and dissemination delay. The paper is motivated to solve the problems in the existing Broadcast Strom Suppression Algorithms (BSSAs like p-Persistence, TLO, VSPB, G-SAB and SIR. This paper proposes to suppress the Broadcast Storm Problem and to improve the Emergency Safety message dissemination rate through a new BSSA based on Selective Epidemic Broadcast Algorithm (SEB. The simulation results clearly show that the SEB outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of ESM Delivery Ratio, Message Overhead, Collision Ratio, Broadcast Storm Ratio and Redundant Rebroadcast Ratio with decreased Dissemination Delay.

  7. Fault Tolerant Mechanism for Multimedia Flows in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Fast Switching Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic can be forwarded through a wireless ad hoc network using the available resources of the nodes. Several models and protocols have been designed in order to organize and arrange the nodes to improve transmissions along the network. We use a cluster-based framework, called MWAHCA architecture, which optimizes multimedia transmissions over a wireless ad hoc network. It was proposed by us in a previous research work. This architecture is focused on decreasing quality of service (QoS parameters like latency, jitter, and packet loss, but other network features were not developed, like load balance or fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a new fault tolerance mechanism, using as a base the MWAHCA architecture, in order to recover any multimedia flow crossing the wireless ad hoc network when there is a node failure. The algorithm can run independently for each multimedia flow. The main objective is to keep the QoS parameters as low as possible. To achieve this goal, the convergence time must be controlled and reduced. This paper provides the designed protocol, the analytical model of the algorithm, and a software application developed to test its performance in a real laboratory.

  8. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Vara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2. In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1. In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM, according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.

  9. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  10. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  11. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara, M Isabel; Campo, Celeste

    2015-07-20

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.

  12. UMDR: Multi-Path Routing Protocol for Underwater Ad Hoc Networks with Directional Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Songzuo; Liu, Qipei; Qiao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new routing scheme for underwater ad hoc networks based on directional antennas. Ad hoc networks with directional antennas have become a hot research topic because of space reuse may increase networks capacity. At present, researchers have applied traditional self-organizing routing protocols (such as DSR, AODV) [1] [2] on this type of networks, and the routing scheme is based on the shortest path metric. However, such routing schemes often suffer from long transmission delays and frequent link fragmentation along the intermediate nodes of the selected route. This is caused by a unique feature of directional transmission, often called as “deafness”. In this paper, we take a different approach to explore the advantages of space reuse through multipath routing. This paper introduces the validity of the conventional routing scheme in underwater ad hoc networks with directional antennas, and presents a special design of multipath routing algorithm for directional transmission. The experimental results show a significant performance improvement in throughput and latency.

  13. Compliance and Functional Testing of IEEE 1451.1 for NCAP-to-NCAP Communications in a Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Gurkan, Deniz; Yuan, X.; Benhaddou, D.; Liu, H.; Singla, A.; Franzl, R.; Ma, H.; Bhatt, S.; Morris, J.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Distributed control in a networked environment is an irreplaceable feature in systems with remote sensors and actuators. Although distributed control was not originally designed to be networked, usage of off-the-shelf networking technologies has become so prevalent that control systems are desired to have access mechanisms similar to computer networks. However, proprietary transducer interfaces for network communications and distributed control overwhelmingly dominate this industry. Unless the lack of compatibility and interoperability among transducers is resolved, the mature level of access (that computer networking can deliver) will not be achieved in such networked distributed control systems. Standardization of networked transducer interfaces will enable devices from different manufacturers to talk to each other and ensure their plug-and-play capability. One such standard is the suite of IEEE 1451 for sensor network communication and transducer interfaces. The suite not only provides a standard interface for smart transducers, but also outlines the connection of an NCAP (network capable application processor) and transducers (through a transducer interface module TIM). This paper presents the design of the compliance testing of IEEE 1451.1 (referred to as Dot1) compatible NCAP-to-NCAP communications on a link-layer independent medium. The paper also represents the first demonstration of NCAP-to-NCAP communications with Dot1 compatibility: a tester NCAP and an NCAP under test (NUT).

  14. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826

  15. Two-terminal reliability analyses for a mobile ad hoc wireless network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jason L.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability is one of the most important performance measures for emerging technologies. For these systems, shortcomings are often overlooked in early releases as the cutting edge technology overshadows a fragile design. Currently, the proliferation of the mobile ad hoc wireless networks (MAWN) is moving from cutting edge to commodity and thus, reliable performance will be expected. Generally, ad hoc networking is applied for the flexibility and mobility it provides. As a result, military and first responders employ this network scheme and the reliability of the network becomes paramount. To ensure reliability is achieved, one must first be able to analyze and calculate the reliability of the MAWN. This work describes the unique attributes of the MAWN and how the classical analysis of network reliability, where the network configuration is known a priori, can be adjusted to model and analyze this type of network. The methods developed acknowledge the dynamic and scalable nature of the MAWN along with its absence of infrastructure. Thus, the methods rely on a modeling approach that considers the probabilistic formation of different network configurations in a MAWN. Hence, this paper proposes reliability analysis methods that consider the effect of node mobility and the continuous changes in the network's connectivity

  16. Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks for Indoors Applications Using IEEE 802.11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Sørensen, Thomas; Madsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the feasibility of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting low-power sensing applications. The investigation is based on a prototype carbon dioxide sensor node that is powered by artificial indoors light. The wireless communication module of the sensor node is based on the RTX......4100 module. RTX4100 incorporates a wireless protocol that duty-cycles the radio while being compatible with IEEE 802.11 access points. The presented experiments demonstrate sustainable operation but indicate a trade-off between the benefits of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting applications...

  17. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  18. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-15

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  19. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  20. Performance evaluation of a multi-radio, multi-hop ad-hoc radio communication network for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Bro, Lars; Karstensen, Rasmus Thystrup

    2017-01-01

    Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern signalling system that uses radio communication to transfer train control information between the train and the wayside. A vast majority of CBTC systems worldwide use IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi as the radio technology mostly due to its costeffectiveness....... The trackside networks in these systems are mostly based on conventional infrastructure Wi-Fi. It means a train has to continuously associate (i.e. perform handshake) with the trackside Wi-Fi Access Points (AP) as it moves. This is a timeconsuming process associated with a certain delay. Additionally, these APs...... are connected to the wayside infrastructure via optical fiber cables that incurs huge costs. This paper presents a novel design in which trackside nodes function in ad-hoc Wi-Fi mode, which means no association has to be performed with them prior to transmitting. A train simply broadcasts packets to any nodes...

  1. Reliable Ant Colony Routing Algorithm for Dual-Channel Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongQiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of poor link reliability caused by high-speed dynamic changes and congestion owing to low network bandwidth in ad hoc networks, an ant colony routing algorithm, based on reliable path under dual-channel condition (DSAR, is proposed. First, dual-channel communication mode is used to improve network bandwidth, and a hierarchical network model is proposed to optimize the dual-layer network. Thus, we reduce network congestion and communication delay. Second, a comprehensive reliable path selection strategy is designed, and the reliable path is selected ahead of time to reduce the probability of routing restart. Finally, the ant colony algorithm is used to improve the adaptability of the routing algorithm to changes of network topology. Simulation results show that DSAR improves the reliability of routing, packet delivery, and throughput.

  2. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  3. Exploiting Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Knowledge Generation to Achieve Ambient Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lekova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI joins together the fields of ubiquitous computing and communications, context awareness, and intelligent user interfaces. Energy, fault-tolerance, and mobility are newly added dimensions of AmI. Within the context of AmI the concept of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs for “anytime and anywhere” is likely to play larger roles in the future in which people are surrounded and supported by small context-aware, cooperative, and nonobtrusive devices that will aid our everyday life. The connection between knowledge generation and communication ad hoc networking is symbiotic—knowledge generation utilizes ad hoc networking to perform their communication needs, and MANETs will utilize the knowledge generation to enhance their network services. The contribution of the present study is a distributed evolving fuzzy modeling framework (EFMF to observe and categorize relationships and activities in the user and application level and based on that social context to take intelligent decisions about MANETs service management. EFMF employs unsupervised online one-pass fuzzy clustering method to recognize nodes' mobility context from social scenario traces and ubiquitously learn “friends” and “strangers” indirectly and anonymously.

  4. FRAMEWORK FOR AD HOC NETWORK COMMUNICATION IN MULTI-ROBOT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilda Slyusar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assume a team of mobile robots operating in environments where no communication infrastructure like routers or access points is available. The robots have to create a mobile ad hoc network, in that case, it provides communication on peer-to-peer basis. The paper gives an overview of existing solutions how to route messages in such ad hoc networks between robots that are not directly connected and introduces a design of a software framework for realization of such communication. Feasibility of the proposed framework is shown on the example of distributed multi-robot exploration of an a priori unknown environment. Testing of developed functionality in an exploration scenario is based on results of several experiments with various input conditions of the exploration process and various sizes of a team and is described herein.

  5. A LOOP-BASED APPROACH IN CLUSTERING AND ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanping; Wang Xin; Xue Xiangyang; C.K. Toh

    2006-01-01

    Although clustering is a convenient framework to enable traffic control and service support in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), it is seldom adopted in practice due to the additional traffic overhead it leads to for the resource limited ad hoc network. In order to address this problem, we proposed a loop-based approach to combine clustering and routing. By employing loop topologies, topology information is disseminated with a loop instead of a single node, which provides better robustness, and the nature of a loop that there are two paths between each pair of nodes within a loop suggests smart route recovery strategy. Our approach is composed of setup procedure, regular procedure and recovery procedure to achieve clustering, routing and emergent route recovering.

  6. Illustration, detection and prevention of sleep deprivation anomaly in mobile ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Ahsan, K.; Sarim, M.

    2017-01-01

    MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) have applications in various walks of life from rescue operations to battle field operations, personal and commercial. However, routing operations in MANETs are still vulnerable to anomalies and DoS (Denial of Service) attacks such as sleep deprivation. In SD (Sleep Deprivation) attack malicious node exploits the vulnerability in the route discovery function of the reactive routing protocol for example AODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector). In this paper, we first illustrate the SD anomaly in MANETs and then propose a SD detection and prevention algorithm which efficiently deals with this attack. We assess the performance of our proposed approach through simulation, evaluating its successfulness using different network scenarios. (author)

  7. Intelligent Security Auditing Based on Access Control of Devices in Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-wei; SHI You-qun; ZHU Ming; WU Guo-wen; CAO Qi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Security in Ad Hoc network is an important issue under the opening circumstance of application service. Some protocols and models of security auditing have been proposed to ensure rationality of contracting strategy and operating regulation and used to identify abnormal operation. Model of security auditing based on access control of devices will be advanced to register sign of devices and property of event of access control and to audit those actions. In the end, the model is analyzed and simulated.

  8. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas D. Hewer; Maziar Nekovee; Peter V. Coveney

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence...

  9. ARSENAL: A Cross Layer Architecture for Secure Resilient Tactical Mobile AdHoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    stations separated by 0.5 to 1 km can be coherently measured to a single mobile subscriber using LTE signaling. These are the first measurements of...undertake three parallel but inter-coupled tasks geared towards a) performing measurements via real deployments and enhancing our understanding of layer...dependencies and vulnerabilities in mobile ad hoc networks; these measurements will be on existing testbeds at The views, opinions and/or findings

  10. Clustering of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: An Adaptive Broadcast Period Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gavalas, Damianos; Pantziou, Grammati; Konstantopoulos, Charalampos; Mamalis, Basilis

    2011-01-01

    Organization, scalability and routing have been identified as key problems hindering viability and commercial success of mobile ad hoc networks. Clustering of mobile nodes among separate domains has been proposed as an efficient approach to address those issues. In this work, we introduce an efficient distributed clustering algorithm that uses both location and energy metrics for cluster formation. Our proposed solution mainly addresses cluster stability, manageability and energy efficiency i...

  11. An Approach to Ad-hoc Messaging Networks Using Time Shifted Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Fuchß

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Many communication devices, like mobile phones and PDAs, are enabled for near field communication by using Bluetooth. Many approaches dealt so far with the attempt to transfer mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET to the mechanism of the “fixed internet” to mobile networks. In order to achieve liability and robustness of common TCP connections routing algorithm in near field communication based networks become more sophisticated and complex. These mechanisms often do not reflect on the application’s particularities.Our approach of an ad-hoc messaging network (AMNET uses simple store-and-forward message passing to spread data asynchronously. We do not aim at the reliability of common internet networks but focus on application specific needs that can be covered by simple message passing mechanism. In this paper we will portray a powerful network by using simple devices and communication protocols on the basis of AMNETs. Simulation results of our AMNET approach provide insights towards speeding up the network setup process and to enable the use of AMNETs even with few participants by introducing a hybrid structure of infrastructure and mobile nodes.

  12. Intelligent Networks Data Fusion Web-based Services for Ad-hoc Integrated WSNs-RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah Alshahrany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of variety of data fusion tools and techniques for big data processing poses the problem of the data and information integration called data fusion having objectives which can differ from one application to another. The design of network data fusion systems aimed at meeting these objectives, need to take into account of the necessary synergy that can result from distributed data processing within the data networks and data centres, involving increased computation and communication. This papers reports on how this processing distribution is functionally structured as configurable integrated web-based support services, in the context of an ad-hoc wireless sensor network used for sensing and tracking, in the context of distributed detection based on complete observations to support real rime decision making. The interrelated functional and hardware RFID-WSN integration is an essential aspect of the data fusion framework that focuses on multi-sensor collaboration as an innovative approach to extend the heterogeneity of the devices and sensor nodes of ad-hoc networks generating a huge amount of heterogeneous soft and hard raw data. The deployment and configuration of these networks require data fusion processing that includes network and service management and enhances the performance and reliability of networks data fusion support systems providing intelligent capabilities for real-time control access and fire detection.

  13. Noise-Assisted Concurrent Multipath Traffic Distribution in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The concept of biologically inspired networking has been introduced to tackle unpredictable and unstable situations in computer networks, especially in wireless ad hoc networks where network conditions are continuously changing, resulting in the need of robustness and adaptability of control methods. Unfortunately, existing methods often rely heavily on the detailed knowledge of each network component and the preconfigured, that is, fine-tuned, parameters. In this paper, we utilize a new concept, called attractor perturbation (AP), which enables controlling the network performance using only end-to-end information. Based on AP, we propose a concurrent multipath traffic distribution method, which aims at lowering the average end-to-end delay by only adjusting the transmission rate on each path. We demonstrate through simulations that, by utilizing the attractor perturbation relationship, the proposed method achieves a lower average end-to-end delay compared to other methods which do not take fluctuations into account. PMID:24319375

  14. Distributed generation of shared RSA keys in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Huang, Qin; Shen, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks is a totally new concept in which mobile nodes are able to communicate together over wireless links in an independent manner, independent of fixed physical infrastructure and centralized administrative infrastructure. However, the nature of Ad Hoc Networks makes them very vulnerable to security threats. Generation and distribution of shared keys for CA (Certification Authority) is challenging for security solution based on distributed PKI(Public-Key Infrastructure)/CA. The solutions that have been proposed in the literature and some related issues are discussed in this paper. The solution of a distributed generation of shared threshold RSA keys for CA is proposed in the present paper. During the process of creating an RSA private key share, every CA node only has its own private security. Distributed arithmetic is used to create the CA's private share locally, and that the requirement of centralized management institution is eliminated. Based on fully considering the Mobile Ad Hoc network's characteristic of self-organization, it avoids the security hidden trouble that comes by holding an all private security share of CA, with which the security and robustness of system is enhanced.

  15. QoS Routing in Ad-Hoc Networks Using GA and Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admir Barolli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Much work has been done on routing in Ad-hoc networks, but the proposed routing solutions only deal with the best effort data traffic. Connections with Quality of Service (QoS requirements, such as voice channels with delay and bandwidth constraints, are not supported. The QoS routing has been receiving increasingly intensive attention, but searching for the shortest path with many metrics is an NP-complete problem. For this reason, approximated solutions and heuristic algorithms should be developed for multi-path constraints QoS routing. Also, the routing methods should be adaptive, flexible, and intelligent. In this paper, we use Genetic Algorithms (GAs and multi-objective optimization for QoS routing in Ad-hoc Networks. In order to reduce the search space of GA, we implemented a search space reduction algorithm, which reduces the search space for GAMAN (GA-based routing algorithm for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks to find a new route. We evaluate the performance of GAMAN by computer simulations and show that GAMAN has better behaviour than GLBR (Genetic Load Balancing Routing.

  16. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  17. A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY ON DETECTING BLACK HOLE ATTACK IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Maniriho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The infrastructure-less nature and mobility of nodes in mobile ad-hoc network (MANET make it to be very susceptible to various attacks. Besides, owing to its flexibility and simplicity, there is no predefined time or permission set for nodes to leave or join the network and each node can act as a client or server.  Nevertheless, securing communication between nodes has become a challenging problem than in other types of network. Attacks in MANET range into different categories. Black hole attack is one of the attacks that has been addressed by many researchers in the recent years. It does occur when a harmful mobile node called black hole becomes a part of the network and tries to use its malicious behaviors by sending fake route reply packets (RREP for any received route request packets (RREQ. When these faked packets arrive to the source node, it does reply to them by sending data packet via the established route. Once the packets are received by the black hole, it drops them before reaching the destination.  Hence, preventing the source node from reaching the intended destination. In this paper, we present an overview of a wide range of techniques suggested in the literature for detecting and preventing black hole attacks in mobile ad hoc network. Additionally, the effect of each approach on the network performance is also presented.

  18. A Game Theory Based Approach for Power Efficient Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green communications are playing critical roles in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, while the deployment of a power efficient VANET is quite challenging in practice. To add more greens into such kind of complicated and time-varying mobile network, we specifically investigate the throughput and transmission delay performances for real-time and delay sensitive services through a repeated game theoretic solution. This paper has employed Nash Equilibrium in the noncooperative game model and analyzes its efficiency. Simulation results have shown an obvious improvement on power efficiency through such efforts.

  19. Novel store–carry–forward scheme for message dissemination in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc D.T. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve traffic safety in intelligent transportation systems, vehicles formed by vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs conventionally disseminate warning messages to their nearby vehicles as soon as a dangerous situation occurs. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme employing a novel story–carry–forward (SCF mechanism to tackle the network partition and broadcast storm problems, which are two major challenges in VANETs. The experimental result in the Veins simulation framework shows that the proposed SCF scheme significantly mitigates broadcast storms relative to other schemes, and maintains good coverage across various traffic densities.

  20. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wen Hu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  1. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chenn-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  2. Design of handoff procedures for broadband wireless access IEEE 802.16 based networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rangel–Licea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.16 is a protocol for fixed broad band wire less access that is currently trying to add mobility among mobile users in the standard. However, mobility adds some technical barriers that should be solved first, this is the case of HO "handoff" (change of connection between two base stations "BS" by a mobile user. In this paper, the problem of HO in IEEE 802.16 is approached try ing to maintain the quality of service (QoS of mobile users. A mechanism for changing connection during HO is pre sented. A simulation model based on OPNET MODELER1 was developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed HO mechanism. Finally, this paper demonstrates that it is possible to implement a seam less HO mech a nism over IEEE 802.16 even for users with de manding applications such as voice over IP.

