WorldWideScience

Sample records for hnf-4650 sn-268 encasement

  1. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4651 for HNF-4650 SN-268 encasement leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-335 for project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm Encasement Leak Detector components are functionally integrated and operate in accordance with engineering design specifications The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4650, SN-268 Encasement Leak Detection ANA-W-LDSTA-335, was conducted between 22 June and 01 July 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has been completed with no open test exceptions The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed this had no impact on the procedure or test results. All components, identified in the procedure, were found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure

  2. Design of buried concrete encasements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of many Department of Energy (DOE) sites requires the transfer of radioactive liquid products from one location to another. DOE Order 6430.1A requires that the transfer pipelines be designed and constructed so that any leakage can be detected and contained before it reaches the environment. One design option often considered to meet this requirement is to place the pipeline in a stainless steel-lined, buried concrete encasement. This provides the engineer with the design challenge to integrate standard structural design principles with unique DOE requirements. The complete design of a buried concrete encasement must consider seismic effects, leak detection, leak confinement, radiation shielding, thermal effects, pipe supports, and constructability. This paper contains a brief discussion of each of these design considerations, based on experience gained during the design of concrete encasements for the Process Facilities Modifications (PFM) project at Hanford

  3. 27 CFR 20.177 - Encased containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Encased containers. 20.177... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Dealers § 20.177 Encased containers. (a) A dealer may package specially denatured spirits in unlabeled containers which are completely encased in wood...

  4. 27 CFR 20.145 - Encased containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Encased containers. 20.145... Denatured Alcohol § 20.145 Encased containers. Completely denatured alcohol may be packaged by distributors in unlabeled containers which are completely encased in wood, fiberboard, or similar material so that...

  5. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-10-26

    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  6. Natural gas encasement for highway crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The University Transportation Center for Alabama researchers examined the Alabama Department of : Transportations current policy regarding the encasement of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines at roadway : crossings. The group collected inf...

  7. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible for...

  8. 33 CFR 183.516 - Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cellular plastic used to encase....516 Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks. (a) Cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel...-polyurethane cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel tanks must have a compressive strength of at least...

  9. EnCE EnCase computer forensics : the official EnCase certified examiner : study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bunting, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The official, Guidance Software-approved book on the newest EnCE exam! The EnCE exam tests that computer forensic analysts and examiners have thoroughly mastered computer investigation methodologies, as well as the use of Guidance Software's EnCase Forensic 7. The only official Guidance-endorsed study guide on the topic, this book prepares you for the exam with extensive coverage of all exam topics, real-world scenarios, hands-on exercises, up-to-date legal information, and sample evidence files, flashcards, and more. Guides readers through preparation for the newest EnCase Certified Examiner

  10. DOUBLE-SHELL TANK WASTE TRANSFER LINE ENCASEMENT INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGY STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWER, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    The report provides various alternative methods of performing integrity assessment inspections of buried Hanford Double Shell Tank waste transfer line encasements, and provides method recommendations as an alternative to costly encasement pneumatic leak testing. A schedule for future encasement integrity assessments is also included

  11. Closure report for Building 875 sump encased in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemayor, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report will document the post-closure activities for the 875-R1U1 Waste-Solvent Underground Storage Tank located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Site 300. The aforementioned tank waspreviously identified and registered with the California Water Resources Control Board as 875-31R. The underground tank system consists of a 55-gallon steel drum encased in concrete. The underground tank was used to collect dripping and spillage from the above-concrete drum rack storage area. The closure of this underground tank was permitted as Tank Identification No. 39-1945-21 by W.R. Snavely of SJCPHS-EHS. The last tank test, performed on February 1988, showed that the underground tank was leak tight. On May 1988, the sludge at the bottom of the tank was removed and disposed of as hazardous waste. The residual 1.5 inches of oily water in the tank was removed and the tank was washed with soap and water on December 11, 1989. The rinsate and residual sludge was disposed of as hazardous waste. The empty tank and the encasing concrete were extracted from the ground on November 5, 1990. No underground piping was associated with the removal of this underground tank since the tank was used to collect the dripping and spillage from the above-concrete drum rack. Three soil samples were collected in split tubes from approximately 1 foot below the bottom of the tank. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH)-Gasoline, TPH-Diesel, Total Extractable Petroleum, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethyl Benzene, Tetraethyl Lead, Metals, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB), and Ethylene Dibromide. Results indicated that the underground tank was leak tight. The concrete encasing was removed from the 55-gallon tank and disposed of as a municipal waste. The 55-gallon tank is currently stored at the Hazardous Waste Storage Area located in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California and is waiting as a hazardous waste

  12. Cervical chordoma with vertebral artery encasement mimicking neurofibroma: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortele, B.; Lemmerling, M.; Mortele, K.; Verstraete, K.; Defreyne, L.; Kunnen, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Vandekerckhove, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium)

    2000-06-01

    A case of cervical chordoma in a 36-year-old white man with hypoesthesia in the neck and right shoulder, neck pain, and restricted neck mobility is presented. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed radiolucency of the body of C2 on the right side and enlargement of the right intervertebral foramen at C2-C3 level. Tumor encasement of the vertebral artery was demonstrated by MR imaging and confirmed by conventional arteriography. This proved to be particularly important for preoperative assessment. (orig.)

  13. Cervical chordoma with vertebral artery encasement mimicking neurofibroma: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortele, B.; Lemmerling, M.; Mortele, K.; Verstraete, K.; Defreyne, L.; Kunnen, M.; Vandekerckhove, T.

    2000-01-01

    A case of cervical chordoma in a 36-year-old white man with hypoesthesia in the neck and right shoulder, neck pain, and restricted neck mobility is presented. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed radiolucency of the body of C2 on the right side and enlargement of the right intervertebral foramen at C2-C3 level. Tumor encasement of the vertebral artery was demonstrated by MR imaging and confirmed by conventional arteriography. This proved to be particularly important for preoperative assessment. (orig.)

  14. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Q Mao

    Full Text Available The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1 the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2 smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3 comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization.

  15. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J Q; Zhang, H Q; Dai, H C; Yuan, B H; Hu, T F

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1) the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2) smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3) comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization.

  16. The Tubular Sheaths Encasing Methanosaeta thermophila Filaments Are Functional Amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueholm, Morten S; Larsen, Poul; Finster, Kai; Stenvang, Marcel R; Christiansen, Gunna; Vad, Brian S; Bøggild, Andreas; Otzen, Daniel E; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-08-14

    Archaea are renowned for their ability to thrive in extreme environments, although they can be found in virtually all habitats. Their adaptive success is linked to their unique cell envelopes that are extremely resistant to chemical and thermal denaturation and that resist proteolysis by common proteases. Here we employ amyloid-specific conformation antibodies and biophysical techniques to show that the extracellular cell wall sheaths encasing the methanogenic archaea Methanosaeta thermophila PT are functional amyloids. Depolymerization of sheaths and subsequent MS/MS analyses revealed that the sheaths are composed of a single major sheath protein (MspA). The amyloidogenic nature of MspA was confirmed by in vitro amyloid formation of recombinant MspA under a wide range of environmental conditions. This is the first report of a functional amyloid from the archaeal domain of life. The amyloid nature explains the extreme resistance of the sheath, the elastic properties that allow diffusible substrates to penetrate through expandable hoop boundaries, and how the sheaths are able to split and elongate outside the cell. The archaeal sheath amyloids do not share homology with any of the currently known functional amyloids and clearly represent a new function of the amyloid protein fold. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Value of MR and CT Imaging for Assessment of Internal Carotid Artery Encasement in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Lodder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was conducted to assess the value of CT and MR imaging in the preoperative evaluation of ICA encasement. Methods. Based upon three patient groups this study was performed. Retrospective analysis of 260 neck dissection reports from 2001 to 2010 was performed to determine unexpected peroperative-diagnosed encasement. Two experienced head and neck radiologists reviewed 12 scans for encasement. Results. In four out of 260 (1.5% patients undergoing neck dissection, preoperative imaging was false negative as there was peroperative encasement of the ICA. Of 380 patients undergoing preoperative imaging, the radiologist reported encasement of the ICA in 25 cases. In 342 cases no encasement was described, 125 of these underwent neck dissection, and 2 had encasement peroperatively. The interobserver variation kappa varied from 0.273 to 1 for the different characteristics studied. Conclusion. These retrospectively studied cohorts demonstrate that preoperative assessment of encasement of the ICA using MRI and/or CT was of value in evaluation of ICA encasement and therefore contributively in selecting operable patients (without ICA encasement, since in only 1.5% encasement was missed. However, observer variation affects the reliability of this feature.

  18. Review of design codes of concrete encased steel short columns under axial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Z. Soliman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of encased steel concrete columns has been increased significantly in medium-rise or high-rise buildings. The aim of the present investigation is to assess experimentally the current methods and codes for evaluating the ultimate load behavior of concrete encased steel short columns. The current state of design provisions for composite columns from the Egyptian codes ECP203-2007 and ECP-SC-LRFD-2012, as well as, American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC-LRFD-2010, American Concrete Institute, ACI-318-2008, and British Standard BS-5400-5 was reviewed. The axial capacity portion of both the encased steel section and the concrete section was also studied according to the previously mentioned codes. Ten encased steel concrete columns have been investigated experimentally to study the effect of concrete confinement and different types of encased steel sections. The measured axial capacity of the tested ten composite columns was compared with the values calculated by the above mentioned codes. It is concluded that non-negligible discrepancies exist between codes and the experimental results as the confinement effect was not considered in predicting both the strength and ductility of concrete. The confining effect was obviously influenced by the shape of the encased steel section. The tube-shaped steel section leads to better confinement than the SIB section. Among the used codes, the ECP-SC-LRFD-2012 led to the most conservative results.

  19. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  20. Measuring Humidity in the Charters of Freedom Encasements Using a Moisture Condensation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Cecil G.; West, James W.; Levine, Joel S.

    2004-01-01

    The relative humidity of the atmosphere in the encasements containing the U.S. Constitution Pages 1 and 4, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights was measured to be in the range of 55% to 61%. This value is significantly higher than the presumed relative humidity between 25 to 35 %, but is consistent with the measured samples extracted from Pages 2 and 3 of the U.S. Constitution. The cooling/condensation measurement technique used at NARA on July 23, 2001, and described in this paper to measure the water vapor content of the atmosphere in the hermetically sealed encasements containing the U. S. Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights, proved to be a powerful new measurement technique. The cooling/condensation technique developed at NASA LaRC and utilized at NARA has important applications in the non-invasive measurement of relative humidity in the atmospheres of sealed encasements and could become a standard measurement technique in this type of analysis.

  1. Encasement and subsidence of salt minibasins: observations from the SE Precaspian Basin and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Naiara; Duffy, Oliver B.; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Dooley, Tim P.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George

    2017-04-01

    The SE Precaspian Basin is characterized by an assemblage of Upper Permian to Triassic minibasins. A recently acquired borehole-constrained 3D reflection dataset reveals the existence of abundant intrasalt reflection packages lying in between the Permo-Triassic minibasins. We propose that most of the mapped intrasalt reflection packages in the study area are minibasins originally deposited on top of salt that were later incorporated into salt by encasement processes. This makes the SE Precaspian Basin a new example of a salt province populated by encased minibasins, which until now had been mainly described from the Gulf of Mexico. Identifying salt-encased sediment packages in the study area has been crucial, not only because they provide a new exploration target, but also because they can play a key role on improving seismic imaging of adjacent or deeper stratigraphic sections. Another remarkable feature observed in the seismic dataset is the widespread occurrence of distinct seismic sequences in the Permo-Triassic minibasins. Bowl- and wedge-shaped seismic sequences define discrete periods of vertical and asymmetric minibasin subsidence. In the absence of shortening, the bowl-to-wedge transition is typically associated with the timing of basal welding and subsequent rotation of the minibasins. Timing of minibasin welding has important implications when addressing the likelihood of suprasalt reservoir charging. We performed a set of 2D numerical simulations aimed at investigating what drives the tilting of minibasins and how it relates to welding. A key observation from the numerical models is that the bowl-to-wedge transition can predate the time of basal welding.

  2. Surgical management of giant sphenoid wing meningiomas encasing major cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pierre-Olivier; Lemoine, Emile; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sphenoid wing meningiomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with variable surgical risks and prognosis. Those that have grown to a very large size, encasing the major cerebral arteries, are associated with a high risk of stroke. In reviewing the authors' series of giant sphenoid wing meningiomas, the goal was to evaluate how the extent of the tumor's invasion of surrounding structures affected the ability to safely remove the tumor and restore function. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective study of a series of giant sphenoid wing meningiomas operated on between 1996 and 2016. Inclusion criteria were meningiomas with a globoid component ≥ 6 cm, encasing at least 1 major intradural cerebral artery. Extent of resection was measured according to Simpson grade. RESULTS This series included 12 patients, with a mean age of 59 years. Visual symptoms were the most common clinical presentation. There was complete or partial encasement of all 3 major cerebral arteries except for 3 cases in which only the anterior cerebral artery was not involved. The lateral wall of the cavernous sinus was invaded in 8 cases (67%) and the optic canal in 6 (50%). Complete resection was achieved in 2 cases (Simpson grades 2 and 3). In the remaining 10 cases of partial resection (Simpson grade 4), radical removal (> 90%) was achieved in 7 cases (70%). In the immediate postoperative period, there were no deaths. Four of 9 patients with visual deficits improved, while the 5 others remained unchanged. Two patients experienced transient neurological deficits. Other than an asymptomatic lacuna of the internal capsule, there were no ischemic lesions following surgery. Tumor recurrence occurred in 5 patients, between 24 and 168 months (mean 61 months) following surgery. CONCLUSIONS Although these giant lesions encasing major cerebral arteries are particularly treacherous for surgery, this series demonstrates that it is possible to safely achieve radical removal and at times even

  3. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The FUSE satellite is encased in a canister before being moved to the Launch Pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), the last segment is lifted over the top of NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite already encased in a protective canister. The satellite will next be moved to Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, for its scheduled launch June 23 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection based on axial arterial encasement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinel, J; Nappo, G; El Bechwaty, M; Walter, T; Hervieu, V; Valette, P J; Feugier, P; Adham, M

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is associated with high morbidity and is thus considered as a contraindication. The aim of our study was to report our experience of pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection for locally advanced PDA based on specific selection criteria. All patients receiving pancreatectomy for PDA between October 2008 and July 2014 were reviewed. The patients were classified into group 1, pancreatectomy without vascular resection (66 patients); group 2, pancreatectomy with isolated venous resection (31 patients), and group 3, pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced PDA (14 patients). The primary selection criteria for arterial resection was the possibility of achieving a complete resection based on the extent of axial encasement, the absence of tumor invasion at the origin of celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and a free distal arterial segment allowing reconstruction. Patient outcomes and survival were analyzed. Six SMA, two CT, four common hepatic artery, and two replaced right hepatic artery resections were undertaken. The preferred arterial reconstruction was splenic artery transposition. Group 3 had a higher preoperative weight loss, a longer operative time, and a higher incidence of intraoperative blood transfusion. Ninety-day mortality occurred in three patients in groups 1 and 2. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence, grade, and type of complications in the three groups. Postoperative pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage were also comparable. In group 3, none had arterial wall invasion and nine patients had recurrence (seven metastatic and two loco-regional). Survival and disease-free survival were comparable between groups. Planned arterial resection for PDA can be performed safely with a good outcome in highly selected patients. Key elements for defining the resectability is based on

  6. Effect of encasings on allergen load, clinical variables and quality of life variables within an atopic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Albert Jan

    2002-01-01

    This thesis shows the results and patient characteristics of three studies. One study was part of the Dutch Mite Avoidance Study (DUMAS): Effectiveness and effect modification of encasings in house dust mite allergy. The two other studies were two different studies with asthmatic patients recruited

  7. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides from seawater by encased embryos of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, Ross A. . E-mail R.Jeffree@iaea.org; Warnau, Michel; Oberhansli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Encased embryos of spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula absorbed six radio-isotopes ( 241 Am, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 134 Cs, 54 Mn and 65 Zn) directly from seawater during short-term experimental exposure, demonstrating the permeability of the egg-case to these contaminants. Embryo to water concentration factors (CFs) ranged from 0.14 for 134 Cs to 7.4 for 65 Zn. The 65 Zn and 57 Co CFs increased exponentially with embryo length, whereas the CF for 109 Cd declined with length. Among different components of the encased embryo the egg case was the major repository (69-99%) of all six radio-isotopes that were distributed throughout its wall. Egg-case CFs were as high as 10 3 for 57 Co and 65 Zn, making it the major source of gamma radiation exposure to the embryo and potentially of radio-isotopes for continued absorption by the embryo, following the uptake phase of the experiment. The patterns of uptake by the egg-case approximated linearity for most isotopes and loss rates were isotope-specific; egg-case biokinetics were not greatly affected by the viability of the contained embryo. Within the embryo initial data on radio isotopic distribution show that the skin is their major site of uptake, as previously demonstrated for juveniles

  9. Tri-functional Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO nanoframework: magnetically retrievable antimicrobial photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

    2016-11-01

    Fe2O3-encased ZnO nanoframework was obtained by hydrothermal method and was doped with Ag through photoreduction process. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, selected area electron diffractometry, x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the structural characterization of the synthesized material. While the charge transfer resistance of the prepared nanomaterial is larger than those of Fe2O3 and ZnO the coercivity of the nanocomposite is less than that of hydrothermally obtained Fe2O3 nanostructures. Although Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO exhibits weak visible light absorption its band gap energy does not differ from that of ZnO. The photoluminescence of the fabricated nanoframework is similar to that of ZnO. The radiative recombination of charge carriers is slightly slower in Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO than in ZnO. The synthesized Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO, under UV A light, exhibits sustainable photocatalytic activity to degrade dye and is magnetically recoverable. Also, the Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO nanocomposite disinfects bacteria effectively in absence of direct illumination.

  10. The effect of encasings on quality of life in adult house dust mite allergic patients with rhinitis, asthma and/or atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreehorst, I; Duivenvoorden, H J; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, A J; de Monchy, J G R; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; van Wijk, R Gerth

    2005-07-01

    Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy--allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS)--should be taken together and studied in terms of the efficacy of environmental control. Because a generic quality of life questionnaire exceeds the border of disease, this may be used as major outcome parameter. To study the effects of bedding encasings in HDM allergic patients with asthma, rhinitis and AEDS. A total of 224 adult HDM allergic patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and/or dermatitis were randomly allocated impermeable or nonimpermeable encasings for mattress, pillow and duvet. Short form 36 (SF-36) was filled in at baseline and after 12 months. Lower physical (P = 0.01) and emotional (P effect was seen of encasings on either sumscore. Bedding encasings do not improve quality of life in a mixed population of subjects with combinations with rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis and sensitized to HDMs.

  11. Method for producing superconductive wires of multifilaments which are encased in copper or a copper alloy and contain niobium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flukiger, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing a superconductive wire of multifilaments having components comprising niobium and aluminum encased in copper or a copper alloy, wherein the multifilament configuration and the formation of a superconductive A15 phase are positively developed from the components disposed in a copper or copper alloy tube having an interior metallic coating serving as a diffusion barrier, by cold forming and subsequent heat treatment

  12. Angiographic Assessment of the Right Hepatic Artery for Encasement by Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Comparison Between Antero-Posterior and Right Anterior Oblique Projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hiroyoshi; Iwata, Ryoko; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of right anterior oblique (RAO) arteriography for evaluating encasement of the right hepatic artery (RHA) by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods: Celiac arteriography was performed in both the antero-posterior (AP) and RAO projection in ten patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The lengths of the arteries between the bifurcation of the anterior and posterior branch of the liver and the following points were measured: (a) the bifurcation of the left and right hepatic artery (AP-LR), (b) the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery (AP-PG). Additionally, image quality in investigating the invasion of the RHA was evaluated.Results: On the AP images, the average lengths of AP-LR and AP-PG were 24.5 ± 5.1 mm and 30.0 ± 4.9 mm, respectively. On RAO images, the lengths were 28.2 ± 4.6 mm and 32.7 ± 4.8 mm, respectively. Every length was different between the two projections (p < 0.01). In 6 of 10 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, images in RAO projections were superior to AP images for evaluation of encasement.Conclusion: We conclude that angiography obtained in the RAO projection yields images that are superior to those obtained in the conventional AP projection for assessment of RHA encasement

  13. Correct diagnosis of vascular encasement and longitudinal extension of hilar cholangiocarcinoma by four-channel multidetector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, Tadayuki; Yamada, Takayuki; Sato, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of local invasion of hilar cholangiocarcinomas is challenging due to their small size and the anatomic complexity of the hepatic hilar region. On the other hand, the correct diagnosis of local invasion is essential for assuring the possibility of curative surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of four-channel multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in the assessment of vascular and bile duct involvement, by which we could obtain useful information for the surgical management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The subjects were 18 patients for whom the extent of tumor invasion was surgically and pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent preoperative multiphasic CT scanning by MDCT. Arterial and portal dominant phases were acquired using a detector configuration of 1.25 mm x 4 mm, and both axial and multiplanar reconstructed images were interpreted. Longitudinal extension was evaluated up to second-order branches. Vascular invasion is considered to be the degree of tumor contiguity to the hepatic arteries and portal vein and was graded by CT. The longitudinal extension was correctly diagnosed in 14 patients (77.8%). Hepatic artery invasion was correctly diagnosed in 17 patients with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90%, respectively. Portal vein invasion was correctly diagnosed in 47 of 51 branches with sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 90.2%, respectively. Multiplanar reconstructed images contributed to the correct diagnosis for both vascular encasement and longitudinal tumor extension. In conclusion, MDCT is useful in preoperative evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, especially when combined with multiplanar reconstructed images. (author)

  14. Encasing the Absolutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Martinčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issue of structure and case in English absolute constructions, whose subjects are deduced by several descriptive grammars as being in the nominative case due to its supposed neutrality in terms of register. This deduction is countered by systematic accounts presented within the framework of the Minimalist Program which relate the case of absolute constructions to specific grammatical factors. Each proposal is shown as an attempt of analysing absolute constructions as basic predication structures, either full clauses or small clauses. I argue in favour of the small clause approach due to its minimal reliance on transformations and unique stipulations. Furthermore, I propose that small clauses project a singular category, and show that the use of two cases in English absolute constructions can be accounted for if they are analysed as depictive phrases, possibly selected by prepositions. The case of the subject in absolutes is shown to be a result of syntactic and non-syntactic factors. I thus argue in accordance with Minimalist goals that syntactic case does not exist, attributing its role in absolutes to other mechanisms.

  15. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousry, Indra; Yousry, Tarek A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Olteanu-Nerbe, Vlad [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Naidich, Thomas P. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  16. Behavior of a PCM at Varying Heating Rates: Experimental and Theoretical Study with an Aim at Temperature Moderation in Radionuclide Concrete Encasements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved', Igor; Trník, Anton

    2018-07-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) can store/release thermal energy within a small temperature range. This is of interest in various industrial applications, for example, in civil engineering (heating/cooling of buildings) or cold storage applications. Another application may be the moderation of temperature increases in concrete encasements of radionuclides during their decay. The phase-change behavior of a material is determined by its heat capacity and the peak it exhibits near a phase change. We analyze the behavior of such peaks for a selected PCM at heating rates varying between 0.1°C\\cdot min^{-1} and 1°C\\cdot min^{-1}, corresponding in real situations to different decay rates of radionuclides. We show that experimentally measured peaks can be plausibly described by an equilibrium theory that enables us to calculate the latent heat and phase-change temperature from experimental data.

  17. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousry, Indra; Yousry, Tarek A.; Muacevic, Alexander; Olteanu-Nerbe, Vlad; Naidich, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  18. Peculiarities of the High-Level Concrete-Encased Radwaste Repository Disposition at the Radwaste Disposal Site of the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.G.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Gorodetsky, G.G.; Zverkov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Semenov, S.G.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Shisha, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents peculiarities of organization and performance of activities on disposition of the old repository that contained high-level waste and located at the radwaste disposal site of the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' in Moscow. The repository was constructed in the late 1950's. A large number of cases with high-level waste were placed in the repository along with low- and intermediate-level waste. When the repository was filled in 1973, the entire radwaste mass was encased in concrete matrix which caused difficulties with the radwaste extraction and made the work on the repository disposition highly hazardous in terms of radiation conditions. Based on results of the preliminary radiation survey of the repository, technologies and equipment to be used in disposition works were selected, and a decision on construction of external radiation shielding around the repository to maintain normal radiation conditions during these works was made. Specific features of the selected radiation shielding design constructed around the repository and of a technology used for the radwaste extraction from the repository are provided. According to the technology, conventional construction machines equipped with a hydraulic hammer or a clamshell were used for destruction of the concrete-encased radwaste mass and extraction of low-level waste. Intermediate- and high-level waste was extracted by remotely controlled robots operating inside the radiation shielding structure. Video cameras and a gamma imager were used for detection of high-level waste or fragments of such radwaste in the mass concrete being destroyed and for guiding remotely controlled robots. Peculiarities of rapid control of changes in radiation conditions in the working areas are presented. This control was performed using a gamma locator with on-line transmission of its data to a PC for their processing. With disposition of this not easily accessible repository, the stage of remediation of old

  19. N/S/B-doped graphitized carbon encased Fe species as a highly active and durable catalyst towards oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Lan; Cheng, Guang-Chun; Chen, Wen-Wen; Liu, Cai-Di; Yuan, Li-Fang; Yang, Bei-Bei; Hao, Ce

    2018-03-15

    Exploring cost-effective, high-performance and durable non-precious metal catalysts is of great significance for the acceleration of sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we report an intriguing heteroatom-doped graphitized carbon encased Fe species composite by introducing N, S and B sequentially. The experimental approach was designed ingeniously for that the FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O could catalyze thiourea to synthesize N, S co-doped carbon materials which would further react with H 3 BO 3 and NH 3 (emerged at the heat-treatment process) to prepare N, S and B co-doped carbon materials (Fe-N/S/B-C). The Fe-N/S/B-C exhibits an impressive ORR activity for its half-wave potential of -0.1 V, which is 36 mV or 19 mV higher than that of the corresponding single or dual doped counterparts (Fe-N-C or Fe-N/S-C) and 31 mV positive than that of Pt/C catalyst, respectively. Further chronoamperometric measurement and accelerated aging test confirm the excellent electrochemical durability of Fe-N/S/B-C with the stable core-shell structure. The remarkable ORR performance and facile preparation method enable Fe-N/S/B-C as a potential candidate in electrochemical energy devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits made of polyether ether ketone tubing with a 0.25 mm opening resulting in an improved separation performance in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-05-01

    Tiny polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits have been prepared by modified catalytic sulfonation of the inner surface of polyether ether tubing (1.6 mm od, 0.25 mm id) followed by modified formation of organic monolith and cutting of the tubing into slices. The frit was placed below the central hole of the column outlet union and supported by a combination of a silica capillary (0.365 mm od, 0.05 mm id) and a polyether ether ketone sleeve (1.6 mm od, 0.38 mm id) tightened with a nut and a ferrule when the column was packed to prevent sinking of the frit element into the union hole (0.25 mm opening) otherwise. The column packed this way with the frits investigated in this study has shown better separation performance owing to the reduced frit volume in comparison to the column packed with a commercial stainless-steel screen frit. This study establishes the strategy of disposable microcolumns in which cheap disposable frits are used whenever the column is re-packed to yield columns of even better chromatographic performance than the columns with commercial frits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Françoise; Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  2. Effect of iron and carbonation on the diffusion of iodine and rhenium in waste encasement concrete and soil fill material under hydraulically unsaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Parker, Kent E.; Powers, Laura; Whyatt, Greg A.; Clayton, Libby N.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 cement wasteforms and accurate prediction for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). A set of sediment-concrete half-cell diffusion experiments was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by weight moisture content) using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells. Results indicate the behavior of Re and I release was comparable within a given half-cell test. Diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content; a 3% increase in moisture content affords a one to two order of magnitude increase in diffusivity. Release of I and Re was 1-3 orders of magnitude less from non-carbonated, relative to carbonated, concrete monoliths. Inclusion of Fe in non-carbonate monoliths resulted in the lowest concrete diffusivity values for both I and Re. This suggests that in the presence of Fe, I and Re are converted to reduced species, which are less soluble and better retained within the concrete monolith. The release of I and Re was greatest from Fe-bearing, carbonated concrete monoliths, suggesting carbonation negates the effect of Fe on the retention of I and Re within concrete monoliths. This is likely due to enhanced formation of microcracks in the presence of Fe, which provide preferential paths for contaminant migration. Although the release of I and Re were greatest from carbonated concrete monoliths containing Fe, the migration of I and Re within a given half cell is dependent on the moisture content, soil diffusivity, and diffusing species

  3. Scale-up of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re production using graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W targets and demonstration of an efficient target recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Dorman, Eric [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-07-01

    Production of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re is of interest for development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Previous studies have shown that high specific activity {sup 186g}Re can be obtained by cyclotron irradiation of enriched {sup 186}W via the {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186g}Re reaction, but most irradiations were conducted at low beam currents and for short durations. In this investigation, enriched {sup 186}W metal targets were irradiated at high incident deuteron beam currents to demonstrate production rates and contaminants produced when using thick targets. Full-stopping thick targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxial pressing of powdered natural abundance W metal or 96.86% enriched {sup 186}W metal encased between two layers of graphite flakes for target material stabilization. An assessment of structural integrity was made on each target preparation. To assess the performance of graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W metal targets, along with the impact of encasing on the separation chemistry, targets were first irradiated using a 22 MeV deuteron beam for 10 min at 10, 20, and 27 μA, with an estimated nominal deuteron energy of 18.7 MeV on the {sup 186}W target material (after energy degradation correction from top graphite layer). Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed post EOB on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. The investigation also evaluated a method to recover and recycle enriched target material from a column isolation procedure. Material composition analyses of target materials, pass-through/wash solutions and recycling process isolates were conducted with SEM, FTIR, XRD, EDS and ICP-MS spectrometry. To demonstrate scaled-up production, a graphite-encased {sup 186}W target made from recycled {sup 186}W was irradiated for ∝2 h with 18.7 MeV deuterons at a beam current of 27 μA to provide 0.90 GBq (24.3 mCi) of {sup 186g}Re, decay-corrected to the end of bombardment. ICP-MS analysis of the

  4. Experimental and Numerical Study of FRP Encased Composite Concrete Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ishaghian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new type of composite column is presented and assessed through experimental testing and numerical modeling. The objective of this research is to investigate design options for a composite column without the use of ferrous materials. This is to avoid the current problem of deterioration of concrete due to expansion of rusting reinforcement members. Such a target can be achieved by replacing the steel reinforcement of concrete columns with pultruded I-shape glass FRP structural sections. The composite column utilizes a glass FRP tube that surrounds a pultruded I-section glass FRP, which is subsequently filled with concrete. The GFRP tube acts as a stay-in-place form in addition to providing confinement to the concrete. A total of four composite columns were tested under monotonic axial loading. The experimental ultimate capacity of each of the tested composite column was compared to the predicted numerical capacity using ANSYS program. The comparison showed that the predicted numerical values were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  5. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  6. The Tubular Sheaths Encasing Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum Filaments are Functional Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Larsen, Poul; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Archaea are well-recognized for their ability to thrive in extreme environments, although they can be found in virtually all habitats. Their adaptive success is linked to their unique cell envelopes, which often display extremely resistant to chemical and thermal denaturation and resist proteolysis...... techniques to show that the extracellular cell wall sheaths of the methanogenic archaea Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum are functional amyloid structures. Depolymerization of sheaths with formic acid and reducing agents and subsequent MS/MS analysis revealed that the sheaths are composed of a single major...... sheath protein (MspA). The amyloidogenic nature of MspA was confirmed by in vitro amyloid formation of recombinant MspA under a wide range of environmental conditions. This is the first report of a functional amyloid from the archaeal domain of life. The amyloid properties explain the extreme resistance...

  7. Practical fire design of partially encased composite steel-concrete columns according to Eurocode 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaoui Arezki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A practical method based on Campus-Massonet criteria which is developed initially to steel structures with combined compression and bending is adapted for the calculation of the buckling resistance of eccentrically loaded columns. The latter at room temperature or in fire situation is expressed by a simple formula as a function of an equivalent buckling coefficient taking into account the amount the eccentricity of the compressive applied load. The method proposed combines accuracy, efficiency and convenience obviating the need of M-N interaction diagrams and long iteration process. Otherwise, the estimation of the fire resistance for a given loading is made on the assumption based on the linearity with the level applied compressive load. It was found that the fire resistance of a column subjected to an eccentric load decreases gradually with the increase in the load level (ƞ , the slenderness ratio (λ or the amount of the eccentricity. For a fire resistance of one hour, time enough to evacuate the building of all its occupants, it recommended to use η≤ 0.5 and λ ≤45. The range of values of reinforcement cover (u suggested by Eurocode 4 leads to a better fire resistance except for u = 60 mm where there is a decline of the about 10%.

  8. Hollow Spheres of Iron Carbide Nanoparticles Encased in Graphitic Layers as Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Nonprecious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction are the ultimate materials and the foremost subject for low‐temperature fuel cells. A novel type of catalysts prepared by high‐pressure pyrolysis is reported. The catalyst is featured by hollow spherical morphologies consisting...

  9. Prediction on flexural strength of encased composite beam with cold-formed steel section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadavi, Tahir, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    A flexural strength of composite beam designed as boxed shaped section comprised of lipped C-channel of cold-formed steel (CFS) facing each other with reinforcement bars is proposed in this paper. The boxed shaped is kept restrained in position by a profiled metal decking installed on top of the beam to form a slab system. This profiled decking slab is cast by using self-compacting concrete where the concrete is in compression when load is applied to the beam. Reinforcement bars are used as shear connector between slab and CFS as beam. A numerical analysis method proposed by EC4 is used to predict the flexural strength of the proposed composite beam. It was assumed that elasto-plastic behaviour is developed in the cross -sectional of the proposed beam. The calculated predicted flexural strength of the proposed beam shows reasonable flexural strength for cold-formed composite beam.

  10. Diffusion of iodine and Technetium-99 through waste encasement concrete and unsaturated soil fill material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Wood, Marcus I.; Hanchar, John M.; Stores-Gascoyne, Simcha; Lauren Browning

    2004-01-01

    An assessment of long-term performance of low level waste-enclosing cement grouts requires diffusivity data for radionuclide species such as, 129I and 99Tc. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments. The soil diffusivity coefficients for iodide were 7.03 x 10-8 cm2/s and 2.42 x 10-7 cm2/s for soils at 4% and 7% moisture contents, respectively. Iodide diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content and is about an order of magnitude slower at lower moisture content. The soil diffusivity coefficients for 99Tc were 5.89 ± 0.80 x 10-8 cm2/s (4% moisture content) and 2.04 ± 0.57 x 10-7 cm2/s (7% moisture content), respectively. The soil diffusivity of iodide and 99Tc were similar in magnitude at both water contents, indicating that these ions have similar diffusion mechanisms in unsaturated coarse-textured Hanford soil. The diffusivity of iodide in concrete ranged from 2.07 x 10-14 cm2/s (4% soil moisture content) to 1.31 x 10-12 cm2/s (7% soil moisture content), indicating that under unsaturated soil moisture conditions, iodide diffusivity is highly sensitive to changing soil moisture conditions. Depending on the soil moisture content, the diffusivity of 99Tc in concrete ranged from 4.54 x 10-13 cm2/s to 8.02 x 10-12 cm2/s. At 4% soil moisture content, iodide diffused about 20 times more slowly than 99Tc, and at 7% soil moisture content, iodide in concrete diffused about 6 times slower than 99Tc

  11. Contribution of headed studs to the composite behavior of the partially encased beams

    OpenAIRE

    De Nardin, Silvana; El Debs, Ana Lucia H. de C.

    2008-01-01

    A utilização de conectores de cisalhamento, especialmente os conectores tipo pino com cabeça, é um artifício comum para promover o comportamento misto aço-concreto. O embutimento da viga de aço no pavimento permite reduzir a altura total do pavimento sem comprometer a resistência e a rigidez. Nesse trabalho, são estudadas, experimentalmente, posições alternativas para conectores de cisalhamento tipo pino com cabeça em vigas de aço parcialmente revestidas com concreto. Logo, a principal variáv...

  12. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  13. Complete 3rd cranial nerve dysfunction postdeflation/ excision of an encasing pituitary macroadenoma intrasellular cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng C. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system injury in particular cranial nerve palsy has been reported to be as high as 2%. Such prevalence of palsy generally attributed to surgical manipulation at the cavernous sinus, especially incurring the abducens nerve. We report the first case of acute oculomotor nerve sequel to the release of cystic fluid wrapping the nerve following a transsphenoidal excision of pituitary macroadenoma in a 57-year-old woman. She attended with the presentation of acute excruciating headache associated with partial drooping of right eye. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were consistent with pituitary apoplexy of an underlying pituitary macroadenoma. Urgent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was done. Intra-operatively, cystic fluid was aspirated during pituitary tumour dissection. At the same time, curettage was employed to removal residual tumour after the tumour biopsy. Immediate post-operative assessment noted complete right eye ptosis, with clinical evidence of complete right third and fourth nerve palsies. MRI was repeated a week later in view of such palsy non-resolution. However, no local compression or edema noted. Observation and monitoring were opted versus surgical revision. Propitiously the aforementioned cranial nerve palsies persist for a month and subsequently subsided. In this case, we highlight the potential deleterious impact of aspirating cystic component and curettaging during pituitary surgery. Likely postulated accounts for such occurrence include sudden release of fluid pressure with resultant cystic traction on its enfolding cranial nerves and subsequent neuropraxia. We aim to invite comments that could enlighten us on this gray area.

  14. Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Encased C/C Structure for Reentry and Hypersonic Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reentry spacecraft and hypersonic cruisers of the future will require advanced lightweight thermal protection systems that can provide the dual functionality of...

  15. Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Encased C/C Structure for Reentry and Hypersonic Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future reentry and hypersonic vehicles require advanced lightweight leading edge thermal protection systems that can provide the dual functionality of...

  16. Novel multifunctional graphene sheets with encased Au/Ag nanoparticles for advanced electrochemical analysis of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Biris, Alexandru R; Pogacean, Florina; Lazar, Diana Mihaela; Ardelean, Stefania; Watanabe, Fumyia; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Biris, Alexandru S

    2012-11-12

    This work is the first presentation of the synthesis of few-layer graphene decorated with gold and silver nanoparticles (Gr-Au-Ag) by chemical vapor deposition over a catalytic system formed of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoclusters supported on MgO and with methane used as the source of carbon. The sheetlike morphology of the graphene nanostructures, with mean sizes in the range of hundreds of nanometers, was observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. The distinctive feature found in all the samples was the regular rectangular or square shapes. This multi-component organic-inorganic nanomaterial was used to modify a platinum substrate and subsequently employed for the detection of carbamazepine, an anti-convulsion drug. UV/Vis spectroscopy revealed that a strong hypochromism occurred over time, after mixing solutions of graphene-Au-Ag with carbamazepine. This can be attributed to π-π stacking between the aromatic groups of the two compounds. Linear sweep voltammetry (LCV) provided evidence that the modified platinum substrate presented a significant electrocatalytic reaction toward the oxidation of carbamazepine. The intensity of the current was found to increase by up to 2.5 times, and the oxidation potential shifted from +1.5 to +1.35 V(Ag/AgCl) in comparison with the unmodified electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was further used to thoroughly assess the activity of the platinum electrode that was modified by the deposition of the Gr-Au-Ag composites in the presence of various concentrations of carbamazepine. The experimental EIS records were used for the generation of an equivalent electrical circuit, based on the charge-transfer resistance (R(ct)), Warburg impedance (Z(D)), solution resistance (R(s)), and a constant phase element (CPE) that characterizes the non-ideal interface capacitive responses. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. M3C (M: Fe, Co, Ni) Nanocrystals Encased in Graphene Nanoribbons: An Active and Stable Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiujun; Peng, Zhiwei; Ye, Ruquan; Zhou, Haiqing; Guo, Xia

    2015-07-28

    Transition metal carbide nanocrystalline M3C (M: Fe, Co, Ni) encapsulated in graphitic shells supported with vertically aligned graphene nanoribbons (VA-GNRs) are synthesized through a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method. The process is based on the direct reaction between iron group metals (Fe, Co, Ni) and carbon source, which are facilely get high purity carbide nanocrystals (NCs) and avoid any other impurity at relatively low temperature. The M3C-GNRs exhibit superior enhanced electrocatalystic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), including low Tafel slope (39, 41, and 45 mV dec(-1) for Fe3C-GNRs, Co3C-GNRs, and Ni3C-GNRs, respectively), positive onset potential (∼0.8 V), high electron transfer number (∼4), and long-term stability (no obvious drop after 20 000 s test). The M3C-GNRs catalyst also exhibits remarkable hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity with a large cathodic current density of 166.6, 79.6, and 116.4 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 200 mV, low onset overpotential of 32, 41, and 35 mV, small Tafel slope of 46, 57, and 54 mV dec(-1) for Fe3C-GNRs, Co3C-GNRs, and Ni3C-GNRs, respectively, as well as an excellent stability in acidic media.

  18. Site-Selective Carving and Co-Deposition: Transformation of Ag Nanocubes into Concave Nanocrystals Encased by Au-Ag Alloy Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaewan; Wang, Daniel; Ding, Yong; Zhang, Jiawei; Qin, Dong

    2018-01-23

    We report a facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes with concave side faces and Au-Ag alloy frames, namely Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals, by titrating HAuCl 4 solution into an aqueous mixture of Ag nanocubes, ascorbic acid (H 2 Asc), NaOH, and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) at an initial pH of 11.6 under ambient conditions. Different from all previous studies involving poly(vinylpyrrolidine), the use of CTAC at a sufficiently high concentration plays an essential role in carving away Ag atoms from the side faces through galvanic replacement. Concurrent co-deposition of Au and Ag atoms via chemical reduction at orthogonal sites on the surface of Ag nanocubes leads to the generation of Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals with well-defined and controllable structures. Specifically, in the presence of CTAC-derived Cl - ions, the titrated HAuCl 4 is maintained in the AuCl 4 - species, enabling its galvanic replacement with the Ag atoms located on the side faces of nanocubes. The released Ag + ions can be retained in the soluble form of AgCl 2 - by complexing with the Cl - ions. Both the AuCl 4 - and AgCl 2 - in the solution are then reduced by ascorbate monoanion, a product of the neutralization reaction between H 2 Asc and NaOH, to Au and Ag atoms for their preferential co-deposition onto the edges and corners of the Ag nanocubes. Compared with Ag nanocubes, the Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals exhibit much stronger SERS activity at an excitation of 785 nm, making it feasible to monitor the Au-catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol by NaBH 4 in situ. When the Ag cores are removed, the concave nanocrystals evolve into Au-Ag nanoframes with controllable ridge thicknesses.

  19. The effect of encasings on quality of life in adult house dust mite allergic patients with rhinitis, asthma and/or atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, I.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Tempels-Pavlica, Z.; Oosting, A. J.; de Monchy, J. G. R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy--allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS)--should

  20. The effect of encasings on quality of life in adult house dust mite allergic patients with rhinitis, asthma and/or atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, [No Value; Duivenvoorden, HJ; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, AJ; de Monchy, JGR; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, CAFM; van Wijk, R.

    Background: Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy - allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) -

  1. Discovery of abundant cellulose microfibers encased in 250 Ma Permian halite: a macromolecular target in the search for life on other planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jack D; Willcox, Smaranda; Powers, Dennis W; Nelson, Roger; Baxter, Bonnie K

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we utilized transmission electron microscopy to examine the contents of fluid inclusions in halite (NaCl) and solid halite crystals collected 650 m below the surface from the Late Permian Salado Formation in southeastern New Mexico (USA). The halite has been isolated from contaminating groundwater since deposition approximately 250 Ma ago. We show that abundant cellulose microfibers are present in the halite and appear remarkably intact. The cellulose is in the form of 5 nm microfibers as well as composite ropes and mats, and was identified by resistance to 0.5 N NaOH treatment and susceptibility to cellulase enzyme treatment. These cellulose microfibers represent the oldest native biological macromolecules to have been directly isolated, examined biochemically, and visualized (without growth or replication) to date. This discovery points to cellulose as an ideal macromolecular target in the search for life on other planets in our Solar System.

  2. INTRAOPERATIVE IMAGE NAVIGATION: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE FEASIBILITY AND SURGEON PREFERENCE BETWEEN A STERILE ENCASED NINTENDO WIITM REMOTE AND STANDARD WIRELESS COMPUTER MOUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Ryan; Zur Linden, Alex; Sears, William

    2017-05-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the operating room, providing surgeons with a reference and surgical plan. Surgeon autonomy in the operating room has been suggested to decrease errors that stem from communication mistakes. A standard computer mouse was compared to a wireless remote-control style controller for computer game consoles (Wiimote) for the navigation of diagnostic imaging studies by sterile personnel in this prospective survey study. Participants were recruited from a cohort of residents and faculty that use the surgical suites at our institution. Outcome assessments were based on survey data completed by study participants following each use of either the mouse or Wiimote, and compared using an analysis of variance. The mouse was significantly preferred by the study participants in the categories of handling, accuracy and efficiency, and overall satisfaction (P <0.05). The mouse was preferred to both the Wiimote and to no device, when participants were asked to rank options for image navigation. This indicates the need for the implementation of intraoperative image navigation devices, to increase surgeon autonomy in the operating room. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Assessment of vascular invasion by bone and soft tissue tumours of the limbs: usefulness of MDCT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenin, Fabrice S.; Drape, Jean-Luc; Campagna, Raphael; Richarme, Delphine; Chevrot, Alain; Feydy, Antoine; Biau, David; Guerini, Henri; Larousserie, Frederique; Babinet, Antoine; Anract, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in predicting arterial encasement by limb tumours, by comparing CTA with surgical findings (gold standard). Preoperative CTA images of 55 arteries in 48 patients were assessed for arterial status: cross-sectional CTA images were scored as showing a fat plane between artery and tumour (score 0), slight contact between artery and tumour (score 1), partial arterial encasement (score 2) or total arterial encasement (score 3). Reformatted CTA images were assessed for arterial displacement, rigid wall, stenosis or occlusion. At surgery, arteries were classified as free or surgically encased; 45 arteries were free and 10 were surgically encased. Multivariate logistic regression identified the axial CTA score as a relevant predictor for arterial encasement and subsequent vascular intervention during surgery. All sites where CTA showed a fat plane between the tumour and the artery were classified as free at surgery (n = 28/28). The sensitivity of total arterial encasement on CTA (score 3) was 90%, specificity 93%, accuracy 93% and positive likelihood ratio 13.5. CTA evidence of total arterial encasement is a highly specific indication of arterial encasement. The presence of fat between the tumour and the artery on CTA rules out arterial involvement at surgery. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of vascular invasion by bone and soft tissue tumours of the limbs: usefulness of MDCT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, Fabrice S.; Drape, Jean-Luc; Campagna, Raphael; Richarme, Delphine; Chevrot, Alain; Feydy, Antoine [Hopital Cochin, Department of Radiology B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); University Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Biau, David [Hopital Cochin, Department of Orthopedics B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); INSERM - UMR-S 717, Hopital Saint Louis, Department of Biostatistics and Public Health, Paris Cedex 10 (France); University Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Guerini, Henri [Hopital Cochin, Department of Radiology B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Larousserie, Frederique [Hopital Cochin, Department of Pathology, Paris Cedex 14 (France); University Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Babinet, Antoine [Hopital Cochin, Department of Orthopedics B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Anract, Philippe [Hopital Cochin, Department of Orthopedics B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); University Paris Descartes, Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in predicting arterial encasement by limb tumours, by comparing CTA with surgical findings (gold standard). Preoperative CTA images of 55 arteries in 48 patients were assessed for arterial status: cross-sectional CTA images were scored as showing a fat plane between artery and tumour (score 0), slight contact between artery and tumour (score 1), partial arterial encasement (score 2) or total arterial encasement (score 3). Reformatted CTA images were assessed for arterial displacement, rigid wall, stenosis or occlusion. At surgery, arteries were classified as free or surgically encased; 45 arteries were free and 10 were surgically encased. Multivariate logistic regression identified the axial CTA score as a relevant predictor for arterial encasement and subsequent vascular intervention during surgery. All sites where CTA showed a fat plane between the tumour and the artery were classified as free at surgery (n = 28/28). The sensitivity of total arterial encasement on CTA (score 3) was 90%, specificity 93%, accuracy 93% and positive likelihood ratio 13.5. CTA evidence of total arterial encasement is a highly specific indication of arterial encasement. The presence of fat between the tumour and the artery on CTA rules out arterial involvement at surgery. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of vascular invasion by bone and soft tissue tumours of the limbs: usefulness of MDCT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Fabrice S; Drapé, Jean-Luc; Biau, David; Campagna, Raphaël; Richarme, Delphine; Guerini, Henri; Chevrot, Alain; Larousserie, Frédérique; Babinet, Antoine; Anract, Philippe; Feydy, Antoine

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in predicting arterial encasement by limb tumours, by comparing CTA with surgical findings (gold standard). Preoperative CTA images of 55 arteries in 48 patients were assessed for arterial status: cross-sectional CTA images were scored as showing a fat plane between artery and tumour (score 0), slight contact between artery and tumour (score 1), partial arterial encasement (score 2) or total arterial encasement (score 3). Reformatted CTA images were assessed for arterial displacement, rigid wall, stenosis or occlusion. At surgery, arteries were classified as free or surgically encased; 45 arteries were free and 10 were surgically encased. Multivariate logistic regression identified the axial CTA score as a relevant predictor for arterial encasement and subsequent vascular intervention during surgery. All sites where CTA showed a fat plane between the tumour and the artery were classified as free at surgery (n = 28/28). The sensitivity of total arterial encasement on CTA (score 3) was 90%, specificity 93%, accuracy 93% and positive likelihood ratio 13.5. CTA evidence of total arterial encasement is a highly specific indication of arterial encasement. The presence of fat between the tumour and the artery on CTA rules out arterial involvement at surgery.

  6. Summary of Uranium Solubility Studies in Concrete Waste Forms and Vadose Zone Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bovaird, Chase C.

    2011-09-30

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. This report presents the results of investigations elucidating the uranium mineral phases controlling the long-term fate of uranium within concrete waste forms and the solubility of these phases in concrete pore waters and alkaline, circum-neutral vadose zone environments.

  7. Hyperspectroradiometer data from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program of 2001 in support of the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (NODC Accession 0001446)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The hyperspectral surveys were conducted using a hyperspectral radiometer encased in a custom-made underwater housing. The NOWRAMP expedition represents the first...

  8. A problem encapsulated Б role of CT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Diagnosis is usually established at laparotomy in patients with recurrent attacks of ... structure in the midline in pelvis encasing small bowel loops (Fig. 1). .... Diagnosis and treatment of abdominal cocoon: a report of. 24 cases.

  9. Attaching Copper Wires to Magnetic-Reed-Switch Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamila, Rudolf

    1987-01-01

    Bonding method reliably joins copper wires to short iron-alloy leads from glass-encased dry magnetic-reed switch without disturbing integrity of glass-to-metal seal. Joint resistant to high temperatures and has low electrical resistance.

  10. Pulsed Film Cooling on a Turbine Blade Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Iota One controller were used to control the pulsed coolant. The solenoid i The water was encased...Turbine, Unsteady, Pulsed, Heat Transfer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  12. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available The prostate gland is located underneath the bladder and is about the size of a chestnut. In this cut ... part of the urethra is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... camera heads, which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached ... the patient's body. In contrast, nuclear medicine procedures use a radioactive material, called a radiopharmaceutical or radiotracer, ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... camera heads, which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached ... the exam, especially if your physician plans to use sedation for the procedure. top of page Who ...

  15. Controlling Bed Bugs Using Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several non-chemical methods can help control an infestation, such as heat treatment or freezing, or mattress and box spring encasements. When using a pesticide, follow label directions carefully and check for EPA registration.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG CT for upper abdominal pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT scan contributes to the final diagnosis in organ-specific upper- abdominal ..... planes to encase the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, the superior ... men, and possibly pelvis, to evaluate for extrahepatic disease.15 In one.

  17. Hyperspectroradiometer data from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program of 2001 in Support of the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (NODC Accession 0001446)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The hyperspectral surveys were conducted using a hyperspectral radiometer encased in a custom-made underwater housing. The NOWRAMP expedition represents the first...

  18. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called gamma camera heads, which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ...

  20. Rare Muscular Dystrophies: Congenital, Distal, Emery-Dreifuss and Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least some cases of CMD. Merosin normally anchors muscle cells to a structure that encases them ( ... and sometimes frozen joints at the elbows, hips, ankles or knees. This protein is believed to play ...

  1. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at ... camera heads, which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached ...

  3. Crocodile jaw sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This teaching image highlights the CT abdominal imaging finding of 'crocodile jaw sign' which should raise concern about the presence of an incomplete annular pancreas which causes partial encasement of the duodenum.

  4. Clips supporting and spacing flanged sheets of reflective insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to clips, spacing and supporting flanged sheets of reflective insulation used to encase the main body and associated piping of nuclear reactors to minimize heat and radiation losses. (UK)

  5. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  6. Skull anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skull is anterior to the spinal column and is the bony structure that encases the brain. Its purpose ... the facial muscles. The two regions of the skull are the cranial and facial region. The cranial ...

  7. Skull (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skull is anterior to the spinal column and is the bony structure that encases the brain. Its purpose ... the facial muscles. The two regions of the skull are the cranial and facial region. The cranial ...

  8. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flat spring joins the two eye rims and the tension it exerts on the nose serves to hold the unit in... inner windings of comfort cable temples; metal parts permanently encased in a non-metallic covering; and...

  9. The plasmodesmal protein PDLP1 localises to haustoria-associated membranes during downy mildew infection and regulates callose deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cécile Caillaud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa is a filamentous oomycete that invades plant cells via sophisticated but poorly understood structures called haustoria. Haustoria are separated from the host cell cytoplasm and surrounded by an extrahaustorial membrane (EHM of unknown origin. In some interactions, including Hpa-Arabidopsis, haustoria are progressively encased by host-derived, callose-rich materials but the molecular mechanisms by which callose accumulates around haustoria remain unclear. Here, we report that PLASMODESMATA-LOCATED PROTEIN 1 (PDLP1 is expressed at high levels in Hpa infected cells. Unlike other plasma membrane proteins, which are often excluded from the EHM, PDLP1 is located at the EHM in Hpa-infected cells prior to encasement. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of PDLP1 are sufficient to convey this localization. PDLP1 also associates with the developing encasement but this association is lost when encasements are fully mature. We found that the pdlp1,2,3 triple mutant is more susceptible to Hpa while overexpression of PDLP1 enhances plant resistance, suggesting that PDLPs enhance basal immunity against Hpa. Haustorial encasements are depleted in callose in pdlp1,2,3 mutant plants whereas PDLP1 over-expression elevates callose deposition around haustoria and across the cell surface. These data indicate that PDLPs contribute to callose encasement of Hpa haustoria and suggests that the deposition of callose at haustoria may involve similar mechanisms to callose deposition at plasmodesmata.

  10. Soil contamination adjacent to waste tank 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odum, J.V.

    1976-11-01

    In March and April 1961, miscalibrated liquid level instrumentation resulted in an overfilling of tank 8 to about 5 in. above the fill-line entrance. The resultant liquid head caused waste to seep through an asbestos-packed sleeve to the fill-line encasement and from there into the main encasement. Most of this waste returned to primary containment (i.e., the catch tank) through a separately encased drain line. However, approximately 1500 gal of high heat waste leaked from the fill-line encasement into the ground, probably through the joint at the juncture of the fill-line encasement and the concrete encasement of the waste tank. The contamination is contained in a 1000- to 1500-ft 3 zone of soil 12 to 26 ft below grade, 18 ft above the maximum elevation of the water table, and distributed roughly symmetrically around the fill-line encasement. Estimates from a continuing monitoring program indicate that less than 5000 Ci of 137 Cs, less than 0.005 Ci of 238 239 Pu, and less than 0.5 Ci of 89 90 Sr are in the soil. Analysis indicates that the contamination presents no current or future hazard to the environment; consequently, there is no technical reason for excavation of this soil. The high cost of excavation and exposure of personnel make excavation undesirable. The contaminated soil will remain under surveillance and undisturbed at tank 8 until the tank is removed from service, at which time its disposition will be re-evaluated

  11. Dynamics of Spore Coat Morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Peter T.; Eichenberger, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Spores of Bacillus subtilis are encased in a protective coat made up of at least 70 proteins. The structure of the spore coat has been examined using a variety of genetic, imaging and biochemical techniques, however, the majority of these studies have focused on mature spores. In this study we use a library of 41 spore coat proteins fused to the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) to examine spore coat morphogenesis over the time-course of sporulation. We found considerable diversity in the localization dynamics of coat proteins and were able to establish 6 classes based on localization kinetics. Localization dynamics correlate well with the known transcriptional regulators of coat gene expression. Previously, we described the existence of multiple layers in the mature spore coat. Here, we find that the spore coat initially assembles a scaffold that is organized into multiple layers on one pole of the spore. The coat then encases the spore in multiple coordinated waves. Encasement is driven, at least partially, by transcription of coat genes and deletion of sporulation transcription factors arrests encasement. We also identify the trans-compartment SpoIIIAH-SpoIIQ channel as necessary for encasement. This is the first demonstration of a forespore contribution to spore coat morphogenesis. PMID:22171814

  12. Meningioma of Foramen Magnum Causing Drop Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mahore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old female presented with frequent episodes of falls without loss of consciousness. These episodes lasted for brief period followed by full neurological recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed foramen magnum meningioma encasing left vertebral artery. The patient had dramatic improvement after excision of the tumor.