  3. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Y Harold; Rajaram, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.

  4. An Automated Tool for the Creation of Desired Emulated Topologies of a Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Binh Q

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a research effort that the U.S. Army Research Laboratory conducted in FY 2005 in support of the development of advanced technologies for tactical mobile ad hoc networks (MANET...

  5. Dynamic subframe allocation for mobile broadband m-health using IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 4G health will be one of the key focus areas of future m-health research and enterprise activities in the coming years. WiMAX technology is one of the constituent 4G wireless technologies that provides broadband wireless access (BWA). Despite the fact that WiMAX is able to provide a high data rate in a relatively large coverage; this technology has specific limitations such as: coverage, signal attenuation problems due to shadowing or path loss, and limited available spectrum. The IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay (MMR) technology is a pragmatic solution designed to overcome these limitations. The aim of IEEE 802.16j MMR is to expand the IEEE 802.16e's capabilities with multihop features. In particular, the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) subframe allocation in WiMAX network is usually fixed. However, dynamic frame allocation is a useful mechanism to optimize uplink and downlink subframe size dynamically based on the traffic conditions through real-time traffic monitoring. This particular mechanism is important for future WiMAX based m-health applications as it allows the tradeoff in both UL and DL channels. In this paper, we address the dynamic frame allocation issue in IEEE 802.16j MMR network for m-health applications. A comparative performance analysis of the proposed approach is validated using the OPNET Modeler(®). The simulation results have shown an improved performance of resource allocation and end-to-end delay performance for typical medical video streaming application.

  6. Forming an ad-hoc nearby storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippidis, Christos; Cotronis, Yiannis; Markou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    We present an ad-hoc 'nearby' storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services, such as Facebook. By design, IKAROS is capable to increase or decrease the number of nodes of the I/O system instance on the fly, without bringing everything down or losing data. IKAROS is capable to decide the file partition distribution schema, by taking on account requests from the user or an application, as well as a domain or a Virtual Organization policy. In this way, it is possible to form multiple instances of smaller capacity higher bandwidth storage utilities capable to respond in an ad-hoc manner. This approach, focusing on flexibility, can scale both up and down and so can provide more cost effective infrastructures for both large scale and smaller size systems. A set of experiments is performed comparing IKAROS with PVFS2 by using multiple clients requests under HPC IOR benchmark and MPICH2.

  7. Forming an ad-hoc nearby storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Christos; Cotronis, Yiannis; Markou, Christos

    2014-06-01

    We present an ad-hoc "nearby" storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services, such as Facebook. By design, IKAROS is capable to increase or decrease the number of nodes of the I/O system instance on the fly, without bringing everything down or losing data. IKAROS is capable to decide the file partition distribution schema, by taking on account requests from the user or an application, as well as a domain or a Virtual Organization policy. In this way, it is possible to form multiple instances of smaller capacity higher bandwidth storage utilities capable to respond in an ad-hoc manner. This approach, focusing on flexibility, can scale both up and down and so can provide more cost effective infrastructures for both large scale and smaller size systems. A set of experiments is performed comparing IKAROS with PVFS2 by using multiple clients requests under HPC IOR benchmark and MPICH2.

  8. Performance modeling of a two-tier primary-secondary network with IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a two-tier primary-secondary network based on IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme. We assume that a number of primary and secondary users coexist in the radio environment and share a single band. To protect the primary users\\' priority, the secondary users are allowed to contend for the channel only if they sense it idle for a certain sensing time. Considering an exponential packet inter-arrival time for the primary network, we model each primary user as an independent M/G/1 queue. Subsequently, we determine the primary users\\' average medium access delay in the presence of secondary users as well as the hybrid network\\'s throughput. Numerical results and discussions show the effects of parameters pertaining to the secondary users, such as as sensing time, packet payload size and population size, on the performance of the primary network. Furthermore, we provide simulation results which confirm the accuracy of the proposed analysis. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Intelligent self-organization methods for wireless ad hoc sensor networks based on limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2006-05-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN) is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. To a greater degree than the terminals found in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for communications, sensor nodes are resource-constrained, with limited computational processing, bandwidth, memory, and power, and are typically unattended once in operation. Consequently, the level of information exchange among nodes, to support any complex adaptive algorithms to establish network connectivity and optimize throughput, not only deplete those limited resources and creates high overhead in narrowband communications, but also increase network vulnerability to eavesdropping by malicious nodes. Cooperation among nodes, critical to the mission of sensor networks, can thus be disrupted by the inappropriate choice of the method for self-organization. Recent published contributions to the self-configuration of ad hoc sensor networks, e.g., self-organizing mapping and swarm intelligence techniques, have been based on the adaptive control of the cross-layer interactions found in MANET protocols to achieve one or more performance objectives: connectivity, intrusion resistance, power control, throughput, and delay. However, few studies have examined the performance of these algorithms when implemented with the limited resources of WSNs. In this paper, self-organization algorithms for the initiation, operation and maintenance of a network topology from a collection of wireless sensor nodes are proposed that improve the performance metrics significant to WSNs. The intelligent algorithm approach emphasizes low computational complexity, energy efficiency and robust adaptation to change, allowing distributed implementation with the actual limited resources of the cooperative nodes of the network. Extensions of the

  10. Securing ad hoc wireless sensor networks under Byzantine attacks by implementing non-cryptographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir Ahmad Sofi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless sensor network (WSN is a collection of nodes that do not need to rely on predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. The level of security and performance are always somehow related to each other, therefore due to limited resources in WSN, cryptographic methods for securing the network against attacks is not feasible. Byzantine attacks disrupt the communication between nodes in the network without regard to its own resource consumption. This paper discusses the performance of cluster based WSN comparing LEACH with Advanced node based clusters under byzantine attacks. This paper also proposes an algorithm for detection and isolation of the compromised nodes to mitigate the attacks by non-cryptographic means. The throughput increases after using the algorithm for isolation of the malicious nodes, 33% in case of Gray Hole attack and 62% in case of Black Hole attack.

  11. Dynamic fair node spectrum allocation for ad hoc networks using random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmes, Mark; Lemieux, George; Chester, Dave; Sonnenberg, Jerry

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is widely seen as a solution to the problem of limited spectrum, because of its ability to adapt the operating frequency of a radio. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) can extend high-capacity mobile communications over large areas where fixed and tethered-mobile systems are not available. In one use case with high potential impact, cognitive radio employs spectrum sensing to facilitate the identification of allocated frequencies not currently accessed by their primary users. Primary users own the rights to radiate at a specific frequency and geographic location, while secondary users opportunistically attempt to radiate at a specific frequency when the primary user is not using it. We populate a spatial radio environment map (REM) database with known information that can be leveraged in an ad hoc network to facilitate fair path use of the DSA-discovered links. Utilization of high-resolution geospatial data layers in RF propagation analysis is directly applicable. Random matrix theory (RMT) is useful in simulating network layer usage in nodes by a Wishart adjacency matrix. We use the Dijkstra algorithm for discovering ad hoc network node connection patterns. We present a method for analysts to dynamically allocate node-node path and link resources using fair division. User allocation of limited resources as a function of time must be dynamic and based on system fairness policies. The context of fair means that first available request for an asset is not envied as long as it is not yet allocated or tasked in order to prevent cycling of the system. This solution may also save money by offering a Pareto efficient repeatable process. We use a water fill queue algorithm to include Shapley value marginal contributions for allocation.

  12. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-09-21

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism.

  13. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Wook Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many Internet of Things (IoT services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism.

  14. Information Sharing Mechanism among Mobile Agents In Ad-hoc Network Environment and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Umetsuji

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are programs that can move from one site to another in a network with their data and states. Mobile agents are expected to be an essential tool in pervasive computing. In multi platform environment, it is important to communicate with mobile agents only using their universal or logical name not using their physical locations. More, in an ad-hoc network environment, an agent can migrate autonomously and communicate with other agents on demand. It is difficult that mobile agent grasps the position information on other agents correctly each other, because mobile agent processes a task while moving a network successively. In order to realize on-demand mutual communication among mobile agents without any centralized servers, we propose a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. In this paper, we present a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. The method is a complete peer based and requires no agent servers to manage mobile agent locations. Therefore, a mobile agent can get another mobile agent, communicate with it and shares information stored in the agent without any knowledge of the location of the target mobile agent. The basic idea of the mechanism is an introduction of Agent Ring, Agent Chain and Shadow Agent. With this mechanism, each agent can communicate with other agents in a server-less environment, which is suitable for ad-hoc agent network and an agent system can manage agents search and communications efficiently.

  15. Mathematical Analysis of EDCA's Performance on the Control Channel of an IEEE 802.11p WAVE Vehicular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein T. Mouftah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks for vehicular environments are gaining increasing importance due to their ability to provide a means for stations on the roadside and radio units on board of vehicles to communicate and share safety-related information, thus reducing the probability of accidents and increasing the efficiency of the transportation system. With this goal in mind, the IEEE is currently developing the Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE IEEE 802.11p standard. WAVE devices use the IEEE 802.11's Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA MAC protocol to compete for the transmission medium. This work proposes an analytical tool to evaluate the performance of EDCA under the specific conditions of the so-called control channel (CCH of a WAVE environment, including the particular EDCA parameter values and the fact that all safety-critical data frames are broadcasted. The protocol is modeled using Markov chains and results related to throughput, frame-error rate, buffer occupancy and delay are obtained under different traffic-load conditions. The main analysis is performed assuming that the CCH works continuously, and then an explanation is given as to the considerations that are needed to account for the fact that activity on the CCH is intermittent.

  16. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  17. Data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information in a mobile ad hoc network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  18. Data Delivery Method Based on Neighbor Nodes’ Information in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kashihara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes’ information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE, Chachulski et al. (2007, improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  19. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevaa Katiravan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  20. Performance modeling of a two-tier primary-secondary network with IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi; Aissa, Sonia; El Kefi, Rania

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a two-tier primary-secondary network based on IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme. We assume that a number of primary and secondary users coexist in the radio environment and share a single band. To protect the primary users' priority, the secondary users are allowed to contend for the channel only if they sense it idle for a certain sensing time. Considering an exponential packet inter-arrival time for the primary network, we model each primary user as an independent M/G/1 queue. Subsequently, we determine the primary users' average medium access delay in the presence of secondary users as well as the hybrid network's throughput. Numerical results and discussions show the effects of parameters pertaining to the secondary users, such as as sensing time, packet payload size and population size, on the performance of the primary network. Furthermore, we provide simulation results which confirm the accuracy of the proposed analysis. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Design of Cyberwar Laboratory Exercises to Implement Common Security Attacks against IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Malekzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless network communications, radio waves travel through free space; hence, the information reaches any receiving point with appropriate radio receivers. This aspect makes the wireless networks vulnerable to various types of attacks. A true understanding of these attacks provides better ability to defend the network against the attacks, thus eliminating potential threats from the wireless systems. This work presents a series of cyberwar laboratory exercises that are designed for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks security courses. The exercises expose different aspects of violations in security such as confidentiality, privacy, availability, and integrity. The types of attacks include traffic analysis, rogue access point, MAC filtering, replay, man-in-the-middle, and denial of service attacks. For each exercise, the materials are presented as open-source tools along with descriptions of the respective methods, procedures, and penetration techniques.

  2. A multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks based on channel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhuo; Zhong, Sheng; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  3. An Agent-Based Approach To Nodes Misbehaviour Detection In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otor Samera U.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Existing Misbehaviour Detection Systems in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks MANETs are challenged with routing overhead and high latency resulting from complexity and failure to isolate and block misbehaving nodes for the reason that it is difficult to detect them as they participate fully in route finding. In this work a Mobile Agent-Based Acknowledgement scheme MAACK was formulated to address this problem using an object oriented algorithm deployed to report misbehaving nodes to the source and destination by registering the Internet Protocol IP address of misbehaving nodes in their header. The scheme was simulated using Network Simulator-3 NS-3 and results benchmarked with an existing scheme the Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgment EAACK using packet delivery ratio routing overhead and latency as performance metrics in the two scenarios. The results showed that the MAACK paradigm guaranteed a higher packet delivery ratio lower latency and routing overhead than the EAACK scheme. The model can be adapted by Ad-Hoc network protocol developers.

  4. Optimalization of Beacon Selection for Localization in Wireless AD-HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we engage in optimalization of convenient beacons for localization position of a node in the ad-hoc network. An algorithm designed by us localizes position of moving or static node by RSS (Received Signal Strength method and trilateration. At first, localization of unknown node runs by combination of all beacons. Than optimalizating algorithmreduces the number of beacons (and repeats localization, while only three left. Its reduction is based on highest levels of received signal strength. It is only when signals are from the nearest beacons. Position localizating exactness is statistically interpreted from all localization by beacons combination and its repeating.

  5. An Incentivized Approach for Fair Participation in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhuri, Arka Rai; S, Kalyanasundaram; Sridhar, Shriyak; B, Annappa

    2015-01-01

    In Wireless Ad hoc networks (WANETs), nodes separated by considerable distance communicate with each other by relaying their messages through other nodes. However, it might not be in the best interests of a node to forward the message of another node due to power constraints. In addition, all nodes being rational, some nodes may be selfish, i.e. they might not relay data from other nodes so as to increase their lifetime. In this paper, we present a fair and incentivized approach for participa...

  6. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  7. Construction of Pipelined Strategic Connected Dominating Set for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceronmani Sharmila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient routing between nodes is the most important challenge in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET. A Connected Dominating Set (CDS acts as a virtual backbone for routing in a MANET. Hence, the construction of CDS based on the need and its application plays a vital role in the applications of MANET. The PipeLined Strategic CDS (PLS-CDS is constructed based on strategy, dynamic diameter and transmission range. The strategy used for selecting the starting node is, any source node in the network, which has its entire destination within a virtual pipelined coverage, instead of the node with maximum connectivity. The other nodes are then selected based on density and velocity. The proposed CDS also utilizes the energy of the nodes in the network in an optimized manner. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm is better in terms of size of the CDS and average hop per path length.

  8. A survey and taxonomy of distributed certificate authorities in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbehdari Sam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.

  9. Link reliability based hybrid routing for tactical mobile ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiaochuan; Wei Gang; Wu Keping; Wang Gang; Jia Shilou

    2008-01-01

    Tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network,without the aid of pre-established network infrastructure. The routing protocol has a crucial impact on the networkperformance in battlefields. Link reliability based hybrid routing (LRHR) is proposed, which is a novel hybrid routing protocol, for tactical MANET. Contrary to the traditional single path routing strategy, multiple paths are established between a pair of source-destination nodes. In the hybrid routing strategy, the rate of topological change provides a natural mechanism for switching dynamically between table-driven and on-demand routing. The simulation results indicate that the performances of the protocol in packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and average end-to-end delay are better than the conventional routing protocol.

  10. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coveney PeterV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence vehicular flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments we present show how a car-following model and lane-change algorithm can be adapted to "react" to the reception of information. This model also illustrates the advantages of coupling together with vehicular flow modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  11. Broadcast Expenses Controlling Techniques in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The blind flooding of query packets in route discovery more often characterizes the broadcast storm problem, exponentially increases energy consumption of intermediate nodes and congests the entire network. In such a congested network, the task of establishing the path between resources may become very complex and unwieldy. An extensive research work has been done in this area to improve the route discovery phase of routing protocols by reducing broadcast expenses. The purpose of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of existing broadcasting techniques for the route discovery phase, in order to bring about an efficient broadcasting technique for determining the route with minimum conveying nodes in ad-hoc networks. The study is designed to highlight the collective merits and demerits of such broadcasting techniques along with certain conclusions that would contribute to the choice of broadcasting techniques.

  12. Secure Adaptive Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Ouyang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a secure decentralized clustering algorithm for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. Based on the cluster-based topology, secure hierarchical communication protocols and dynamic quarantine strategies are introduced to defend against spam attacks, since this type of attacks can exhaust the energy of sensor nodes and will shorten the lifetime of a sensor network drastically. By adjusting the threshold of infected percentage of the cluster coverage, our scheme can dynamically coordinate the proportion of the quarantine region and adaptively achieve the cluster control and the neighborhood control of attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is feasible and cost effective for wireless sensor networks.

  13. Energy-efficient algorithm for broadcasting in ad hoc wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Xingbo; Cheng, Hongju; Wan, Zheng

    2013-04-12

    Broadcasting is a common and basic operation used to support various network protocols in wireless networks. To achieve energy-efficient broadcasting is especially important for ad hoc wireless sensor networks because sensors are generally powered by batteries with limited lifetimes. Energy consumption for broadcast operations can be reduced by minimizing the number of relay nodes based on the observation that data transmission processes consume more energy than data reception processes in the sensor nodes, and how to improve the network lifetime is always an interesting issue in sensor network research. The minimum-energy broadcast problem is then equivalent to the problem of finding the minimum Connected Dominating Set (CDS) for a connected graph that is proved NP-complete. In this paper, we introduce an Efficient Minimum CDS algorithm (EMCDS) with help of a proposed ordered sequence list. EMCDS does not concern itself with node energy and broadcast operations might fail if relay nodes are out of energy. Next we have proposed a Minimum Energy-consumption Broadcast Scheme (MEBS) with a modified version of EMCDS, and aimed at providing an efficient scheduling scheme with maximized network lifetime. The simulation results show that the proposed EMCDS algorithm can find smaller CDS compared with related works, and the MEBS can help to increase the network lifetime by efficiently balancing energy among nodes in the networks.

  14. Client-Server and Peer-to-Peer Ad-hoc Network for a Flexible Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial Khaddage

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer (P2P networking in a mobile learning environment has become a popular topic of research. One of the new emerging research ideas is on the ability to combine P2P network with server-based network to form a strong efficient portable and compatible network infrastructure. This paper describes a unique mobile network architecture, which reflects the on-campus students’ need for a mobile learning environment. This can be achieved by combining two different networks, client-server and peer-to-peer ad-hoc to form a sold and secure network. This is accomplished by employing one peer within the ad-hoc network to act as an agent-peer to facilitate communication and information sharing between the two networks. It can be implemented without any major changes to the current network technologies, and can combine any wireless protocols such as GPRS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and 3G.

  15. 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Studies in Computational Intelligence : Volume 492

    2013-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2013), held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA on July 1-3, 2013. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 17 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.  

  16. 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2014) held on June 30 – July 2, 2014 in Las Vegas Nevada, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 13 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.