  13. The hydrodynamics of air-filled bags for wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greaves, Deborah; Hann, Martyn; Kurniawan, Adi

    of a fabric encased within an array of longitudinal tendons. In the first configuration, the bag is floating and ballasted such that it pierces the free surface. In the second configuration, the bag is completely submerged and connected at its top to a rigid float and at its bottom to a weight. In the third...

  14. Coexistent coronary artery disease or myocardial bridging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Chun, Eun Ju; Kim, Yeo Koon; Yoo, Jin Young; Choi, Sang Il; Choi, Dong Ju [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the prevalence of coexistent coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial bridging (MB) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and assess the role of CCTA. The prevalence of obstructive CAD (> 50% luminal reduction) and MB (partial and full encasement) were assessed in 150 patients with HCM diagnosed by clinical findings, electrocardiography, and echocardiography of 19588 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA for suspected CAD. The overall feasibility of coronary artery visualization was 98.9% with CCTA. In patients with HCM, the prevalence of obstructive CAD and MB (14.7% partial and 28.0% full encasement) were 23.3% and 42.7%, respectively. Age, hypertension, family history of premature CAD, Framingham risk score and severe chest pain were associated with CAD, whereas male gender and septal type were associated with MB (all p < 0.05). In comparison to invasive coronary angiography (n = 37), the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA for the detection of CAD and full encasement MB was 89.2% and 86.5%, respectively. One-quarter of patients with HCM had coexistent obstructive CAD or full encasement MB. CCTA can be a feasible and accurate noninvasive imaging modality for the detection of CAD and MB in patients with HCM.

  15. Determination of the Molar Volume of Hydrogen from the Metal-Acid Reaction: An Experimental Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berg, Kevin; Chapman, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Describes an alternative technique for determining the molar volume of hydrogen from the metal-acid reaction in which the metal sample is encased in a specially prepared cage and a pipette filler is used to fill an inverted burette with water. Eliminates some difficulties encountered with the conventional technique. (JRH)

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-11

    Aug 11, 2012 ... shaped and maintained the environmental conditions that ... J. Biosci. 37(4), September 2012, 589–607, * Indian Academy of ... oceans versus ~600 Gt C on land (Falkowski et al. 1998). ... The situation in the plankton must be very different to ...... blades of grass because the edible part is encased in a shell,.

  17. 27 CFR 19.608 - Cases of industrial alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cases of industrial alcohol. 19.608 Section 19.608 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Cases of industrial alcohol. (a) Mandatory marks. Each case, including encased containers, of alcohol...

  18. 77 FR 51761 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Groundfish Tagging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written comments must be submitted on or before... are two general categories of tags. Simple plastic tags (spaghetti tags) are external tags... fish. Archival tags are microchips with sensors encased in plastic cylinders that record the depth...

  19. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-30

    and labeled for shipment. The vial is then encased ip a plastic container with absorbant material. The plastic container is then packed into a metal ...and Pesado , D., (1985) Production and toxicity of Gambierdiscus tcxicas, Adacbh and Fukuyo (Dinophyceae), Phycologia, 24, 2 17-223. 96. Durand, M

  20. SIGNS The sandwich sign

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sandwich sign is demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging, commonly on CT or ultrasound. It refers to homogeneous soft- tissue masses representing mesenteric lymphadenopathy as the two halves of a sandwich bun, encasing the mesenteric fat and tubular mesenteric vessels that constitute the 'sandwich filling' (Figs ...

  1. The Use of Ion Implantation for Materials Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-06

    end station .’ which could be gassy (such as motors and insulated shown in fig. 3. A computer program generated thewires) are encased in separate vacuum...presented above support the crystalline homopolar bond if only the dangling bonds were view that the physical properties being measured are intrin

  2. Dehydration, rehydration and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated molecular responses elicited by three types of dehydration (fast, slow and cryoprotective), rehydration and overhydration in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. The larvae spend most the year encased in ice but during the austral summer are vulnerable to summer storms,...

  3. Use of a Van de Graaff proton accelerator for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, J.P.

    1976-12-01

    A neutron radiographic capability has been established at the Pantex ERDA Plant. A 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator is being used to make neutron radiographs in order to observe defects of explosives encased in metal containers and ''O'' ring integrity

  4. Volume reduction and encapsulation process for water containing low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, D.W.; Miller, G.P.; Weech, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solutions or slurries of waste material in water are dewatered and encapsulated within a polymer for disposal, comprising the operations of removing water therefrom with azeotropic mixture evaporation and encasing the dewatered waste residue in an organic polymer. The method and system disclosed are especially useful for the safe disposal of radioactive waste

  5. Operational test report - Project W-320 cathodic protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640 specifies that corrosion protection must be designed into tank systems that treat or store dangerous wastes. Project W-320, Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS), utilizes underground encased waste transfer piping between tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Corrosion protection is afforded to the encasements of the WRSS waste transfer piping through the application of earthen ionic currents onto the surface of the piping encasements. Cathodic protection is used in conjunction with the protective coatings that are applied upon the WRSS encasement piping. WRSS installed two new two rectifier systems (46 and 47) and modified one rectifier system (31). WAC 173-303-640 specifies that the proper operation of cathodic protection systems must be confirmed within six months after initial installation. The WRSS cathodic protection systems were energized to begin continuous operation on 5/5/98. Sixteen days after the initial steady-state start-up of the WRSS rectifier systems, the operational testing was accomplished with procedure OTP-320-006 Rev/Mod A-0. This operational test report documents the OTP-320-006 results and documents the results of configuration testing of integrated piping and rectifier systems associated with the W-320 cathodic protection systems

  6. Refractory metal nuggets in different types of cosmic spherules.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Plane, J.M.C.; Berg, T.; Feng, W.; Balgar, S.

    a fremdling-like object in a cosmic spherule which has a nugget encased in Fe–Ni and sulfide phases, similar to those typically observed in CAIs of CV or CO chondrites. The atmospheric entry for this rare cosmic spherule appears to have taken place...

  7. Bedbug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... walls, and floors. Vacuuming some talcum powder will reduce the chance that the bugs will crawl out of the vacuum cleaner. Dispose of the vacuum cleaner filter and bags in a tightly sealed plastic bag. Use mattress, box spring, and pillow encasements to trap ...

  8. Tubular heat exchangers, preferably for hot ashes and the like with two inlet chambers for hot ashes at different pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, B P; Borisov, N L; Semenov, M K; Ponomarev, I K; Tyryshkina, B G; Gorbatenko, I V

    1985-10-28

    The stand and the tubes are encased in a structure where the space between the stand and the structure is divided into a collector chamber and a distribution chamber. Ashes of shale are introduced at different pressures into a special inlet where equalizing takes place and the ashes will flow homogeneously through the heat exchanger.

  9. The Disruptive Effect of Lysozyme on the Bacterial Cell Wall Explored by an "In-Silico" Structural Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano D.; Otero, Lisandro H.; Ruiz, Francisco; Klinke, Sebastián; Giordano, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall…

  10. Influence of establishment timing and planting stock on early rotational growth of loblolly pine plantations in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Blazier; E. L. Taylor; A. G. Holley

    2010-01-01

    Planting container seedlings, which have relatively fully formed root systems encased in a soil-filled plug, may improve loblolly pine plantation productivity by increasing early survival and growth relative to that of conventionally planted bareroot seedlings. Planting seedlings in fall may also confer productivity increases to loblolly pine plantations by giving...

  11. Corrosion characteristics of unprotected post-tensioning strands under stress : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Post tensioned concrete is used in many Florida : transportation structures, many of which are : exposed to fresh or salt water. The steel strands : that supply the tension are encased in a plastic : duct which is later filled with grout, so the stra...

  12. Military Geography for Professionals and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    33 6. Water Tables, Aquifers , and Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7. Sea Water Stratification...may be shallow or deep (figure 6). Some water continues to trickle down through cracks and crannies until contained by aquifers encased in nearly...Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia, all in the Horn of Africa; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar , the United Arab Emirates, and

  13. In-service performance evaluation and monitoring of a hybrid composite beam bridge system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The hybrid composite beam (HCB) technology has been presented as a system for short and medium span beam bridges as an alternative to traditional materials such as concrete and steel. An HCB consists of a concrete tied arch encased in a fiber reinfor...

  14. A cathelicidin-2-derived peptide effectively impairs Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molhoek, E.M.; van Dijk, A.; Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; Haagsman, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major cause of nosocomial infections owing to its ability to form biofilms on the surface of medical devices. Biofilms are surface-adhered bacterial communities. In mature biofilms these communities are encased in an extracellular matrix composed of bacterial

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... examinations specified in paragraphs (j)(3) (i)-(iii) of this section with the six (6) months preceding the... six months; under these conditions, you are to be given an x-ray exam at least once a year. The...) preceded by Gelman glass fiber type A-E filters encased in three-piece plastic (polystyrene) field monitor...

  16. Feet, Footwork, Footwear, and "Being Alive" in the Modern School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the theoretical argument of anthropologist Tim Ingold, that the denial and subsequent encasement of bare feet in footwear was a critical characteristic of the development of modern societies, in exploring three aspects of feet, footwork, and footwear in the history of the modern school. First, the material conditions of feet…

  17. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  18. Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Isaac; Charkey, Allen

    1989-01-01

    An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

  19. Njv Magazine 3 final

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    protected by the calvaria. The calvarium is an important bony apparatus as it encase and protects the delicate brain tissues lying within it. The calvaria comprised the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and interparietal bones (Evans, 1993; Smuts and Bezuidenhout, 1987). Each bone shows a central trabecular network that.

  20. [Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis in a patient with a biventricular pacemaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, José M; Fariñas, María C; Rodilla, Irene G; Salesa, Ricardo; de Berrazueta, José R

    2005-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis is one of the rarest and severest complications in cardiological patients. We describe a patient with an intracardial pacemaker who was diagnosed as having Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis. Postmortem examination showed a large, Aspergillus-infected thrombus encased in the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary branches.

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present paper deals with the question of whether the Compositionality. Condition can be ... Selkirk's rule for assigning grammatical functions to the nonhead of .... the meaning of Godel numbering is strictly compositional, a simple ... ennoble, encase), and (ii) nouns of the form V P which are headless ..... *v --> her Prt.

  2. Enhancing Research in Networking & System Security, and Forensics, in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    Conference 2014 – Seattle, WA – Travel Scholarship awarded by Google. Celedonio was able to meet Mr. Tony Baylis, a recruiter from the Lawrence...Microsoft, Encase, Avaya, McAfee, Cisco , Department of Homeland Security, Department of Defense, ISACA among others. International Conferences in

  3. Magnetic Spinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    A science toy sometimes called the "magnetic spinner" is an interesting class demonstration to illustrate the principles of magnetic levitation. It can also be used to demonstrate Faraday's law and a horizontally suspended physical pendulum. The levitated part contains two circular magnets encased in a plastic housing. Each magnet stays…

  4. 77 FR 53176 - Certain Cased Pencils From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... dimension (except as described below) which are writing and/or drawing instruments that feature cores of graphite or other materials, encased in wood and/or man-made materials, whether or not decorated and..., requested revocation, in part, of the AD order with respect to its novelty pencil, which is shaped like a...

  5. Evaluation of impermeable covers for bedding in patients with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, Ingrid; Hak, Eelko; Oosting, Albert J.; Tempels-Pavlica, Zana; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A. F. M.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Gerth van Wijk, Roy

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Encasing bedding in impermeable covers reduces exposure to house-dust mites, but the clinical benefit of this intervention as part of mite-avoidance measures for patients with allergic rhinitis is not known. We performed a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of one year of

  6. Angiography of omental mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, K.; Walter, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Angiographic features of three cases of omental mesothelioma are presented. These lesions appeared mildly or moderately hypervascular without arteriovenous shunting or arterial encasement. The predominant feeding arteries were the right and left gastroepiploics. Since arteriography may be performed in the evaluation of the often nonspecific presenting symptoms of patients with abdominal mesothelioma, radiologists should be aware of these abnormalities

  7. Unusual Presentation Of Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is an uncommon entity described as progressive proliferation of connective tissues leading to a fibrous plaque-like lesions that encases the aorta and inferior vena cava inferior to the level of the renal arteries. Mass forming retroperitoneal fibrosis is rare. We present a rare case of a ...

  8. Fabrication of the KSTAR toroidal field coil structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.H.; Sa, J.W.; Park, H.K.; Hong, K.H.; Shin, H.; Kim, H.T.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S.; Kwak, J.H.; Moon, H.G.; Yoon, H.H.; Lee, J.W.; Lee, S.K.; Song, J.Y.; Nam, K.M.; Byun, S.E.; Kim, H.C.; Ha, E.T.; Ahn, H.J.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, J.S.; Park, K.H.; Hong, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    The KSTAR toroidal field (TF) coil structure is under fabrication upon completion of engineering design and prototype construction. The prototype TF coil structure has been fabricated within allowable tolerances. Encasing of the prototype TF coil (TF00) in the prototype structure has been carried out through major processes involving a coil encasing, an enclosing weld, a vacuum pressure impregnation, and an outer surface machining. During the enclosing weld of the TF00 coil structure, we have measured temperatures and stresses on the coil surface. Assembly test had been performed with the TF00 coil structure. We have chosen Type 316LN as material of the TF coil structure. We used the narrow-gap TIG welding method. Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Company (DHI) will complete the fabrication of the TF coil structure in Feb. 2006. (author)

  9. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  10. Gas-permeable ethylene bags for the small scale cultivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and other viruses in embryonated chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCurdy Kimberly S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryonated chicken eggs (ECE are sometimes used for the primary isolation or passage of influenza viruses, other viruses, and certain bacteria. For small-scale experiments with pathogens that must be studied in biosafety level three (BSL3 facilities, inoculated ECE are sometimes manipulated and maintained in small egg incubators within a biosafety cabinet (BSC. To simplify the clean up and decontamination of an egg incubator in case of egg breakage, we explored whether ethylene breather bags could be used to encase ECE inoculated with pathogens. This concept was tested by determining embryo survival and examining virus yields in bagged ECE. Results Virus yields acceptable for many applications were attained when influenza-, alpha-, flavi-, canine distemper-, and mousepox viruses were propagated in ECE sealed within ethylene breather bags. Conclusions For many small-scale applications, ethylene breather bags can be used to encase ECE inoculated with various viruses.

  11. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H

    2018-02-28

    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  12. Modeling a High Explosive Cylinder Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Marvin A.

    2017-06-01

    Cylindrical assemblies constructed from high explosives encased in an inert confining material are often used in experiments aimed at calibrating and validating continuum level models for the so-called equation of state (constitutive model for the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor). Such is the case in the work to be discussed here. In particular, work will be described involving the modeling of a series of experiments involving PBX-9501 encased in a copper cylinder. The objective of the work is to test and perhaps refine a set of phenomenological parameters for the Wescott-Stewart-Davis reactive burn model. The focus of this talk will be on modeling the experiments, which turned out to be non-trivial. The modeling is conducted using ALE methodology.

  13. The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli controls the direction in which a cell extrudes from an epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Isaac E.; Delalande, Jean Marie; N?thke, Inke; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Despite high rates of cell death, epithelia maintain intact barriers by squeezing dying cells out using a process termed cell extrusion. Cells can extrude apically into the lumen or basally into the tissue the epithelium encases, depending on whether actin and myosin contract at the cell base or apex, respectively. We previously found that microtubules in cells surrounding a dying cell target p115 RhoGEF to the actin cortex to control where contraction occurs. However, what controls microtubu...

  14. Demonstration of Lightweight Engineering Solutions for a Low-Cost Safe Explosive Ordnance Destruct Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Staff) and Mr. Doug Learned ( Intercity Manufacturing), whose efficiency and expertise was vital in manufacturing the parts required for our tests...detonation products caused by the hollow cavity. Upon initiation of a hollow lined charge, the resulting high pressure shock wave travels outward...5.6 km/s for the brass encased charge at 2 and 3 CD. This indicates that the jet must be traveling at velocities greater than the estimates, which

  15. Crowning: a novel Escherichia coli colonizing behaviour generating a self-organized corona

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Gómez, José María; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Encased in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composed of flagella, adhesins, amyloid fibers (curli), and exopolysaccharides (cellulose, β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer-PGA-, colanic acid), the bacteria Escherichia coli is able to attach to and colonize different types of biotic and abiotic surfaces forming biofilms and colonies of intricate morphological architectures. Many of the biological aspects that underlie the generation and development o...

  16. A Designer Fluid For Aluminum Phase Change Devices. Performance Enhancement in Copper Heat Pipes Performance Enhancement in Copper Heat Pipes. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    comprised of a hollow metal shell filled with a small amount of working fluid creating a device that is extremely lightweight. Phase change devices...critical angle, the droplet unpins and the diameter decreases with a constant contact angle as the liquid core shrinks toward the center. Deegan et al...measurement system The thermocouple switch was encased in a box with fiberglass insulation to create an isothermal environment for the switch leads

  17. In situ observation of the formation of FeSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Wulff, Anders Christian; Yue, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the FeSe compound from a mixture of Fe and Se powders encased in a composite Cu/Nb sheath was studied in situ by means of high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Tetragonal beta-FeSe does not seem to form directly from the starting elements. Instead, a sequence of FeSe2, Fe3Se...

  18. CASTING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  19. Repository of not readily available documents for project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of this document is to provide a readily available source of the technical reports needed for the development of the safety documentation provided for the waste retrieval sluicing system (WRSS), designed to remove the radioactive and chemical sludge from tank 241-C-106, and transport that material to double-shell tank 241-AY-102 via a new, temporary, shielded, encased transfer line.

  20. Confined Tension and Triaxial Extension Tests on Eglin High-Strength Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-17

    specimen were filled with Devcon 5-Minute epoxy . We encased the specimen in a liquid-tight flexible jacket to exclude the confining fluid from any...sealed to the steel endcaps with epoxy and wire clamps. Figure 3. Schematic diagram of test specimen prepared for TXE testing. TXE tests are...150 MPa – we wrapped two Kevlar jackets (0.01 in thick) around the specimen prior to installing the polyolefin jacket (0.02 in thick). The Kevlar

  1. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that...

  2. Quadrigeminal plate lipoma presenting with Psychosis: A case ‎report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A young patient who presented with headache followed by positive and negative symptoms of psychosis and mutism was sent for the MRI of brain. MRI revealed a lipoma in the quardrigeminal area. We hypothesized that the neuro-vascular encasement of structures located at the upper dorsal midbrain by the lipoma caused the symptoms. A review of the current literature of quadrigeminal lipoma cases with presenting symptoms is provided. Lipoma in quardrigeminal area could give rise to symptoms of psychosis.

  3. Teratoma arising from hepato duodenal ligament in the newborn with transection of portal vein, hepatic artery and common bile duct: A surgical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Ravikumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-day-old neonate presented with a large intra-abdominal mass adherent to the hilum of the liver encasing the portal triad. During excision, the portal vein, hepatic artery, and common bile duct were injured. The repair was done promptly and needed massive blood transfusion. Histopathology revealed immature teratoma Grade III. Survival in neonate following total transection of portal triad is rare and has not been reported.

  4. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  5. Extracellular-matrix-mediated osmotic pressure drives Vibrio cholerae biofilm expansion and cheater exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jing; Nadell, Carey D.; Stone, Howard A.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms, surface-attached communities of bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix, are a major mode of bacterial life. How the material properties of the matrix contribute to biofilm growth and robustness is largely unexplored, in particular in response to environmental perturbations such as changes in osmotic pressure. Here, using Vibrio cholerae as our model organism, we show that during active cell growth, matrix production enables biofilm-dwelling bacterial cells to establish an osmot...

  6. Flexible, angle-independent, structural color reflectors inspired by morpho butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyungjae; Yu, Sunkyu; Heo, Chul-Joon; Shim, Jae Won; Yang, Seung-Man; Han, Moon Gyu; Lee, Hong-Seok; Jin, Yongwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Park, Namkyoo; Shin, Jung H

    2012-05-08

    Thin-film color reflectors inspired by Morpho butterflies are fabricated. Using a combination of directional deposition, silica microspheres with a wide size distribution, and a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) encasing, a large, flexible reflector is created that actually provides better angle-independent color characteristics than Morpho butterflies and which can even be bent and folded freely without losing its Morpho-mimetic photonic properties. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Self-powered neutron flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.

    1979-01-01

    A self-powered neutron flux detector having an emitter electrode, at least a major portion of which is, 95 Mo encased in a tubular collector electrode and separated therefrom by dielectric material. The 95 Mo emitter electrode has experimentally shown a 98% prompt response, is primarily sensitive to neutron flux, has adequate sensitivity and has low burn up. Preferably the emitter electrode is molybdenum which has been enriched 75% to 99% by weight with 95 Mo

  8. Hot rolled composite billet for nuclear control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a composite plate shaped billet, useful in the fabrication of nuclear control rods, which comprises a core of stainless steel containing about 2 percent boron 10, a thin coating of zirconia on the surfaces of said core, and said zirconia coating being completely encased in a jacket of mild steel, said composite having been hot rolled between about 1075 0 and about 1165 0 C. 1 claim, 8 figures

  9. The JET divertor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.

    1989-01-01

    The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)

  10. Design, construction, and operations experience with the SWSA 6 [Solid Waste Storage Area] Tumulus Disposal Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Van Cleve, J.E.; Wylie, A.N.; Williams, L.C.; Bolinsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge to improve the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. An engineered disposal concept demonstration involving placement of concrete encased waste on a monitored concrete pad with an earthen cover is being conducted. The design, construction, and operations experience with this project, the SWSA 6 Tumulus Disposal Demonstration, is described. 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuro, R.C.; Orr, R.

    1993-01-01

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures

  12. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  13. MRI of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: factors determining pretreatment hormone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Iuchi, T.; Eda, M.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Isono, S. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Preoperative serum growth hormone (GH) level is one of the most important determinants of outcome. Our aim was to assess MRI findings which may correlate with pretreatment GH levels in GH-secreting adenomas. We retrospectively studied 29 patients with acromegaly caused by a pituitary adenoma. Tumor size (height, width, thickness and volume), suprasellar extension, sphenoid or cavernous sinus invasion, signal intensity and contrast enhancement were studied. Linear regression analysis or Fisher's exact probability test was used for statistical analysis. Factors related to high GH levels were the maximum dimension of the tumour (r = 0.496, P < 0.01), its volume (r = 0.439, P < 0.05), spenoid sinus invasion (P < 0.01) and intracavernous carotid artery encasement (P < 0.01). The other items were not related to serum GH levels. Since we believe surgery is the first choice of treatment and the cavernous sinus is difficult of access with a conventional surgical approach, preoperative assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus is critical for predicting the surgical outcome. Low GH levels (5-50 ng/ml) were found with tumours medial to the intercarotid line and high levels (more than 101 ng/ml) with invasive tumours with carotid artery encasement. Variable GH levels were noted with tumours extending beyond the intercarotid line. Because functioning adenomas invading the cavernous sinus tend to have markedly high hormone levels, and only patients with carotid artery encasement showed markedly elevated GH levels, we believe carotid artery encasement a reliable MRI indicator of cavernous sinus invasion. (orig.)

  14. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  15. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Bates, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation. 8 claims

  16. Repository of not readily available documents for project W-320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a readily available source of the technical reports needed for the development of the safety documentation provided for the waste retrieval sluicing system (WRSS), designed to remove the radioactive and chemical sludge from tank 241-C-106, and transport that material to double-shell tank 241-AY-102 via a new, temporary, shielded, encased transfer line

  17. Pulpectomy procedures in primary molar teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of primary molars can cause a number of undesirable consequences including loss of arch length, insufficient space for erupting premolars and mesial tipping of the permanent molars. Pulpectomy of primary molar teeth is considered as a reasonable treatment approach to ensure either normal shedding or a long-term survival in instances of retention. Despite being a more conservative treatment option than extraction, efficient pulpectomy of bizarre and tortuous root canals encased ...

  18. Identification and Quantification of the Water Soluble Components of JP-4 and a Determination of Their Biological Effects upon Selected Freshwater Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-23

    have enlarged. Cells of the notochord are highly vacuolated. The notochord is encased in a thin hyaline sheath. I I J -118 - Plate 25. Stage 25 Retinal...the pharynx which later form the parachordal and trabecular cartilages . The early elements of the lower jaw are visible in sections as lateral and... cartilage (RC) in the PF. The thick-walled foregut (Fg) is edial to the liver tissie (Li). Paired pronephric ducts (PD) are ventral and l.ateral to

  19. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Insertion of a self-expandable metallic stent in canine lacrimal Sac : a long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Young; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of). College of Medicine; Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Medical School; Lee, Ho Jung; Lee, In Chul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Sang Soo; Huh, Soo Jin [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of). College of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and long-term outcome of the use of self-expandable metallic Z-stents in the canine lacrimal sac. Stent placement was technically successful and well tolerated in all but one lacrimal sac, in which the stent was misplaced. At three and six months after stent placement, stent wires were not encased by epithelium, but at nine months, and one, two and three years after placement, six of the 12 stents had become encased in a proliferation of this where the stent wires contacted the lacrimal sac wall. In no lacrimal system in which stent placement had been successful was migration, stenosis or obstruction of the lacrimal system observed. One misplaced stent caused obstruction of the lacrimal sac, however . In 11 of 12 case (92%), fluoroscopic placement of an expandable metallic stent in the canine lacrimal sac was successful: in 6 of 8 cases (75%), the stent wires became encased by a proliferation of mucosa, but during long-term follow-up of 9 months to 3 years, no obstruction was observed. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  1. Insertion of a self-expandable metallic stent in canine lacrimal Sac : a long-term evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Young; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Ho Jung; Lee, In Chul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Sang Soo; Huh, Soo Jin

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and long-term outcome of the use of self-expandable metallic Z-stents in the canine lacrimal sac. Stent placement was technically successful and well tolerated in all but one lacrimal sac, in which the stent was misplaced. At three and six months after stent placement, stent wires were not encased by epithelium, but at nine months, and one, two and three years after placement, six of the 12 stents had become encased in a proliferation of this where the stent wires contacted the lacrimal sac wall. In no lacrimal system in which stent placement had been successful was migration, stenosis or obstruction of the lacrimal system observed. One misplaced stent caused obstruction of the lacrimal sac, however . In 11 of 12 case (92%), fluoroscopic placement of an expandable metallic stent in the canine lacrimal sac was successful: in 6 of 8 cases (75%), the stent wires became encased by a proliferation of mucosa, but during long-term follow-up of 9 months to 3 years, no obstruction was observed. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  2. Possibilities for retracing of copyright violations on current video game consoles by optical disk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmler, Frank; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with the possibilities of retracing copyright violations on current video game consoles (e.g. Microsoft Xbox, Sony PlayStation, ...) by studying the corresponding optical storage media DVD and Blu-ray. The possibilities of forensic investigation of DVD and Blu-ray Discs are presented. It is shown which information can be read by using freeware and commercial software for forensic examination. A detailed analysis is given on the visualization of hidden content and the possibility to find out information about the burning hardware used for writing on the optical discs. In connection with a forensic analysis of the Windows registry of a suspects PC a detailed overview of the crime scene for forged DVD and Blu-ray Discs can be obtained. Optical discs are examined under forensic aspects and the obtained results are implemented into automatic analysis scripts for the commercial forensics program EnCase Forensic. It is shown that for the optical storage media a possibility of identification of the drive used for writing can be obtained. In particular Blu-ray Discs contain the serial number of the burner. These and other findings were incorporated into the creation of various EnCase scripts for the professional forensic investigation with EnCase Forensic. Furthermore, a detailed flowchart for a forensic investigation of copyright infringement was developed.

  3. Validity of the frontolateral approach as a minimally invasive corridor for olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahy, Khaled

    2009-10-01

    Several approaches are described for olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) varying from a very wide bifrontal craniotomy to minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of the frontolateral approach for olfactory groove meningioma. Pitfalls related to this corridor will be described. The impact of tumor size and encasement of the anterior cerebral artery complex on the degree of tumor removal will be described on the basis of experience with 18 cases. Eighteen patients with OGM underwent microsurgical removal using the frontolateral approach. A retrospective study was conducted by analyzing clinical data, neuroimaging studies, operative findings, clinical outcome, and degree of tumor removal. The patients were classified into group A with tumor size less than 4 cm in diameter (7 out of 18 cases, 38.9%) and group B with tumor size more than 4 cm in diameter (11 out of 18 cases, 61.1%). CSF rhinorrhea was observed in three patients (16.7%). Postoperative left frontal intracerebral hematoma occurred in one patient (5.6%) belonging to group A. In another patient (5.6%) belonging to group B, marked right frontal lobe swelling was evident after dural opening, which necessitated partial right frontal pole resection. Total tumor removal (Simpson grade 1 and 2) was achieved in 14 out of 18 patients (77.8%), while subtotal removal (Simpson grade 3 and 4) was achieved in 4 patients (22.2%). In the 14 patients in whom total removal was achieved, 7 belonged to group A (all 7 patients of group A with 100% removal), while the remaining 7 patients belonged to group B (7 out of 11 patients, 63.6% removal; one of them had anterior cerebral artery complex encasement). The four patients in whom subtotal removal was achieved belonged to group B; three of them showed anterior cerebral artery complex encasement, and one elderly patient had non-extensive paranasal sinus involvement. One patient (5.6%) in group B died from cerebral infarction

  4. IDIOPATHIC SCLEROSING ENCAPSULATING PERITONITIS CAUSING ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION AND GANGRENE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction resulting from encasement of variable lengths of bowel by dense fibro-collagenous membrane. It is more common in young females, and shows tropical and sub-tropical distribution. The idiopathic cases of SEP, which lack any identifiable cause from clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, are also reported under the descriptive term “abdominal cocoon syndrome”. SEP presents with acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction with or without a mass. In the era of laparoscopic surgery, inadvertent damage to the small bowel at insertion of the trocar and cannula can occur by being unaware of this condition resulting in unnecessary bowel resection. Persistent untreated SEP may advance to bowel gangrene or intestinal perforation, representing life threatening conditions. We report the clinical presentation of a 75-year-old female presenting with signs of intestinal obstruction whose imaging findings revealed abdominal cocoon with bowel gangrene leading to perforation and the same confirmed at surgery. Surgical excision of the fibrotic sac encasing the bowel, resection of gangrenous bowel segment and end ileostomy was performed. Histopathology of the excised membrane confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. To our knowledge, only a few cases of abdominal cocoon with perforation have been reported in literature so far. Radiologists should be aware of this relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction, its imaging findings and complications, as preoperative diagnosis will prevent delay and aid in treatment planning to the surgeon. Identification of soft tissue density membrane encasing congregated small bowel loops into a single area on computed-tomography gives diagnostic clue. Surgical excision of sac, release of bowel loops and adhesions with partial intestinal resection when necessary is the treatment.

  5. Pathological Location of Cranial Nerves in Petroclival Lesions: How to Avoid Their Injury during Anterior Petrosal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei-Razavi, Hamid; Tomio, Ryosuke; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Shibao, Shunsuke; Schick, Uta; Toda, Masahiro; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kawase, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    Objectives  Numerous surgical approaches have been developed to access the petroclival region. The Kawase approach, through the middle fossa, is a well-described option for addressing cranial base lesions of the petroclival region. Our aim was to gather data about the variation of cranial nerve locations in diverse petroclival pathologies and clarify the most common pathologic variations confirmed during the anterior petrosal approach. Method  A retrospective analysis was made of both videos and operative and histologic records of 40 petroclival tumors from January 2009 to September 2013 in which the Kawase approach was used. The anatomical variations of cranial nerves IV-VI related to the tumor were divided into several location categories: superior lateral (SL), inferior lateral (IL), superior medial (SM), inferior medial (IM), and encased (E). These data were then analyzed taking into consideration pathologic subgroups of meningioma, epidermoid, and schwannoma. Results  In 41% of meningiomas, the trigeminal nerve is encased by the tumor. In 38% of the meningiomas, the trigeminal nerve is in the SL part of the tumor, and it is in 20% of the IL portion of the tumor. In 38% of the meningiomas, the trochlear nerve is encased by the tumor. The abducens nerve is not always visible (35%). The pathologic nerve pattern differs from that of meningiomas for epidermoid and trigeminal schwannomas. Conclusion  The pattern of cranial nerves IV-VI is linked to the type of petroclival tumor. In a meningioma, tumor origin (cavernous, upper clival, tentorial, and petrous apex) is the most important predictor of the location of cranial nerves IV-VI. Classification of four subtypes of petroclival meningiomas using magnetic resonance imaging is very useful to predict the location of deviated cranial nerves IV-VI intraoperatively.

  6. Making superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of producing composite rod or wire of increased strength and fineness wherein the composite is formed by reducing a lamina of two metals which have been rolled to form a cylindrical billet in which one of the metals is in expanded form. The composite produced can be encased in copper and fabricated to produce a superconductor. Alloys contemplated for producing superconductors are Nb 3 Sn, Nb 3 Ga, Nb 3 Ge, Nb 3 Si, Nb-Ti, V 3 Ga, V 3 Si, V 3 Sn, V 3 Al, and V 3 Ge laminated on bronze, Al, Cu, Ta, or combinations thereof. (author)

  7. Method of making V.sub.3 Ga superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew-Hughes, David

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for producing a vanadium-gallium superconductor wire having aluminum as a component thereof is disclosed, said wire being encased in a gallium bearing copper sheath. The superconductors disclosed herein may be fabricated under normal atmospheres and room temperatures by forming a tubular shaped billet having a core composed of an alloy of vanadium and aluminum and an outer sheath composed of an alloy of copper, gallium and aluminum. Thereafter the entire billet is swage reduced to form a wire therefrom and heat treated to form a layer of V.sub.3 Ga in the interior of the wire.

  8. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    2004-08-24

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  9. Biliary enhanced MR imaging by Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Shinichi; Fujikura, Yuji; Kanai, Toshio; Hiramatsu, Kyoichi.

    1992-01-01

    Biliary enhanced MRI (BEMRI) by Gd-DTPA via PTCD and/or PTGBD tube for obstructive jaundice was performed in 8 patients. In all cases, biliary tract was clearly visualised as high signal intensity on T1 weighted images. On same images, primary lesion such as common bile duct cancer was also visualised as well as portal system. In addition, MR angiography (MRA) by 2D-time of flight method was performed. MRA with BEMRI shows portal encasement on the same image as biliary tract obstruction. This suggests MRA with BEMRI may replace the other modality for obstructive jaundice. (author)

  10. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  11. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  12. The Nature of Tectonic Spatial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Since earliest times mankind has sought inspiration from nature for our built structures. However until the dawn of the modern era in architecture and design, the true structural character of a building was invariably full y or partially encased in an ornamented cladding, of often stylised motifs...... particularly of Kenneth Frampton, this paper will argue that the direct inspiration of nature and the increasing use of advanced parametric digital design tools that replicate virtually instantaneously evolutionary processes results in structures that are not only elegant tectonically and in terms of economy...

  13. Ultimate strength and ductility of steel reinforced concrete beam-columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate strength and ductility of SRC beam-columns are investigated using the data gathered in Architectural Institute of Japan. Though the simple superposed strength formula in AIJ standard underestimates the strength of SRC beam-column failed in flexure, the generalized superposed strength formula estimates it satisfactory. The strength formula in AIJ standard does not good agreement with test data. The SRC beam-column failed in shear has almost equalductility with that failed in flexure owing to the encased steel. Author presents the formulas which estimate the ultimate deformation angle for SRC beam-columns. (author)

  14. A fall-out shelter or basement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as a fallout shelter, tank, basement structure, blast-proof garage is described. It consists of several upright, concrete wall elements, including L-shaped sections, and at least one concrete roof element. The concrete elements are preferably encased in, and may also be supported on, a concrete surround which is formed in situ and which may be secured to the elements by projecting links. The structure may be assembled as an underground or above-ground building. This invention provides a strong structure of quite large span which is relatively simple in construction and can be rapidly assembled. (U.K.)

  15. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, and a number of studies have revealed that this process is regulated by several integrated pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms that control B. subtilis biofilm assembly, and then briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding biofilm disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of B. subtilis biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium.

  16. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Preface Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long-served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and a number of studies have revealed that this process is subject to a number of integrated regulatory pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms controlling biofilm assembly and briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium. PMID:23353768

  17. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  18. Stress wave communication in concrete: II. Evaluation of low voltage concrete stress wave communications utilizing spectrally efficient modulation schemes with PZT transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, Sam; Wang, Kun; Ding, Zhi; Qing, Ji; Song, Gangbing

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials, traditionally used for structural health monitoring, have recently been used to implement stress wave communications. Within a protective encasing we fabricate a smart aggregate which enables transmission and reception of modulated stress waves for digital communication within concrete. Our research focuses on building a high efficiency stress wave communication system and comparing the performance of phase shift keying (PSK) with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Our experiments evaluate the performance of QPSK and 16QAM implemented with our stress wave communication system at a transmit voltage ranging from 32 dBV to 37 dBV. We also demonstrate the increase in spectral efficiency of 16QAM compared to QPSK. (paper)

  19. Helium and deuterium permeability in O-rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    To obtain more information on gas permeation through elastomeric O-rings, studies were performed on Parker Seal Company O-rings, Nos. 2-113, 2-006, 3-904, and 3-906, all made of a nitrile rubber. Also included in the tests was a valve packing (Autoclave Engineers) encased in AE Valve 20A-2142. Permeation experiments were run usually in duplicate to 82.7 MPa (12,000 psi) with helium and deuterium at room temperature. The data are extrapolated to give values for tritium

  20. VPS9a activates the Rab5 GTPase ARA7 to confer distinct pre- and postinvasive plant innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Eggert; Jürgens, Gerd; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Plant innate immunity can effectively prevent the proliferation of filamentous pathogens. Papilla formation at the site of attack is essential for preinvasive immunity; in postinvasive immunity, the encasement of pathogen structures inside host cells can hamper disease. Whereas papillae are highly...... (Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Surprisingly, VPS9a acts in addition to two previously well-described innate immunity components and thus represents an additional step in the regulation of how plants resist pathogens. We found VPS9a to be important for delivering membrane material...

  1. Hawaii Energy and Environmental Technologies (HEET) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    CM CO CO CO CO (O CM •* CM •^J- COCO CO CO T-«M*O^IO«D r- co en OrNn^lOIONCO CD c: r O o N -^ C T> 0 f- -*-> n u o (U CO I...The fiberoptic probe consists of seven 200 urn core UV silica fibers encased within a 3.2 mm (0.125 inch) o.d. stainless steel sleeve. The center... fiber brings radiation from the laser into the cell, while the six surrounding fibers are used to collect the Raman-shifted light and transmit it to

  2. Structural algorithm to reservoir reconstruction using passive seismic data (synthetic example)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.; Volodin, Igor A.; Lukyanitsa, Andrei A.; Smaglichenko, Alexander V.; Sayankina, Maria K. [Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Gubkina str.3, 119333, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 1, str.52,Second Teaching Building.119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shmidt' s Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Science, Bolshaya Gruzinskaya str. 10, str.1, 123995 Moscow (Russian Federation); Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Gubkina str.3, 119333, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-26

    Using of passive seismic observations to detect a reservoir is a new direction of prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbons. In order to identify thin reservoir model we applied the modification of Gaussian elimination method in conditions of incomplete synthetic data. Because of the singularity of a matrix conventional method does not work. Therefore structural algorithm has been developed by analyzing the given model as a complex model. Numerical results demonstrate of its advantage compared with usual way of solution. We conclude that the gas reservoir is reconstructed by retrieving of the image of encasing shale beneath it.

  3. US-Russia team plans a package minireactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A US-Russian joint venture has concluded design of what is called a low-cost, supersafe mini nuclear power reactor. They plan to begin construction of a 6-Mw unit in Russia in mid-1996 and to offer the standardized unit for sale in developing countries. Advanced Physics Corp., Irvine, CA, and five Russian nuclear and space industry centers plan to build the first unit in five years or less at a cost of about $150 million. The high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor will be fueled by uranium encased in graphite spheres that percolate through the core

  4. Techniques for cutting irradiated fuel ducts at FFTF/IEM cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payzant, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Two remotely controlled mill-type cutters have been used in the Fast Flux Test Facility Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to assist in the disassembly of 18 fuel assemblies. These cutters slit the outer duct of the fuel assemblies, which allows the ducts to be removed and provides access to the encased fuel pins. The cutters were developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company and thoroughly tested by cutting prototypic ducts. During actual use, however, occasional loss of cutting depth control occurred. A discussion of the control problems and the operation and design techniques developed for their resolution is presented in this paper

  5. Hygiene implications associated with x-ray exposures to dental patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An elastic mask worn by patients, then a skeleton encased in plastic, was instrumented with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters to quantify radiation exposures delivered from full-face diagnostic dental x-rays. Locations of interest included skin surface, eyes, upper and lower teeth and thyroid. Exposures in the 100 mR range were common and a maximum of over 6000 mR was measured in the teeth region during a full-face examination with a periapical unit. In general, exposures received from periapical equipment were several times those obtained from panoramic devices

  6. X-ray exposures to dental patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An elastic mask worn by patients and a skeleton encased in plastic were instrumented with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters to determine radiation exposures delivered from full-face diagnostic dental X-rays. Measurements were made using various panoramic radiographical and periapical machines. Locations of interest included skin surface, eyes, upper and lower teeth and thyroid. Exposures in the 100 mR range were common and a maximum of over 6000 mR was measured in the teeth region during a full-face examination with a periapical unit. In general, exposures received from periapical equipment were several times those obtained from panoramic devices. (author)

  7. Development of a Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for In-Situ Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Wright

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW sensor that is designed to be operated continuously and in situ to detect volatile organic compounds. A ruggedized stainless-steel package that encases the SAW device and integrated circuit board allows the sensor to be deployed in a variety of media including air, soil, and even water. Polymers were optimized and chosen based on their response to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene, which are common groundwater contaminants. Initial testing indicates that a running-average data-logging algorithm can reduce the noise and increase the sensitivity of the in-situ sensor.

  8. Application of neutron radiation inspection at the Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron radiographic capability has been established at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, which is operated for the Department of Energy by Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co. A 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator is employed as the neutron source. Neutron radiation inspection techniques have been developed to detect and observe discontinuities in explosive materials encased in aluminum, lead, steel and combinations of these casement materials. These data demonstrate that the capability exists for obtaining satisfactory neutron radiographs of many explosive-loaded components. Additional work will be performed in order to further determine applicable capabilities of the 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator. (Auth.)

  9. Magnetic collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frew, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A collector for use in a magnetic separator is formed by isostatically pressing a metal which is resistant to attack by acid about ferromagnetic bodies whereby to encase the bodies in the metal. In one arrangement, as shown, the bodies are encapsulated between inner and outer cylinders. In other arrangements the encapsulating metal is in the form of a tube or planar sheets. The bodies are of Fe or an oxide thereof and the acid-resistant metal parts may be of stainless steel, Au, Pt, Pa or an alloy. The magnetic separator is intended for use in removing particles from liquids during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel materials. (author)

  10. Ectopic eruption of maxillary central incisor through abnormally thickened labial frenum: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gugnani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption is a deviation from the normal eruption pattern, making the tooth erupt out of its normal position, and possibly causing resorption of adjacent primary teeth. A wide range of etiological factors may be responsible for ectopic eruption of the teeth, so their management depends on the correction of the established etiological factor. The present case report describes an unusual case of ectopically erupted central incisor encased within an abnormally thickened labial frenum, which was treated by orthodontic repositioning of the ectopically erupting tooth after frenectomy.

  11. Techniques for cutting irradiated fuel ducts at FFTF/IEM cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payzant, W.H.

    1990-09-01

    Two remotely controlled mill-type cutters have been used in the Fast Flux Test Facility Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to assist in the disassembly of 18 fuel assemblies. These cutters slit the outer duct of the fuel assemblies, which allows the ducts to be removed and provides access to the encased fuel pins. The cutters were developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company and thoroughly tested by cutting prototypic ducts. During actual use, however, occasional loss of cutting depth control occurred. A discussion of the control problems and the operation and design techniques developed for their resolution is presented. 3 refs., 7 figs

  12. Test plan for N2 HEPA filters assembly shop stock used on PFP E4 exhaust system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    At Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) Self-contained HEPA filters, encased in wooden frames and boxes, are installed in the E4 Exhaust Ventilation System to provide confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. Recently during the routine testing in-leakage was discovered downstream of the Self-contained HEPA filters boxes. This Test Plan describes the approach to conduct investigation of the root causes for the in-leakage of HEPA filters

  13. Fire hazards analysis for the replacement cross-site transfer system, project W-058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepahpur, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The fire hazards analysis assess the risk from fire and determines compliance with the applicable criteria of DOE 5480.7A, DOE 6430.1A, and RLID 5480.7. (Project W-058 will provide encased pipelines to connect the SY Tank Farms in 200 West Area with the tank farms in 200 East Area via an interface with the 244-A lift station. Function of the cross-site transfer system will be to transfer radioactive waste from the SY Tank Farm to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities in 200 East Area.)

  14. Detection and characterization of corrosion of bridge cables by time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Hunsperger, Robert G.; Folliard, Kevin; Chajes, Michael J.; Barot, Jignesh; Jhaveri, Darshan; Kunz, Eric

    1999-02-01

    In this paper, we develop and demonstrate a nondestructive evaluation technique for corrosion detection of embedded or encased steel cables. This technique utilizes time domain reflectometry (TDR), which has been traditionally used to detect electrical discontinuities in transmission lines. By applying a sensor wire along with the bridge cable, we can model the cable as an asymmetric, twin-conductor transmission line. Physical defects of the bridge cable will change the electromagnetic properties of the line and can be detected by TDR. Furthermore, different types of defects can be modeled analytically, and identified using TDR. TDR measurement results from several fabricated bridge cable sections with built-in defects are reported.

  15. Clival chordomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamschula, R.G.; Soo, M.Y.S.

    1993-01-01

    Three cases of clival chordomas are reviewed and the findings are compared to those in the recent literature. Chordomas are rare neoplasms that arise from primitive notochord remnants. In all three cases, computed tomography was an excellent modality for demonstrating bone destruction, sequestra and calcification but inferior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in demonstrating the soft tissue extent of the tumour. The multiplanar capability of MRI was found to be particularly useful for planning treatment. Vertebral angiography can demonstrate the tumours by vessel displacement, encasement and vascular staining. Two cases had angiography and demonstrated tumour blush. Pre-operative embolization was helpful in one case. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  16. Investigation on Secondary Structure Perturbations of Proteins Embedded in Solid Lipid Matrices as a Novel Indicator of their Biological Activity upon In Vitro Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeeshan, Farrukh; Tabbassum, Misbah; Jorgensen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    encased in solid lipid matrices as a novel indicator of their stability upon in vitro release. Model proteins namely catalase and lysozyme were incorporated into lipid namely Precirol® AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58°C) at 30% w/w loading using melting and mixing and wet granulation...... aggregation for catalase which was increased using wet granulation. The biological activity of catalase was statistically different from that of control and was affected by the incorporation method and was found to be in alignment with ATR spectral changes and extent of aggregation. In conclusion, ATR...

  17. The Oldman River triangle zone: a complicated tectonic wedge delineated by new structural mapping and seismic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmal, G. S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology; Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; MacKay, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone exposed along and adjacent to the Alberta Foothills was characterized on the basis of new structural mapping and seismic surveys. Results indicate that the zone is comprised of a complicated structure involving significant deformation in the hanging wall of the upper detachment, including orogenic thrusts and large orogen-vergent folds, as well as secondary orogen-directed tectonic wedging. This structure is considered to be an example of a `nested` triangle zone, where an `outer` tectonic wedge with modest shortening encases an `inner` counterpart with substantially more shortening. Both of these wedges show evidence of synchronous deformation. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  18. CT findings of inoperable lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, S.B.; Black, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    CT is useful in the evaluation of patients with newly diagnosed or highly suspected lung cancer. The principal role of CT is to screen those patients with metastatic disease beyond the hili from an attempt at curative thoracotomy. While CT is regarded as very sensitive, it is not considered highly specific, and thus a surgical procedure is usually recommended for definitive diagnosis of most ''positive'' CT findings. However, the authors demonstrate a few characteristic CT findings that are highly predictive of unresectable metastatic disease. These CT findings include massive mediastinal lymphadenopathy, diffuse mediastinal infiltration, pericardial involvement, vascular encasement, and advanced chest wall invasion

  19. Behavior of Concrete Cylinders Strengthened with a Basalt-FRP and Subjected to Mechanical Loads and Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulendinov, T.; Zesers, A.; Tamužs, V.

    2017-09-01

    Concrete samples were manufactured and strengthened with a basalt FRP (BFRP) using two kinds of winding patterns (spiral and tight). The efficiency of common and temperature-resistant epoxy binders were studied. Some of the samples were encased in an external concrete shell for an additional protection of the FRP reinforcement during heating. Both plain and polypropylene-microfiber-reinforced concretes were used for the external casing. Stress-strain relations of the samples before and after heating were obtained. The effects of high temperatures on the integrity of concrete samples with a BFRP reinforcement was investigated.

  20. Increasing sensitivity of MOS dosemeters in cascade connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vychytil, F.; Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Petr, I.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of increasing the sensitivity of MOS transistors in their cascade connection were studied theoretically and experimentally. The measurements confirmed the presumption that the instability of cascade-connected MOS transistors increased with the square of the number of transistors in the system. This allows systems to be formed with different sensitivity to ionizing radiation by encasing 10 to 10 4 transistors connected in cascade, which is technologically feasible. The procedure is also acceptable from the point of view of cost. (Z.M.)

  1. Radionuclide Migration through Sediment and Concrete: 16 Years of Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mattigod, Shas V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle MV [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Powers, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Part of these services includes safe disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, performance assessment analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires continuing data collection to increase confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied on to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the order. Cement-based solidification and stabilization is considered for hazardous waste disposal because it is easily done and cost-efficient. One critical assumption is that concrete will be used as a waste form or container material at the Hanford Site to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The radionuclides iodine-129, selenium-75, technetium-99, and uranium-238 have been identified as long-term dose contributors (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, these constituents of potential concern may be released from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and migrate into the surrounding subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989; 1992; 1993a, b; 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. Each of the

  2. Development and use of the IVV-2M fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, Yu.M.; Vasenkov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The design and performance of a fuel assembly, intended for use in the water cooled and moderated IVV-2M research reactor and consisting of dioxide dispersed in an aluminium alloy matrix encased in an aluminium alloy can, is presented. Experimental and theoretical studies included neutron characteristics of the reactor core, thermohydraulic behavior, and thermal neutron flux distribution. Data are also presented on the specific charge in u 235, the metal to water volume ratio, the specific heat removal surface, and maximum power of the assembly

  3. Internal sub-sonic burning during an explosion viewed via dynamic X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Oschwald, D.; Suvorova, N.; Remelius, D.

    2017-10-01

    We observe internal convective and conductive burn front propagation and solid consumption subsequent to thermal ignition for plastic bonded formulations of the solid organic secondary explosives octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. This work describes x-ray radiographic diagnostics enabling the study of solid density in a fully encased explosive during internal burning subsequent to ignition. The result of this study is the ability to directly observe and measure rates of energy release during a thermal explosion.

  4. Primary malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Hong; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Young Kwon; Han, Dong Sun; Cho, Jeong Hee; Yu, Pil Mun [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    Primary malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium is a very rare and highly lethal neoplasm. Diagnosis is a difficult problem and most of the cases reported in the literature were diagnosed at postmortem. We report a case of primary malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium in a 22 year-old man. CT and MR imaging both showed diffuse irregular pericardial thickening, soft tissue density with cystic lesion, nodular bulging into the myocardium, permeative growth of the tumor, and encasement of the hear and two great vessels.

  5. The longest faun tail forming dreadlocks with underlying spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Balvinder Kaur; Mahajan, Bharat Bhushan; Mittal, Jyotisterna

    2013-04-15

    Spina bifida is a developmental anomaly characterized by defective closure of the bony encasement of the spinal cord through which the spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude. We report a rare case of a very long faun tail, which was in the form of a 20 inch long tail originating from the lumbosacral area in a rhomboidal pattern, measuring 10 x 8 inches. The case is being reported for its rare presentation of a 20 inch long faun tail with underlying spina bifida occulta.

  6. Laparoscopic management of abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makam Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available "Peritonitis fibrosa incapsulata", first described in 1907, is a condition characterized by encasement of the bowel with a thick fibrous membrane. This condition was renamed as "abdominal cocoon" in 1978. It presents as small bowel obstruction clinically. 35 cases of abdominal cocoon have been reported in the literature over the last three decades. Abdominal cocoon is more common in adolescent girls from tropical countries. Various etiologies have been described, including tubercular. It is treated surgically by releasing the entrapped bowel. We report a laparoscopic experience of tubercular abdominal cocoon and review the literature.

  7. Ultra-processed foods: Consumption among children at day-care centers and their classification according to Traffic Light Labelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana LONGO-SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the age at which ultra-processed foods are introduced in the diet of infants enrolled in public daycare centers and analyze these foods' nutritional composition according to the Traffic Light Labelling system adapted to the Brazilian norms and recommendations.Methods: Cross-sectional study including 636 nursery age children attending day care centers. Their mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of instant noodles, snack chips, encased meat, chocolate, ice cream, and stuffed cookies. The proximate composition of these foods was evaluated according to the Traffic Light Labelling adapted to the Brazilian norms and recommendations, which classifies total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, fiber, and sodium amounts as green, yellow, or red indicators.Results: It was found that before 12 months of age 70.6% of children had consumed instant noodles, 65.9% snack chips, 54.7% encased meat, 67.1% chocolate, 36.9% ice cream, and 68.7% stuffed cookies. In addition, all foods were classified as red for saturated fat and sodium and 50.0% were classified as red for total fat.Conclusion: The introduction of ultra-processed foods in the children's diets occurred early, but it is worth mentioning that such foods have an inadequate nutritional composition, contributing to the excess consumption of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium, as well as low fiber.

  8. Study of the feasibility of friction STIR welding applied to the fabrication of monolithic fuel elements; Estudio para la aplicacion del proceso de soldadura por friccion-agitacion (FSW) a la fabricacion de elementos combustibles monoliticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Pedro J; Moglioni, A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. ENDE; Mirandou, Marcela; Balart, Silvia N [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

    2004-07-01

    The monolithic U-Mo fuel elements consist in a foil of a U-Mo alloy encased in Al. One of the techniques that is being tried to apply in their fabrication is Friction Stir Welding in the 'no contact at the interface' mode. The Laboratory of Welding at the National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina) has a great experience in the conventional form of this technique so has started working on this new application. This paper describes the experiments performed to obtain the operative parameters. In the first experiments AA6061 T6 (Al) plates and sheets of AISI 316 (SS) were used to obtain the optimal operative parameters of the process. Welds were performed and evaluated for different operative variables such speed, angle and diameter of the tool and tool-interface gap keeping the rotation speed constant. Tensile test, pressure leak-proof test, bending test, non-destructive test and metallography were used to characterize the welds. Finally, SS and U-Mo foils were encased using the parameters selected from the first experiments. The samples prepared with U-Mo alloy will be used as diffusion couples and for the studies of interdiffusion under irradiation. (author)

  9. Silicified virus-like nanoparticles in an extreme thermal environment: implications for the preservation of viruses in the geological record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X; Xu, H; Jones, B; Chen, S; Zhou, H

    2013-11-01

    Biofilms that grow around Gumingquan hot spring (T = 71 °C, pH = 9.2) in the Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, China, are formed of various cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Aquificae, Thermodesulfobacteria, Desulfurococcales, and Thermoproteales. Silicified virus-like nanoparticles, 40-200 nm in diameter, are common inside the microbial cells and the extracellular polymeric substances around the cells. These nanoparticles, which are formed of a core encased by a silica cortex, are morphologically akin to known viruses and directly comparable to silicified virus-like particles that were produced in biofilms cultured in the laboratory. The information obtained from examination of the natural and laboratory-produced samples suggests that viruses can be preserved by silicification, especially while they are still encased in their host cells. These results expand our views of virus-host mineral interaction in extreme thermal environments and imply that viruses can be potentially preserved and identified in the geological record. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-01-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  11. An investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for use as a control in the laser removal of rock from fossils found at the Malapa hominin site, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.E., E-mail: troberts@csir.co.za [CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Meiring Naude Road, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Plessis, A. du [CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Meiring Naude Road, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Steyn, J.; Botha, L.R.; Pityana, S. [CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Meiring Naude Road, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Berger, L.R. [Institute for Human Evolution, School of GeoSciences, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa)

    2012-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to study the spectra from fossils and surrounding rock recovered from the Cradle of Mankind site at Malapa, South Africa. The objective was to find a suitable spectral line(s), specific to fossils, which could be used as a control signal to limit damage to fossils during high speed laser removal of the encasing rock. The calcified clastic matrix (rock) encasing the fossils was found to emit a variety of complex LIBS spectra. Nevertheless, it was found possible to distinguish fossils in a single LIBS pulse, and without significant damage to the fossil, using spectral lines of neutral phosphorus. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS used to discriminate fossils from rock as potential processing control mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2 million year old fossils from Malapa hominin site found to be high in phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rock spectral lines from silicon, iron and manganese, but no phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holds great promise for process control in laser preparation of fossils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also promising for accurate identification of fossils at excavation sites.