  17. A fault-tolerant small world topology control model in ad hoc networks for search and rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mian; Fang, Ling; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Bo; Chang, Bowen; Holme, Petter; Zhao, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Due to their self-organized, multi-hop and distributed characteristics, ad hoc networks are useful in search and rescue. Topology control models need to be designed for energy-efficient, robust and fast communication in ad hoc networks. This paper proposes a topology control model which specializes for search and rescue-Compensation Small World-Repeated Game (CSWRG)-which integrates mobility models, constructing small world networks and a game-theoretic approach to the allocation of resources. Simulation results show that our mobility models can enhance the communication performance of the constructed small-world networks. Our strategy, based on repeated game, can suppress selfish behavior and compensate agents that encounter selfish or faulty neighbors. This model could be useful for the design of ad hoc communication networks.

  18. Scaling of Airborne Ad-hoc Network Metrics with Link Range and Satellite Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Daniel BÜCHTER

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, large-scale commercial aeronautical ad-hoc networks are evaluated. The investigation is based on a simulation environment with input from 2016 flight schedule and aircraft performance databases for flight movement modelling, along with a defined infrastructure of ground gateways and communication satellites. A cluster-based algorithm is used to build the communication network topology between aircraft. Cloud top pressure data can be considered to estimate cloud height and evaluate the impact of link obscuration on network availability, assuming a free-space optics-based communication network. The effects of communication range, satellite availability, fleet equipage ratio and clouds are discussed. It is shown how network reach and performance can be enhanced by adding taps to the network in the form of high-speed satellite links. The effect of adding these is two-fold: firstly, network reach can be increased by connecting remote aircraft clusters. Secondly, larger clusters can effectively be split into smaller ones in order to increase performance especially with regard to hop count and available overall capacity. In a realistic scenario concerning communication range and with moderate numbers of high-speed satellite terminals, on average, 78% of all widebody aircraft can be reached. With clouds considered (assuming laser links, this number reduces by 10%.

  19. PROTOCOLS FOR INCREASING THE LIFETIME OF NODES OF AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Malarkodi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be minimized. Energy management deals with the process of managing energy resources by means of controlling the battery discharge, adjusting the transmission power and scheduling of power sources so as to increase the lifetime of the nodes of an ad hoc wireless network. In this paper, two protocols are proposed to improve the lifetime of the nodes. The first protocol assumes smart battery packages with L cells and uses dynamic programming (DP to optimally select the set of cells used to satisfy a request for power. The second one proposes a MAC layer protocol denoted as Power Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC protocol which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity above a threshold. The life time of the nodes using the DP based scheduling policy is found through simulation and compared with that obtained using the techniques reported in the literature. It is found that DP based policy increases the lifetime of the mobile nodes by a factor of 1.15 to 1.8. The life expectancy, the average power consumption and throughput of the network using PAMAC protocol are computed through simulation and compared with that of the other MAC layer protocols 802.11, MACA, and CSMA. Besides this, the life expectancy and average power consumption of the network for different values of threshold are also compared. From the simulation results, it is observed that PAMAC consumes the least power and provides the longest lifetime among the various MAC Layer protocols. Moreover, using PAMAC as the MAC layer protocol, the performance obtained using different routing layer

  20. An Analysis of Network and Sensor Performance Within IEEE 802.X Wireless MESH Networks in the Tactical Network Topology (TNT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Joseph A., Sr

    2005-01-01

    .... Specifically, this thesis will attempt establish the foundation for the development of wireless MESH "network health" models by examining the performance of sensors operating within a MESH network...

  1. Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Networks over Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muneer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio systems can utilize dispersed spectrum, and thus such approach is known as dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems. In this paper, we first provide the performance analysis of such systems over fading channels. We derive the average symbol error probability of dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems for two cases, where the channel for each frequency diversity band experiences independent and dependent Nakagami- fading. In addition, the derivation is extended to include the effects of modulation type and order by considering M-ary phase-shift keying ( -PSK and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation -QAM schemes. We then consider the deployment of such cognitive radio systems in an ad hoc fashion. We consider an ad hoc dispersed spectrum cognitive radio network, where the nodes are assumed to be distributed in three dimension (3D. We derive the effective transport capacity considering a cubic grid distribution. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis and show the performance of such networks.

  2. Cross-Layer QoS Control for Video Communications over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Yong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Assuming a wireless ad hoc network consisting of homogeneous video users with each of them also serving as a possible relay node for other users, we propose a cross-layer rate-control scheme based on an analytical study of how the effective video transmission rate is affected by the prevailing operating parameters, such as the interference environment, the number of transmission hops to a destination, and the packet loss rate. Furthermore, in order to provide error-resilient video delivery over such wireless ad hoc networks, a cross-layer joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach, to be used in conjunction with rate-control, is proposed and investigated. This approach attempts to optimally apply the appropriate channel coding rate given the constraints imposed by the effective transmission rate obtained from the proposed rate-control scheme, the allowable real-time video play-out delay, and the prevailing channel conditions. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed cross-layer combined rate-control and JSCC approach.

  3. The congestion control algorithm based on queue management of each node in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifei; Chang, Lin; Wang, Yali; Wang, Gaoping

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. As the network load increases, local congestion of mobile ad hoc network may lead to network performance degradation, hot node's energy consumption increase even failure. If small energy nodes congested because of forwarding data packets, then when it is used as the source node will cause a lot of packet loss. This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. Controlling nodes buffer queue in different levels of congestion area probability by adjusting the upper limits and lower limits, thus nodes can adjust responsibility of forwarding data packets according to their own situation. The proposed algorithm will slow down the send rate hop by hop along the data package transmission direction from congestion node to source node so that to prevent further congestion from the source node. The simulation results show that, the algorithm can better play the data forwarding ability of strong nodes, protect the weak nodes, can effectively alleviate the network congestion situation.

  4. Evaluation of mobile ad hoc network reliability using propagation-based link reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmavathy, N.; Chaturvedi, Sanjay K.

    2013-01-01

    A wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of solely independent nodes (that can move randomly around the area of deployment) making the topology highly dynamic; nodes communicate with each other by forming a single hop/multi-hop network and maintain connectivity in decentralized manner. MANET is modelled using geometric random graphs rather than random graphs because the link existence in MANET is a function of the geometric distance between the nodes and the transmission range of the nodes. Among many factors that contribute to the MANET reliability, the reliability of these networks also depends on the robustness of the link between the mobile nodes of the network. Recently, the reliability of such networks has been evaluated for imperfect nodes (transceivers) with binary model of communication links based on the transmission range of the mobile nodes and the distance between them. However, in reality, the probability of successful communication decreases as the signal strength deteriorates due to noise, fading or interference effects even up to the nodes' transmission range. Hence, in this paper, using a propagation-based link reliability model rather than a binary-model with nodes following a known failure distribution to evaluate the network reliability (2TR m , ATR m and AoTR m ) of MANET through Monte Carlo Simulation is proposed. The method is illustrated with an application and some imperative results are also presented

  5. Rollback recovery with low overhead for fault tolerance in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeet Kaur Jaggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs have significantly enhanced the wireless networks by eliminating the need for any fixed infrastructure. Hence, these are increasingly being used for expanding the computing capacity of existing networks or for implementation of autonomous mobile computing Grids. However, the fragile nature of MANETs makes the constituent nodes susceptible to failures and the computing potential of these networks can be utilized only if they are fault tolerant. The technique of checkpointing based rollback recovery has been used effectively for fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile systems; yet, the implementation of existing protocols for MANETs is not straightforward. The paper presents a novel rollback recovery protocol for handling the failures of mobile nodes in a MANET using checkpointing and sender based message logging. The proposed protocol utilizes the routing protocol existing in the network for implementing a low overhead recovery mechanism. The presented recovery procedure at a node is completely domino-free and asynchronous. The protocol is resilient to the dynamic characteristics of the MANET; allowing a distributed application to be executed independently without access to any wired Grid or cellular network access points. We also present an algorithm to record a consistent global snapshot of the MANET.

  6. A DNA-Inspired Encryption Methodology for Secure, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Users are pushing for greater physical mobility with their network and Internet access. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) can provide an efficient mobile network architecture, but security is a key concern. A figure summarizes differences in the state of network security for MANET and fixed networks. MANETs require the ability to distinguish trusted peers, and tolerate the ingress/egress of nodes on an unscheduled basis. Because the networks by their very nature are mobile and self-organizing, use of a Public Key Infra structure (PKI), X.509 certificates, RSA, and nonce ex changes becomes problematic if the ideal of MANET is to be achieved. Molecular biology models such as DNA evolution can provide a basis for a proprietary security architecture that achieves high degrees of diffusion and confusion, and resistance to cryptanalysis. A proprietary encryption mechanism was developed that uses the principles of DNA replication and steganography (hidden word cryptography) for confidentiality and authentication. The foundation of the approach includes organization of coded words and messages using base pairs organized into genes, an expandable genome consisting of DNA-based chromosome keys, and a DNA-based message encoding, replication, and evolution and fitness. In evolutionary computing, a fitness algorithm determines whether candidate solutions, in this case encrypted messages, are sufficiently encrypted to be transmitted. The technology provides a mechanism for confidential electronic traffic over a MANET without a PKI for authenticating users.

  7. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Paramasivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  8. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  9. Verifying Safety Messages Using Relative-Time and Zone Priority in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Sam; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Kittipiyakul, Somsak

    2018-01-01

    In high-density road networks, with each vehicle broadcasting multiple messages per second, the arrival rate of safety messages can easily exceed the rate at which digital signatures can be verified. Since not all messages can be verified, algorithms for selecting which messages to verify are required to ensure that each vehicle receives appropriate awareness about neighbouring vehicles. This paper presents a novel scheme to select important safety messages for verification in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). The proposed scheme uses location and direction of the sender, as well as proximity and relative-time between vehicles, to reduce the number of irrelevant messages verified (i.e., messages from vehicles that are unlikely to cause an accident). Compared with other existing schemes, the analysis results show that the proposed scheme can verify messages from nearby vehicles with lower inter-message delay and reduced packet loss and thus provides high level of awareness of the nearby vehicles. PMID:29652840

  10. An enhanced performance through agent-based secure approach for mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Dhananjay; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an agent-based secure enhanced performance approach (AB-SEP) for mobile ad hoc network. In this approach, agent nodes are selected through optimal node reliability as a factor. This factor is calculated on the basis of node performance features such as degree difference, normalised distance value, energy level, mobility and optimal hello interval of node. After selection of agent nodes, a procedure of malicious behaviour detection is performed using fuzzy-based secure architecture (FBSA). To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, comparative analysis is done with conventional schemes using performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, throughput, total packet forwarding, network overhead, end-to-end delay and percentage of malicious detection.

  11. Secure neighborhood discovery: A fundamental element for mobile ad hoc networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND......) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and applications....... Thus, providing methods to mitigate this vulnerability and secure ND is crucial. In this article we focus on this problem and provide definitions of neighborhood types and ND protocol properties, as well as a broad classification of attacks. Our ND literature survey reveals that securing ND is indeed...

  12. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-07-14

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes.

  13. An Opportunistic Routing for Data Forwarding Based on Vehicle Mobility Association in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have emerged as a new powerful technology for data transmission between vehicles. Efficient data transmission accompanied with low data delay plays an important role in selecting the ideal data forwarding path in VANETs. This paper proposes a new opportunity routing protocol for data forwarding based on vehicle mobility association (OVMA. With assistance from the vehicle mobility association, data can be forwarded without passing through many extra intermediate nodes. Besides, each vehicle carries the only replica information to record its associated vehicle information, so the routing decision can adapt to the vehicle densities. Simulation results show that the OVMA protocol can extend the network lifetime, improve the performance of data delivery ratio, and reduce the data delay and routing overhead when compared to the other well-known routing protocols.

  14. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...... Force (IETF). This paper presents a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model of the mandatory parts of the DYMO protocol, and shows how scenario-based state space exploration has been used to validate key properties of the protocol. Our CPN modelling and verification work has spanned two revisions of the DYMO...... protocol specification and have had direct impact on the most recent version of the protocol specification....

  15. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.

  16. Improving the communication reliability of body sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Diogo; Afonso, José A

    2014-03-01

    Body sensor networks (BSNs) enable continuous monitoring of patients anywhere, with minimum constraints to daily life activities. Although the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee(®) (ZigBee Alliance, San Ramon, CA) standards were mainly developed for use in wireless sensors network (WSN) applications, they are also widely used in BSN applications because of device characteristics such as low power, low cost, and small form factor. However, compared with WSNs, BSNs present some very distinctive characteristics in terms of traffic and mobility patterns, heterogeneity of the nodes, and quality of service requirements. This article evaluates the suitability of the carrier sense multiple access-collision avoidance protocol, used by the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards, for data-intensive BSN applications, through the execution of experimental tests in different evaluation scenarios, in order to take into account the effects of contention, clock drift, and hidden nodes on the communication reliability. Results show that the delivery ratio may decrease substantially during transitory periods, which can last for several minutes, to a minimum of 90% with retransmissions and 13% without retransmissions. This article also proposes and evaluates the performance of the BSN contention avoidance mechanism, which was designed to solve the identified reliability problems. This mechanism was able to restore the delivery ratio to 100% even in the scenario without retransmissions.

  17. Car-to-Pedestrian Communication Safety System Based on the Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Environment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the unparalleled growth of motor vehicles, traffic accident between pedestrians and vehicles is one of the most serious issues in the word-wild. Plenty of injuries and fatalities are caused by the traffic accidents and crashes. The connected vehicular ad hoc network as an emerging approach which has the potential to reduce and even avoid accidents have been focused on by many researchers. A large number of car-to-pedestrian communication safety systems based on the vehicular ad hoc network are researching and developing. However, to our limited knowledge, a systematic review about the car-to-pedestrian communication safety system based on the vehicular ad-hoc network has not be written. The purpose and goal of this review is to systematically evaluate and access the reliability of car-to-pedestrian communication safety system based on the vehicular ad-hoc network environment and provide some recommendations for the future works according to throwing some light on the previous literatures. A quality evaluation was developed through established items and instruments tailored to this review. Future works are needed to focus on developing a valid as well as effective communication safety system based on the vehicular ad hoc network to protect the vulnerable road users.

  18. Cross Layer PHY-MAC Protocol for Wireless Static and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Blondia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multihop mobile wireless networks have drawn a lot of attention in recent years thanks to their wide applicability in civil and military environments. Since the existing IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF standard does not provide satisfactory access to the wireless medium in multihop mobile networks, we have designed a cross-layer protocol, (CroSs-layer noise aware power driven MAC (SNAPdMac, which consists of two parts. The protocol first concentrates on the flexible adjustment of the upper and lower bounds of the contention window (CW to lower the number of collisions. In addition, it uses a power control scheme, triggered by the medium access control (MAC layer, to limit the waste of energy and also to decrease the number of collisions. Thanks to a noticeable energy conservation and decrease of the number of collisions, it prolongs significantly the lifetime of the network and delays the death of the first node while increasing both the throughput performance and the sending bit rate/throughput fairness among contending flows.

  19. Multipath Activity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile ‎Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Omar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks improve spectrum utilization by ‎sharing licensed spectrum with cognitive radio devices. In ‎cognitive radio ad hoc networks the routing protocol is one ‎of the most challenging tasks due to the changes in ‎frequency spectrum and the interrupted connectivity ‎caused by the primary user activity. In this paper, a multi‎path activity based routing protocol for cognitive radio ‎network (MACNRP is proposed. The protocol utilizes ‎channel availability and creates multiple node-disjoint ‎routes between the source and destination nodes. The ‎proposed protocol is compared with D2CARP and FTCRP ‎protocols. The performance evaluation is conducted ‎through mathematical analysis and using OPNET ‎simulation. The performance of the proposed protocol ‎achieves an increase in network throughput; besides it ‎decreases the probability of route failure due to node ‎mobility and primary user activity. We have found that the ‎MACNRP scheme results in 50% to 75% reduction in ‎blocking probability and 33% to 78% improvement in ‎network throughput, with a reasonable additional routing ‎overhead and average packet delay. Due to the successful ‎reduction of collision between primary users and ‎cognitive users, the MACNRP scheme results in decreasing ‎the path failure rate by 50% to 87%.‎

  20. POLLING AND DUAL-LEVEL TRAFFIC ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVED DOS DETECTION IN IEEE 802.21 NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygil Alex Vadakkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 standard was developed for communication of devices in a heterogeneous environment which included greater support for handoffs. This paper focuses on the denial of service (DoS vulnerabilities faced by such Media Independent Handover (MIH networks & various effective countermeasures that can be deployed to prevent their impact on such heterogeneous networks. The use of polling mechanism coupled with real time as well as offline traffic analysis can keep a good number of attacks at bay. The use of offline traffic analysis is to use the model and compare it with a lighter model and see if any of the excluded features in the lighter model have had suspicious variations which could be a varied form of DoS attack or an attack that is completely new. The countermeasures that have been developed also allows for the increase in efficiency of data transfer as well as higher rates of success in handoffs.

  1. A network resource availability model for IEEE802.11a/b-based WLAN carrying different service types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Weizhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Operators of integrated wireless systems need to have knowledge of the resource availability in their different access networks to perform efficient admission control and maintain good quality of experience to users. Network availability depends on the access technology and the service types. Resource availability in a WLAN is complex to gather when UDP and TCP services co-exist. Previous study on IEEE802.11a/b derived the achievable throughput under the assumption of inelastic and uniformly distributed traffic. Further study investigated TCP connections and derived a model to calculate the effective transmission rate of packets under the assumption of saturated traffic flows. The assumptions are too stringent; therefore, we developed a model for evaluating WLAN resource availability that tries to narrow the gap to more realistic scenarios. It provides an indication of WLAN resource availability for admitting UDP/TCP requests. This article presents the assumptions, the mathematical formulations, and the effectiveness of our model.

  2. A PROPOSED NOVEL ARCHITECTURE OF EC CONTROL SYSTEM USING IEEE 802.11n NETWORK AT ITER-INDIA GYROTRON TEST FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Mandge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi networks are increasingly becoming popular for its use in industrial applications. With the availability of recent amendments to IEEE 802.11 series of standards, particularly IEEE 802.11n, the adoption of Wi-Fi networks for process automation is gaining more focus and importance. The installation of Wireless networks naturally provides reduction in cable and its maintenance related costs, provides increased flexibility and mobility to enhance performance of industrial control system. The IEEE 802.11n supports parameterization that can be set for particular industrial applications and hence it has addressed to the aspects of timeliness and criticality to some extent. This paper proposes the use of IEEE 802.11n network to interconnect field instruments with Siemens PLC controller in harsh EMI/EMC environment. An application example is shown where the alternate control system architecture is developed in which non-critical and non-safety signals are communicated over Wi-Fi. While, for critical and safety signals, traditional hardwired signals methods can be implemented.

  3. A Green Media Access Method for IEEE 802.15.6 Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Anil K; Jacob, Lillykutty

    2017-09-30

    It is of utmost importance to conserve battery energy to the maximum possible extent in WBAN nodes while collecting and transferring medical data. The IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN standard does not specify any method to conserve energy. This paper focuses on a method to conserve energy in IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN nodes when using CSMA/CA, while simultaneously restricting data delivery delay to the required value as specified in medical applications. The technique is to allow the nodes to sleep all the times except for receiving beacons and for transmitting data frames whenever a data frame enters an empty buffer. The energy consumed by the nodes and the average latency of data frame for periodical arrival of data are found out analytically. The analytical results are validated and also the proposed method is compared with other energy conserving schemes, using Castalia simulation studies. The proposed method shows superior performance in both device lifetime and latency of emergency medical data.

  4. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads. PMID:28531159

  5. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2017-05-22

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads.

  6. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  7. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  8. A Routing Strategy for Non-Cooperation Wireless Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung T. Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing routes such that the network lifetime is maximized in a wireless network with limited energy resources is a major routing problem in wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. In this paper, we study the problem where participants are rationally selfish and non-cooperative. By selfish we designate the users who are ready to tamper with their source-routing (senders could choose intermediate nodes in the routing paths or next hop selection strategies in order to increase the total number of packets transmitted, but do not try to harm or drop packets of the other nodes. The problem therefore amounts to a non-cooperative game. In the works [2,6,19,23], the authors show that the game admits Nash equilibria [1]. Along this line, we first show that if the cost function is linear, this game has pure-strategy equilibrium flow even though participants have different demands. However, finding a Nash equilibrium for a normal game is computationally hard [9]. In this work, inspired by mixed-strategy equilibrium, we propose a simple local routing algorithm called MIxed Path Routing protocol (MiPR. Using analysis and simulations, we show that MiPR drives the system to an equilibrium state where selfish participants do not have incentive to deviate. Moreover, MiPR significantly improves the network lifetime as compared to original routing protocols.

  9. Quality-of-Service Routing Using Path and Power Aware Techniques in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asokan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts dynamically forming a temporary network without the aid of any existing established infrastructure. Quality of service (QoS is a set of service requirements that needs to be met by the network while transporting a packet stream from a source to its destination. QoS support MANETs is a challenging task due to the dynamic topology and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to enhance the QoS routing for MANET using temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA with self-healing and optimized routing techniques (SHORT. SHORT improves routing optimality by monitoring routing paths continuously and redirecting the path whenever a shortcut path is available. In this paper, the performance comparison of TORA and TORA with SHORT has been analyzed using network simulator for various parameters. TORA with SHORT enhances performance of TORA in terms of throughput, packet loss, end-to-end delay, and energy.

  10. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  11. Simple Adaptive Single Differential Coherence Detection of BPSK Signals in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wen, Hong; Wang, Longye; Xie, Ping; Song, Liang; Tang, Jie; Liao, Runfa

    2017-12-26

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive single differential coherent detection (SDCD) scheme for the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signals in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In particular, the residual carrier frequency offset effect (CFOE) for differential detection is adaptively estimated, with only linear operation, according to the changing channel conditions. It was found that the carrier frequency offset (CFO) and chip signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions do not need a priori knowledge. This partly benefits from that the combination of the trigonometric approximation sin - 1 ( x ) ≈ x and a useful assumption, namely, the asymptotic or high chip SNR, is considered for simplification of the full estimation scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve an accurate estimation and the detection performance can completely meet the requirement of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, although with a little loss of reliability and robustness as compared with the conventional optimal single-symbol detector.

  12. Group-Orthogonal Code-Division Multiplex: A Physical-Layer Enhancement for IEEE 802.11n Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felip Riera-Palou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new standard for wireless local area networks (WLANs, named IEEE 802.11n, has been recently released. This new norm builds upon and remains compatible with the previous WLANs standards IEEE 802.11a/g while it is able to achieve transmission rates of up to 600 Mbps. These increased data rates are mainly a consequence of two important new features: (1 multiple antenna technology at transmission and reception, and (2 optional doubling of the system bandwidth thanks to the availability of an additional 20 MHz band. This paper proposes the use of Group-Orthogonal Code Division Multiplex (GO-CDM as a means to improve the performance of the 802.11n standard by further exploiting the inherent frequency diversity. It is explained why GO-CDM synergistically matches with the two aforementioned new features and the performance gains it can offer under different configurations is illustrated. Furthermore, the effects that group-orthogonal has on key implementation issues such as channel estimation, carrier frequency offset, and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR are also considered.

  13. Implementation and Evaluation of Multichannel Multi-Interface Routing Mechanism with QoS-Consideration for Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate real-time multimedia application while satisfying application-level QoS requirements in a wireless ad-hoc network, we need QoS control mechanisms. We proposed a new routing mechanism for a wireless ad-hoc network composed of nodes equipped with multiple network interfaces. By embedding information about channel usage in control messages of OLSRv2, each node obtains a view of topology and bandwidth information of the whole network. Based on the obtained information, a source node determines a logical path with the maximum available bandwidth to satisfy application-level QoS requirements. In this paper, we evaluated feasibility of the proposal through simulation and practical experiments and confirmed that our proposal effectively transferred multimedia packets over a logical path avoiding congested links. The load on a network is well distributed and the network can accommodate more sessions than OLSRv2 and QOLSR.

  14. Content Downloading with the Assistance of Roadside Cars for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plenty of multimedia contents such as traffic images, music, and movies pose great challenges for content downloading due to the high mobility of vehicles and intermittent connectivity for vehicular ad hoc networks. Roadside units or APs can improve the efficiency of content downloading but with the cost of large investments. In this paper, an efficient content downloading scheme is proposed with the assistance of parking clusters, which are formed by roadside parked cars. After receiving the downloading request, the parking clusters, which the downloader will travel through according to the estimated trajectory, will make a download scheduling for the downloader. Then the downloader acquires the content chunks while it drives through the parking clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than intervehicle approach and RSU based approach.

  15. An epidemic model for biological data fusion in ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. C.; Kotari, Vikas

    2009-05-01

    Bio terrorism can be a very refined and a catastrophic approach of attacking a nation. This requires the development of a complete architecture dedicatedly designed for this purpose which includes but is not limited to Sensing/Detection, Tracking and Fusion, Communication, and others. In this paper we focus on one such architecture and evaluate its performance. Various sensors for this specific purpose have been studied. The accent has been on use of Distributed systems such as ad-hoc networks and on application of epidemic data fusion algorithms to better manage the bio threat data. The emphasis has been on understanding the performance characteristics of these algorithms under diversified real time scenarios which are implemented through extensive JAVA based simulations. Through comparative studies on communication and fusion the performance of channel filter algorithm for the purpose of biological sensor data fusion are validated.

  16. Impact of Beamforming on the Path Connectivity in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le The Dung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of using directional antennas and beamforming schemes on the connectivity of cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs. Specifically, considering that secondary users use two kinds of directional antennas, i.e., uniform linear array (ULA and uniform circular array (UCA antennas, and two different beamforming schemes, i.e., randomized beamforming and center-directed to communicate with each other, we study the connectivity of all combination pairs of directional antennas and beamforming schemes and compare their performances to those of omnidirectional antennas. The results obtained in this paper show that, compared with omnidirectional transmission, beamforming transmission only benefits the connectivity when the density of secondary user is moderate. Moreover, the combination of UCA and randomized beamforming scheme gives the highest path connectivity in all evaluating scenarios. Finally, the number of antenna elements and degree of path loss greatly affect path connectivity in CRAHNs.

  17. Quorum system and random based asynchronous rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Romaszko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks, RAC2E-gQS, which utilizes (1 the asynchronous and randomness properties of the RAC2E protocol, and (2 channel mapping protocol, based on a grid Quorum System (gQS, and taking into account channel heterogeneity and asymmetric channel views. We show that the combination of the RAC2E protocol with the grid-quorum based channel mapping can yield a powerful RAC2E-gQS rendezvous protocol for asynchronous operation in a distributed environment assuring a rapid rendezvous between the cognitive radio nodes having available both symmetric and asymmetric channel views. We also propose an enhancement of the protocol, which uses a torus QS for a slot allocation, dealing with the worst case scenario, a large number of channels with opposite ranking lists.

  18. Context dependent off loading for cloudlet in mobile ad-hoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, N.; Nadesh, R. K.; ArivuSelvan, K.

    2017-11-01

    Cloud Computing in Mobile Ad-hoc network is emerging part of research consideration as the demand and competency of mobile devices increased in last few years. To follow out operation within the remote cloud builds the postponement and influences the administration standard. To keep away from this trouble cloudlet is presented. Cloudlet gives identical support of the devices as cloud at low inactivity however at high transfer speed. Be that as it may, choice of a cloudlet for offloading calculation with flat energy is a noteworthy test if multiple cloud let is accessible adjacent. Here I proposed energy and bandwidth (Traffic overload for communication with cloud) aware cloudlet selection strategy based on the context dependency of the device location. It works on the basis of mobile device location and bandwidth availability of cloudlet. The cloudlet offloading and selection process using given solution is simulated in Cloud ~ Simulator.

  19. Mobile Ad Hoc Network Energy Cost Algorithm Based on Artificial Bee Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tareq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without using any existing network infrastructure. MANET selects a path with minimal number of intermediate nodes to reach the destination node. As the distance between each node increases, the quantity of transmission power increases. The power level of nodes affects the simplicity with which a route is constituted between a couple of nodes. This study utilizes the swarm intelligence technique through the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm to optimize the energy consumption in a dynamic source routing (DSR protocol in MANET. The proposed algorithm is called bee DSR (BEEDSR. The ABC algorithm is used to identify the optimal path from the source to the destination to overcome energy problems. The performance of the BEEDSR algorithm is compared with DSR and bee-inspired protocols (BeeIP. The comparison was conducted based on average energy consumption, average throughput, average end-to-end delay, routing overhead, and packet delivery ratio performance metrics, varying the node speed and packet size. The BEEDSR algorithm is superior in performance than other protocols in terms of energy conservation and delay degradation relating to node speed and packet size.

  20. Frame Transmission Efficiency-Based Cross-Layer Congestion Notification Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaguang; Li, Taoshen; Feng, Luting; Ye, Jin

    2017-07-15

    Different from the traditional wired network, the fundamental cause of transmission congestion in wireless ad hoc networks is medium contention. How to utilize the congestion state from the MAC (Media Access Control) layer to adjust the transmission rate is core work for transport protocol design. However, recent works have shown that the existing cross-layer congestion detection solutions are too complex to be deployed or not able to characterize the congestion accurately. We first propose a new congestion metric called frame transmission efficiency (i.e., the ratio of successful transmission delay to the frame service delay), which describes the medium contention in a fast and accurate manner. We further present the design and implementation of RECN (ECN and the ratio of successful transmission delay to the frame service delay in the MAC layer, namely, the frame transmission efficiency), a general supporting scheme that adjusts the transport sending rate through a standard ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) signaling method. Our method can be deployed on commodity switches with small firmware updates, while making no modification on end hosts. We integrate RECN transparently (i.e., without modification) with TCP on NS2 simulation. The experimental results show that RECN remarkably improves network goodput across multiple concurrent TCP flows.

  1. Integrated data lookup and replication scheme in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2001-11-01

    Accessing remote data is a challenging task in mobile ad hoc networks. Two problems have to be solved: (1) how to learn about available data in the network; and (2) how to access desired data even when the original copy of the data is unreachable. In this paper, we develop an integrated data lookup and replication scheme to solve these problems. In our scheme, a group of mobile nodes collectively host a set of data to improve data accessibility for all members of the group. They exchange data availability information by broadcasting advertising (ad) messages to the group using an adaptive sending rate policy. The ad messages are used by other nodes to derive a local data lookup table, and to reduce data redundancy within a connected group. Our data replication scheme predicts group partitioning based on each node's current location and movement patterns, and replicates data to other partitions before partitioning occurs. Our simulations show that data availability information can quickly propagate throughout the network, and that the successful data access ratio of each node is significantly improved.

  2. Implementing a Topology Management Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal K. Naskar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose to maintain the topology of a MANET by suitably selecting multiple coordinators among the nodes constituting the MANET. The maintenance of topology in a mobile ad–hoc network is of primary importance because the routing techniques can only work if we have a connected network. Thus of the burning issues at present is to device algorithms which ensure that the network topology is always maintained. The basic philosophy behind our algorithm is to isolate two coordinators amongst the system based on positional data. Once elected, they are entrusted with the responsibility to emit signals of different frequencies while the other nodes individually decide the logic they need to follow in order to maintain the topology, thereby greatly reducing the overhead. As far as our knowledge goes, we are the first ones to introduce the concept of multiple coordinators which not only reduces the workload of the coordinator, but also eliminates the need of different signal ranges thereby ensuring greater efficiency. We have simulated the algorithm with the help of a number of robots using embedded systems. The results we have obtained have been quite encouraging.

  3. Smart vehicle monitoring and assistance using cloud computing in vehicular Ad Hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Agarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of on road vehicles has become a major cause for congestion, accidents and pollution. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS might be the key to achieve solutions that help in reducing these problems significantly. The connected vehicular networks stream is a rapidly growing field for research and development of various real-time applications. In this paper, novel techniques have been proposed to serve the speed based lane changing, collision avoidance and time of arrival (TOA based localization in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs. As GPS requires clear line-of-sight for accurate services of positioning and localization applications, we designed a Time of Arrival (ToA based algorithm for areas where strong GPS signals are unavailable. Collision avoidance using automatic braking and camera-based surveillance are a few other applications that we addressed. The feasibility and the viability of the algorithms were demonstrated through simulations in Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO and Network Simulator-2 (NS-2. We prototyped a working hardware and tested it on actual vehicles to assess the effectiveness of the proposed system. We designed a mobile app interface for the on-board unit for smart, efficient and remote traffic monitoring. The integrated VANET Cloud Computing architecture acts as the platform for the proposed applications.

  4. Uplink capacity of multi-class IEEE 802.16j relay networks with adaptive modulation and coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Xiong, C; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2009-01-01

    The emerging IEEE 802.16j mobile multi-hop relay (MMR) network is currently being developed to increase the user throughput and extend the service coverage as an enhancement of existing 802.16e standard. In 802.16j, the intermediate relay stations (RSs) help the base station (BS) communicate...... with those mobile stations (MSs) that are either too far away from the BS or placed in an area where direct communication with BS experiences unsatisfactory level of service. In this paper, we investigate the uplink Erlang capacity of a two-hop 802.16j relay system supporting both voice and data traffics...... with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) scheme applied in the physical layer. We first develop analytical models to calculate the blocking probability in the access zone and the outage probability in the relay zone, respectively. Then a joint algorithm is proposed to determine the bandwidth distribution...

  5. 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 16th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2015) which was held on June 1 – 3, 2015 in Takamatsu, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  6. 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    SNPD 2016

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2016) which was held on May 30 - June 1, 2016 in Shanghai, China. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  7. IEEE 802.11 Networks: A Simple Model Geared Towards Offloading Studies and Considerations on Future Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Catania, Davide

    2013-01-01

    WiFi is the prevalent wireless access technology in local area deployments and is expected to play a major role in a mobile operator’s data offloading strategy. As a result, having simple tools that are able to assess the offloading potential of IEEE 802.11 networks is vital. In this paper, we...... propose a simple closed-form solution to calculate down- and uplink throughput values per user under full-buffer traffic when small WiFi cells are used to offload macrocells. Extensive measurement campaigns and simulation results demonstrate that there is an excellent quantitative match between analytical...... model and data despite the simplicity of the former. Finally, in light of our observations we discuss some of the fundamental technological limitations that may have a significant impact on the future of small cells....

  8. Introducing an Adaptive Method to Tune Initial Backoff Window ( -ATM in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon Navid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE802.11 access protocol uses CSMA/CA in its Medium Access control layer as the main access function, which carries several deficiencies. In these networks, as the number of active stations increases, delay and throughput degrade severely. As far as throughput and service delay are vital elements in Quality of Service (QoS determination, such degradation could lead to intolerable situations and reduce the efficiency of WLANs. Networks (WLANs. Studies proved this problem arises due to constant initial backoff windows size ( , which is an important parameter in determination of network behavior. In this paper, we introduce a new method to tune this parameter adaptively according to changes in channel load. In this method, we do tune this parameter after every transmission using a feedback from transmission channel. Later it will be proven that applying this method in MAC layer enhances network stability; delay trend in all traffic classes exhibits a considerable reduction when compared with simple Enhanced Distributed Coordination Access (EDCA scenarios. Also throughput exhibits a salient improvement in level. In other word, QoS improves. Especially, with the aid of this method, delay variations in all decrease considerably and more smoothen delay trends are achieved.

  9. An authenticated encrypted routing protocol against attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Suma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is stated as a cluster that contains Digital data terminals and they are furnished with the wireless transceivers which are able to communicate with each other with no need of any fixed architecture or concentrated authority. Security is one of the major issues in MANETs because of vast applications such as Military Battlefields, emergency and rescue operations[10]. In order to provide anonymous communications and to identify the malicious nodes in MANETs, many authors have proposed different secure routing protocols but each protocol have their own advantages and disadvantages. In MANTE’s each and every node in the communicating network functions like router and transmits the packets among the networking nodes for the purpose of communication[11]. Sometimes nodes may be attacked by the malicious nodes or the legitimate node will be caught by foemen there by controlling and preventing the nodes to perform the assigned task or nodes may be corrupted due to loss of energy. So, due to these drawbacks securing the network under the presence of adversaries is an important thing. The existing protocols were designed with keeping anonymity and the identification of vicious nodes in the network as the main goal. For providing better security, the anonymity factors such as Unidentifiability and Unlinkability must be fully satisfied[1]. Many anonymous routing schemes that concentrate on achieving anonymity are proposed in the past decade and they provides the security at different levels and also provides the privacy protection that is of different cost. In this paper we consider a protocol called Authenticated Secure Routing Protocol proposed which provides both security & anonymity. Anonymity is achieved in this protocol using Group signature. Over all by using this protocol performance in terms of throughput as well as the packet dropping rate is good compared to the other living protocols.

  10. Cognitive Self-Scheduled Mechanism for Access Control in Noisy Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manzano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the challenging environment of intelligent transportation systems (ITS, networked control systems such as platooning guidance of autonomous vehicles require innovative mechanisms to provide real-time communications. Although several proposals are currently under discussion, the design of a rapid, efficient, flexible, and reliable medium access control mechanism which meets the specific constraints of such real-time communications applications remains unsolved in this highly dynamic environment. However, cognitive radio (CR combines the capacity to sense the radio spectrum with the flexibility to adapt to transmission parameters in order to maximize system performance and has thus become an effective approach for the design of dynamic spectrum access (DSA mechanisms. This paper presents the enhanced noncooperative cognitive division multiple access (ENCCMA proposal combining time division multiple access (TDMA and frequency division multiple access (FDMA schemes with CR techniques to obtain a mechanism fulfilling the requirements of real-time communications. The analysis presented here considers the IEEE WAVE and 802.11p as reference standards; however, the proposed medium access control (MAC mechanism can be adapted to operate on the physical layer of different standards. The mechanism also offers the advantage of avoiding signaling, thus enhancing system autonomy as well as behavior in adverse scenarios.