  12. Preliminary investigation on the suitablity of using fiber reinforced concrete in the construction of a hazardous waste disposal vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey, M.R.; Daie-e, G.

    1988-07-01

    There are certain hazardous wastes that must be contained in an extremely secure vessel for transportation and disposal. The vessel, among other things, must be able to withstand relatively large impacts without rupturing. Such containment vessels therefore must be able to absorb substantial amounts of energy during an impact and still perform their function. One of the impacts that the vessel must withstand is a 30-foot fall onto an unyielding surface. For some disposal scenarios it is proposed to encase the waste in a steel enclosure which is to be surrounded by a thick layer of concrete which, in turn, is encased by a relatively thin steel shell. Tests on concrete in compression and flexure, including static, dynamic and impact tests, have shown that low modulus concretes tend to behave in a less brittle manner than higher modulus concretes. Tests also show that fiber reinforced concretes have significantly greater ductility, crack propagation resistance and toughness than conventional concretes. Since it is known that concrete is a reasonably brittle material, it is necessary to do impact tests on sample containment structures consisting of thin-walled metal containers having closed ends which are filled with concrete, grout, or fiber reinforced concrete. This report presents the results of simple tests aimed at observing the behavior of sample containment structures subjected to impacts due to a fall from 30 feet. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Bracing system of the reflecting sheets making up an insulating pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    In order to reduce heat and radiation losses, the body of nuclear reactors and the connected pipe work are encased in reflecting and insulating piles of thin spaced sheets of aluminium or stainless steel. These spaced sheets are then encased in thicker and more solid internal and external shells. The piles and shells are generally shaped to follow the contour of the reactor and connected piping. It is therefore necessary to have available a study bracing system to keep the pile intact during the various handling and assembly operations. The fastening system must also exert an effect on the edge of the pile to prevent the sheets making it up from shifting in relation to each other. The description is given of a fastening system that includes an oblong section to be fitted along the edges of the piles up sheets; bracing substantially perpendicular to the oblong section, to space the sheets of the stack in pairs; and a maintaining system, normally perpendicular to the oblong section, to enable the fastener to be clipped to the edge of the sheets by bending it around the edge of each sheet of the pile [fr

  14. A new mild hyperthermia device to treat vascular involvement in cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J; Nguyen, Lam P; Law, Justin J; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Taylor, Kimberly M; Cao, Hop S Tran; Anderson, Andrew O; Pulikkathara, Merlyn; Newton, Jared M; Ho, Jason C; Hwang, Rosa; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Coarfa, Cristian; Huang, Shixia; Edwards, Dean; Curley, Steven A; Corr, Stuart J

    2017-09-12

    Surgical margin status in cancer surgery represents an important oncologic parameter affecting overall prognosis. The risk of disease recurrence is minimized and survival often prolonged if margin-negative resection can be accomplished during cancer surgery. Unfortunately, negative margins are not always surgically achievable due to tumor invasion into adjacent tissues or involvement of critical vasculature. Herein, we present a novel intra-operative device created to facilitate a uniform and mild heating profile to cause hyperthermic destruction of vessel-encasing tumors while safeguarding the encased vessel. We use pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as an in vitro and an in vivo cancer model for these studies as it is a representative model of a tumor that commonly involves major mesenteric vessels. In vitro data suggests that mild hyperthermia (41-46 °C for ten minutes) is an optimal thermal dose to induce high levels of cancer cell death, alter cancer cell's proteomic profiles and eliminate cancer stem cells while preserving non-malignant cells. In vivo and in silico data supports the well-known phenomena of a vascular heat sink effect that causes high temperature differentials through tissues undergoing hyperthermia, however temperatures can be predicted and used as a tool for the surgeon to adjust thermal doses delivered for various tumor margins.

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas: MDCT patterns of local invasion and clinical features at presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Thornton, Amie E.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Jeffrey, R.B. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    To compare the multidetector CT (MDCT) patterns of local invasion and clinical findings at presentation in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas to patients with adenocarcinomas in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. We evaluated the two cohorts for common duct and pancreatic duct dilatation, mesenteric vascular encasement, root of mesentery invasion, perineural invasion and duodenal invasion. In addition, we compared the clinical findings at presentation in both groups. Common duct (P < 0.001) and pancreatic duct dilatation (P = 0.001) were significantly less common in uncinate process adenocarcinomas than in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. Clinical findings of jaundice (P = 0.01) and pruritis (P = 0.004) were significantly more common in patients with lesions in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. Superior mesenteric artery encasement (P = 0.02) and perineural invasion (P = 0.001) were significantly more common with uncinate process adenocarcinomas. Owing to its unique anatomic location, adenocarcinomas within the uncinate process of the pancreas have significantly different patterns of both local invasion and clinical presentation compared to patients with carcinomas in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of Microencapsulated BSH Active Lactobacillus in the Simulated Human GI Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Martoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase (BSH overproducing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 cells for oral delivery applications using a dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the human gastrointestinal (GI tract. Bile salt deconjugation rates for microencapsulated BSH overproducing cells were 4.87 ± 0.28 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards glycoconjugates and 0.79 ± 0.15 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards tauroconjugates in the simulated intestine, a significant (P< .05 increase over microencapsulated wild-type cells. Microcapsules protected the encased cells in the simulated stomach prior to intestinal release, maintaining cell viability above 109 cfu/mL at pH 2.5 and 3.0 and above 106 cfu/mL at pH 2.0 after 2-hour residence times. In the simulated intestine, encased cell viability was maintained above 1010 cfu/mL after 3, 6, and 12-hour residence times in bile concentrations up to 1.0%. Results show that microencapsulation has potential in the oral delivery of live BSH active bacterial cells. However, in vivo testing is required.

  17. August 2017 critical care case of the month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey KE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. History of Present Illness: The patient is a 26-year-old woman with who was admitted to the hospital for second cycle of chemotherapy for a large mediastinal synovial sarcoma diagnosed 2 months prior to admission. Symptoms started 6 months prior to presentation with cough. She related the cough to her cigarette smoking and quit. Upon persistence of symptoms, she was evaluated by her physician who ordered imaging. Work-up revealed a large 12 x 14cm synovial sarcoma with internal necrosis that encased the subclavian artery, and descending thoracic aorta, inseparable from pericardium and left atrium. It also encased the pulmonary veins, pulmonary arteries, and airways. Malignancy was complicated by extensive left upper extremity DVT for which she has been on anticoagulation since her last admission, SVC syndrome, and severe mucositis. Past Medical History, Family History, and Social History: She has a past medical history significant for malignant melanoma surgically resected 7 years …

  18. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  19. Fatal bleeding in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient after concurrent chemoradiation plus cetuximab: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available LingYan Zheng,1 SenXiang Yan,1 Danfang Yan,1 JingSong Yang,1 YiXiang Wang2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong KongAbstract: Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS refers to the clinical signs and symptoms related to rupture of the carotid artery (CA and its branches, which mainly results from malignant invasion of the CA by head and neck cancers. Here, we present a 46-year-old male patient who suffered from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and was treated with a combination of chemoradiation and cetuximab. The patient was stage IVb (T4N2M0 clinically, with encasement of the left internal carotid artery, as shown on pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging. Three months after completion of radiotherapy, the patient died of sudden massive epistaxis. CBS is a lethal complication of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, so the risk of CBS should be carefully assessed in patients with imaging showing CA encasement. Till now, the precise prediction and prevention of CBS remain to be explored. Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, carotid blowout syndrome, diagnosis, cetuximab, prevention

  20. Extracellular-matrix-mediated osmotic pressure drives Vibrio cholerae biofilm expansion and cheater exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Nadell, Carey D; Stone, Howard A; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-08-23

    Biofilms, surface-attached communities of bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix, are a major mode of bacterial life. How the material properties of the matrix contribute to biofilm growth and robustness is largely unexplored, in particular in response to environmental perturbations such as changes in osmotic pressure. Here, using Vibrio cholerae as our model organism, we show that during active cell growth, matrix production enables biofilm-dwelling bacterial cells to establish an osmotic pressure difference between the biofilm and the external environment. This pressure difference promotes biofilm expansion on nutritious surfaces by physically swelling the colony, which enhances nutrient uptake, and enables matrix-producing cells to outcompete non-matrix-producing cheaters via physical exclusion. Osmotic pressure together with crosslinking of the matrix also controls the growth of submerged biofilms and their susceptibility to invasion by planktonic cells. As the basic physicochemical principles of matrix crosslinking and osmotic swelling are universal, our findings may have implications for other biofilm-forming bacterial species.Most bacteria live in biofilms, surface-attached communities encased in an extracellular matrix. Here, Yan et al. show that matrix production in Vibrio cholerae increases the osmotic pressure within the biofilm, promoting biofilm expansion and physical exclusion of non-matrix producing cheaters.

  1. Modeling Stone Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge

    2017-07-11

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns.

  2. IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis: a newly characterized disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Linjuan; Wang, Cong; Tian, Jian-Li

    2016-11-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease characterized by chronic, nonspecific inflammatory and sclerotic or fibrotic tissue in the periaortic or periiliac retroperitoneum that encases adjacent structures. There will be a series of clinical manifestations once the proliferated fibrous tissues encase the abdominal aorta, iliac arteries and urinary duct. RPF is generally divided into two types: idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRPF) without identified pathogenesis, making up about two-thirds of cases, and secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis. Recent studies on Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) reveal that abundant infiltration of IgG4 positive plasma cells is found in biopsies on the mass of RPF of some IRPF patients, which is identified as one spectrum of IgG4-RD and is named IgG4-related RPF. IgG4-related RPF is often misdiagnosed as retroperitoneal visceral malignancy and is treated with surgery. In addition, because of its good response to glucocorticoid, early detection and treatment is important. We review the definition, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, treatment and prognosis of IgG4-related RPF in this article to raise awareness of this newly characterized disease. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Design innovation for the management of alpha contaminated unserviceable glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra Sandhanshive; Shivaji Shendge; SK Pol; KNS Nair; PK Wattal; IA Sarjekhan, Arun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the maturing of nuclear industry, there is an added burden on the Back End of fuel cycle. Radioactive facilities are in the need for refurbishment. This paper describes the steps adopted for managing such alpha contaminated unserviceable Glove Boxes. The first step consisted of in-situ encasement of individual Glove Boxes, encountering the challenges of low head room and space congestion in these laboratories with cognizance to regulatory requirement related to radiation safety. The second step was removal, transfer and placement of encased Glove Boxes in a dedicated facility under continuous surveillance. The glove boxes will remain stored in this facility until arrangements are completed for dismantling and volume reduction in another facility dedicated for this purpose. The final step is the development of an appropriate technique for dismantling/cutting of Glove Boxes in an alpha-tight facility constructed to prevent spread of airborne activity, collection of cut pieces, subsequent decontamination of these metallic wastes and disposal. The paper describes the design scheme for dismantling of the glove box. The description also includes hands on evaluation of tools and gadgets in pilot set-up with a view to incorporating the most credible choice in an upcoming active facility. (authors)

  4. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Kidney: A Rare Differential Diagnosis of Renomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcomas (SS are classified as subgroup of soft tissue sarcomas affecting mainly extremities of young adults. Primary SS of kidney are very rare tumours with poor prognosis. Though they have characteristic histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC due to rarity of incidence it is difficult to diagnose them. Sometimes chromosomal rearrangement studies are required to confirm the diagnosis. We are presenting a case of 41-year-old male who was referred to our cancer centre for evaluation of left renal mass. CT scan of abdomen revealed a large left renal mass encasing the aorta. Biopsy of renal mass revealed poorly differentiated sarcoma and IHC was positive for vimentin, CD99, and BCL2 and negative for AE1, epithelial membrane antigen, and leukocyte common antigen. The patient was clinically inoperable as renal mass was encasing the aorta. So he was subsequently offered palliative chemotherapy in form of ifosfamide and adriamycin. CT abdomen shows partial response after 3 cycles of chemotherapy according to RECIST criteria.

  5. Performance of semi-continuous membrane bioreactor in biogas production from toxic feedstock containing D-Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Youngsukkasem, Supansa; Millati, Ria; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-10-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor configuration containing both free and encased cells in a single reactor was proposed in this work. The reactor consisted of 120g/L of free cells and 120g/L of encased cells in a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and d-Limonene were used as the models of substrate and inhibitor for biogas production, respectively. Different concentrations of d-Limonene i.e., 1, 5, and 10g/L were tested, and an experiment without the addition of d-Limonene was prepared as control. The digestion was performed in a semi-continuous thermophilic reactor for 75 days. The result showed that daily methane production in the reactor with the addition of 1g/L d-Limonene was similar to that of control. A lag phase was observed in the presence of 5g/L d-Limonene; however, after 10 days, the methane production increased and reached a similar production to that of the control after 15 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification of resolution in multiplanar reconstructions for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vent, Trevor L.; Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Kwon, Young Joon; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2016-03-01

    Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) allows tomographic images to be portrayed in various orientations. We have conducted research to determine the resolution of tomosynthesis MPR. We built a phantom that houses a star test pattern to measure resolution. This phantom provides three rotational degrees of freedom. The design consists of two hemispheres with longitudinal and latitudinal grooves that reference angular increments. When joined together, the hemispheres form a dome that sits inside a cylindrical encasement. The cylindrical encasement contains reference notches to match the longitudinal and latitudinal grooves that guide the phantom's rotations. With this design, any orientation of the star-pattern can be analyzed. Images of the star-pattern were acquired using a DBT mammography system at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Images taken were reconstructed and analyzed by two different methods. First, the maximum visible frequency (in line pairs per millimeter) of the star test pattern was measured. Then, the contrast was calculated at a fixed spatial frequency. These analyses confirm that resolution decreases with tilt relative to the breast support. They also confirm that resolution in tomosynthesis MPR is dependent on object orientation. Current results verify that the existence of super-resolution depends on the orientation of the frequency; the direction parallel to x-ray tube motion shows super-resolution. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the direction of the spatial frequency relative to the motion of the x-ray tube is a determinant of resolution in MPR for DBT.

  7. An investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for use as a control in the laser removal of rock from fossils found at the Malapa hominin site, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.E.; Plessis, A. du; Steyn, J.; Botha, L.R.; Pityana, S.; Berger, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to study the spectra from fossils and surrounding rock recovered from the Cradle of Mankind site at Malapa, South Africa. The objective was to find a suitable spectral line(s), specific to fossils, which could be used as a control signal to limit damage to fossils during high speed laser removal of the encasing rock. The calcified clastic matrix (rock) encasing the fossils was found to emit a variety of complex LIBS spectra. Nevertheless, it was found possible to distinguish fossils in a single LIBS pulse, and without significant damage to the fossil, using spectral lines of neutral phosphorus. - Highlights: ► LIBS used to discriminate fossils from rock as potential processing control mechanism. ► 2 million year old fossils from Malapa hominin site found to be high in phosphorus. ► Rock spectral lines from silicon, iron and manganese, but no phosphorus. ► Holds great promise for process control in laser preparation of fossils. ► Also promising for accurate identification of fossils at excavation sites.

  8. Distinguishing neuroblastoma invading the kidney from nephroblastoma: evaluation in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Zhongwei; Li Guoping; Mamier; Wang Kang'an; Lv Zhibao; Miao Fei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT findings in the differential diagnosis between neuroblastoma invading the kidney and nephroblastoma. Methods: CT morphologic details in 13 patients with neuroblastoma invading the kidney confirmed by surgical operation and pathology were studied, and CT findings in 15 patients with nephroblastoma confirmed by surgery and pathology were compared. Results: In 13 cases of neuroblastoma, CT showed irregular mass in 12 cases, tumor with poorly defined margins in 11 cases, tumorous calcifications in 10 cases, invasion of retroperitoneal vessels in 9 cases, and retroperitoneal and retrocrural lymph nodes invasion in 12 cases. In 15 cases of nephroblastoma, round mass was p resented in 12 cases, tumor with poorly defined margins in 2 cases, tumorous calcifications in 2 cases, involvement of retroperitoneal vessels in 2 cases, and invasion of retroperitoneal lymph nodes in 3 cases. None of the nephroblastoma invaded retrocrural lymph nodes. Irregular mass with calcifications, involvement of retroperitoneal vessels, retrocrural and retroperitoneal lymph nodes were more common in cases of neuroblastoma than in nephroblastoma. Moreover, involvement of retrocrural lymph nodes and encasement of retroperitoneal vessels had higher positive prediction value on neuroblastoma. Conclusion: Involvement of retrocrural lymph nodes and encasement of retroperitoneal vessels were the specific CT findings of neuroblastoma and the most valuable evidence in distinguishing neuroblastoma from nephroblastoma. (authors)

  9. Data Processing Methods for 3D Seismic Imaging of Subsurface Volcanoes: Applications to the Tarim Flood Basalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tian, Wei; Shi, Yongmin

    2017-08-07

    The morphology and structure of plumbing systems can provide key information on the eruption rate and style of basalt lava fields. The most powerful way to study subsurface geo-bodies is to use industrial 3D reflection seismological imaging. However, strategies to image subsurface volcanoes are very different from that of oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, we process seismic data cubes from the Northern Tarim Basin, China, to illustrate how to visualize sills through opacity rendering techniques and how to image the conduits by time-slicing. In the first case, we isolated probes by the seismic horizons marking the contacts between sills and encasing strata, applying opacity rendering techniques to extract sills from the seismic cube. The resulting detailed sill morphology shows that the flow direction is from the dome center to the rim. In the second seismic cube, we use time-slices to image the conduits, which corresponds to marked discontinuities within the encasing rocks. A set of time-slices obtained at different depths show that the Tarim flood basalts erupted from central volcanoes, fed by separate pipe-like conduits.

  10. Gamma ampersand beta-gamma storm water monitor operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tshiskiku, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) facilities have nine storm water monitors that monitor storm water run off from different process areas for Cesium 137, a Gamma emitter. F - Area has three monitors: 907-2F, 907-3F and 907-4F while H - Area has six monitors: 907-2H, 907-3H, 907-4H, 907-5H, 907-6H and 907-7H (See attachments number-sign 1, number-sign 2 and number-sign 3 for location). In addition to monitoring for Cesium, 907-6H and 907-7H monitor for Strontium-90, a Beta emitter. Each monitor is associated with one of the following diversion gate encasements 907-1H, 241-15H, 241-51H, 907-1F or 241-23F. Normal flow of storm water from these diversion gate encasements is to the Four Mile Creek. When a storm water monitor detects radioactivity at a level exceeding the Four Mile Creek discharge limit, the monitor causes repositioning of the associated diversion gate to discharge to the H - Area retention basin 281-8H or the F - Area retention basin 281-8F. In response to recent OSR interpretation of storm water monitor calibration requirements, this report is provided to document operability and accuracy of radiation detection

  11. Controlled epitaxial growth of mesoporous silica/gold nanorod nanolollipops and nanodumb-bells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ching-Mao; Chung, Ming-Fang; Lo, Leu-Wei; Souris, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we describe the controlled synthesis of novel heterogeneous nanostructures comprised of mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods (MSGNRs) in the form of core–shell nanolollipops and nanodumb-bells, using a seed-mediated sol–gel method. Although MSGNR core–shell (θ-MSGNR) structures have been reported previously by us and others, we herein discuss the first ever fabrication of MSGNR nanolollipops (φ-MSGNR) and nanodumb-bells (β-MSGNR), achieved by simply controlling the aging time of gold nanorods (GNRs), the residual cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) coating of GNRs, and the addition of dimethyl formamide during incubation, centrifugation, and sonication, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed two bare GNR isoforms, with aspect ratios of approximately 4 and 6, while scanning electron microscopy was used to further elucidate the morphology of φ-MSGNR and β-MSGNR heterostructures. In agreement with the smaller dielectric constants afforded by incomplete silica encasement, spectroscopic studies of φ-MSGNR and β-MSGNR, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands revealed 20-40 nm blue shifts relative to the SPR of θ-MSGNR. On the basis of the attributes and applications of more conventional θ-MSGNRs, φ-MSGNRs and β-MSGNRs are anticipated to provide most of the utility of θ-MSGNRs, but with the additional functionalities that accompany their incorporation of both bare gold and mesoporous silica encased tips; with significant/unique implications for biomedical and catalytic applications

  12. Study of the feasibility of friction STIR welding applied to the fabrication of monolithic fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabot, Pedro J.; Moglioni, A.; Mirandou, Marcela; Balart, Silvia N.

    2004-01-01

    The monolithic U-Mo fuel elements consist in a foil of a U-Mo alloy encased in Al. One of the techniques that is being tried to apply in their fabrication is Friction Stir Welding in the 'no contact at the interface' mode. The Laboratory of Welding at the National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina) has a great experience in the conventional form of this technique so has started working on this new application. This paper describes the experiments performed to obtain the operative parameters. In the first experiments AA6061 T6 (Al) plates and sheets of AISI 316 (SS) were used to obtain the optimal operative parameters of the process. Welds were performed and evaluated for different operative variables such speed, angle and diameter of the tool and tool-interface gap keeping the rotation speed constant. Tensile test, pressure leak-proof test, bending test, non-destructive test and metallography were used to characterize the welds. Finally, SS and U-Mo foils were encased using the parameters selected from the first experiments. The samples prepared with U-Mo alloy will be used as diffusion couples and for the studies of interdiffusion under irradiation. (author)

  13. N-doped graphene coupled with Co nanoparticles as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Lu, Wangting; Cao, Feifei; Xiao, Zhidong; Zheng, Xinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Development of low-cost and highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still a great challenge for the large-scale application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, a noble metal-free ORR electrocatalyst in the form of N-doped graphene coupled with part of Co nanoparticles encased in N-doped graphitic shells (named as SUCo-0.03-800) is prepared by facile one-step pyrolysis of the mixture of sucrose, urea and cobalt nitrate. The novel structure is confirmed by High Resolution-TEM, XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. SUCo-0.03-800 presents comparable ORR catalytic activity to commercial Pt/C catalyst with a dominating four-electron pathway under alkaline conditions, and both of its mass activity and volume activity also outperform Co-free N-doped graphene and other Co/N-C hybrids with higher Co content, which may probably be ascribed to the high specific surface area, novel structure and synergistic effect between encased Co nanoparticles and N-doped graphitic shell. Additionally, SUCo-0.03-800 also shows outstanding stability and improved selectivity towards ORR, making it a promising alternative to Pt with potential application in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  14. Adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas: MDCT patterns of local invasion and clinical features at presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Thornton, Amie E.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the multidetector CT (MDCT) patterns of local invasion and clinical findings at presentation in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas to patients with adenocarcinomas in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. We evaluated the two cohorts for common duct and pancreatic duct dilatation, mesenteric vascular encasement, root of mesentery invasion, perineural invasion and duodenal invasion. In addition, we compared the clinical findings at presentation in both groups. Common duct (P < 0.001) and pancreatic duct dilatation (P = 0.001) were significantly less common in uncinate process adenocarcinomas than in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. Clinical findings of jaundice (P = 0.01) and pruritis (P = 0.004) were significantly more common in patients with lesions in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. Superior mesenteric artery encasement (P = 0.02) and perineural invasion (P = 0.001) were significantly more common with uncinate process adenocarcinomas. Owing to its unique anatomic location, adenocarcinomas within the uncinate process of the pancreas have significantly different patterns of both local invasion and clinical presentation compared to patients with carcinomas in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. (orig.)

  15. CT differentiation of invasive thymoma and thymic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Kim, Seong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Shin, Mi Jung; Kim, Jung Sik; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine the differential points between them, we analyzed the CT findings of invasive thymoma and thymic carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 14 patients with invasive thymoma and 15 with thymic carcinoma, confirmed by surgery(n=3D19) or percutaneous needle aspiration(n=3D10) between 1988 and 1996. CT findings were evaluated in each group for intrathoracic spread(posterior, direct posterior, and anterolateral), obliteration of the fat plane between the mass and vascular structures, vessel encasement, invasion of adjacent mediastinal structures, pleural implants, mediastinal nodes and distant metastasis. Direct posterior spread was more common in thymic carcinoma than invasive thymoma;it was seen in one case (7%) of invasive thymoma and 12(80%) of thymic carcinoma(p=3D0.00). Posterior spread was seen in six cases (43%) of in vasive thymoma and nine (60%) of thymic carcinoma. Anterolateral spread was seen only in two cases (13%) of thymic carcinoma. Obliteration of the fat plane was seen in nine cases (64%) of invasive thymoma and 14 (93%) of thymic carcinoma, while vessel encasement was seen in two cases (14%) of invasive thymoma and 13(87%) of thymic carcinoma(p=3D0.00). Invasion of adjacent structures was seen in two cases (14%) of invasive thymoma and eight (53%) of thymic carcinoma. Pleural implants were more common in invasive thymoma than thymic carcinoma, being seen in six cases (43%) of the former and one (7%) of the latter(p=3D0.04). Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was seen in three cases (21%) of invasive thymoma and ten (67%) of thymic carcinoma. Distant metastases were observed only in six cases (40%) of thymic carcinoma(p=3D0.02). Although differentiation between invasive thymoma and thymic carcinoma is difficult on the basis of CT findings, there are certain differential points. Thymic carcinomas showed a higher rate of direct posterior intrathoracic spread, vessel encasement, mediastinal nodes and distant metastases than

  16. Evaluation of the relationship between extremity soft tissue sarcomas and adjacent major vessels using contrast-enhanced multidetector CT and three-dimensional volume-rendered CT angiography - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, YangKang; Lin, JianBang; Cai, AiQun; Zhou, XiuGuo; Zheng, Yu; Wei, XiaoLong; Cheng, Ying; Liu, GuoRui

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accurate description of the relationship between extremity soft tissue sarcoma and the adjacent major vessels is crucial for successful surgery. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or in patients who cannot undergo MRI, two-dimensional (2D) postcontrast computed tomography (CT) images and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered CT angiography may be valuable alternative imaging techniques for preoperative evaluation of extremity sarcomas. Purpose: To preoperatively assess extremity sarcomas using multidetector CT (MDCT), with emphasis on postcontrast MDCT images and 3D volume-rendered MDCT angiography in evaluating the relationship between tumors and adjacent major vessels. Material and Methods: MDCT examinations were performed on 13 patients with non-metastatic extremity sarcomas. Conventional CT images and 3D volume-rendered CT angiography were evaluated, with focus on the relationship between tumors and adjacent major vessels. Kappa consistency statistics were performed with surgery serving as the reference standard. Results: The relationship between sarcomas and adjacent vessels was described as one of three patterns: proximity, adhesion, and encasement. Proximity was seen in five cases on postcontrast CT images or in eight cases on volume-rendered images. Adhesion was seen in three cases on both postcontrast CT images and volume-rendered images. Encasement was seen in five cases on postcontrast CT images or in two cases on volume-rendered images. Compared to surgical results, postcontrast CT images had 100% sensitivity, 83.3% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 92.3% accuracy in the detection of vascular invasion (κ = 0.843, P = 0.002). 3D volume-rendered CT angiography had 71.4% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 75% negative predictive value, and 84.6% accuracy in the detection of vascular invasion (κ = 0.698, P = 0.008). On volume-rendered images, all cases

  17. Ultrasound and MR imaging of fibromatosis colli (sternomastoid tumor of infancy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablin, D.S.; Jain, K.; Howell, L.; West, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The sonographic and CT findings of fibromatosis colli (sternomastoid tumor of infancy) have been described, but the MRI appearance has been reported in only one case in which the mass resolved over time. This case describes the detailed MRI findings in a biopsy-proven case of fibromatosis colli; the signal intensity of the mass on T2-weighted images was slightly less than on gradient-recalled T1-weighted images, consistent with the presence of some fibrous tissue within the muscle mass. The involved portion of the muscle was better defined on MRI than sonography. MRI was helpful in demonstrating the signal characteristics of the mass; localizing the mass to within the sternocleidomastoid muscle; and demonstrating clear surrounding fascial planes with lack of associated lymphadenopathy, airway compression, vascular encasement, bone involvement or intracranial/intraspinal extension associated with other neck masses. (orig.)