  11. Monitoring and classifying animal behavior using ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks and artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare is an issue of great importance in modern food production systems. Because animal behavior provides reliable information about animal health and welfare, recent research has aimed at designing monitoring systems capable of measuring behavioral parameters and transforming them...... into their corresponding behavioral modes. However, network unreliability and high-energy consumption have limited the applicability of those systems. In this study, a 2.4-GHz ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor network (MANET) that is able to overcome those problems is presented. The designed MANET showed high...... communication reliability, low energy consumption and low packet loss rate (14.8%) due to the deployment of modern communication protocols (e.g. multi-hop communication and handshaking protocol). The measured behavioral parameters were transformed into the corresponding behavioral modes using a multilayer...

  12. New IEEE 11073 Standards for interoperable, networked Point-of-Care Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparick, Martin; Schlichting, Stefan; Golatowski, Frank; Timmermann, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    Surgical procedures become more and more complex and the number of medical devices in an operating room (OR) increases continuously. Today's vendor-dependent solutions for integrated ORs are not able to handle this complexity. They can only form isolated solutions. Furthermore, high costs are a result of vendor-dependent approaches. Thus we present a service-oriented device communication for distributed medical systems that enables the integration and interconnection between medical devices among each other and to (medical) information systems, including plug-and-play functionality. This system will improve patient's safety by making technical complexity of a comprehensive integration manageable. It will be available as open standards that are part of the IEEE 11073 family of standards. The solution consists of a service-oriented communication technology, the so called Medical Devices Profile for Web Services (MDPWS), a Domain Information & Service Model, and a binding between the first two mechanisms. A proof of this concept has been done with demonstrators of real world OR devices.

  13. TCP Performance in Multi-Polling Game Theory-Based IEEE 802.11 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzanauskas Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Easy usage and integration with various applications made IEEE 802.11 one of the most used technologies these days, both at home and business premises. Over the years, there have been many additional improvements to the 802.11 standards. Nevertheless, the algorithms and Media Access Control (MAC layer methods are almost the same as in previous Wi-Fi versions. In this paper, a set of methods to improve the total system capacity is proposed – such as efficient transmit power management based on Game Theory with a custom wireless medium protocol. The transmit power management and wireless medium protocol is verified by both simulation and real application scenarios. The results conclude that the capacity of the proposed wireless medium protocol is overall 20 percent higher than the standard 802.11 wireless medium access protocols. Additional TCP Acknowledgment filtering, which was tested together with the proposed wireless medium access protocol, can provide up to 10-percent-higher TCP throughput in high-density scenarios, especially for asymmetrical traffic cases. The conducted research suggests that efficient power management could result in lighter transmit power allocation rules that are currently set by the local regulators for current Wi-Fi devices. Thus, better propagation characteristics and wireless medium management would lead to an overall higher wireless system capacity.

  14. Industrial Internet of Things Based Efficient and Reliable Data Dissemination Solution for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Latif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT is the other name of industrial Internet. It integrates a variety of existing industrial automation technologies with computing, machine learning, and communication technologies. Vehicular ad hoc network, an application of IIoT, is a self-organized network of vehicles which tends to provide improved road safety, diminished traffic congestion, and ultimate comfort to the travellers. In VANETs, vehicles exchange data with each other directly or through roadside units (RSUs. Data dissemination in VANETs experiences numerous challenging issues including broadcast storm, network partitions, intermittent connectivity between vehicles, and limited bandwidth. In literature, various data dissemination schemes are proposed. However, most of these schemes are designed for either urban or highway VANET scenarios and evaluated under sparse or dense traffic conditions. Moreover, these schemes do not effectively overcome the aforementioned issues simultaneously. In this paper, we present a new data dissemination protocol for VANETs, which disseminates the emergency messages in different scenarios under varying traffic conditions. During dense traffic conditions, DDP4V employs the segmentation of transmission region of a vehicle in order to select the most appropriate next forwarding vehicle (NFV. Accordingly, it divides the transmission region of a vehicle in three distinct segments and selects vehicle(s inside the highest priority segment to forward the message to all neighbour vehicles, whereas it also uses implicit acknowledgements for guaranteed message delivery during sparse traffic Conditions. Simulation results show that DDP4V protocol outperforms the other existing related protocols in terms of coverage, network overhead, collision, and end-to-end delay.

  15. A FSA Model for Performance Evaluation over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Low Traffic Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng LUO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET, which is composed of nodes that are able to move arbitrarily, differs from a direct connection network in the way that it is multi-hopping and self- organizing and thus able to operate without the help of prefixed infrastructures. However, problems such as unfavorable wireless links and dynamic topology are challenging, resulting in the proposal of a collection of routing protocols for MANETs. Nevertheless the performance of protocols may deteriorate dramatically as deployment scenario changes due to the application dependent philosophy behind algorithms. In this paper, the performance evaluation problem for MANETs and is explored and a novel performance ranking model, termed FSA, is proposed. For simplicity but without loss of generality, the performance of two routing protocols DSDV and DSR are studies. The FSA is able to rank the performance of DSDV and DSR depending on the average value and standard deviation results. Extensive simulations show that an overall 20.74 %, at most, gain may be achieved based on the FSA model.

  16. A feedback-retransmission based asynchronous frequency hopping MAC protocol for military aeronautical ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui TANG

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Attacking time-sensitive targets has rigid demands for the timeliness and reliability of information transmission, while typical Media Access Control (MAC designed for this application works well only in very light-load scenarios; as a consequence, the performances of system throughput and channel utilization are degraded. For this problem, a feedback-retransmission based asynchronous FRequency hopping Media Access (FRMA control protocol is proposed. Burst communication, asynchronous Frequency Hopping (FH, channel coding, and feedback retransmission are utilized in FRMA. With the mechanism of asynchronous FH, immediate packet transmission and multi-packet reception can be realized, and thus the timeliness is improved. Furthermore, reliability can be achieved via channel coding and feedback retransmission. With theories of queuing theory, Markov model, packets collision model, and discrete Laplace transformation, the formulas of packet success probability, system throughput, average packet end-to-end delay, and delay distribution are obtained. The approximation accuracy of theoretical derivation is verified by experimental results. Within a light-load network, the proposed FRMA has the ability of millisecond delay and 99% reliability as well as outperforms the non-feedback-retransmission based asynchronous frequency hopping media access control protocol. Keywords: Ad hoc networks, Aeronautical communications, Frequency hopping, Media Access Control (MAC, Time-sensitive

  17. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zareei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN. First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.

  18. Vehicle Assisted Data Delievery Technique To Control Data Dissemination In Vehicular AD - HOC Networks Vanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multi-hop data delivery through vehicular ad hoc networks is complicated by the fact that vehicular networks are highly mobile and frequently disconnected. To address this issue the idea of helper node is opted where a moving vehicles carries the packet until a new vehicle moves into its vicinity and forwards the packet. Different from existing helper node solution use of the predicable vehicle mobility is made which is limited by the traffic pattern and the road layout. Based on the existing traffic pattern a vehicle can find the next road to forward packet a vehicle can find the next road to forward the packet to reduce the delay. Several vehicle-assisted date delievery VADD protocol is proposed to forward the packet to the best road with the road with the lowest data delivery delay. Experiment results are used to evaluate the proposed solutions. Results show that the proposed VADD protocol outperform existing solution in terms of packet delivery ratio data packet delay and protocol overhead. Among the proposed VADD protocols the Hybrid probe HVADD protocol has much better performance. In this Solution the helper node technique is provider with which the helper node will contain destination node path and the path in routine table continuously changes with the help of helper node technique.

  19. Concurrent Transmission Based on Channel Quality in Ad Hoc Networks: A Game Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xiaoji; Pei, Qingqi

    In this paper, a decentralized concurrent transmission strategy in shared channel in Ad Hoc networks is proposed based on game theory. Firstly, a static concurrent transmissions game is used to determine the candidates for transmitting by channel quality threshold and to maximize the overall throughput with consideration of channel quality variation. To achieve NES (Nash Equilibrium Solution), the selfish behaviors of node to attempt to improve the channel gain unilaterally are evaluated. Therefore, this game allows each node to be distributed and to decide whether to transmit concurrently with others or not depending on NES. Secondly, as there are always some nodes with lower channel gain than NES, which are defined as hunger nodes in this paper, a hunger suppression scheme is proposed by adjusting the price function with interferences reservation and forward relay, to fairly give hunger nodes transmission opportunities. Finally, inspired by stock trading, a dynamic concurrent transmission threshold determination scheme is implemented to make the static game practical. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme is feasible to increase concurrent transmission opportunities for active nodes, and at the same time, the number of hunger nodes is greatly reduced with the least increase of threshold by interferences reservation. Also, the good performance on network goodput of the proposed model can be seen from the results.

  20. An Analysis of the Privacy Threat in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks due to Radio Frequency Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Baldini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs used in the road transportation sector, privacy risks may arise because vehicles could be tracked on the basis of the information transmitted by the Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I communications implemented with the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC standards operating at 5.9 GHz. Various techniques have been proposed in the literature to mitigate these privacy risks including the use of pseudonym schemes, but they are mostly focused on data anonymization at the network and application layer. At the physical layer, the capability to accurately identify and fingerprint wireless devices through their radio frequency (RF emissions has been demonstrated in the literature. This capability may generate a privacy threat because vehicles can be tracked using the RF emissions of their DSRC devices. This paper investigates the privacy risks related to RF fingerprinting to determine if privacy breaches are feasible in practice. In particular, this paper analyzes the tracking accuracy in challenging RF environments with high attenuation and fading.

  1. Fuzzy-Based Sensor Fusion for Cognitive Radio-Based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalil Piran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensor fusion is employed to integrate the acquired data from diverse sensors to provide a unified interpretation. The best and most salient advantage of sensor fusion is to obtain high-level information in both statistical and definitive aspects, which cannot be attained by a single sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel sensor fusion technique based on fuzzy theory for our earlier proposed Cognitive Radio-based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (CR-VASNET. In the proposed technique, we considered four input sensor readings (antecedents and one output (consequent. The employed mobile nodes in CR-VASNET are supposed to be equipped with diverse sensors, which cater to our antecedent variables, for example, The Jerk, Collision Intensity, and Temperature and Inclination Degree. Crash_Severity is considered as the consequent variable. The processing and fusion of the diverse sensory signals are carried out by fuzzy logic scenario. Accuracy and reliability of the proposed protocol, demonstrated by the simulation results, introduce it as an applicable system to be employed to reduce the causalities rate of the vehicles’ crashes.

  2. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  3. Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV Routing Protocol Performance Evaluation on Hybrid Ad Hoc Network: Comparison of Result of Ns-2 Simulation and Implementation on Testbed using PDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Sari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET, node supplemented with wireless equipment has the capacity to manage and organise autonomously, without the presence of network infrastructures. Hybrid ad hoc network, enable several nodes to move freely (mobile to create instant communication. Independent from infrastructure. They could access the Local Area Network (LAN or the Internet. Functionalities of ad hoc network very much dependent on the routing protocol that determines the routing around node. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV is one of routing protocols in ad hoc network which has a reactive characteristic. This protocol is the most common protocol being researched and used. In this Research, AODV protocol investigation was conducted by developing a testbed using Personal Computer, several Laptops (the Linux Red Hat operation system 9.0 and Fedora Core 2, and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA. This research also made a complete package by mean of cross compilation for PDA iPAQ. In general, results obtained from the simulation of AODV protocol using Network Simulator NS-2 are packet delivery ratio 99.89%, end-to-end delay of 0.14 seconds and routing overhead of 1,756.61 byte per second. Afterwards results from simulation were compared to results from testbed. Results obtained from testbed are as follows: the packet delivery ratio is 99.57%, the end-to-end delay is 1.004 seconds and the routing overhead is 1,360.36 byte per second.

  4. Adaptive QoS provision for IEEE 802.16e BWA networks based on cross-layer design

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    Kuo GS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes an integrated framework for adaptive QoS provision in IEEE 802.16e broadband wireless access networks based on cross-layer design. On one hand, an efficient admission control (AC algorithm is proposed along with a semi-reservation scheme to guarantee the connection-level QoS. First, to guarantee the service continuity for handoff connections and resource efficiency, our semi-reservation scheme considers both users' handoff probability and average resource consumption together, which effectively avoids resource over-reservation and insufficient reservation. For AC, a new/handoff connection is accepted only when the target cell has enough resource to afford both instantaneous and average resource consumption to meet the average source rate request. On the other hand, a joint resource allocation and packet scheduling scheme is designed to provide packet-level QoS guarantee in term of "QoS rate", which can ensure fairness for the services with identical priority level in case of bandwidth shortage. Particularly, an enhanced bandwidth request scheme is designed to reduce unnecessary BR delay and redundant signaling overhead caused by the existing one in IEEE 802.16e, which further improves the packet-level QoS performance and resource efficiency for uplink transmission. Simulation results show that the proposed approach not only balances the tradeoff among connection blocking rate, connection dropping rate, and connection failure rate, but also achieves low mean packet dropping rate (PDR, small deviation of PDR, and low QoS outage rate. Moreover, high resource efficiency is ensured.

  5. Energy optimization based path selection algorithm for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, MM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is everyone’s dream to have network connectivity anywhere at all times. This dream can only be realized provided there are feasible solutions that are put in place for the next generation of wireless works. Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs...

  6. Energy Effective Congestion Control for Multicast with Network Coding in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve network throughput and reduce energy consumption, we propose in this paper a cross-layer optimization design that is able to achieve multicast utility maximization and energy consumption minimization. The joint optimization of congestion control and power allocation is formulated to be a nonlinear nonconvex problem. Using dual decomposition, a distributed optimization algorithm is proposed to avoid the congestion by control flow rate at the source node and eliminate the bottleneck by allocating the power at the intermediate node. Simulation results show that the cross-layer algorithm can increase network performance, reduce the energy consumption of wireless nodes and prolong the network lifetime, while keeping network throughput basically unchanged.

  7. Towards Trust-based Cognitive Networks: A Survey of Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    of trust. First, social trust refers to properties derived from social relationships . Examples of social networks are strong social ... relationships such as colleagues or relatives or loose social relationships such as school alumni or friends with common interests [44]. Social trust may...also use social relationships in evaluating the trust metric among group members by employing the concept of social networks. Yu et al. [44] define

  8. IDMA: improving the defense against malicious attack for mobile ad hoc networks based on ARIP protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2008-04-01

    Malicious nodes are mounting increasingly sophisticated attacking operations on the Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). This is mainly because the IP-based MANETs are vulnerable to attacks by various malicious nodes. However, the defense against malicious attack can be improved when a new layer of network architecture can be developed to separate true IP address from disclosing to the malicious nodes. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to improve the defense against malicious attack (IDMA) that is based on a recently developed Assignment Router Identify Protocol (ARIP) for the clustering-based MANET management. In the ARIP protocol, we design the ARIP architecture based on the new Identity instead of the vulnerable IP addresses to provide the required security that is embedded seamlessly into the overall network architecture. We make full use of ARIP's special property to monitor gateway forward packets by Reply Request Route Packets (RREP) without additional intrusion detection layer. We name this new algorithm IDMA because of its inherent capability to improve the defense against malicious attacks. Through IDMA, a watching algorithm can be established so as to counterattack the malicious node in the routing path when it unusually drops up packets. We provide analysis examples for IDMA for the defense against a malicious node that disrupts the route discovery by impersonating the destination, or by responding with state of corrupted routing information, or by disseminating forged control traffic. The IDMA algorithm is able to counterattack the malicious node in the cases when the node lunch DoS attack by broadcast a large number of route requests, or make Target traffic congestion by delivering huge mount of data; or spoof the IP addresses and send forge packets with a fake ID to the same Target causing traffic congestion at that destination. We have implemented IDMA algorism using the GloMoSim simulator and have demonstrated its performance under a variety of

  9. A novel beamforming based model of coverage and transmission costing in IEEE 802.11 WLAN networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Guessous

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11 WLAN indoor networks face major inherent and environmental issues such as interference, noise, and obstacles. At the same time, they must provide a maximal service performance in highly changing radio environments and conformance to various applications’ requirements. For this purpose, they require a solid design approach that considers both inputs from the radio interface and the upper-layer services at every design step. The modelization of radio area coverage is a key component in this process and must build on feasible work hypotheses. It should be able also to interpret highly varying characteristics of dense indoor environments, technology advances, service design best practices, end-to-end integration with other network parts: Local Area Network (LAN, Wide Area Network (WAN or Data Center Network (DCN. This work focuses on Radio Resource Management (RRM as a key tool to achieve a solid design in WLAN indoor environments by planning frequency channel assignment, transmit directions and corresponding power levels. Its scope is limited to tackle co-channel interference but can be easily extended to address cross-channel ones. In this paper, we consider beamforming and costing techniques to augment conventional RRM’s Transmit Power Control (TPC procedures that market-leading vendors has implemented and related research has worked on. We present a novel approach of radio coverage modelization and prove its additions to the cited related-work’s models. Our solution model runs three algorithms to evaluate transmission opportunities of Wireless Devices (WD under the coverage area. It builds on realistic hypotheses and a thorough system operation’s understanding to evaluate such an opportunity to transmit, overcomes limitations from compared related-work’s models, and integrates a hierarchical costing system to match Service Level Agreement (SLA expectations. The term “opportunity” in this context relates also to the new

  10. WQM: An Aggregation-aware Queue Management Scheme for IEEE 802.11n based Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad

    2014-08-17

    Choosing the right buffer size in Wi-Fi networks is challenging due to the dynamic nature of the wireless environment. Over buffering or \\'bufferbloat\\' may produce unacceptable end-to-end delays, while static small buffers may limit the performance gains that can be achieved with various 802.11n enhancements, such as frame aggregation. We propose WQM, a queue management scheme customized for wireless networks. WQM adapts the buffer size based on measured link characteristics and network load. Furthermore, it accounts for aggregate length when deciding about the optimal buffer size. We implement WQM on Linux and evaluate it on a wireless testbed. WQM reduces the end-to-end delay by up to 8x compared to Linux default buffer size, and 2x compared to CoDel, the state-of-the-art bufferbloat solution, while achieving comparable network goodput. Further, WQM improves fairness as it limits the ability of a single flow to saturate the buffer.

  11. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor HVincent

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  12. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Comaniciu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  13. A Bioinspired Adaptive Congestion-Avoidance Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols are mainly based on the Shortest Path, which possibly results in many congestion nodes that incur routing instability and rerouting. To mitigate the side-efforts, this paper proposed a new bioinspired adaptive routing protocol (ATAR based on a mathematics biology model ARAS. This paper improved the ARAS by reducing the randomness and by introducing a new routing-decision metric “the next-hop fitness” which was denoted as the congestion level of node and the length of routing path. In the route maintenance, the nodes decide to forward the data to next node according to a threshold value of the fitness. In the recovery phase, the node will adopt random manner to select the neighbor as the next hop by calculation of the improved ARAS. With this route mechanism, the ATAR could adaptively circumvent the congestion nodes and the rerouting action is taken in advance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that the ATAR protocol outperforms AODV and MARAS in terms of delivery ratio, ETE delay, and the complexity. In particular, ATAR can efficiently mitigate the congestion.

  14. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in Bandwidth-Demanding Mission-Critical Applications: Practical Implementation Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-09-28

    There has been recently a growing trend of using live video feeds in mission-critical applications. Real-time video streaming from front-end personnel or mobile agents is believed to substantially improve situational awareness in mission-critical operations such as disaster relief, law enforcement, and emergency response. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is a natural contender in such contexts. However, classical MANET routing schemes fall short in terms of scalability, bandwidth and latency; all three metrics being quite essential for mission-critical applications. As such, autonomous cooperative routing (ACR) has gained traction as the most viable MANET proposition. Nonetheless, ACR is also associated with a few implementation challenges. If they go unaddressed, will deem ACR practically useless. In this paper, efficient and low-complexity remedies to those issues are presented, analyzed, and validated. The validation is based on field experiments carried out using software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Compared to classical MANET routing schemes, ACR was shown to offer up to 2X better throughput, more than 4X reduction in end-to-end latency, while observing a given target of transport rate normalized to energy consumption.

  15. Multiobjective Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Signal Control Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

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    Houli Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiobjective control algorithm based on reinforcement learning for urban traffic signal control, named multi-RL. A multiagent structure is used to describe the traffic system. A vehicular ad hoc network is used for the data exchange among agents. A reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to predict the overall value of the optimization objective given vehicles' states. The policy which minimizes the cumulative value of the optimization objective is regarded as the optimal one. In order to make the method adaptive to various traffic conditions, we also introduce a multiobjective control scheme in which the optimization objective is selected adaptively to real-time traffic states. The optimization objectives include the vehicle stops, the average waiting time, and the maximum queue length of the next intersection. In addition, we also accommodate a priority control to the buses and the emergency vehicles through our model. The simulation results indicated that our algorithm could perform more efficiently than traditional traffic light control methods.

  16. An Eco-Driving Advisory System for Continuous Signalized Intersections by Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vehicular ad hoc network (VANET technology which support vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V and vehicle to road side unit (V2R/R2V communications, vehicles can preview the intersection signal plan such as signal countdown message. In this paper, an ecodriving advisory system (EDAS is proposed to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption by letting the vehicle continuously pass through multiple intersections with the minimum possibilities of stops. We extend the isolated intersection model to multiple continuous intersections scenario. A hybrid method combining three strategies including maximized throughput model (MTM, smooth speed model (SSM, and minimized acceleration and deceleration (MinADM is designed, and it is compared with related works maximized throughput model (MaxTM, open traffic light control model (OTLCM, and predictive cruise control (PCC models. Some issues for the practical application including safe car following, queue clearing, and gliding mode are discussed and conquered. Simulation results show that the proposed model outperforms OTLCM 25.1%~81.2% in the isolated intersection scenario for the CO2 emissions and 20.5%~84.3% in averaged travel time. It also performs better than the compared PCC model in CO2 emissions (19.9%~31.2% as well as travel time (24.5%~35.9% in the multiple intersections scenario.

  17. Energy Aware Cluster-Based Routing in Flying Ad-Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadil, Farhan; Raza, Ali; Khan, Muhammad Fahad; Maqsood, Muazzam; Mehmood, Irfan; Rho, Seungmin

    2018-05-03

    Flying ad-hoc networks (FANETs) are a very vibrant research area nowadays. They have many military and civil applications. Limited battery energy and the high mobility of micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent their two main problems, i.e., short flight time and inefficient routing. In this paper, we try to address both of these problems by means of efficient clustering. First, we adjust the transmission power of the UAVs by anticipating their operational requirements. Optimal transmission range will have minimum packet loss ratio (PLR) and better link quality, which ultimately save the energy consumed during communication. Second, we use a variant of the K-Means Density clustering algorithm for selection of cluster heads. Optimal cluster heads enhance the cluster lifetime and reduce the routing overhead. The proposed model outperforms the state of the art artificial intelligence techniques such as Ant Colony Optimization-based clustering algorithm and Grey Wolf Optimization-based clustering algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in term of number of clusters, cluster building time, cluster lifetime and energy consumption.

  18. Energy Aware Cluster-Based Routing in Flying Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Aadil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flying ad-hoc networks (FANETs are a very vibrant research area nowadays. They have many military and civil applications. Limited battery energy and the high mobility of micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs represent their two main problems, i.e., short flight time and inefficient routing. In this paper, we try to address both of these problems by means of efficient clustering. First, we adjust the transmission power of the UAVs by anticipating their operational requirements. Optimal transmission range will have minimum packet loss ratio (PLR and better link quality, which ultimately save the energy consumed during communication. Second, we use a variant of the K-Means Density clustering algorithm for selection of cluster heads. Optimal cluster heads enhance the cluster lifetime and reduce the routing overhead. The proposed model outperforms the state of the art artificial intelligence techniques such as Ant Colony Optimization-based clustering algorithm and Grey Wolf Optimization-based clustering algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in term of number of clusters, cluster building time, cluster lifetime and energy consumption.

  19. A Game Theory Algorithm for Intra-Cluster Data Aggregation in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuzhong; Weng, Shining; Guo, Wenzhong; Xiong, Naixue

    2016-02-19

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have an important role in urban management and planning. The effective integration of vehicle information in VANETs is critical to traffic analysis, large-scale vehicle route planning and intelligent transportation scheduling. However, given the limitations in the precision of the output information of a single sensor and the difficulty of information sharing among various sensors in a highly dynamic VANET, effectively performing data aggregation in VANETs remains a challenge. Moreover, current studies have mainly focused on data aggregation in large-scale environments but have rarely discussed the issue of intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs. In this study, we propose a multi-player game theory algorithm for intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs by analyzing the competitive and cooperative relationships among sensor nodes. Several sensor-centric metrics are proposed to measure the data redundancy and stability of a cluster. We then study the utility function to achieve efficient intra-cluster data aggregation by considering both data redundancy and cluster stability. In particular, we prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium in the game model, and conduct extensive experiments to validate the proposed algorithm. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has advantages over typical data aggregation algorithms in both accuracy and efficiency.

  20. Minimizing Detection Probability Routing in Ad Hoc Networks Using Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towsley Don

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a hostile environment, it is important for a transmitter to make its wireless transmission invisible to adversaries because an adversary can detect the transmitter if the received power at its antennas is strong enough. This paper defines a detection probability model to compute the level of a transmitter being detected by a detection system at arbitrary location around the transmitter. Our study proves that the probability of detecting a directional antenna is much lower than that of detecting an omnidirectional antenna if both the directional and omnidirectional antennas provide the same Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP in the direction of the receiver. We propose a Minimizing Detection Probability (MinDP routing algorithm to find a secure routing path in ad hoc networks where nodes employ directional antennas to transmit data to decrease the probability of being detected by adversaries. Our study shows that the MinDP routing algorithm can reduce the total detection probability of deliveries from the source to the destination by over 74%.

  1. Precoding Design and Power Allocation in Two-User MU-MIMO Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haole Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the precoding design and power allocation problem for multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO wireless ad hoc networks. In the first timeslot, the source node (SN transmits energy and information to a relay node (RN simultaneously within the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT framework. Then, in the second timeslot, based on the decoder and the forwarding (DF protocol, after reassembling the received signal and its own signal, the RN forwards the information to the main user (U1 and simultaneously sends its own information to the secondary user (U2. In this paper, when the transmission rate of the U1 is restricted, the precoding, beamforming, and power splitting (PS transmission ratio are jointly considered to maximize the transmission rate of U2. To maximize the system rate, we design an optimal beamforming matrix and solve the optimization problem by semi-definite relaxation (SDR, considering the high complexity of implementing the optimal solution. Two sub-optimal precoding programs are also discussed: singular value decomposition and block diagonalization. Finally, the performance of the optimization and sub-optimization schemes are compared using a simulation.

  2. A Sensitive Secondary Users Selection Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aohan Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Users (SUs are allowed to use the temporarily unused licensed spectrum without disturbing Primary Users (PUs in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs. Existing architectures for CRAHNs impose energy-consuming Cognitive Radios (CRs on SUs. However, the advanced CRs will increase energy cost for their cognitive functionalities, which is undesirable for the battery powered devices. A new architecture referred to as spectral Requirement-based CRAHN (RCRAHN is proposed to enhance energy efficiency for CRAHNs in this paper. In RCRAHNs, only parts of SUs are equipped with CRs. SUs equipped with CRs are referred to as Cognitive Radio Users (CRUs. To further enhance energy efficiency of CRAHNs, we aim to select minimum CRUs to sense available spectrum. A non-linear programming problem is mathematically formulated under the constraints of energy efficiency and real-time. Considering the NP-hardness of the problem, a framework of a heuristic algorithm referred to as Sensitive Secondary Users Selection (SSUS was designed to compute the near-optimal solutions. The simulation results demonstrate that SSUS not only improves the energy efficiency, but also achieves satisfied performances in end-to-end delay and communication reliability.

  3. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  4. A Sensitive Secondary Users Selection Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aohan; Han, Guangjie; Wan, Liangtian; Shu, Lei

    2016-03-26

    Secondary Users (SUs) are allowed to use the temporarily unused licensed spectrum without disturbing Primary Users (PUs) in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs). Existing architectures for CRAHNs impose energy-consuming Cognitive Radios (CRs) on SUs. However, the advanced CRs will increase energy cost for their cognitive functionalities, which is undesirable for the battery powered devices. A new architecture referred to as spectral Requirement-based CRAHN (RCRAHN) is proposed to enhance energy efficiency for CRAHNs in this paper. In RCRAHNs, only parts of SUs are equipped with CRs. SUs equipped with CRs are referred to as Cognitive Radio Users (CRUs). To further enhance energy efficiency of CRAHNs, we aim to select minimum CRUs to sense available spectrum. A non-linear programming problem is mathematically formulated under the constraints of energy efficiency and real-time. Considering the NP-hardness of the problem, a framework of a heuristic algorithm referred to as Sensitive Secondary Users Selection (SSUS) was designed to compute the near-optimal solutions. The simulation results demonstrate that SSUS not only improves the energy efficiency, but also achieves satisfied performances in end-to-end delay and communication reliability.

  5. Selective Route Based on SNR with Cross-Layer Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istikmal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed network and throughput formulation models and proposed new method of the routing protocol algorithm with a cross-layer scheme based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. This method is an enhancement of routing protocol ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV. This proposed scheme uses selective route based on the SNR threshold in the reverse route mechanism. We developed AODV SNR-selective route (AODV SNR-SR for a mechanism better than AODV SNR, that is, the routing protocol that used average or sum of path SNR, and also better than AODV which is hop-count-based. We also used selective reverse route based on SNR mechanism, replacing the earlier method to avoid routing overhead. The simulation results show that AODV SNR-SR outperforms AODV SNR and AODV in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead. This proposed method is expected to support Device-to-Device (D2D communications that are concerned with the quality of the channel awareness in the development of the future Fifth Generation (5G.

  6. Delay-dependent asymptotic stability of mobile ad-hoc networks: A descriptor system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Juan; Yang Dan; Zhang Xiao-Hong; Huang Bin; Luo Jian-Lu

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the capacity stability of the time-varying-propagation and delay-dependent of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), in this paper, a novel approach is proposed to explore the capacity asymptotic stability for the delay-dependent of MANETs based on non-cooperative game theory, where the delay-dependent conditions are explicitly taken into consideration. This approach is based on the Lyapunov—Krasovskii stability theory for functional differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. A corresponding Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional is introduced for the stability analysis of this system with use of the descriptor and “neutral-type” model transformation without producing any additional dynamics. The delay-dependent stability criteria are derived for this system. Conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and for the first time referred to neutral systems with the time-varying propagation and delay-dependent stability for capacity analysis of MANETs. The proposed criteria are less conservative since they are based on an equivalent model transformation. Furthermore, we also provide an effective and efficient iterative algorithm to solve the constrained stability control model. Simulation experiments have verified the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm. (general)

  7. Cooperative Caching in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Data Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narottam Chand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative caching, which allows sharing and coordination of cached data among clients, is a potential technique to improve the data access performance and availability in mobile ad hoc networks. However, variable data sizes, frequent data updates, limited client resources, insufficient wireless bandwidth and client's mobility make cache management a challenge. In this paper, we propose a utility based cache replacement policy, least utility value (LUV, to improve the data availability and reduce the local cache miss ratio. LUV considers several factors that affect cache performance, namely access probability, distance between the requester and data source/cache, coherency and data size. A cooperative cache management strategy, Zone Cooperative (ZC, is developed that employs LUV as replacement policy. In ZC one-hop neighbors of a client form a cooperation zone since the cost for communication with them is low both in terms of energy consumption and message exchange. Simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of LUV based ZC caching strategy. The simulation results show that, LUV replacement policy substantially outperforms the LRU policy.

  8. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-11-20

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim

    2018-04-10

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic information. In many applications, location-based services are the main service, and localization accuracy is the main problem. VANETs also require accurate vehicle location information in real time. To fulfill this requirement, a number of algorithms have been proposed; however, the location accuracy required for public safety applications in VANETs has not been achieved. In this paper, an improved subspace algorithm is proposed for time of arrival (TOA) measurements in VANETs localization. The proposed method gives a closed-form solution and it is robust for large measurement noise, as it is based on the eigen form of a scalar product and dimensionality. Furthermore, we developed the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) to evaluate the performance of the proposed 3D VANETs localization method. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparison with the CRLB and other localization algorithms available in the literature through numerous simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed 3D VANETs localization method is better than the literature methods especially for fewer anchors at road side units and large noise variance.

  10. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency.

  12. SVANET: A smart vehicular ad hoc network for efficient data transmission with wireless sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Chiang, Ming-Jer; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2014-11-25

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency.

  13. A Game Theory Algorithm for Intra-Cluster Data Aggregation in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have an important role in urban management and planning. The effective integration of vehicle information in VANETs is critical to traffic analysis, large-scale vehicle route planning and intelligent transportation scheduling. However, given the limitations in the precision of the output information of a single sensor and the difficulty of information sharing among various sensors in a highly dynamic VANET, effectively performing data aggregation in VANETs remains a challenge. Moreover, current studies have mainly focused on data aggregation in large-scale environments but have rarely discussed the issue of intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs. In this study, we propose a multi-player game theory algorithm for intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs by analyzing the competitive and cooperative relationships among sensor nodes. Several sensor-centric metrics are proposed to measure the data redundancy and stability of a cluster. We then study the utility function to achieve efficient intra-cluster data aggregation by considering both data redundancy and cluster stability. In particular, we prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium in the game model, and conduct extensive experiments to validate the proposed algorithm. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has advantages over typical data aggregation algorithms in both accuracy and efficiency.

  14. Ad-hoc Network of Smart Sensors for Mechanical Load Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strain gauges load cells are transducers devices capable of converting changes in applied mechanical load into an electrical analog signal. Those devices have a large spectrum of applications ranging from domestic to industrial or even medical appliances just to name a few. In this work, they are used in the electronic instrumentation of a force platform that will be used to carry out the analysis and characterization of human biomechanical walking. In this platform, four load cells are installed, each one capable of measuring forces along two different axis. A total of eight strain-gauges per load cell are employed. Hence, analog signal transmission, besides requiring a large number of connection wires, is prone to interference and noise. Moreover, with this solution, scalability requires severe changes in the connection topology. In order to circumvent those problems, an alternative in-situ signal conditioning and digital data transmission system was devised. This approach, as far as investigated, presents an innovative solution to signal conditioning and data transmission for load-cells. In particular, the presented solution allows the creation of an ad-hoc network of load cells, using the I²C protocol with a master interface that allows the users to interact and change the parameters of each load cell. This instrumentation structure has been successfully tested and the obtained results are documented in this article.

  15. Indoor location system based on discriminant-adaptive neural network in IEEE 802.11 environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shih-Hau; Lin, Tsung-Nan

    2008-11-01

    This brief paper presents a novel localization algorithm, named discriminant-adaptive neural network (DANN), which takes the received signal strength (RSS) from the access points (APs) as inputs to infer the client position in the wireless local area network (LAN) environment. We extract the useful information into discriminative components (DCs) for network learning. The nonlinear relationship between RSS and the position is then accurately constructed by incrementally inserting the DCs and recursively updating the weightings in the network until no further improvement is required. Our localization system is developed in a real-world wireless LAN WLAN environment, where the realistic RSS measurement is collected. We implement the traditional approaches on the same test bed, including weighted kappa-nearest neighbor (WKNN), maximum likelihood (ML), and multilayer perceptron (MLP), and compare the results. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is much higher in accuracy compared with other examined techniques. The improvement can be attributed to that only the useful information is efficiently extracted for positioning while the redundant information is regarded as noise and discarded. Finally, the analysis shows that our network intelligently accomplishes learning while the inserted DCs provide sufficient information.

  16. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gokulakrishnan

    Full Text Available A Road Accident Prevention (RAP scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET. The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i the Road Side Unit (RSU constructs a Prediction Report (PR based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM based on an abnormal PR, (iii the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ. These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure. The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  17. Cross-layer design for intrusion detection and data security in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-09-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. The nodes are severely resource-constrained, with limited processing, memory and power capacities and must operate cooperatively to fulfill a common mission in typically unattended modes. In a wireless sensor network (WSN), each sensor at a node can observe locally some underlying physical phenomenon and sends a quantized version of the observation to sink (destination) nodes via wireless links. Since the wireless medium can be easily eavesdropped, links can be compromised by intrusion attacks from nodes that may mount denial-of-service attacks or insert spurious information into routing packets, leading to routing loops, long timeouts, impersonation, and node exhaustion. A cross-layer design based on protocol-layer interactions is proposed for detection and identification of various intrusion attacks on WSN operation. A feature set is formed from selected cross-layer parameters of the WSN protocol to detect and identify security threats due to intrusion attacks. A separate protocol is not constructed from the cross-layer design; instead, security attributes and quantified trust levels at and among nodes established during data exchanges complement customary WSN metrics of energy usage, reliability, route availability, and end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. Statistical pattern recognition algorithms are applied that use observed feature-set patterns observed during network operations, viewed as security audit logs. These algorithms provide the "best" network global performance in the presence of various intrusion attacks. A set of mobile (software) agents distributed at the nodes implement the algorithms, by moving among the layers involved in the network response at each active node

  18. WQM: An Aggregation-aware Queue Management Scheme for IEEE 802.11n based Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    Choosing the right buffer size in Wi-Fi networks is challenging due to the dynamic nature of the wireless environment. Over buffering or 'bufferbloat' may produce unacceptable end-to-end delays, while static small buffers may limit the performance

  19. Cross-Layer Measurement on an IEEE 802.11g Wireless Network Supporting MPEG-2 Video Streaming Applications in the Presence of Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of wireless local area networks supporting video streaming applications, based on MPEG-2 video codec, in the presence of interference is here dealt with. IEEE 802.11g standard wireless networks, that do not support QoS in according with IEEE 802.11e standard, are, in particular, accounted for and Bluetooth signals, additive white Gaussian noise, and competitive data traffic are considered as sources of interference. The goal is twofold: from one side, experimentally assessing and correlating the values that some performance metrics assume at the same time at different layers of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN delivering video streaming in the presence of in-channel interference; from the other side, deducing helpful and practical hints for designers and technicians, in order to efficiently assess and enhance the performance of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN supporting video streaming in some suitable setup conditions and in the presence of interference. To this purpose, an experimental analysis is planned following a cross-layer measurement approach, and a proper testbed within a semianechoic chamber is used. Valuable results are obtained in terms of signal-to-interference ratio, packet loss ratio, jitter, video quality, and interference data rate; helpful hints for designers and technicians are finally gained.