  18. Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Alstrup, J.; Spanggaard, H.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of making large area (100 cm(2)) polymer solar cells based on the conjugated polymer poly 1,4-(2-methoxy-5-ethylhexyloxy)phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) was demonstrated. Devices were prepared by etching an electrode pattern on ITO covered polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates....... A pattern of conducting silver epoxy allowing for electrical contacts to the device was silk screen printed and hardened. Subsequently a pattern of MEH-PPV was silk screen printed in registry with the ITO electrode pattern on top of the substrate. Final evaporation of an aluminum electrode or sublimation......). The half-life based on I-sc in air for the devices were 63 h. The cells were laminated in a 125 mum PET encasement. Lamination had a negative effect on the lifetime. We demonstrate the feasibility of industrial production of large area solar cells (1 m(2)) by silk screen printing and envisage...

  19. A GENERIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUE USING FLUIDIC ISOLATION FOR LOW-DRIFT IMPLANTABLE PRESSURE SENSORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A; Powell, C R; Ziaie, B

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on a generic packaging method for reducing drift in implantable pressure sensors. The described technique uses fluidic isolation by encasing the pressure sensor in a liquid-filled medical-grade polyurethane balloon; thus, isolating it from surrounding aqueous environment that is the major source of baseline drift. In-vitro tests using commercial micromachined piezoresistive pressure sensors show an average baseline drift of 0.006 cmH 2 O/day (0.13 mmHg/month) for over 100 days of saline soak test, as compared to 0.101 cmH 2 O/day (2.23 mmHg/month) for a non-fluidic-isolated one soaked for 18 days. To our knowledge, this is the lowest reported drift for an implantable pressure sensor.

  20. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections.

  1. Research programme on radioactive wastes; Forschungsprogramm Radioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhardt, A. [Eidgenoessische Kommission fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (KSA), Brugg (Switzerland); Hufschmid, P. [Kommission Nukleare Entsorgung (KNE), Bern (Switzerland); Jordi, S. [Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne (Switzerland); Schanne, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Medienwissenschaft (IAM), Zuercher Hochschule, Winterthur (Switzerland); Vigfusson, J. [Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (HSK), Brugg (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  2. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Nygren, Richard E.; Ulrickson, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  3. Fast geometric algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis addresses a number of important problems that fall within the framework of the new discipline of Computational Geometry. The list of topics covered includes sorting and selection, convex hull algorithms, the L 1 hull, determination of the minimum encasing rectangle of a set of points, the Euclidean and L 1 diameter of a set of points, the metric traveling salesman problem, and finding the superrange of star-shaped and monotype polygons. The main theme of all the work was to develop a set of very fast state-of-the-art algorithms that supersede any rivals in terms of speed and ease of implementation. In some cases existing algorithms were refined; for others new techniques were developed that add to the present database of fast adaptive geometric algorithms. What emerges is a collection of techniques that is successful at merging modern tools developed in analysis of algorithms with those of classical geometry

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm, a Programmed Bacterial Life for Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keehoon; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2017-06-28

    A biofilm is a community of microbes that typically inhabit on surfaces and are encased in an extracellular matrix. Biofilms display very dissimilar characteristics to their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are ubiquitous in the environment and influence our lives tremendously in both positive and negative ways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium known to produce robust biofilms. P. aeruginosa biofilms cause severe problems in immunocompromised patients, including those with cystic fibrosis or wound infection. Moreover, the unique biofilm properties further complicate the eradication of the biofilm infection, leading to the development of chronic infections. In this review, we discuss the history of biofilm research and general characteristics of bacterial biofilms. Then, distinct features pertaining to each stage of P. aeruginosa biofilm development are highlighted. Furthermore, infections caused by biofilms on their own or in association with other bacterial species ( i.e. , multispecies biofilms) are discussed in detail.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  7. Abundance, size distribution and bacterial colonization of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) during spring in the Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mari, X.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    of beta differed significantly from three, probably because TEP are fractal. All TEP were colonized by bacteria, and bacteria were both attached to the surface of and embedded in TEP. Yet the number of attached bacteria per TEP was related neither to the surface area nor the volume, but rather scaled.......p.m.; they were most abundant in the surface waters subsequent to the spring phytoplankton bloom. The range of TEP (encased) volume concentration was similar to that of the phytoplankton, although at times TEP volume concentration exceeded that of the phytoplankton by two orders of magnitude. The TEP size...... to be formed from colloidal organic material exuded by phytoplankton and bacteria, and may have significant implications for pelagic flux processes. During this study, the number concentration of TEP (>1 mu m) ranged from 3 x 10(3) to 6 x 10(4) ml(-1) and the volume concentration between 0.3 and 9.0 p...

  8. Thulium-170 heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  9. Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the small bowel mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an uncommon cutaneous malignant tumor that presents as a rapidly growing skin nodule on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is aggressive with regional nodal and distant metastases to the skin, lung, and bones. There have been no reports of metastatic MCC to the mesentery and 6 reports describing metastasis to the small intestine. We present a case of metastatic MCC to the mesentery with infiltration to the small bowel, 8 years after original tumor resection. This is the 5th metastasis and it encased the small bowel resulting in a hair-pin loop contributing to the unusual clinical presentation. Although MCC metastatic to the bowel is uncommon, it is not rare. It is important to recognize the unusual manifestations of this disease as they are becoming more common in the future. Routine radiologic surveillance and thorough review of systems are important to patient follow-up.

  10. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  11. A Rare Presentation of a Rare Disease: Pulmonary Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old female presented with a 4-week history of dry cough and wheezing. Chest radiograph showed a 10.5 cm mass-like density in the anterior mediastinum which had not been previously visualized. Computed tomography scan (CT of the chest showed a right hilar mass encasing and narrowing right upper lobe bronchus and right mainstem bronchus and secondary atelectatic changes. Biopsy was consistent with a diagnosis of lymphomatoid granulomatosis Grade 3. She responded well clinically and radiologically to therapy. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a rare EBV-associated disorder which is considered a lymphoproliferative disease. The most common radiographic feature is multiple lung nodules. An isolated hilar mass is an exceptionally rare presentation of this rare disease.

  12. Comportement des poteaux mixtes acier-béton soumis aux sollicitations de type monotone. Étude expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Câmpian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than one hundred years the construction system based on steel or composite steel -- concrete frames became one of the more utilized types of building in civil engineering domain. For an optimal dimensioning of the structure, the engineers had to found a compromise between the structural exigency for the resistance, stiffness and ductility, on one side, and architectural exigency on the other side. Three monotonic tests and nine cyclic tests according to ECCS loading procedure were carried out in Cluj Laboratory of Concrete. The tested composite columns of fully encased type were subject to a variable transverse load at one end while keeping a constant value of the axial compression force into them. An analytical interpretation is given for the calculus of column stiffness for the monotonic tests, making a comparation with the latest versions of the Eurocode 4 stiffness formula.

  13. Modelling studies for the assessment of the Advanced Cold Process Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.; Hoch, A.R.; Sharland, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC) is a new concept for the encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. It consists of steel canister encased in a copper overpack. In this paper, modelling studies to assess the performance of the ACPC under repository conditions are presented. The production of nitric acid and ammonia through radiolysis of any water remaining inside the canister under fault conditions has been examined in this study. However, results suggest that only low levels are possible, and the risk of stress-corrosion cracking is considered small. The corrosion behavior subsequent to a breach in the outer canister was also considered. A model was constructed to predict the hydrogen gas production due to corrosion reactions, and evolution of the corrosion behavior

  14. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  15. S Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document is prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of S Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and the results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. This report describes the REDOX facility and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them

  16. PUREX Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    The PUREX aggregate area is made up of six operable units; 200-PO-1 through 200-PO-6 and consists of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, PUREX Plant operations. This report describes PUREX and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  17. Experimental study of a macrocrack propagation in a concrete specimen subjected to creep loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Boulay, C.; Tailhan, J.-L.; Martin, E.

    2013-07-01

    Structures managers need a better prediction of the delayed failure of concrete structures, especially for very important structures like nuclear power plant encasement. Sustained loadings at high level (above 75% of loading capacity of the structure), can lead to structure failure after some time. In this study, a series of 4-point bending tests were performed in order to characterize the creep behaviour of pre-cracked beams under high load level. The specimens were made of normal strength concrete. A power law relationship is observed between the secondary deflection creep rate and the failure time. It is also shown that when crack propagation occurs during the creep loading, the creep deflection rate increases with the creep loading level and with the crack propagation rate.

  18. Reconstructing Anaximander's biological model unveils a theory of evolution akin to Darwin's, though centuries before the birth of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2016-08-01

    Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The poor reception received by Anaximander's model in his time, illustrates a zeitgeist that would explain the contemporary lag phase in the development of biology and, as a result, medicine, in the ancient western world.

  19. Deuterium absorption in CANDU Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploc, R.A.; McRae, G.A

    1999-12-01

    Corrosion of CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes in heavy water results in the formation of an oxide film and the absorption of deuterium by the alloy. If deuterium concentrations are allowed to exceed the terminal solid solubility of the alloy, brittle deuterides can form, thereby limiting the service life of a component. In CANDU pressure tubes, ingress rates are largely determined by the metastable {beta}-Zr that is present as a thin layer encasing the predominant {alpha}-Zr grains (approximately 90% by volume). The distribution and continuity of the corroded {beta}-phase in the oxide provides a pervasive web for the development of interconnected porosity from the free surface to the oxide/metal interface. Changing the distribution of the {beta}-phase in the alloy changes the nature of the oxide porosity, a technique that can be used to reduce deuterium ingress rates. (author)

  20. Castor and Pollux - shielded cells for studying fuel treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudot, G.; Bathellier, A.

    1969-01-01

    CASTOR and POLLUX, two alpha, beta, gamma cells are described in the present paper. They are located in the CEN at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). They are designed for improvement studies of the various aqueous separation processes used in irradiated fuels reprocessing plants. Located in the same air-tight steel encasement, they arc inter-connected by a pneumatic transfer. These two cells have a similar in-line conception and they include: a gamma shielding in lead of 10 cm of thickness; an inner air-tight box, made with stainless steel and plexiglas, is maintained in lowering in comparison to room pressure. Eleven Hobson model seven master-slave manipulators allow inner manipulations. Then the inner equipment is described briefly. (author) [fr

  1. A mother cell-to-forespore channel: current understanding and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Adam D; Serrano, Mónica; Stanley, Will A; Henriques, Adriano O; Salgado, Paula S

    2014-09-01

    Formation of endospores allows some bacteria to survive extreme nutrient limitation. The resulting dormant cell, the spore, persists in the environment and is highly resistant to physical and chemical stresses. During spore formation, cells divide asymmetrically and the mother cell engulfs the developing spore, encasing it within a double membrane and isolating it from the medium. Communication between mother cell and isolated forespore involves a specialised connection system that allows nurturing of the forespore and continued macromolecular synthesis, required to finalise spore maturation. Here, we review current understanding of this feeding channel formed by a forespore protein, SpoIIQ, and a mother cell protein, SpoIIIAH, in the model organism Bacillus subtilis and the important human pathogen Clostridium difficile. We also analyse the presence of this channel across endospore-forming bacteria and highlight the main questions still remaining. © 2014 The Authors FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  2. Nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tark, Soo-Hyun; Dravid, Vinayak P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Das, Aditi; Sligar, Stephen, E-mail: s-sligar@illinois.edu, E-mail: v-dravid@northwestern.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-10-29

    The label-free detection of cholera toxin is demonstrated using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs. The cholera toxin molecules bind specifically to the active membrane protein encased in nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayers surrounded by an amphipathic protein belt, immobilized on the cantilever surface. The specific molecular binding results in cantilever deflection via the formation of a surface stress-induced bending moment. The nanomechanical cantilever response is quantitatively monitored by optical interference. The consistent and reproducible nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin in nanomolar range concentrations is demonstrated. The results validated with such a model system suggest that the combination of a microcantilever platform with receptor nanodiscs is a promising approach for monitoring invasive pathogens and other types of biomolecular detection relevant to drug discovery.

  3. Nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tark, Soo-Hyun; Dravid, Vinayak P; Das, Aditi; Sligar, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The label-free detection of cholera toxin is demonstrated using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs. The cholera toxin molecules bind specifically to the active membrane protein encased in nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayers surrounded by an amphipathic protein belt, immobilized on the cantilever surface. The specific molecular binding results in cantilever deflection via the formation of a surface stress-induced bending moment. The nanomechanical cantilever response is quantitatively monitored by optical interference. The consistent and reproducible nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin in nanomolar range concentrations is demonstrated. The results validated with such a model system suggest that the combination of a microcantilever platform with receptor nanodiscs is a promising approach for monitoring invasive pathogens and other types of biomolecular detection relevant to drug discovery.

  4. Modification of coaxial Ge/Li detector for low-energy gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrivankova, M.; Seda, J.

    1992-01-01

    A modification is described of a coaxial Ge/Li type ionizing radiation detector which makes possible the detection and spectrometry not only of medium- and high-energy gamma rays but also of low-energy (above 5 keV) X-rays and gamma rays. The modification consists in grinding down a thick diffuse layer of the face, which is subsequently etched in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids (ratio 5:2 to 1:5). Phosphorus or arsenic is subsequently implanted at an energy of 5 to 30 keV and in a dose of 10 14 to 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The detector is then drifted at 30 to 50 degC for 2 to 20 hours, encased in a cryostat, and submerged into liquid nitrogen. (Z.S.)

  5. Extranodal Rosai Dorfman disease in multiple sites: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jong Joon; Kim, Ho Kyun; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Suh, Jung Ho; Hong, Seong Woo; Lee, Hye Kyung [Seoul Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Rosai Dorfman disease involves an abnormal proliferation of histiocytes. This abnormal growth tends to occur within the lymph nodes, with occasional extranodal presentation. Rosai Dorfman disease is a rare disease, and the extranodal cases are even more uncommon. We report a rare case of extranodal Rosai Dorfman disease in multiple sites in a 56 year old male patient. Abdominopelvic CT revealed soft tissue attenuation masses, encasing both the renal pelvis and both ureters, as well as the thoracic vertebra. Following the neck sonography, both submandibular glands had an enlarged honey combed appearance. Although Rosai Dorfman disease is rare, it should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis when multiple sites involving soft tissue attenuation masses are observed with sonogram and CT.

  6. Deuterium absorption in CANDU Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, R.A.; McRae, G.A.

    1999-12-01

    Corrosion of CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes in heavy water results in the formation of an oxide film and the absorption of deuterium by the alloy. If deuterium concentrations are allowed to exceed the terminal solid solubility of the alloy, brittle deuterides can form, thereby limiting the service life of a component. In CANDU pressure tubes, ingress rates are largely determined by the metastable β-Zr that is present as a thin layer encasing the predominant α-Zr grains (approximately 90% by volume). The distribution and continuity of the corroded β-phase in the oxide provides a pervasive web for the development of interconnected porosity from the free surface to the oxide/metal interface. Changing the distribution of the β-phase in the alloy changes the nature of the oxide porosity, a technique that can be used to reduce deuterium ingress rates. (author)

  7. Resonance Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of a Nanofibrous Composite and Studying the Effect of Surface/Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Kalvandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resonances are intrinsic characteristics of an elastic object, which are completely independent of the source of excitation. The appropriate utilization of the information contained within the resonance spectra and the identification of the resonance frequencies of the object can be used as a potent tool for material characterization. In this paper, a new mathematical model for the wave diffraction from a cylindrical nanofiber encased in an elastic matrix is introduced. The new model is used to evaluate the scattered pressure field resulting from normal insonification on a single nanofibrous composite. It is shown that there are specific resonances, which arise from the surface/interface energy between the nanofiber and solid matrix. They can be used to determine the characteristics and properties of fibrous nanocomposites.

  8. “Data characterizing microfabricated human blood vessels created via hydrodynamic focusing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. DiVito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides further detailed information related to our research article titled “Microfabricated Blood Vessels Undergo Neovascularization” (DiVito et al., 2017 [1], in which we report fabrication of human blood vessels using hydrodynamic focusing (HDF. Hydrodynamic focusing with advection inducing chevrons were used in concert to encase one fluid stream within another, shaping the inner core fluid into ‘bullseye-like” cross-sections that were preserved through click photochemistry producing streams of cellularized hollow 3-dimensional assemblies, such as human blood vessels (Daniele et al., 2015a, 2015b, 2014, 2016; Roberts et al., 2016 [2–6]. Applications for fabricated blood vessels span general tissue engineering to organ-on-chip technologies, with specific utility in in vitro drug delivery and pharmacodynamics studies. Here, we report data regarding the construction of blood vessels including cellular composition and cell positioning within the engineered vascular construct as well as functional aspects of the tissues.

  9. Structure of the acidianus filamentous virus 3 and comparative genomics of related archaeal lipothrixviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Aramayo, Ricardo; Basta, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Four novel filamentous viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, namely, Acidianus filamentous virus 3 (AFV3), AFV6, AFV7, and AFV8, have been characterized from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus, and they are assigned to the Betalipothrixvirus genus of the family Lipothrixviridae....... The structures of the approximately 2-mum-long virions are similar, and one of them, AFV3, was studied in detail. It consists of a cylindrical envelope containing globular subunits arranged in a helical formation that is unique for any known double-stranded DNA virus. The envelope is 3.1 nm thick and encases...... structural proteins; (iii) multiple overlapping open reading frames, which may be indicative of gene recoding; (iv) putative 12-bp genetic elements; and (v) partial gene sequences corresponding closely to spacer sequences of chromosomal repeat clusters....

  10. Laser-tissue interaction in tattoo removal by q-switched lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shyamanta

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) lasers are widely considered the gold standard for tattoo removal, with excellent clinical results, impressive predictability, and a good safety profile. The generation of giant pulses by the method of Q-switching is responsible for the unique laser-tissue interaction that is seen in tattoo removal by QS lasers. The QS lasers work by impaction and dissolution of the tattoo pigments. Mechanical fragmentation of the tattoo pigments encased in intracellular lamellated organelles followed by their phagocytosis by macrophages is thought to be the major event in the clearance of pigments by QS lasers. A few novel techniques have been tried in recent times to hasten the clearance of tattoo pigments.

  11. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%)

  12. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%).

  13. Back pressure helium leak testing of fuel elements for Dhruva research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, N G; Ahmad, Anis; Kulkarni, P G; Purushotham, D S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Atomic Fuels Div.

    1994-12-31

    Leak tightness specification on fuel elements for reactor use is always very stringent. The fuel element fabricated for Dhruva reactor is specified to be leak-tight up to 1 x 10{sup -8} std. cc/sec. The fuel element consists of natural metallic uranium rod around 12.5 mm diameter and 3 meter long in encased in aluminium tube and seal welded at both ends. Since helium gas is not filled inside the fuel element while doing seal welding, the only way to do helium leak testing of such fuel rods is by back-pressure technique. This paper describes the development of test facility for carrying out such test and discusses the experiences of carrying out helium leak testing by back-pressure technique on more than 700 numbers of fuel rods for Dhruva reactor. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Theory and modelling of nanocarbon phase stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The transformation of nanodiamonds into carbon-onions (and vice versa) has been observed experimentally and has been modeled computationally at various levels of sophistication. Also, several analytical theories have been derived to describe the size, temperature and pressure dependence of this phase transition. However, in most cases a pure carbon-onion or nanodiamond is not the final product. More often than not an intermediary is formed, known as a bucky-diamond, with a diamond-like core encased in an onion-like shell. This has prompted a number of studies investigating the relative stability of nanodiamonds, bucky-diamonds, carbon-onions and fullerenes, in various size regimes. Presented here is a review outlining results of numerous theoretical studies examining the phase diagrams and phase stability of carbon nanoparticles, to clarify the complicated relationship between fullerenic and diamond structures at the nanoscale.

  15. Cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary adenomas. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging findings and histologically verified dural invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daita, Go; Yonemasu, Yukichi; Nakai, Hirofumi; Takei, Hidetoshi; Ogawa, Katsuhiro [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and histologically verified invasion of the cavernous sinus by tumor cells was studied in 26 patients treated surgically for pituitary adenoma. Dural invasion of the sellar floor by tumor cells was found in 10 cases (38%). All patients were classified according to MR imaging findings into three types. Type I showed a gadolinium-enhanced stripe medial to the carotid artery (5 patients), none of which showed dural invasion. Type II showed no enhanced stripe (17 patients), six of which showed dural invasion. Within this type, tumor size and dural invasion showed no correlation. Type III showed displacement or encasement of the carotid artery by the tumor with or without extracranial extension (4 patients), all of which showed massive infiltration of the tumor cells into the dura mater. This study shows that preoperative MR imaging can provide information for assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus in patients with pituitary adenoma. (author).

  16. Experimental investigation of a small-scale thermally driven pressurized adsorption chiller

    KAUST Repository

    Loh, Waisoong; Ismail, Azhar Bin; Ng, Kim Choon; Chun, Wongee

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the successful operation of an adsorption cycle in a miniaturized adsorption chiller (AD). The experiments show that the bench-scale pressurized adsorption chiller (PAC) has been successfully designed, commissioned, and tested. Experimental results at various heat fl uxes, half-cycle operation time intervals, and a cooling load of up to 24 W are also presented. A COP ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 is achieved depending on the parameters of the experimental conditions. Most importantly, the cooling performance of the PAC is achieved at a low encasement temperature that is below ambient. Besides having a high cooling density, the PAC has almost no major moving parts except for the fan of the condenser and it permits quiet operation as compared to other active coolers.

  17. Nuclear-waste encapsulation by metal-matrix casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.G.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.

    1981-05-01

    Several encapsulation casting processes are described that were developed or used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to embed simulated high-level wastes of two different forms (glass marbles and ceramic pellets) in metal matrices. Preliminary evaluations of these casting processes and the products are presented. Demonstrations have shown that 5- to 10-mm-dia glass marbles can be encapsulated on an engineering scale with lead or lead alloys by gravity or vacuum processes. Marbles approx. 12 mm in dia were successfully encapsulated in a lead alloy on a production scale. Also, 4- to 9-mm-dia ceramic pellets in containers of various sizes were completely penetrated and the individual pellets encased with aluminum-12 wt % silicon alloy by vacuum processes. Indications are that of the casting processes tested, aluminum 12 wt % silicon alloy vacuum-cast around ceramic pellets had the highest degree of infiltration or coverage of pellet surfaces

  18. MITG test assembly design and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design, analysis, and evaluation of the Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG), described in an earlier paper, led to a program to build and test prototypical, modules of that generator. Each test module duplicates the thermoelectric converters, thermal insulation, housing and radiator fins of a typical generator slice, and simulates its isotope heat source module by means of an electrical heater encased in a prototypical graphite box. Once the approx. 20-watt MITG module has been developed, it can be assembled in appropriate number to form a generator design yielding the desired power output. The present paper describes the design and fabrication of the MITG test assembly, which confirmed the fabricability of the multicouples and interleaved multifoil insulation called for by the design. Test plans, procedures, instrumentation, results, and post-test analyses, as well as revised designs, fabrication procedures, and performance estimates, are described in subsequent papers in these proceedings

  19. Method for hermetic electrical connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Saundra L [Tijeras, NM; Glass, S Jill [Albuquerque, NM; Stone, Ronnie G [Albuquerque, NM; Bond, Jamey T [Albuquerque, NM; Susan, Donald F [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-12-27

    A method of providing a hermetic, electrical connection between two electrical components by mating at least one metal pin in a glass-ceramic to metal seal connector to two electrical components, wherein the glass-ceramic to metal seal connector incorporates at least one metal pin encased (sealed) in a glass-ceramic material inside of a metal housing, with the glass-ceramic material made from 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16% Li.sub.2O, 2-8% Al.sub.2O.sub.3, 1-5% P.sub.2O.sub.5, 1-8% K.sub.2O, 0.5-7% B.sub.2O.sub.3, and 0-5% ZnO. The connector retains hermeticity at temperatures as high as 700.degree. C. and pressures as high as 500 psi.

  20. Physico-chemical impacts of cementitiously-derived calcium and silica on sodium montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsela, Andrew S.; Tjitradjaja, Alice; Collins, Richard N.; Waite, T. David; Macdonald, Bennett C.T.; White, Ian; PAYNE, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The storage of nuclear waste frequently involves the construction of a concrete encasement adjacent to an engineered clay barrier, which can expose the swelling clay to elevated concentrations of certain cations (particularly calcium) and very high alkalinity (pH 10 - 13). These conditions have the capacity to degrade the integrity of the clay layer and, as such, it is necessary to fully understand the effects of all possible biogeochemical interactions involved. In this study, the changes in hydraulic conductivities and other physico-chemical properties of Na-montmorillonite assemblages under the influence of both highly alkaline (pH 9 and 12) conditions and elevated concentrations of calcium and silica are examined. The Na-montmorillonite suspensions and filtration experimental method is presented, as well as the electrophoresis characterization technique

  1. Porous Au-Ag Nanospheres with High-Density and Highly Accessible Hotspots for SERS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Bai, Yaocai; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhongbo; Fan, Qikui; Zheng, Haoquan; Yin, Yadong; Gao, Chuanbo

    2016-06-08

    Colloidal plasmonic metal nanoparticles have enabled surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for a variety of analytical applications. While great efforts have been made to create hotspots for amplifying Raman signals, it remains a great challenge to ensure their high density and accessibility for improved sensitivity of the analysis. Here we report a dealloying process for the fabrication of porous Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles containing abundant inherent hotspots, which were encased in ultrathin hollow silica shells so that the need of conventional organic capping ligands for stabilization is eliminated, producing colloidal plasmonic nanoparticles with clean surface and thus high accessibility of the hotspots. As a result, these novel nanostructures show excellent SERS activity with an enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10(7) on a single particle basis (off-resonant condition), promising high applicability in many SERS-based analytical and biomedical applications.

  2. High-resolution sonography in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbiati, L.; De Pra, L.; Rizzatto, G.; Derchi, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by the compression on the median nerve under the transverse carpal ligament, has multiple causes and clinical presentations. One hundred eighteen patients with carpal tunnel sydrome underwent high-resolution US which demonstrated unpalpable cystic masses in 25 patients (lobulated stalked synovial cysts in 19 and retrotendinous cysts in six, all confirmed at surgery), and diffuse thickening and decreased echogenicity of the tendon sheaths in 87 patients, suggesting tenosynovitis (confirmed at surgery in 64). In six patients simple encasement of muscle bellies in the carpal tunnel was shown. US can delineate the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome, suggest the need for surgery, and aid the surgeon in locating the lesion to be removed

  3. BIOMECHANICS. Why the seahorse tail is square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Adriaens, Dominique; Hatton, Ross L; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2015-07-03

    Whereas the predominant shapes of most animal tails are cylindrical, seahorse tails are square prisms. Seahorses use their tails as flexible grasping appendages, in spite of a rigid bony armor that fully encases their bodies. We explore the mechanics of two three-dimensional-printed models that mimic either the natural (square prism) or hypothetical (cylindrical) architecture of a seahorse tail to uncover whether or not the square geometry provides any functional advantages. Our results show that the square prism is more resilient when crushed and provides a mechanism for preserving articulatory organization upon extensive bending and twisting, as compared with its cylindrical counterpart. Thus, the square architecture is better than the circular one in the context of two integrated functions: grasping ability and crushing resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Applications of nanoparticle systems in drug delivery technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A.A. Rizvi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanoparticle-based drug formulations has yielded the opportunities to address and treat challenging diseases. Nanoparticles vary in size but are generally ranging from 100 to 500 nm. Through the manipulation of size, surface characteristics and material used, the nanoparticles can be developed into smart systems, encasing therapeutic and imaging agents as well as bearing stealth property. Further, these systems can deliver drug to specific tissues and provide controlled release therapy. This targeted and sustained drug delivery decreases the drug related toxicity and increase patient’s compliance with less frequent dosing. Nanotechnology has proven beneficial in the treatment of cancer, AIDS and many other disease, also providing advancement in diagnostic testing.

  5. Prostate brachytherapy seed migration to the heart seen on cardiovascular computed tomographic angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Sachdeva, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachytherapy consists of placing radioactive sources into or adjacent to tumors, to deliver conformal radiation treatment. The technique is used for treatment of primary malignancies and for salvage in recurrent disease. Permanent prostate brachytherapy seeds are small metal implants containing radioactive sources of I-125, Pd-103, or Cs-131 encased in a titanium shell. They can embolize through the venous system to the lungs or heart and subsequently be detected by cardiovascular computed tomography. Cardiovascular imagers should be aware of the appearance of migrated seeds, as their presence in the chest is generally benign, so that unnecessary worry and testing are avoided. We report a case of a patient who underwent brachytherapy for prostate cancer and developed a therapeutic seeds embolus to the right ventricle.