  20. FRCA: A Fuzzy Relevance-Based Cluster Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegwon Jeong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP, the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA, and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM. The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  1. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  2. Two-terminal reliability of a mobile ad hoc network under the asymptotic spatial distribution of the random waypoint model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Binchao; Phillips, Aaron; Matis, Timothy I.

    2012-01-01

    The random waypoint (RWP) mobility model is frequently used in describing the movement pattern of mobile users in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). As the asymptotic spatial distribution of nodes under a RWP model exhibits central tendency, the two-terminal reliability of the MANET is investigated as a function of the source node location. In particular, analytical expressions for one and two hop connectivities are developed as well as an efficient simulation methodology for two-terminal reliability. A study is then performed to assess the effect of nodal density and network topology on network reliability.

  3. Practical Evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Medical Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mats Skogholt

    2006-01-01

    In clinical diagnostics and treatment of patients, several biological parameters have to be measured and monitored. Typical physiological parameters important to the medical staff are blood gas, invasive blood pressures, pulse rate, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Introducing a wireless network system for the sensor data results in greater flexibility both for the patient and for the medical staff. Wireless connections make use of digital data, which along with other digital data m...

  4. Beaconing Performance in IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Networks: the Effect of Radio Channel Congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Librino, Francesco; Renda, Maria Elena; Santi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of the beaconing mechanism underlying active safety vehicular applications in presence of different levels of channel congestion. The importance of this study lies in the fact that channel congestion is considered a major factor influencing communication performance in vehicular networks, and that ours is the first investigation of the effects of congestion based on extensive, real-world measurements. The results of our study reveal that congestion has ...

  5. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-02-05

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment.

  6. Body area networks using IEEE 802156 implementing the ultra wide band physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Marco; Mucchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The market of wearable wireless medical sensors is experiencing a rapid growth and the associated telecommunications services for the healthcare sector are forecast to further increase in the next years. Medical body area networks (MBANs) allow the mobility of patients and medical personnel by facilitating the remote monitoring of patients suffering from chronic or risky diseases. Currently, MBANs are being introduced in unlicensed frequency bands, where the risk of mutual interference with other electronic devices radiating in the same band can be high. Thus, coexistence is an issue on which

  7. Classification and Evaluation of Mobility Metrics for Mobility Model Movement Patterns in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar S C Sharma Bhupendra Suman

    2011-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is collection of self configuring and adaption of wireless link between communicating devices (mobile devices) to form an arbitrary topology and multihop wireless connectivity without the use of existing infrastructure. It requires efficient dynamic routing protocol to determine the routes subsequent to a set of rules that enables two or more devices to communicate with each others. This paper basically classifies and evaluates the mobility metrics into two categories-...

  8. A multi-radio, multi-hop ad-hoc radio communication network for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Bro, Lars; Karstensen, Rasmus Thystrup

    2018-01-01

    Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern signalling system that uses radio communication to transfer train control information between train and wayside. The trackside networks in these systems are mostly based on conventional infrastructure Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11). It means a train has...... to continuously associate (i.e. perform handshake) with the trackside Wi-Fi Access Points (AP) as it moves, which incurs communication delays. Additionally, these APs are connected to the wayside infrastructure via optical fiber cables that incurs huge costs. This paper presents a novel design in which trackside...

  9. Unmanned Aerial ad Hoc Networks: Simulation-Based Evaluation of Entity Mobility Models’ Impact on Routing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Daniel Medjo Me Biomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An unmanned aerial ad hoc network (UAANET is a special type of mobile ad hoc network (MANET. For these networks, researchers rely mostly on simulations to evaluate their proposed networking protocols. Hence, it is of great importance that the simulation environment of a UAANET replicates as much as possible the reality of UAVs. One major component of that environment is the movement pattern of the UAVs. This means that the mobility model used in simulations has to be thoroughly understood in terms of its impact on the performance of the network. In this paper, we investigate how mobility models affect the performance of UAANET in simulations in order to come up with conclusions/recommendations that provide a benchmark for future UAANET simulations. To that end, we first propose a few metrics to evaluate the mobility models. Then, we present five random entity mobility models that allow nodes to move almost freely and independently from one another and evaluate four carefully-chosen MANET/UAANET routing protocols: ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV, optimized link state routing (OLSR, reactive-geographic hybrid routing (RGR and geographic routing protocol (GRP. In addition, flooding is also evaluated. The results show a wide variation of the protocol performance over different mobility models. These performance differences can be explained by the mobility model characteristics, and we discuss these effects. The results of our analysis show that: (i the enhanced Gauss–Markov (EGM mobility model is best suited for UAANET; (ii OLSR, a table-driven proactive routing protocol, and GRP, a position-based geographic protocol, are the protocols most sensitive to the change of mobility models; (iii RGR, a reactive-geographic hybrid routing protocol, is best suited for UAANET.

  10. Open-source implementation of an ad-hoc IEEE802.11a/g/p software-defined radio on low-power and low-cost general purpose processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ciccia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a low-cost and low-power software-defined radio open-source platform with IEEE 802.11 a/g/p wireless communication capability. A state-of-the-art version of the IEEE 802.11 a/g/p software for GNU Radio (a free and open-source software development framework is available online, but we show here that its computational complexity prevents operations in low-power general purpose processors, even at throughputs below the standard. We therefore propose an evolution of this software that achieves a faster and lighter IEEE 802.11 a/g/p transmitter and receiver, suitable for low-power general purpose processors, for which GNU Radio provides very limited support; we discuss and describe the software radio processing structuring that is necessary to achieve the goal, providing a review of signal processing techniques. In particular, we emphasize the advanced reduced-instruction set (RISC machine (ARM study case, for which we also optimize some of the processing libraries. The presented software will remain open-source.

  11. 移动Ad Hoc网络路由协议综述%A Survey of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清; 李方敏

    2003-01-01

    A review of current research about routing protocols for mobile Ad Hoc networks is made. Based on classifying of them, the characteristic, the strength and the weakness of these protocols are evaluated respectively. Then some crucial strategies to improve the existing routing protocols are proposed. Besides, a frame of new routing protocol for Ad Hoc networks is put forward. Finally, open issues that still need investigation are listed.

  12. WING/WORLD: An Open Experimental Toolkit for the Design and Deployment of IEEE 802.11-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Testbeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Miorandi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks represent an interesting instance of light-infrastructure wireless networks. Due to their flexibility and resiliency to network failures, wireless mesh networks are particularly suitable for incremental and rapid deployments of wireless access networks in both metropolitan and rural areas. This paper illustrates the design and development of an open toolkit aimed at supporting the design of different solutions for wireless mesh networking by enabling real evaluation, validation, and demonstration. The resulting testbed is based on off-the-shelf hardware components and open-source software and is focused on IEEE 802.11 commodity devices. The software toolkit is based on an “open” philosophy and aims at providing the scientific community with a tool for effective and reproducible performance analysis of WMNs. The paper describes the architecture of the toolkit, and its core functionalities, as well as its potential evolutions.

  13. RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE CAPACITY MANAGEMENT FOR AD-HOC TRAINS ON THE SŽDC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Nachtigall

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes basic principles of ad-hoc routes assignment. Each carrier has its own interface called information system KADR with SŽDC for capacity requests management. The paper describes all steps which must be done before train departure.

  14. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC with GTS transmission for heterogeneous devices with application to wheelchair body-area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bharat; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    In wireless personal area networks, such as wireless body-area sensor networks, stations or devices have different bandwidth requirements and, thus, create heterogeneous traffics. For such networks, the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) can be used in the beacon-enabled mode, which supports guaranteed time slot (GTS) allocation for time-critical data transmissions. This paper presents a general discrete-time Markov chain model for the IEEE 802.15.4-based networks taking into account the slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance and GTS transmission phenomena together in the heterogeneous traffic scenario and under nonsaturated condition. For this purpose, the standard GTS allocation scheme is modified. For each non-identical device, the Markov model is solved and the average service time and the service utilization factor are analyzed in the non-saturated mode. The analysis is validated by simulations using network simulator version 2.33. Also, the model is enhanced with a wireless propagation model and the performance of the MAC is evaluated in a wheelchair body-area sensor network scenario.

  15. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.

  16. A Multi-Channel Spectrum Sensing Fusion Mechanism for Cognitive Radio Networks: Design and Application to IEEE 802.22 WRANs

    OpenAIRE

    Tadayon, Navid; Aissa, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The IEEE 802.22 is a new cognitive radio standard that is aimed at extending wireless outreach to rural areas. Known as wireless regional area networks, and designed based on the not-to-interfere spectrum sharing model, WRANs are channelized and centrally-controlled networks working on the under-utilized UHF/VHF TV bands to establish communication with remote users, so-called customer premises equipment (CPEs). Despite the importance of reliable and interference-free operation in these freque...

  17. A DUAL RESERVATION CDMA-BASED MAC PROTOCOL WITH POWER CONTROL FOR AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Min; Chen Huimin; Yuan Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-channel Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol named as Dual Reservation Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) based MAC protocol with Power Control (DRCPC). The code channel is divided into common channel, broadcast channel and several data channels. And dynamic power control mechanism is implemented to reduce near-far interference. Compared with IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocol, the results show that the proposed mechanism improves the average throughput and limits the transmission delay efficiently.

  18. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless real-time home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  19. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless ¿real-time¿ home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  20. BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU and wireless RSU (w-RSU. c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods.

  1. Optimal JPWL Forward Error Correction Rate Allocation for Robust JPEG 2000 Images and Video Streaming over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Macq

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS to wireless clients is demonstrated.

  2. ADNP-CSMA Random Multiple Access protocol application with the function of monitoring in Ad Hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ad Hoc networks,the net work of mobile nodes exchange information with their wireless transceiver equipment,the network throughput is in increased,compared to other such multiple hops network.Moreover along with the rapid development of modern information,communication business also will be increase.However,the access and adaptive of previous CSMA protocol are insufficient.According to these properties,this paper presents a kind of adaptive dual clock with monitoring function P-CSMA random multiple access protocol(ADNP-CSMA,and discusses two kinds of P-CSMA.ACK with monitoring function is introduced to maintain the stability of the whole system,and the introduction of dual clock mechanism reduces the channel of idle period.It calculate the system throughput expression through the method of average period,and the simulation results show that the system is constant in the case of high load throughput.

  3. Performance analysis and implementation of proposed mechanism for detection and prevention of security attacks in routing protocols of vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Tyagi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation communication networks have become widely popular as ad-hoc networks, broadly categorized as the mobile nodes based on mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET and the vehicular nodes based vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET. VANET is aimed at maintaining safety to vehicle drivers by begin autonomous communication with the nearby vehicles. Each vehicle in the ad-hoc network performs as an intelligent mobile node characterized by high mobility and formation of dynamic networks. The ad-hoc networks are decentralized dynamic networks that need efficient and secure communication requirements due to the vehicles being persistently in motion. These networks are more susceptible to various attacks like Warm Hole attacks, denial of service attacks and Black Hole Attacks. The paper is a novel attempt to examine and investigate the security features of the routing protocols in VANET, applicability of AODV (Ad hoc On Demand protocol to detect and tackle a particular category of network attacks, known as the Black Hole Attacks. A new algorithm is proposed to enhance the security mechanism of AODV protocol and to introduce a mechanism to detect Black Hole Attacks and to prevent the network from such attacks in which source node stores all route replies in a look up table. This table stores the sequences of all route reply, arranged in ascending order using PUSH and POP operations. The priority is calculated based on sequence number and discard the RREP having presumably very high destination sequence number. The result show that proposed algorithm for detection and prevention of Black Hole Attack increases security in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS and reduces the effect of malicious node in the VANET. NCTUNs simulator is used in this research work.

  4. Achieving sink node anonymity in tactical wireless sensor networks using a reactive routing protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    node anonymity, base station anonymity, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation ... Generation (LOADng) reactive-routing protocol to achieve anonymity. This modified protocol prevents an attacker from identifying the sink node without...within the constraints of WSN communication protocols, specifically IEEE 802.15.4. We use and modify the Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation

  5. Delay-sensitive content distribution via peer-to-peer collaboration in public safety vehicular ad-hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Filali, Fethi; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2014-01-01

    Delay-sensitive content distribution with peer-to-peer (P2P) cooperation in public safety vehicular networks is investigated. Two cooperative schemes are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range (LR) communications with the base station (BS) and IEEE 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range (SR). The first scheme is shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, while the second scheme outperforms non-cooperative unicasting beyond a specific number of cooperating vehicles, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Delay-sensitive content distribution via peer-to-peer collaboration in public safety vehicular ad-hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2014-05-01

    Delay-sensitive content distribution with peer-to-peer (P2P) cooperation in public safety vehicular networks is investigated. Two cooperative schemes are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range (LR) communications with the base station (BS) and IEEE 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range (SR). The first scheme is shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, while the second scheme outperforms non-cooperative unicasting beyond a specific number of cooperating vehicles, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 3VSR: Three Valued Secure Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Sensing Logic in Adversarial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today IoT integrate thousands of inter networks and sensing devices e.g., vehicular networks, which are considered to be challenging due to its high speed and network dynamics. The goal of future vehicular networks is to improve road safety, promote commercial or infotainment products and to reduce the traffic accidents. All these applications are based on the information exchange among nodes, so not only reliable data delivery but also the authenticity and credibility of the data itself are prerequisite. To cope with the aforementioned problem, trust management come up as promising candidate to conduct node’s transaction and interaction management, which requires distributed mobile nodes cooperation for achieving design goals. In this paper, we propose a trust-based routing protocol i.e., 3VSR (Three Valued Secure Routing, which extends the widely used AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing protocol and employs the idea of Sensing Logic-based trust model to enhance the security solution of VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network. The existing routing protocol are mostly based on key or signature-based schemes, which off course increases computation overhead. In our proposed 3VSR, trust among entities is updated frequently by means of opinion derived from sensing logic due to vehicles random topologies. In 3VSR the theoretical capabilities are based on Dirichlet distribution by considering prior and posterior uncertainty of the said event. Also by using trust recommendation message exchange, nodes are able to reduce computation and routing overhead. The simulated results shows that the proposed scheme is secure and practical.

  8. 3VSR: Three Valued Secure Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Sensing Logic in Adversarial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad; Wang, Liangmin

    2018-03-14

    Today IoT integrate thousands of inter networks and sensing devices e.g., vehicular networks, which are considered to be challenging due to its high speed and network dynamics. The goal of future vehicular networks is to improve road safety, promote commercial or infotainment products and to reduce the traffic accidents. All these applications are based on the information exchange among nodes, so not only reliable data delivery but also the authenticity and credibility of the data itself are prerequisite. To cope with the aforementioned problem, trust management come up as promising candidate to conduct node's transaction and interaction management, which requires distributed mobile nodes cooperation for achieving design goals. In this paper, we propose a trust-based routing protocol i.e., 3VSR (Three Valued Secure Routing), which extends the widely used AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector) routing protocol and employs the idea of Sensing Logic-based trust model to enhance the security solution of VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network). The existing routing protocol are mostly based on key or signature-based schemes, which off course increases computation overhead. In our proposed 3VSR, trust among entities is updated frequently by means of opinion derived from sensing logic due to vehicles random topologies. In 3VSR the theoretical capabilities are based on Dirichlet distribution by considering prior and posterior uncertainty of the said event. Also by using trust recommendation message exchange, nodes are able to reduce computation and routing overhead. The simulated results shows that the proposed scheme is secure and practical.

  9. On using multiple routing metrics with destination sequenced distance vector protocol for MultiHop wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, M.; Fazio, P.; Voznak, M.; Partila, P.; Komosny, D.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2016-05-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate without a fixed backbone or centralized infrastructure. Due to the frequent mobility of nodes, routes connecting two distant nodes may change. Therefore, it is not possible to establish a priori fixed paths for message delivery through the network. Because of its importance, routing is the most studied problem in mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, if the Quality of Service (QoS) is demanded, one must guarantee the QoS not only over a single hop but over an entire wireless multi-hop path which may not be a trivial task. In turns, this requires the propagation of QoS information within the network. The key to the support of QoS reporting is QoS routing, which provides path QoS information at each source. To support QoS for real-time traffic one needs to know not only minimum delay on the path to the destination but also the bandwidth available on it. Therefore, throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead are traditional performance metrics used to evaluate the performance of routing protocol. To obtain additional information about the link, most of quality-link metrics are based on calculation of the lost probabilities of links by broadcasting probe packets. In this paper, we address the problem of including multiple routing metrics in existing routing packets that are broadcasted through the network. We evaluate the efficiency of such approach with modified version of DSDV routing protocols in ns-3 simulator.

  10. Optimal Throughput and Self-adaptability of Robust Real-Time IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for AMI Mesh Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Hikma; Ahmed, Musse Mohamud; Khan, Sheroz; Hameed, Shahab Ahmed; Habaebi, Mohamed Hadi

    2013-01-01

    A smart grid refers to a modernization of the electricity system that brings intelligence, reliability, efficiency and optimality to the power grid. To provide an automated and widely distributed energy delivery, the smart grid will be branded by a two-way flow of electricity and information system between energy suppliers and their customers. Thus, the smart grid is a power grid that integrates data communication networks which provide the collected and analysed data at all levels in real time. Therefore, the performance of communication systems is so vital for the success of smart grid. Merit to the ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4std low cost, low power, low data rate, short range, simplicity and free licensed spectrum that makes wireless sensor networks (WSNs) the most suitable wireless technology for smart grid applications. Unfortunately, almost all ZigBee channels overlap with wireless local area network (WLAN) channels, resulting in severe performance degradation due to interference. In order to improve the performance of communication systems, this paper proposes an optimal throughput and self-adaptability of ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4std for smart grid

  11. Dynamic Hierarchical Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Wen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two scheduling management schemes for wireless sensor networks, which manage the sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocate network resources efficiently. A local criterion is used to simultaneously establish the sensing coverage and connectivity such that dynamic cluster-based sleep scheduling can be achieved. The proposed schemes are simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms provide efficient network power control and can achieve high scalability in wireless sensor networks.