  6. Current eugenics: A brand new challenge for scientific disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Mercedes O´Lery

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the parameters that distinguish the current eugenic practices form those encased in classic eugenics have been the private, individual and therapeutic characteristics of the first as opposed to the collective, coercive and improvement nature of the second. However, the present ethical debate over biotechnologies (particularly, criticism of liberal eugenics by such authors as Jürgen Habermas has given rise to the need to consider, in the future, genetic treatment as an object of the redistribution in order to avoid the discrimination implied in the impossibility of access to such treatment. The present paper attempts to show that this pretension would lead to the future dissolution of those very characteristics of current eugenics that distinguish it from the classic form. we therefore propose an epistemological analysis of present and/or future scientific practices in order to redefine those parameters that prevent their identification with the eugenic movement of the past century.

  7. Partial pulp necrosis caused by excessive orthodontic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Young Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As the dental pulp is encased with a rigid, noncompliant shell, changes in pulpal blood flow or vascular tissue pressure can have serious implication for the health of pulp. Numerous studies have demonstrated that orthodontic force application may influence both blood flow and cellular metabolism, leading degenerative and/or inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. The aim of this case report is to present a case about tooth with chronic periapical abscess which showed normal vital responses. Excessive orthodontic force is thought to be the prime cause of partial pulp necrosis. Owing to remaining vital tissue, wrong dianosis can be made, and tooth falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissuses. Clinician should be able to utilize various diagnostic tools for the precise diagnosis, and be aware of the endodontic-orthodontic inter-relationship.

  8. Pressure tube type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent excessive heat generation due to radiation of a pressure tube vessel. Structure: A pressure tube encasing therein a core comprises a dual construction comprising inner and outer tubes coaxially disposed. High speed cooling water is passed through the inner tube for cooling. In addition, in the outer periphery of said outer tube there is provided a forced cooling tube disposed coaxially thereto, into which cooling fluid, for example, such as moderator or reflector is forcibly passed. This forced cooling tube has its outer periphery surrounded by the vessel into which moderator or reflector is fed. By the provision of the dual construction of the pressure tube and the forced cooling tube, the vessel may be prevented from heat generation. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Protecting Digital Evidence Integrity by Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shahzad; Popov, Oliver

    RFC 3227 provides general guidelines for digital evidence collection and archiving, while the International Organization on Computer Evidence offers guidelines for best practice in the digital forensic examination. In the light of these guidelines we will analyze integrity protection mechanism provided by EnCase and FTK which is mainly based on Message Digest Codes (MDCs). MDCs for integrity protection are not tamper proof, hence they can be forged. With the proposed model for protecting digital evidence integrity by using smart cards (PIDESC) that establishes a secure platform for digitally signing the MDC (in general for a whole range of cryptographic services) in combination with Public Key Cryptography (PKC), one can show that this weakness might be overcome.

  10. Partial Rarefaction as Way to Reduce Distortion Curve of double-glazed unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Use of Insulated Glass Units (IGU) as glazing on building façades causes optical distortions of mirrored images of neighboring buildings in glazed surfaces. Optical distortions are caused by varying distances between glass panes in IGUs as a result of climate factors. This paper examines available engineering solutions that reduce such distortions: use of more rigid outer glasses, encasing the building in a shell of single glass panes, known as the ‘double façade’, and use of vacuum IGUs. A new way is proposed to reduce optical distortions by installing additional pointed or linear supports and creating pre-stress with partial rarefaction inside the IGU. Overpressure that can cause IGU expansion and glass deformation was calculated. In the urban environment of Moscow, reduction of air pressure with simultaneous increase of air pressure inside the IGU during summer heat waves can be as high as 5%, and this figure determines the level of rarefaction.

  11. Collodion Baby - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vesna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidon baby describes a highly characteristic clinical entity in newborns encased in a yellowish translucent membrane resembling collodion. In most cases the condition either precedes the development of one of a variety of ichthyoses, the commonest of which are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma, or occasionally represents an initial phase of other ichthyoses such as ichthyosis vulgaris. In at least 10% of all cases of collodion baby, the condition is followed by a mild ichthyosis of lamellar type, so mild as to be considered more or less normal, so-called self-healing collodion baby or ‘lamellar ichthyosis of the newborn’. In this report we present a rare case of collodion baby in whom, after collodion membrane peeled-off, the skin retained normal appearance.

  12. BacMam Virus Transduced Cardiomyoblasts Can Be Used for Myocardial Transplantation Using AP-PEG-A Microcapsules: Molecular Cloning, Preparation, and In Vitro Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of genetically modified cardiomyoblasts in treating damaged myocardium is well known. However, efficient delivery of these cells is of major concern during treatment. The limiting factors are the massive cell death that occurs soon after their intramyocardial transplantation into the beating heart. To address these problems, we generated recombinant baculoviruses (BacMam viruses which efficiently transduced cardiomyoblast cells under optimized conditions. These genetically modified cells were then protected in a new polymeric microcapsule using poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG, alginate, and poly-L-lysine (PLL polymers for efficient delivery. Results showed that microcapsules maintain cell viability and support cell proliferation for at least 30 days. The capsules exhibit strong immunoprotective potential and have high mechanical and osmotic stability with more than 70% intact capsules. The encased transduced cells showed a rapid transgene expression inside the capsule for at least 15 days. However, preclinical studies are needed to further explore its long-term functional benefits.

  13. BacMam virus transduced cardiomyoblasts can be used for myocardial transplantation using AP-PEG-A microcapsules: molecular cloning, preparation, and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arghya; Khan, Afshan Afsar; Shum-Tim, Dominique; Prakash, Satya

    2010-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified cardiomyoblasts in treating damaged myocardium is well known. However, efficient delivery of these cells is of major concern during treatment. The limiting factors are the massive cell death that occurs soon after their intramyocardial transplantation into the beating heart. To address these problems, we generated recombinant baculoviruses (BacMam viruses) which efficiently transduced cardiomyoblast cells under optimized conditions. These genetically modified cells were then protected in a new polymeric microcapsule using poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG), alginate, and poly-L-lysine (PLL) polymers for efficient delivery. Results showed that microcapsules maintain cell viability and support cell proliferation for at least 30 days. The capsules exhibit strong immunoprotective potential and have high mechanical and osmotic stability with more than 70% intact capsules. The encased transduced cells showed a rapid transgene expression inside the capsule for at least 15 days. However, preclinical studies are needed to further explore its long-term functional benefits.

  14. High-energy metal air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  15. Onboard radiation shielding estimates for interplanetary manned missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, A.; Jevremovic, T.; Hounshel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of space related shielding design is to protect operating systems, personnel and key structural components from outer space and onboard radiation. This paper summarizes the feasibility of a lightweight neutron radiation shield design for a nuclear powered, manned space vehicle. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to determine radiation transport characteristics of the different materials and find the optimized shield configuration. A phantom torso encased in air is used to determine a dose rate for a crew member on the ship. Calculation results indicate that onboard shield against neutron radiation coming from nuclear engine can be achieved with very little addition of weight to the space vehicle. The selection of materials and neutron transport analysis as presented in this paper are useful starting data to design shield against neutrons generated when high-energy particles from outer space interact with matter on the space vehicle. (authors)

  16. Fracture repair with transfixation pins and fiberglass cast in llamas and small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneps, A J; Schmotzer, W B; Huber, M J; Riebold, T W; Watrous, B J; Arnold, J S

    1989-11-01

    Transfixation pinning with fiberglass casting is an effective and adaptable method of longbone fracture fixation in llamas and small ruminants. Treatment of fractures in 7 limbs of 4 llamas and 2 small ruminants with this technique are described. Steinmann pins are placed transcortically proximal, and if necessary, distal to the fracture. The pin ends and limb are encased in fiberglass cast material. The cast is strong enough in animals of this size to eliminate the need for external frames or connecting bars. Severely comminuted fractures and fractures near joints are especially suited to fixation with this technique. Complications encountered in these cases included loosening of pins and one delayed union. All fractures healed to permit full use of the limb.

  17. Antibiofilm agents: A new perspective for antimicrobial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-10-01

    Biofilms are complex microbial architectures that attach to surfaces and encase microorganisms in a matrix composed of self-produced hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). In biofilms, microorganisms become much more resistant to antimicrobial treatments, harsh environmental conditions, and host immunity. Biofilm formation by microbial pathogens greatly enhances survival in hosts and causes chronic infections that result in persistent inflammation and tissue damages. Currently, it is believed over 80% of chronic infectious diseases are mediated by biofilms, and it is known that conventional antibiotic medications are inadequate at eradicating these biofilm-mediated infections. This situation demands new strategies for biofilm-associated infections, and currently, researchers focus on the development of antibiofilm agents that are specific to biofilms, but are nontoxic, because it is believed that this prevents the development of drug resistance. Here, we review the most promising antibiofilm agents undergoing intensive research and development.

  18. The Health Consequences of Industrial Noise and Methods for Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Cetin Ekerbicer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss in the work-site is the most prevalent irreversible occupational disease in the industrialized or industrializing communities. Because noise-induced hearing loss is permanent, it is essential to apply any measure likely to reduce exposure. This includes reduction at the source (quieter machines and equipment or encasing them in sound-proof enclosures or the use of individual protective devices such as ear plugs and/or ear muffs. If reliance is placed on the latter, it is imperative to verify that their manufacturers' claims for effectiveness are valid and that exposed workers are using them properly at all times. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 261-264

  19. Panoramic irradiator dose mapping with pin photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Bueno, Carmen Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the possibility of using commercial silicon PIN photodiodes (Siemens, SFH 00206) for dose mapping in the Panoramic Irradiator facility at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The chosen photodiode, that is encased in 1.2 mm thickness polymer layer, displays promising dosimetric characteristics such as small size (sensitive area of 7.00 mm 2 ), high sensitivity and low dark current (≅ 300 pA, at 0 V) together with low-cost and wide availability. The Panoramic facility is an irradiator Type II with absorbed dose certificated by International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) offered by the International Agency Energy Atomic (IAEA). The charge registered by the diode as a function of the absorbed dose was in excellent agreement with that one calibrated by IDAS. Besides this, the easy handling and fast response of the SFH00206 diode compared to Fricke chemical dosimeters encouraged us to perform dose mapping around the source. (author)

  20. Robotics take heat out of reactor. [Windscale AGR decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufford, N

    1986-12-04

    The Windscale prototype reactor is being decommissioned and dismantled. The stages are outlined. The first phase began in 1985 and included construction of a waste packaging plant annexed to the steel dome. The boilers will be cut up and, once decontaminated, probably sold for scrap. The second phase involves dismantling the reactor itself. Much of this will be done by a semi-automatic robot which is being specially built and tested. The robot will have an extendable arm with a manipulator which will be equipped with bolt croppers, shears, a saw and oxypropane cutter. This robot will cut up the pressure vessel in sections ready for encasing in concrete. Lessons learnt from the dismantling will be used in future reactor designs and specifications (eg the need to use steels with fewer impurities, especially cobalt). Ultimate disposal of the concrete waste blocks is undecided. (U.K.).

  1. Practical experience with own monitoring of clay sealings on dumps for brown coal-fired power station residues. Erfahrungen mit der Eigenueberwachung an Tonabdichtungen der Deponien fuer Braunkohlenkraftwerksrueckstaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, K

    1989-07-01

    In order to dispose of power station residues Rheinbraun erects dumps which are encased by a clay sealing. For the Fortuna dump 10 hectares sealing area, with a permeability that is lower than the required limit value of k = 5x10{sup -10} m/s, have so far been constructed. The quality of the sealing is monitored and ensured by graded checking. The practical experience gained so far with own monitoring (selection of material, supervision of construction site and own checking) on the finished clay sealings is discussed in the present paper. The system of testing the sealings has proved very satisfactory. The results of the tests carried out in the course of own monitoring show that processing work in the laboratory can be reduced by systematic selection of material and intensive expert supervision of the construction site. (orig.).

  2. The development of technologies for the long-term containment of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes into geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    In the humid eastern half of the country, the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes has evolved from the use of shallow, sanitary landfill type, excavations to current plans for the complete containment of long half-life radionuclides in large-diameter boreholes and other excavations in the deeper subsurface. In general, the aim of current procedures and regulations is to prevent the migration of contaminants into groundwaters. For the short half-life materials, burials may be accommodated in lined and capped trenches along with ''tumulus'' or concrete encased structures that would ensure containment for a few tens of years to perhaps several hundreds of years. The greatest interest though is planned where new and emerging technologies are being developed to emplace special and long half-life wastes into geologic formations at moderate to deep depths for complete containment for periods of thousands of years. 7 refs., 2 figs

  3. Mechanosensation Dynamically Coordinates Polar Growth and Cell Wall Assembly to Promote Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, Valeria; Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Ershov, Dmitry; Haupt, Armin; De Belly, Henry; Le Borgne, Rémi; Couturier, Etienne; Boudaoud, Arezki; Minc, Nicolas

    2018-04-23

    How growing cells cope with size expansion while ensuring mechanical integrity is not known. In walled cells, such as those of microbes and plants, growth and viability are both supported by a thin and rigid encasing cell wall (CW). We deciphered the dynamic mechanisms controlling wall surface assembly during cell growth, using a sub-resolution microscopy approach to monitor CW thickness in live rod-shaped fission yeast cells. We found that polar cell growth yielded wall thinning and that thickness negatively influenced growth. Thickness at growing tips exhibited a fluctuating behavior with thickening phases followed by thinning phases, indicative of a delayed feedback promoting thickness homeostasis. This feedback was mediated by mechanosensing through the CW integrity pathway, which probes strain in the wall to adjust synthase localization and activity to surface growth. Mutants defective in thickness homeostasis lysed by rupturing the wall, demonstrating its pivotal role for walled cell survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program -- 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1994-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1993 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report. The 1993 inspection program revealed that the condition of the Savannah River Site waste tanks had not changed significantly from that reported in the previous annual report. No new leaksites were observed. No evidence of corrosion or materials degradation was observed in the waste tanks. However, degradation was observed on covers of the concrete encasements for the out-of-service transfer lines to Tanks 1 through 8

  5. 3D silicon neural probe with integrated optical fibers for optogenetic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric G R; Tu, Hongen; Luo, Hao; Liu, Bin; Bao, Shaowen; Zhang, Jinsheng; Xu, Yong

    2015-07-21

    Optogenetics is a powerful modality for neural modulation that can be useful for a wide array of biomedical studies. Penetrating microelectrode arrays provide a means of recording neural signals with high spatial resolution. It is highly desirable to integrate optics with neural probes to allow for functional study of neural tissue by optogenetics. In this paper, we report the development of a novel 3D neural probe coupled simply and robustly to optical fibers using a hollow parylene tube structure. The device shanks are hollow tubes with rigid silicon tips, allowing the insertion and encasement of optical fibers within the shanks. The position of the fiber tip can be precisely controlled relative to the electrodes on the shank by inherent design features. Preliminary in vivo rat studies indicate that these devices are capable of optogenetic modulation simultaneously with 3D neural signal recording.

  6. The CIT [compact ignition tokamak] pellet injection system: Description and supporting research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) will use an advance, high-velocity pellet injection system to achieve and maintain ignited plasmas. Two pellet injectors are provided: a moderate-velocity (1-to 1.5-km/s), single-stage pneumatic injector with high reliability and a high-velocity (4- to 5-km/s), two-stage pellet injector that uses frozen hydrogenic pellets encased in sabots. Both pellet injectors are qualified for operation with tritium feed gas. Issues such as performance, neutron activation of injector components, maintenance, design of the pellet injection vacuum line, gas loads to the reprocessing system, and equipment layout are discussed. Results and plans for supporting research and development (R and D) in the areas of tritium pellet fabrication and high-velocity, repetitive two-stage pneumatic injectors are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF RADIOACTIVE GOLD SEEDS IN NEOPLASMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachance, Paul; Vallee, A. F.

    1963-06-15

    A method and the apparatus for the treatment of neoplasms with Au/sup 198/ seeds are described. The introducer or gun is loaded with a magazine or cartridge containing 15 radioactive gold grains and then irradiated. The grains are cylinders made of gold encased in Pt with measurements of: length, 2.1 mm; diameter, 0.4 mm; weight, 25 mgm; platinum casing, 0.2 mm. The seeds are ready for use 7 to 10 days after irradiation or when gamma activity is around 3 to 4.5 mC per seed. A permanent implant gives to the tumor an approximate dose of 6000- 7000 r in 4 to 5 days. The effectiveness and advantages of the method are also discussed. (P.C.H.)

  8. A Needle-Type p-i-n Junction Semiconductor Detector for In-Vivo Measurement of Beta Tracer Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A; Rosencrantz, B

    1964-10-15

    A miniature detector probe has been developed for in-vivo detection of beta tracer activity. A lithium-drifted p-i-n detector shaped as a cylinder 0.9 mm in diameter and 3 mm long acts as the sensing element. The detector is encased in a stainless steel tube 50 mm long, fastened to a holder fitted with a miniature coaxial contact. The free end of the tube has a syringe-like, entirely tight tip. The steel tube has an outer diameter of 1.4 mm except for 10 mm at the free end where the outer diameter is 1.1 mm corresponding to a wall thickness of 005 mm. The detector is placed in the 1.1 mm part of the tube. The construction and the properties of the probe are described.

  9. Geological storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1983-01-01

    Certain radioactive waste contains substances which present, although they disappear naturally in a progressive manner, a potential risk which can last for very long periods, of over thousands of years. To ensure a safe long-term handling, provision has been made to bury it deep in stable geological structures which will secure its confinement. Radioactive waste is treated and conditioned to make it insoluble and is then encased in matrices which are to immobilize them. The most radioactive waste is thus incorporated in a matrix of glass which will ensure the insulation of the radioactive substances during the first thousands of years. Beyond that time, the safety will be ensured by the properties of the storage site which must be selected from now on. Various hydrogeological configurations have been identified. They must undergo detailed investigations, including even the creation of an underground laboratory. This document also presents examples of underground storage installations which are due to be built [fr

  10. Management of Klippel-Trenauny syndrome with multiple organ involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Javad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Klippel-Trenauny syndrome is a disturbance in the development of the mesodermal and ectodermal tissues occurring in utero, which is characterized by vascular nevi, varicose veins, soft tissue, and occasionally, bone hyperplasia. Our patient is a 6-year-old boy with presentation of left lower extremity over growth, abdominal mass, abdominal pain, bilateral buttock mass, rectal bleeding, and skin hemangiomatosis. The major problems of this case were involvement of the levator ani, external anal sphincter, and encasement of the sciatic nerves within the buttock mass. We concluded that the use of muscle and nerve stimulator for detection and saving sphincters and the nerves in these cases could improve the results of surgical resection.

  11. Bacterial Cell Wall Precursor Phosphatase Assays Using Thin-layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Otten, Christian; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2018-03-20

    Peptidoglycan encases the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from lysis due to the turgor. The final steps of peptidoglycan synthesis require a membrane-anchored substrate called lipid II, in which the peptidoglycan subunit is linked to the carrier lipid undecaprenol via a pyrophosphate moiety. Lipid II is the target of glycopeptide antibiotics and several antimicrobial peptides, and is degraded by 'attacking' enzymes involved in bacterial competition to induce lysis. Here we describe two protocols using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively, to assay the digestion of lipid II by phosphatases such as Colicin M or the LXG toxin protein TelC from Streptococcus intermedius . The TLC method can also monitor the digestion of undecaprenyl (pyro)phosphate, whereas the HPLC method allows to separate the di-, mono- or unphosphorylated disaccharide pentapeptide products of lipid II.

  12. The IAEA's work for the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuong, H.V.

    1976-01-01

    One of the several techniques for the disposal of radioactive waste which has been used by some countries, often as a combined international operation, is sea-disposal under carefully controlled conditions. The waste is placed in drums encased in concrete and dumped in selected known ocean areas, currently at least 4000 metres in depth and well away from fishing grounds. The International Atomic Energy Agency is, therefore, directly addressed to by the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter as the competent international body to work out safety criteria, conditions and procedures and to draw up recommendations for the implementation of the Convention with regard to radioactive materials. (author)

  13. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  14. The increasing relevance of biofilms in common dermatological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravvas, G; Veitch, D; Al-Niaimi, F

    2018-03-01

    Biofilms are diverse groups of microorganisms encased in a self-produced matrix that offers protection against unfavorable conditions and antibiotics. We performed a literature search using the MEDLINE electronic database. Only original articles published in English were considered for review. Biofilms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne, eczema, hidradenitis suppurativa, onychomycosis, miliaria, and impetigo. Adverse dermal-filler reactions are also linked to biofilms. Strict aseptic technique and prophylactic antibiotics are recommended in order to avoid such complications. Finally, biofilms are implicated in wounds, mainly chronic and diabetic, where they impede healing and cause recurrent infections. Several novel anti-biofilm agents and wound debridement have been shown to be beneficial. Biofilms are a significant cause of disease with wide implications in the field of dermatology. Several novel treatments have been found to be effective against biofilms, depending on the underlying microbes and type of disease.

  15. Role of Extracellular DNA during Biofilm Formation by Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Morten; Lappann, Martin; Knøchel, S

    2010-01-01

    (eDNA) may be the only central component of the biofilm matrix and that it is necessary for both initial attachment and early biofilm formation for 41 L. monocytogenes strains that were tested. DNase I treatment resulted in dispersal of biofilms, not only in microtiter tray assays but also in flow......Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that is capable of living in harsh environments. It is believed to do this by forming biofilms, which are surface-associated multicellular structures encased in a self-produced matrix. In this paper we show that in L. monocytogenes extracellular DNA...... cell biofilm assays. However, it was also demonstrated that in a culture without eDNA, neither Listeria genomic DNA nor salmon sperm DNA by itself could restore the capacity to adhere. A search for additional necessary components revealed that peptidoglycan (PG), specifically N-acetylglucosamine (NAG...

  16. In Situ X-ray Diffraction Study of the Formation of Fe(Se,Te) from Various Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the FeSe0.5Te0.5 phase was studied by means of high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The precursors consisted of Fe, Se and Te or Se0.5Te0.5 powder mixtures and were encased in a metal (Cu/Nb) composite sheath to prevent evaporation of Se and Te during high temperature...... equilibria of the Se – Te system. The grain size of the starting Fe powder has no influence on the reaction path for the grain sizes used in the present study. However, the reaction rate for Fe(Se,Te) formation is clearly sensitive to this parameter....

  17. Fire response of composite columns subject to sway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep

    Composite columns, using profiled steel sections encased in concrete or steel tubes filled with concrete, are increasingly used in practice taking advantage of speed of erection as well as offering cost-effective solutions. While the design of braced and unbraced composite columns under ambient...... conditions is adequately covered in the relevant standard, Eurocode 4, simplified design of unbraced composite columns for the fire limit state has not been included. Recognising this, a collaborative research project was undertaken with funding from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel. The paper describes...... the scope of the project which covered control tests under ambient conditions, carried out by the author while at City University London. Other aspects covered in the project included fire tests carried out by CTICM in France, on isolated columns and on two frames designed by Leibniz Universität Hannover...

  18. Experimental study on beam for composite CES structural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoya

    2017-10-01

    Development study on Concrete Encase Steel (CES) composite structure system has been continuously conducted toward the practical use. CES structure is composed of steel and fiber reinforced concrete. In previous study, it was found that CES structure has good seismic performance from experimental study of columns, beam - column joints, shear walls and a two story two span frame. However, as fundamental study on CES beam could be lacking, it is necessary to understand the structural performance of CES beam. In this study, static loading tests of CES beams were conducted with experimental valuable of steel size, the presence or absence of slab and thickness of slab. And restoring characteristics, failure behavior, deformation behavior, and strength evaluation method of CES beam were investigated. As the results, it was found that CES beam showed stable hysteresis behavior. Furthermore it was found that the flexural strength of the CES beam could be evaluated by superposition strength theory.

  19. Ultrasound of the sural nerve: Normal anatomy on cadaveric dissection and case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsack, Dries; Jager, Tjeerd; Scafoglieri, Aldo; Vanderdood, Kurt; Van Hedent, Eddy; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Marcelis, Stefaan; De Maeseneer, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The sural nerve is a small sensory nerve innervating the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot. Clinical symptoms of pathology may present as atypical sensory changes in this region. We present the normal anatomy and ultrasound technique for examination of the sural nerve based on an anatomical dissection, as well as imaging in a normal volunteer. We also present a case series (n = 10) of different conditions of the sural nerve that we encountered based on a review of interesting cases from 4 institutions. The pathological conditions included neuropathy related to stripping or venous laser surgery, compression by abscess, Lyme disease, nerve tumors, traumatic transsection, and encasement by fibrous plaque and edema. Ultrasound with its exquisite resolution is the preferred imaging method for examining the sural nerve in patients with unexplained sensory changes at the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot

  20. Ultrasound of the sural nerve: Normal anatomy on cadaveric dissection and case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belsack, Dries, E-mail: dries.belsack@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Jette, Brussels (Belgium); Jager, Tjeerd, E-mail: tjeerd.jager@asz.be [Department of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Merestraat 80, 9300 Aalst (Belgium); Scafoglieri, Aldo, E-mail: aldo.scafoglieri@vub.ac.be [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Free University Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Jette (Belgium); Vanderdood, Kurt, E-mail: kvanderd@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Maaslandziekenhuis, Dr H van der Hoffplein 1, 6162 Sittard-Geleen, Sittard (Netherlands); Van Hedent, Eddy, E-mail: eddy.vanhedent@asz.be [Department of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Merestraat 80, 9300 Aalst (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, Filip, E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Maarten, Duffel-Mechelen, Rooienberg 25, 2570 Duffel (Belgium); Marcelis, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan.marcelis@sintandriesstielt.be [Department of Radiology, Sint Andriesziekenhuis, Krommewalstraat 11, 8700 Tielt (Belgium); De Maeseneer, Michel, E-mail: michel.demaeseneer@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Jette, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-11-01

    The sural nerve is a small sensory nerve innervating the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot. Clinical symptoms of pathology may present as atypical sensory changes in this region. We present the normal anatomy and ultrasound technique for examination of the sural nerve based on an anatomical dissection, as well as imaging in a normal volunteer. We also present a case series (n = 10) of different conditions of the sural nerve that we encountered based on a review of interesting cases from 4 institutions. The pathological conditions included neuropathy related to stripping or venous laser surgery, compression by abscess, Lyme disease, nerve tumors, traumatic transsection, and encasement by fibrous plaque and edema. Ultrasound with its exquisite resolution is the preferred imaging method for examining the sural nerve in patients with unexplained sensory changes at the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot.

  1. The implication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten T; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Høiby, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation by bacteria is recognized as a major problem in chronic infections due to their recalcitrance against the immune defense and available antibiotic treatment schemes. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has drawn special attention in this regard due to its severity o...... treatment strategies where the underlying targets are less prone for resistance development as bacteria, in retrospect, have a unique ability to evade the actions of classic antibiotics.......Biofilm formation by bacteria is recognized as a major problem in chronic infections due to their recalcitrance against the immune defense and available antibiotic treatment schemes. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has drawn special attention in this regard due to its severity......-up of the extracellular matrix encasing the biofilm-associated bacteria as well as the elaborate signaling mechanisms employed by the bacterium enables it to withstand the continuous stresses imposed by the immune defense and administered antibiotics resulting in a state of chronic inflammation that damages the host...

  2. Crohn's disease of the colon: ultrastructural changes in submuscular interstitial cells of Cajal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johs.; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Horn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    of the submuscular plexus were often empty and dilated. Fibroblast-like cells selectively encased macrophages and mast cells. The cytological changes in ICC-SMP in CD are thus similar to changes seen in ulcerative colitis and may be of pathophysiological significance with regard to the motility and sensory......Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) at the submuscular border of the human colon (ICC-SMP) are the proposed pacemaker cells of the musculature. In patients with Crohn's disease (CD) of the colon, ICC-SMP showed characteristic cytological changes from controls. The changes comprised secondary...... lysosomes in connection with lipid droplets and cytoplasmic vacuoles or multiple empty, confluent and often outbulging vacuoles merging with cisterns of granular endoplasmic reticulum and clusters of glycogen granules. These changes were most pronounced in patients with macroscopical mucosal inflammation...

  3. Effect of carbon fiber addition on the electromagnetic shielding properties of carbon fiber/polyacrylamide/wood based fiberboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Baokang; Chen, Yipeng; Yang, Ning; Chen, Bo; Sun, Qingfeng

    2018-05-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyacrylamide/wood fiber composite boards are fabricated by mechanical grind-assisted hot-pressing, and are used for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. CF with an average diameter of 150 nm is distributed on wood fiber, which is then encased by polyacrylamide. The CF/polyacrylamide/wood fiber (CPW) composite exhibits an optimal EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of 41.03 dB compared to that of polyacrylamide/wood fiber composite (0.41 dB), which meets the requirements of commercial merchandise. Meanwhile, the CPW composite also shows high mechanical strength. The maximum modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of CPW composites are 39.52 MPa and 5823.15 MPa, respectively. The MOR and MOE of CPW composites increased by 38% and 96%, respectively, compared to that of polyacrylamide/wood fiber composite (28.64 and 2967.35 MPa).