  12. Dynamic hierarchical sleep scheduling for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Yu; Chen, Ying-Chih

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents two scheduling management schemes for wireless sensor networks, which manage the sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocate network resources efficiently. A local criterion is used to simultaneously establish the sensing coverage and connectivity such that dynamic cluster-based sleep scheduling can be achieved. The proposed schemes are simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms provide efficient network power control and can achieve high scalability in wireless sensor networks.

  13. Enhancement of Localization Accuracy in Cellular Networks via Cooperative AdHoc Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lhomme, Edouard; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2006-01-01

    Positioning information enables new applications for cellular phones, personal communication systems, and specialized mobile radios. The network heterogeneity emerging in the fourth generation (4G) of mobile networks can be utilized for enhancements of the location estimation accuracy...

  14. Preventing Wormhole Attacks on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Graph Theoretic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazos, L; Poovendran, Radha; Meadows, C; Syverson, P; Chang, L. W

    2005-01-01

    We study the problem of characterizing the wormhole attack, an attack that can be mounted on a wide range of wireless network protocols without compromising any cryptographic quantity or network node...

  15. Management of Tactical Ad Hoc Networks With C2 Data Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brand, John

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory is investigating the exploitation of preloaded reference data to solve problems in tactical network management By closely evaluating how communications networks are described...

  16. A Comparative Study of Novel Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Poonkuzhali; M. Y. Sanavullah; M. R. Gurupriya

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic routing is used, where the network has the features like dynamic topology changes and intermittent network connectivity. In Delay tolerant network or Disruption tolerant network opportunistic forwarding technique is widely used. The key idea of opportunistic routing is selecting forwarding nodes to forward data packets and coordination among these nodes to avoid duplicate transmissions. This paper gives the analysis of pros and cons of various opportunistic ...

  17. Dynamic Hierarchical Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Yu Wen; Ying-Chih Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents two scheduling management schemes for wireless sensor networks, which manage the sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocate network resources efficiently. A local criterion is used to simultaneously establish the sensing coverage and connectivity such that dynamic cluster-based sleep scheduling can be achieved. The proposed schemes are simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show t...

  18. An Improved Approach for RSSI-Based only Calibration-Free Real-Time Indoor Localization on IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Passafiume

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Assuming a reliable and responsive spatial contextualization service is a must-have in IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 wireless networks, a suitable approach consists of the implementation of localization capabilities, as an additional application layer to the communication protocol stack. Considering the applicative scenario where satellite-based positioning applications are denied, such as indoor environments, and excluding data packet arrivals time measurements due to lack of time resolution, received signal strength indicator (RSSI measurements, obtained according to IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 data access technologies, are the unique data sources suitable for indoor geo-referencing using COTS devices. In the existing literature, many RSSI based localization systems are introduced and experimentally validated, nevertheless they require periodic calibrations and significant information fusion from different sensors that dramatically decrease overall systems reliability and their effective availability. This motivates the work presented in this paper, which introduces an approach for an RSSI-based calibration-free and real-time indoor localization. While switched-beam array-based hardware (compliant with IEEE 802.15.4 router functionality has already been presented by the author, the focus of this paper is the creation of an algorithmic layer for use with the pre-existing hardware capable to enable full localization and data contextualization over a standard 802.15.4 wireless sensor network using only RSSI information without the need of lengthy offline calibration phase. System validation reports the localization results in a typical indoor site, where the system has shown high accuracy, leading to a sub-metrical overall mean error and an almost 100% site coverage within 1 m localization error.

  19. An Improved Approach for RSSI-Based only Calibration-Free Real-Time Indoor Localization on IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafiume, Marco; Maddio, Stefano; Cidronali, Alessandro

    2017-03-29

    Assuming a reliable and responsive spatial contextualization service is a must-have in IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 wireless networks, a suitable approach consists of the implementation of localization capabilities, as an additional application layer to the communication protocol stack. Considering the applicative scenario where satellite-based positioning applications are denied, such as indoor environments, and excluding data packet arrivals time measurements due to lack of time resolution, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements, obtained according to IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 data access technologies, are the unique data sources suitable for indoor geo-referencing using COTS devices. In the existing literature, many RSSI based localization systems are introduced and experimentally validated, nevertheless they require periodic calibrations and significant information fusion from different sensors that dramatically decrease overall systems reliability and their effective availability. This motivates the work presented in this paper, which introduces an approach for an RSSI-based calibration-free and real-time indoor localization. While switched-beam array-based hardware (compliant with IEEE 802.15.4 router functionality) has already been presented by the author, the focus of this paper is the creation of an algorithmic layer for use with the pre-existing hardware capable to enable full localization and data contextualization over a standard 802.15.4 wireless sensor network using only RSSI information without the need of lengthy offline calibration phase. System validation reports the localization results in a typical indoor site, where the system has shown high accuracy, leading to a sub-metrical overall mean error and an almost 100% site coverage within 1 m localization error.

  20. Improving the Dominating-Set Routing over Delay-Tolerant Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks via Estimating Node Intermeeting Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preiss Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With limited coverage of wireless networks and frequent roaming of mobile users, providing a seamless communication service poses a technical challenge. In our previous research, we presented a supernode system architecture that employs the delay-tolerant network (DTN concept to provide seamless communications for roaming users over interconnected heterogeneous wireless networks. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are considered a key component of the supernode system for services over an area not covered by other wireless networks. Within the super node system, a dominating-set routing technique is proposed to improve message delivery over MANETs and to achieve better resource utilization. The performance of the dominating-set routing technique depends on estimation accuracy of the probability of a future contact between nodes. This paper studies how node mobility can be modeled and used to better estimate the probability of a contact. We derive a distribution for the node-to-node intermeeting time and present numerical results to demonstrate that the distribution can be used to improve the dominating-set routing technique performance. Moreover, we investigate how the distribution can be employed to relax the constraints of selecting the dominating-set members in order to improve the system resource utilization.

  1. Improved AODV route recovery in mobile ad-hoc networks using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maleki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocols is route failure caused by node mobility in the MANETs. The AODV requires a new route discovery procedure whenever a route breaks and these frequent route discoveries increase transmission delays and routing overhead. The present study proposes a new method for AODVs using a genetic algorithm to improve the route recovery mechanism. When failure occurs in a route, the proposed method (GAAODV makes decisions regarding the QOS parameter to select source or local repair. The task of the genetic algorithm is to find an appropriate combination of weights to optimize end-to-end delay. This paper evaluates the metrics of routing overhead, average end-to-end delay, and packet delivery ratio. Comparison of the new algorithm and AODV (RFC 3561 using a NS-2 simulator shows that GAAODV obtains better results for the QOS parameters.

  2. Robust On-Demand Multipath Routing with Dynamic Path Upgrade for Delay-Sensitive Data over Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Node mobility in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs causes frequent route breakages and intermittent link stability. In this paper, we introduce a robust routing scheme, known as ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector with dynamic path update (AOMDV-DPU, for delay-sensitive data transmission over MANET. The proposed scheme improves the AOMDV scheme by incorporating the following features: (i a routing metric based on the combination of minimum hops and received signal strength indicator (RSSI for discovery of reliable routes; (ii a local path update mechanism which strengthens the route, reduces the route breakage frequency, and increases the route longevity; (iii a keep alive mechanism for secondary route maintenance which enables smooth switching between routes and reduces the route discovery frequency; (iv a packet salvaging scheme to improve packet delivery in the event of a route breakage; and (v low HELLO packet overhead. The simulations are carried out in ns-2 for varying node speeds, number of sources, and traffic load conditions. Our AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves significantly higher throughput, lower delay, routing overhead, and route discovery frequency and latency compared to AOMDV. For H.264 compressed video traffic, AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves 3 dB or higher PSNR gain over AOMDV at both low and high node speeds.

  3. Quality of Service Model on Data Link Layer for Mission Critical Traffic on IEEE 802.11g Networks in Infrastructure Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald B. Fuenmayor-Rivadeneira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesized review as state of the art of the study of QoS for mission-critical traffic in wireless local area networks that use the IEEE 802.11g protocol. This is to highlight previous research for their contribution will constitute a reference to guide a proposed new approach to ensuring the quality of service for this type of traffic using the above protocol. The review is based on academic and business items made during the current five years. As a result of this review it is evident that there have been many efforts to address the issue but there are still gaps in the characterization of mission-critical traffic and ensuring quality of service for the same, due the new applications and the large host of WiFi networks in business and government, which has led to increased demand for access channels and, therefore, a challenge to the progress already known, such as IEEE 802.1q.

  4. New Solutions Based On Wireless Networks For Dynamic Traffic Lights Management: A Comparison Between IEEE 802.15.4 And Bluetooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collotta Mario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Networks are widely used to detect and exchange information and in recent years they have been increasingly involved in Intelligent Transportation System applications, especially in dynamic management of signalized intersections. In fact, the real-time knowledge of information concerning traffic light junctions represents a valid solution to congestion problems. In this paper, a wireless network architecture, based on IEEE 802.15.4 or Bluetooth, in order to monitor vehicular traffic flows near to traffic lights, is introduced. Moreover, an innovative algorithm is proposed in order to determine dynamically green times and phase sequence of traffic lights, based on measured values of traffic flows. Several simulations compare IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth protocols in order to identify the more suitable communication protocol for ITS applications. Furthermore, in order to confirm the validity of the proposed algorithm for the dynamic management of traffic lights, some case studies have been considered and several simulations have been performed.

  5. A Novel Architecture for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Patel; Ruchi Kansara; Dr. Paresh Virparia

    2011-01-01

    Today’s wireless networks are vulnerable in many ways including illegal use, unauthorized access, denial of service attacks, eavesdropping so called war chalking. These problems are one of the main issues for wider uses of wireless network. On wired network intruder can access by wire but in wireless it has possibilities to access the computer anywhere in neighborhood. However, securing MANETs is highly challenging issue due to their inherent characteristics. Intrusion detection is an importa...

  6. Cross-Layer Design for Energy-Efficient Secure Multicast Communications in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazos, Loukas; Poovendran, Radha

    2004-01-01

    .... They present an analytical formulation of the energy expenditure associated with the communication overhead of key management, and highlight its dependence on network topology and key distribution method...

  7. Resource management framework for QoS scheduling in IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    IEEE 802.16, also known as WiMAX, has received much attention recently for its capability to support multiple types of applications with diverse Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. Beyond what the standard has defined, radio resource management (RRM) still remains an open issue, which plays...... an important role in QoS provisioning for different types of services. In this chapter, we propose a downlink resource management framework for QoS scheduling in OFDMA based WiMAX systems. Our framework consists of a dynamic resource allocation (DRA) module and a connection admission control (CAC) module...

  8. Downlink resource management for QoS scheduling in IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    IEEE 802.16, also known as WiMAX, has received much attention recently for its capability to support multiple types of applications with diverse Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. Beyond what the standard has defined, radio resource management (RRM) still remains an open issue, which plays...... an important role in QoS provisioning for different types of services. In this paper, we propose a downlink resource management framework for QoS scheduling in OFDMA based WiMAX systems. Our framework consists of a dynamic resource allocation (DRA) module and a connection admission control (CAC) module. A two...

  9. Energy generation for an ad hoc wireless sensor network-based monitoring system using animal head movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2011-01-01

    are not easily accessible. Therefore, exploring novel sources of energy generation rather than operating electronics only on limited power supplies such as batteries is a major challenge. Monitoring free-ranging animal behavior is an application in which the entities (animals) within the MANET are not readily...... that the amount of energy generated by the vertical neck–head movement of sheep during grazing can be converted to useful electrical power adequate to provide power for operation of wireless sensor nodes on a continuous basis within a MANET-based animal behavior monitoring system.......The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET...

  10. Rapid self-organised initiation of ad hoc sensor networks close above the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsnes, Reinert

    2010-07-01

    This work shows potentials for rapid self-organisation of sensor networks where nodes collaborate to relay messages to a common data collecting unit (sink node). The study problem is, in the sense of graph theory, to find a shortest path tree spanning a weighted graph. This is a well-studied problem where for example Dijkstra’s algorithm provides a solution for non-negative edge weights. The present contribution shows by simulation examples that simple modifications of known distributed approaches here can provide significant improvements in performance. Phase transition phenomena, which are known to take place in networks close to percolation thresholds, may explain these observations. An initial method, which here serves as reference, assumes the sink node starts organisation of the network (tree) by transmitting a control message advertising its availability for its neighbours. These neighbours then advertise their current cost estimate for routing a message to the sink. A node which in this way receives a message implying an improved route to the sink, advertises its new finding and remembers which neighbouring node the message came from. This activity proceeds until there are no more improvements to advertise to neighbours. The result is a tree network for cost effective transmission of messages to the sink (root). This distributed approach has potential for simple improvements which are of interest when minimisation of storage and communication of network information are a concern. Fast organisation of the network takes place when the number k of connections for each node ( degree) is close above its critical value for global network percolation and at the same time there is a threshold for the nodes to decide to advertise network route updates.

  11. IF-MANET: Interoperable framework for heterogeneous mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, H.

    2015-01-01

    The advances in low power micro-processors, wireless networks and embedded systems have raised the need to utilize the significant resources of mobile devices. These devices for example, smart phones, tablets, laptops, wearables, and sensors are gaining enormous processing power, storage capacity and wireless bandwidth. In addition, the advancement in wireless mobile technology has created a new communication paradigm via which a wireless network can be created without any priori infrastructu...

  12. Design and implementation of Ad-Hoc collaborative proxying scheme for reducing network energy waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiullah Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Network devices are equipped with low power states but they are rarely activated due to their inability of maintaining network connectivity. Recently, Network Connectivity Proxy (NCP concept has been proposed in literature as an effective mechanism to exploit full potential of low power features on network devices by impersonating their virtual presence. However, the NCP concept faces several open issues and challenges especially related to proxying of TCP connections and majority of daily used proprietary closed-source applications. This paper presents a new approach for reducing network energy waste through intelligent collaboration among daily used devices (e.g., desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. It guarantees to run applications on only and only one user device that is under active use at that specific moment. To reduce energy waste and allow idle devices to sleep, our approach also takes benefit from a light-weight home gateway proxy with very basic practically realizable functionalities. The proposed system not just reduces energy waste of fixed devices but also enables mobile devices to significantly improve their battery life. Our developed software prototypes allow devices to autonomously and seamlessly collaborate with each other without requiring any configuration or user input. Further, this paper also presents the basic performance evaluation of developed prototypes in real networking environments.

  13. Information Potential Fields Navigation in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly being deployed in some important applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application requirements in in-network processes. We intend to use a WSN to aid information querying and navigation within a dynamic and real-time environment. We propose a novel method that relies on the heat diffusion equation to finish the navigation process conveniently and easily. From the perspective of theoretical analysis, our proposed work holds the lower constraint condition. We use multiple scales to reach the goal of accurate navigation. We present a multi-scale gradient descent method to satisfy users’ requirements in WSNs. Formula derivations and simulations show that the method is accurately and efficiently able to solve typical sensor network configuration information navigation problems. Simultaneously, the structure of heat diffusion equation allows more flexibility and adaptability in searching algorithm designs.

  14. Optimizing Neighbor Discovery for Ad hoc Networks based on the Bluetooth PAN Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuijpers, Gerben; Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Prasad, Ramjee

    2002-01-01

    IP layer neighbor discovery mechanisms rely highly on broadcast/multicast capabilities of the underlying link layer. The Bluetooth personal area network (PAN) profile has no native link layer broadcast/multicast capabilities and can only emulate this by repeatedly unicast link layer frames....... This paper introduces a neighbor discovery mechanism that utilizes the resources in the Bluetooth PAN profile more efficient. The performance of the new mechanism is investigated using a IPv6 network simulator and compared with emulated broadcasting. It is shown that the signaling overhead can...

  15. A secure and lightweight ad-hoc routing algorithm for personal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing Personal Area Networks (PANs) to offer users innovative and personalized services. This interest is a consequence of the widespread use of mobile devices such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs, digital cameras, wireless headsets,

  16. Local, distributed topology control for large-scale wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieberg, T.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this document, topology control of a large-scale, wireless network by a distributed algorithm that uses only locally available information is presented. Topology control algorithms adjust the transmission power of wireless nodes to create a desired topology. The algorithm, named local power

  17. A MODIFIED ROUTE DISCOVERY APPROACH FOR DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING (DSR PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Azmi Allahham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs involved in many applications, whether commercial or military because of their characteristics that do not depend on the infrastructure as well as the freedom movement of their elements, but in return has caused this random mobility of the nodes many of the challenges, where the routing is considered one of these challenges. There are many types of routing protocols that operate within MANET networks, which responsible for finding paths between the source and destination nodes with the modernization of these paths which are constantly changing due to the dynamic topology of the network stemming from the constant random movement of the nodes. The DSR (Dynamic Source Routing routing protocol algorithm is one of these routing protocols which consist of two main stages; route discovery and maintenance, where the route discovery algorithm operates based on blind flooding of request messages. blind flooding is considered as the most well known broadcasting mechanism, it is inefficient in terms of communication and resource utilization, which causing increasing the probability of collisions, repeating send several copies of the same message, as well as increasing the delay. Hence, a new mechanism in route discovery stage and in caching the routes in DSR algorithm according to the node's location in the network and the direction of the broadcast is proposed for better performance especially in terms of delay as well as redundant packets rate. The implementation of proposed algorithms showed positive results in terms of delay, overhead, and improve the performance of MANETs in general.

  18. A Multivariant Stream Analysis Approach to Detect and Mitigate DDoS Attacks in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raenu Kolandaisamy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are rapidly gaining attention due to the diversity of services that they can potentially offer. However, VANET communication is vulnerable to numerous security threats such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks. Dealing with these attacks in VANET is a challenging problem. Most of the existing DDoS detection techniques suffer from poor accuracy and high computational overhead. To cope with these problems, we present a novel Multivariant Stream Analysis (MVSA approach. The proposed MVSA approach maintains the multiple stages for detection DDoS attack in network. The Multivariant Stream Analysis gives unique result based on the Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication through Road Side Unit. The approach observes the traffic in different situations and time frames and maintains different rules for various traffic classes in various time windows. The performance of the MVSA is evaluated using an NS2 simulator. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the MVSA regarding detection accuracy and reducing the impact on VANET communication.

  19. Scalable Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) to Enhance Situational Awareness in Distributed Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    computing the algorithm is written in Python, a simple terminal programming language. At the top of that script was the integration to ROS and the rest of...etError    (1) where the refresh frequency is represented by Network in units of Hz and the angular speed of the Marine’s sweep rate...starts with: Java , C++, Python, and more. There are literally thousands if not hundreds of thousands, of projects, platforms, sensors, actuators

  20. Beamspace Multiple Input Multiple Output. Part II: Steerable Antennas in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    to the transmitter with half the channel transfer function power , since the actual receiver dwells on each channel only half the time. Fourth diagram...steering in a wireless network to maximize signal power and minimize interference [8–10]. The ability to switch beams adds another diversity dimension to...channel transfer function power , since the actual receiver dwells on each channel only half the time. Fourth diagram: The transmit array sends four