  4. Miniature silicon photodiodes for photon and electron radiation dosimetry in therapeutical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilar, O.; Petr, I.

    1986-01-01

    The silicon diode is manufactured from P type silicon, the P layer is implanted with boron atoms and the N layer with phosphorus atoms. The diode dimensions are 2x2x0.2 mm. It is encased in elastic tissue-equivalent material. The electrodes are from an Al foil. The diode can be used as an in-vivo dosemeter in human body cavities. When irradiated, it supplies information on the instantaneous dose rate at a given point and on the dose cumulated over a certain time. Its current response to gamma radiation kerma rate is linear, directional sensitivity is isotropic. Temperature sensitivity of the photodiode is shown graphically for the range 20 to 40 degC, and the depth dose distribution measured in a water phantom is given for 6, 12 and 20 MeV photons and electrons. The diode energy dependence shows increased sensitivity to low-energy photons. (M.D.)

  5. UMTRA project: Canonsburg final design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiers, G.R.; Guros, F.B.; Smith, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Final design for on-site stabilization of over 300,000 cubic yards of abandoned mill tailings in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, is being completed this Fall. This paper describes design criteria, design procedures, and difficulties encountered for the following required elements: 1. Encapsulation cell; 2. Durability of erosion protection material; 3. Flood control berm; 4. Sedimentation pond; 5. Wastewater treatment plant. The 70,000 cubic yards of the tailings for which radiation levels exceed 100 picocuries per gram will be placed on a 2-ft-thick compacted clay liner and encased by a 3-ft-thick compacted clay cover. The remaining tailings will be covered with at least two feet of clay to prevent radon escape and to reduce rainfall infiltration. Erosion protection will be provided for the encapsulation cell, the drainage swales, and from potential meandering of nearby Chartiers Creek

  6. Why Mycophoris is not an orchid seedling, and why Synaptomitus is not a fungal symbiont within this fossil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selosse, Marc-Andre; Brundrett, Mark; Dearnaley, John

    2017-01-01

    A recent publication in Botany introduced two new taxa: a fossil orchid seed (Mycophoris) and a fossilized basidiomycete fungus (Synaptomitus) in an alleged relationship with this orchid, encased in 15–20 million year old Dominican amber (Poinar, G. 2017. Two new genera, Mycophoris gen. nov......., (Orchidaceae) and Synaptomitus gen. nov. (Basidiomycota) based on a fossil seed with developing embryo and associated fungus in Dominican amber. Botany, 95: 1–8). From the working knowledge of extant orchid seeds, seedlings, and mycorrhiza shared among us, we cannot support these interpretations. Here we...... analyse: (i) why Mycophoris may not be an orchid seed, (ii) why Mycophoris is not a germinating seed, (iii) why fungal hyphae and a symbiotic fungus are absent in Mycophoris, and (iv) why Synaptomitus is likely not a fossil basidiomycete....

  7. Localization fibrosing mediastinitis causing pulmonary infraction: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, Young Keun; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Park, Kyung Joo; Koh, Young Wha; Sun, Joo Sung [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 44-year-old female patient visited our emergency room for hemoptysis and refractory chest wall pain of 2 months duration. She had no history of smoking or other medical conditions. Chest CT scan showed homogenously enhancing soft tissue mass without calcification at the left pulmonary hilum. Encasing and compression of the left lower pulmonary artery by the mass had resulted in pulmonary infarction in the left lower lobe. Laboratory tests for tuberculosis, fungus, and vasculitis were all negative. The patient underwent surgical biopsy and resection of infarcted left lower lobe that was histopathologically confirmed as fibrosing mediastinitis. Herein, we reported a rare case of surgically confirmed and treated localized fibrosing mediastinitis causing pulmonary infarction.

  8. Production and study of the behavior of ceramic sintering SR2ALWO5,5 to application on the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.M.; Ferreira, R.A. Sanguinetti; Yadava, Y.P.

    2011-01-01

    The complex perovskita ceramics based on tungsten are highly inert corrosive environments. For this reason, this type of ceramic is used in the manufacture of parts and components for the oil industry where the hostile environment is constant problem. We are working in manufacturing temperature sensors encased in ceramic to petroleum industry. Produce ceramic Sr 2 AlWO 5,5 thermo-mechanical process using a ball mill and subsequently heat treatment temperature of 1200°C for 24 hours. Studied the sintering behavior in the temperature range from 1200 to 1350 °C. In this process, the ceramic powder had a high homogeneity in terms of size and distribution of particles, which facilitates sintering at low temperature and shorter time. Structure and microstructure of calcined ceramic was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and presented at the congress. (author)

  9. An introduction to parental alienation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Michelle M

    2011-04-01

    Parental alienation syndrome (PAS) can occur during a tumultuous divorce between embattled parents involved in a bitter child custody dispute. During parental warfare, a child is used as a weapon by one parent (alienating parent) against the other parent (alienated/targeted parent). The targeted parent-child relationship once encased with unconditional love is transformed by an unrelenting campaign of denigration, criticism, and hatred. Since nursing literature on PAS is almost nonexistent, the purpose of this article is to increase nursing awareness and provide basic information. Awareness of PAS symptoms and interpersonal dynamics is important to prompt nurses in recommending treatment for families. Nurses should collaboratively join other professionals in their quest to provide the best treatment possible. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. A Needle-Type p-i-n Junction Semiconductor Detector for In-Vivo Measurement of Beta Tracer Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauber, A.; Rosencrantz, B.

    1964-10-01

    A miniature detector probe has been developed for in-vivo detection of beta tracer activity. A lithium-drifted p-i-n detector shaped as a cylinder 0.9 mm in diameter and 3 mm long acts as the sensing element. The detector is encased in a stainless steel tube 50 mm long, fastened to a holder fitted with a miniature coaxial contact. The free end of the tube has a syringe-like, entirely tight tip. The steel tube has an outer diameter of 1.4 mm except for 10 mm at the free end where the outer diameter is 1.1 mm corresponding to a wall thickness of 005 mm. The detector is placed in the 1.1 mm part of the tube. The construction and the properties of the probe are described

  11. Comparison of ANL containment codes with SNR-300 simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.; Wang, C.Y.; Fistedis, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of REXCO and ICECO code predictions is made with data obtained from experiments of LMFBR excursion models. The comparisons are based on published results of tests conducted for the safety analysis of the SNR-300 fast breeder. The test configurations consist of a centrally located spherical source immersed in a pool of water which is encased in a cylindrical container. The cylinical walls of the container are prestressed by holddown bolts which span the two rigid ends. The space above the surface of the water within the container is occupied by air. Although certain aspects of the tests could not be simulated by the analytical models exactly, the comparison of results shows quite close agreement. The fact that the REXCO and ICECO codes involve different analytical formulations, their own close correspondence of results lends added credence to the value of analytical predictions

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:13, 108-F Drain Pipelines. Attchment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 100-F-26:13 waste site is the network of process sewer pipelines that received effluent from the 108-F Biological Laboratory and discharged it to the 188-F Ash Disposal Area (126-F-1 waste site). The pipelines included one 0.15-m (6-in.)-, two 0.2-m (8-in.)-, and one 0.31-m (12-in.)-diameter vitrified clay pipe segments encased in concrete. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  13. Department of Physics' Involvement of the Impact Testing Project of the High Speed Civil Transport Program (HSCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonMeerwall, Ernst D.

    1994-01-01

    The project involved the impact testing of a kevlar-like woven polymer material, PBO. The purpose was to determine whether this material showed any promise as a lightweight replacement material for jet engine fan containment. The currently used metal fan containment designs carry a high drag penalty due to their weight. Projectiles were fired at samples of PBO by means of a 0.5 inch diameter Helium powered gun. The Initial plan was to encase the samples inside a purpose-built steel "hot box" for heating and ricochet containment. The research associate's responsibility was to develop the data acquisition programs and techniques necessary to determine accurately the impacting projectile's velocity. Beyond this, the Research Associate's duties include any physical computations, experimental design, and data analysis necessary.

  14. [Study on the anti-NTHi infection of Hap recombinant protein in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-yi; Wang, Bao-ning; Zuo, Feng-qiong; Zeng, Wei; Feng, Feng; Kuang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-hua; Li, Ming-yuan

    2010-07-01

    To observe the immune effect of Hap recombinant protein on murine model of bronchopneumonia infected with NTHi, and explore the mechanism about the anti-NTHi infection. The C57BL/6 mice intranasally immunized with purified Hap recombinant protein and CT-B were challenged by NTHi encased in agar beads. The immunifaction of anti-infection was observed through encocyte counting of BALF, bacteria detection of lung and the pathologyical change of lung tissue. In the challenge with NTHi experiment, the inflammatory exudation of the infected murine and pathological change of lung tissue was relieved by combined immunization of Hap recombinant protein and CT-B, and quantity of NTHi in lung of the infected murine was reduced obviously. The Hap recombinant protein also had good ability of anti-NTHi infection in the murine model of NTHi bronchopneumonia. This study could offer the oretical and experimental basis for development of new vaccine against NTHi.

  15. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  16. Foam insulated transfer line test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1994-06-01

    Miles of underground insulated piping will be installed at the Hanford site to transfer liquid waste. Significant cost savings may be realized by using pre-fabricated polyurethane foam insulated piping. Measurements were made on sections of insulated pipe to determine the insulation's resistance to axial expansion of the pipe, the force required to compress the foam in the leg of an expansion loop and the time required for heat up and cool down of a buried piping loop. These measurements demonstrated that the peak axial force increases with the amount of adhesion between the encasement pipe and the insulation. The compressive strength of the foam is too great to accommodate the thermal growth of long straight pipe sections into the expansion loops. Mathematical models of the piping system's thermal behavior can be refined by data from the heated piping loop

  17. The use of 59Ni, 99Tc, and 236U to monitor the release of radionuclides from objects containing spent nuclear fuel dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Hamilton, T.F.; Lynn, M.

    1999-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1981, five objects and six naval reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) from four former Soviet Union submarines and a special container from the icebreaker Lenin, all containing damaged spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were dumped in a variety of containments, at four sites in the Kara Sea. The International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) to study the possible health and environmental effects from disposal of these objects. One outcome of the IASAP was an estimation of the radionuclide inventory and their release rates from these objects. A follow-on concern is the ability to detect the radionuclides released into the water column. The work reported here is the feasibility of using the long-lived radionuclides 59 Ni, 99 Tc, and 236 U encased within these objects, to monitor the breakdown of the containments due to corrosion

  18. Research programme on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, A.; Hufschmid, P.; Jordi, S.; Schanne, M.; Vigfusson, J.

    2009-11-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  19. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the spine. Report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, Kristian

    2012-02-03

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EH) is a rare tumor of vascular origin. The authors describe two cases of spinal EH, one involving the T-10 vertebra and the second involving the upper cervical spine. In the first case the patient underwent resection of the tumor; this case represents the longest reported follow-up period for spinal EH. In the second case, extensive involvement of C-2, C-3, and C-4 as well as encasement of both vertebral arteries precluded safe tumor resection, and posterior occipitocervical stabilization was performed. The patient subsequently died of metastatic disease. The findings in these two cases underscore the difficulty in predicting the clinical behavior of spinal EH based solely on histological and clinical features as well as the uncertainty of the roles of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in the oncological management of a spinal tumor for which clinical data are very limited.

  20. Bending stresses: imposed on underground small diameter lines in city streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottmann, A

    1975-05-01

    Die Technischen Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG (TWS, Stuttgart) investigated the accuracy of available bending stress calculations to represent the actual stress exerted on underground pipelines, the effective bending intervals, and the pipe diameter required to effectively resist the expected stress. The investigation covers steel, cast iron, ductile cast iron, asbestos cement, and PVC 100. The theoretical stresses were determined by the Boussinesgne method from the effects of SLW60 vehicles on pipes buried 3.28 ft (1 m) underground. The cumulative load on the pipe was obtained as the total of the vehicle load, soil load, pipe load, and water load. Results indicate that the tensile stress from internal pipe pressure can be omitted, and that welded steel and sealed PVC pipes should account for longitudinal tensile stresses. Steel pipes are generally so oversized that they need not account for these stresses. The calculations also considered the interaction between the pipe and pipe joint as the pipe emerges from the trench for the 3 possible conditions: an overhang beam, a beam encased at one end and jointed at the other, and a beam, encased at both ends. The curves of the resisting moments varied according to the type of material and pipe diameter, with the greatest rate increase reported for asbestos cement, followed by PVC 100, cast iron, ductile cast iron, and steel. Operating data of a cast-iron underground TWS system in Stuttgart indicated that pipes with less than or equal to 4 in. ( less than or equal to 100 mm) nominal diameter were quite fragile while those with diameters >6 in. (>105 mm) sustained considerably less damage. The degree of damage was found to decrease with increasing diameters. The effect of temperature also proved important. Since it is not economically possible to reinstall the distribution lines with 8-in. (200-mm) pipes, elastic support systems such as crossing troughs are recommended to support the pipes in stress areas.

  1. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  2. Microencapsulated 3-dimensional sensor for the measurement of oxygen in single isolated pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyu Chen

    Full Text Available Oxygen consumption reflects multiple processes in pancreatic islets including mechanisms contributing to insulin secretion, oxidative stress and viability, providing an important readout in studies of islet function, islet viability and drug testing. Due to the scarcity, heterogeneity, and intrinsic kinetic properties of individual islets, it would be of great benefit to detect oxygen consumption by single islets. We present a novel method we have developed to image oxygen in single islets.Using a microfluidics system, individual islets and a fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye were encased within a thin alginate polymer layer. Insulin secretion by the encapsulated islets was normal. Fluorescent signal from the encased dye, detected using a standard inverted fluorescence microscope and digital camera, was stable and proportional to the amount of oxygen in the media. When integrated into a perifusion system, the sensing system detected changes in response to metabolic substrates, mitochondrial poisons, and induced-oscillations. Glucose responses averaged 30.1±7.1% of the response to a metabolic inhibitor (cyanide, increases were observed in all cases (n = 6, and the system was able to resolve changes in oxygen consumption that had a period greater than 0.5 minutes. The sensing system operated similarly from 2-48 hours following encapsulation, and viability and function of the islets were not significantly affected by the encapsulation process.An oxygen-dependent dye situated around and within a pancreatic islet encapsulated by a thin layer of alginate was sensitive to changes in oxygen consumption, and was not harmful to the function or viability of islets over the course of two days. The microcapsule-based sensing method is particularly suited to assessing the effects of compounds (dose responses and time courses and chronic changes occurring over the course of days. The approach should be applicable to other cell types and dyes sensitive to other

  3. Computed tomography characteristics of primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma in 41 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Huali; Wu, Yaopan [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China/Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Lin, Yongbin [Department of Thoracic Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China/Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Cai, Qingqing [Department of Medical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China/Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Ma, Guowei [Department of Thoracic Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China/Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Liang, Ying, E-mail: liangying@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Medical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China/Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the computed tomography (CT) findings of primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC). Materials and methods: Clinical information and CT findings of 41 patients with pulmonary LELC were reviewed. CT images of 2 or 5 mm thickness were obtained with a pre-treatment CT and were jointly evaluated by two radiologists. Results: Thirty central tumors and 11 peripheral tumors with diameters ranging from 1.0 to 8.7 cm (mean, 4.1 ± 1.9 cm) were identified. Central tumors appeared to be larger than peripheral tumors (P = 0.017). Tumors occurred more frequently in right middle lobe (31.7%) and left lower lobe (29.3%). CT findings of patients with early stage were similar to those observed in patients with advanced stage except that lymphadenopathy was significantly more common in patients with advanced stage. CT findings of pulmonary LELC consisted of well defined border (63.4%), lobulation (78.0%), vascular or bronchial encasement (43.9%), obstructive pneumonia (41.5%), pleural effusion (12.2%) and calcification (4.9%). On contrast-enhanced CT scans, inhomogeneously enhanced tumors were significantly larger than homogeneously enhanced tumors (P < 0.001). Lymphadenopathy was seen in 28 patients, and lymph nodes with homogeneous enhancement were observed in 24/28 patients. Enlarged lymph nodes were more frequently occurred in peribronchial or hilar nodes (53.7%), subcrinal nodes (39.0%), right lower paratracheal nodes (31.7%) and right upper paratracheal nodes (22.0%). Conclusion: Pulmonary LELC usually appeared as a large, central, well defined and lobulated tumor with vascular or bronchial encasement and obstructive pneumonia. Calcification was rare in pulmonary LELC. Lymphadenopathy was common, usually with homogeneous enhancement.

  4. Analogous Three-Dimensional Constructive Interference in Steady State Sequences Enhance the Utility of Three-Dimensional Time of Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Delineating Lenticulostriate Arteries in Insular Gliomas: Evidence from a Prospective Clinicoradiologic Analysis of 48 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Arun S; Thakar, Sumit; Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Aryan, Saritha; Mohan, Dilip; Hegde, Alangar S

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) time of flight (TOF) imaging is the current gold standard for noninvasive, preoperative localization of lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) in insular gliomas; however, the utility of this modality depends on tumor intensity. Over a 3-year period, 48 consecutive patients with insular gliomas were prospectively evaluated. Location of LSAs and their relationship with the tumor were determined using a combination of contrast-enhanced coronal 3D TOF magnetic resonance angiography and coronal 3D constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequences. These findings were analyzed with respect to extent of tumor resection and early postoperative motor outcome. Tumor was clearly visualized in 29 (60.4%) patients with T1-hypointense tumors using 3D TOF and in all patients using CISS sequences. Using combined 3D TOF and CISS, LSA-tumor interface was well seen in 47 patients, including all patients with T1-heterointense or T1-isointense tumors. Extent of resection was higher in the LSA-pushed group compared with the LSA-encased group. In the LSA-encased group, 6 (12.5%) patients developed postoperative hemiparesis; 2 (4.2%) cases were attributed to LSA injury. Contrast-enhanced 3D TOF can delineate LSAs in almost all insular gliomas but is limited in identifying the LSA-tumor interface. This limitation can be overcome by addition of analogous CISS sequences that delineate the LSA-tumor interface regardless of tumor intensity. Combined 3D TOF and 3D CISS is a useful tool for surgical planning and safer resections of insular tumors and may have added surgical relevance when included as an intraoperative adjunct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinicoradiological appraisal of ‘paraduodenal pancreatitis’: Pancreatitis outside the pancreas!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Ankur; Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Patidar, Yashwant; Thapar, Shalini; Arora, Asit; Bhatia, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Paraduodenal pancreatitis (PP) is a unique form of focal chronic pancreatitis that selectively involves the duodenum and aberrant pancreatic tissue located near the minor papilla (beyond the pancreas proper). The pseudotumoral nature of the disease often generates considerable clinical quandary and patient apprehension, and therefore merits a better understanding. The present study appraises the clinicoradiological manifestations of PP in 33 patients. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological manifestations of 33 patients of PP treated in gastroenterology/hepatology and hepato-pancreatico-biliary surgery units during June 2010-August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were young to middle-aged men (100%) with history of alcohol abuse (93.9%) and/or smoking (42.4%), who presented either with acute or gradually worsening abdominal pain (90.9%). Pancreatic enzymes and serum tumor markers remained normal or were mildly/transiently elevated. Cystic variant was detected in 57.6% (solid in 42.4%); the disease remained confined to the groove/duodenum (pure form) in 45.4%. Medial duodenal wall thickening with increased enhancement was seen in 87.87 and 81.81%, respectively, and duodenal/paraduodenal cysts were seen in 78.78%. Pancreatic calcifications and biliary stricture were seen 27.3% patients. Peripancreatic arteries were neither infiltrated nor encased. PP has a discrete predilection for middle-aged men with history of longstanding alcohol abuse and/or smoking. Distinguishing imaging findings include thickening of the pancreatic side of duodenum exhibiting increased enhancement with intramural/paraduodenal cysts. This may be accompanied by plate-like scar tissue in the groove region, which may simulate groove pancreatic carcinoma. However, as opposed to carcinoma, the peripancreatic arteries are neither infiltrated nor encased, rather are medially displaced

  6. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with construction, operation and sealing of disposal facilities for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 4 of five volumes that together constitute the final report on the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. The safety investigations were carried out for a deep-hole disposal facility located in the salt dome on Mors. In principle the results of the investigations also apply to a shaft/mine disposal facility. The facility is designed for the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in the shape of glass canisters. There is a low concentration of waste in each canister, approx. 10%. Furthermore, it was selected to place the waste in an intermediate storage for about 40 years prior to its final disposal. Consequently, heat generation in the waste at the time of final disposal will be modest, resulting in low temperature increase in the salt. As an example, the highest temperature increase will be approx. 40 deg. C. and it will occur at the edge of the hole five years after disposal has taken place. Prior to disposal, the glass canisters are encased in steel casks with 15 cm thick walls. Three canisters are placed in each cask, and 215 casks are stacked on top on one another in each deep-hole from a depth of 1200 m to 2500 m underground. The additional encasing is designed to protect the glass from dissolution should any brine reach the disposal facility. Furthermore, the steel cask protects the glass canisters against pressure from the wall of the hole. The technical design of the disposal facility gives it a considerable safety margin against unexpected events. The investigations proved Cretaceous strata to constitute an effective secondary barrier that would prevent radioactive matter from travelling from the underlying disposal facility to the biosphere. (BP)

  7. Subcutaneous Fascial Bands—A Qualitative and Morphometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ) layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. Methods In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer) thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. Results Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone) thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm). Conclusion Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part. PMID:21931632

  8. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  9. Microencapsulated 3-Dimensional Sensor for the Measurement of Oxygen in Single Isolated Pancreatic Islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Gamal; Sweet, Ian R.; Shen, Amy Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxygen consumption reflects multiple processes in pancreatic islets including mechanisms contributing to insulin secretion, oxidative stress and viability, providing an important readout in studies of islet function, islet viability and drug testing. Due to the scarcity, heterogeneity, and intrinsic kinetic properties of individual islets, it would be of great benefit to detect oxygen consumption by single islets. We present a novel method we have developed to image oxygen in single islets. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a microfluidics system, individual islets and a fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye were encased within a thin alginate polymer layer. Insulin secretion by the encapsulated islets was normal. Fluorescent signal from the encased dye, detected using a standard inverted fluorescence microscope and digital camera, was stable and proportional to the amount of oxygen in the media. When integrated into a perifusion system, the sensing system detected changes in response to metabolic substrates, mitochondrial poisons, and induced-oscillations. Glucose responses averaged 30.1±7.1% of the response to a metabolic inhibitor (cyanide), increases were observed in all cases (n = 6), and the system was able to resolve changes in oxygen consumption that had a period greater than 0.5 minutes. The sensing system operated similarly from 2–48 hours following encapsulation, and viability and function of the islets were not significantly affected by the encapsulation process. Conclusions/Significance An oxygen-dependent dye situated around and within a pancreatic islet encapsulated by a thin layer of alginate was sensitive to changes in oxygen consumption, and was not harmful to the function or viability of islets over the course of two days. The microcapsule-based sensing method is particularly suited to assessing the effects of compounds (dose responses and time courses) and chronic changes occurring over the course of days. The approach should be

  10. First report of in a feral domestic shorthair cat in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Crossland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A feral domestic shorthair cat was euthanized owing to acute onset and progression of neurological signs attributed to ethylene glycol toxicity. At post-mortem examination two nodules were identified within the fundus of the stomach. Examination of the gastric nodules revealed an intact mucosal surface, each with multiple red slender nematodes extending through an individual central pore. Histopathological evaluation of the nodules highlighted unique reactive fibroplasia, mimicking feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia (FGESF, encasing numerous nematodes with females possessing gravid uteri containing abundant larvated eggs. The latter findings were highly suggestive of the Cylicospirura genus, further supported by an en face evaluation of the buccal cavity, highlighting a distinctive trifid tooth appearance. Together, these findings are consistent with Cylicospirura felineus . PCR for the COX-1 gene was unsuccessful on formalin-fixed specimens, attributed to nucleic acid and protein crosslinking. Relevance and novel information This represents the first documented case of Cylicospirura species in a feral domestic shorthair cat in North America. This particular cat lived in the highly urban environment of New Orleans, Louisiana. Identification of this case demonstrates the potential for feral cats to serve as reservoir hosts and ultimately support transmission of Cylicospirura species into domesticated cat populations. Gastric cylicospiruriasis may present clinically as a firm abdominal mass, potentially with a history of chronic vomiting. The latter emphasizes the importance of differentiating this condition from a neoplastic process such as alimentary lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Histologically, the unique thick anastomosing collagenous cords encasing nematodes represent a stereotypical response observed in a broad array of gastrointestinal inflammation in felines, including intralesional bacteria, fungal

  11. Polyimide-Foam/Aerogel Composites for Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Smith, Trent; Weoser. Erol

    2009-01-01

    completely encased in an outer layer of TEEK friable balloons. Optionally, the process could be further repeated to produce multiple aerogel-blanket layers interspersed with and encased by TEEK friable balloons.

  12. Escherichia coli biofilms have an organized and complex extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Crowley, Jan R; Heuser, John; Chapman, Matthew R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-09-10

    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, and their resilience is derived in part from a complex extracellular matrix that can be tailored to meet environmental demands. Although common developmental stages leading to biofilm formation have been described, how the extracellular components are organized to allow three-dimensional biofilm development is not well understood. Here we show that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains produce a biofilm with a highly ordered and complex extracellular matrix (ECM). We used electron microscopy (EM) techniques to image floating biofilms (pellicles) formed by UPEC. EM revealed intricately constructed substructures within the ECM that encase individual, spatially segregated bacteria with a distinctive morphology. Mutational and biochemical analyses of these biofilms confirmed curli as a major matrix component and revealed important roles for cellulose, flagella, and type 1 pili in pellicle integrity and ECM infrastructure. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated that UPEC pellicles have a highly organized ultrastructure that varies spatially across the multicellular community. Bacteria can form biofilms in diverse niches, including abiotic surfaces, living cells, and at the air-liquid interface of liquid media. Encasing these cellular communities is a self-produced extracellular matrix (ECM) that can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. The ECM protects biofilm bacteria from environmental insults and also makes the dissolution of biofilms very challenging. As a result, formation of biofilms within humans (during infection) or on industrial material (such as water pipes) has detrimental and costly effects. In order to combat bacterial biofilms, a better understanding of components required for biofilm formation and the ECM is required. This study defined the ECM composition and architecture of floating pellicle biofilms formed by Escherichia coli.

  13. Assembly and development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Ma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all cells living in multicellular structures such as tissues and organs are encased in an extracellular matrix. One of the most important features of a biofilm is the extracellular polymeric substance that functions as a matrix, holding bacterial cells together. Yet very little is known about how the matrix forms or how matrix components encase bacteria during biofilm development. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms environmentally and clinically relevant biofilms and is a paradigm organism for the study of biofilms. The extracellular polymeric substance of P. aeruginosa biofilms is an ill-defined mix of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Here, we directly visualize the product of the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl exopolysaccharide at different stages of biofilm development. During attachment, Psl is anchored on the cell surface in a helical pattern. This promotes cell-cell interactions and assembly of a matrix, which holds bacteria in the biofilm and on the surface. Chemical dissociation of Psl from the bacterial surface disrupted the Psl matrix as well as the biofilm structure. During biofilm maturation, Psl accumulates on the periphery of 3-D-structured microcolonies, resulting in a Psl matrix-free cavity in the microcolony center. At the dispersion stage, swimming cells appear in this matrix cavity. Dead cells and extracellular DNA (eDNA are also concentrated in the Psl matrix-free area. Deletion of genes that control cell death and autolysis affects the formation of the matrix cavity and microcolony dispersion. These data provide a mechanism for how P. aeruginosa builds a matrix and subsequently a cavity to free a portion of cells for seeding dispersal. Direct visualization reveals that Psl is a key scaffolding matrix component and opens up avenues for therapeutics of biofilm-related complications.

  14. Cellular mesoblastic nephroma (infantile renal fibrosarcoma): institutional review of the clinical, diagnostic imaging, and pathologic features of a distinctive neoplasm of infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayindir, Petek; Guillerman, Robert Paul; Hicks, M.J.; Chintagumpala, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular mesoblastic nephroma has been associated with a more aggressive course than classic mesoblastic nephroma, including local recurrences and metastases. To define the clinicopathologic and imaging features distinguishing cellular from classic mesoblastic nephroma. Retrospective review of clinical charts and imaging studies of ten children with mesoblastic nephroma from 1996 to 2007 at a large children's hospital. In six children the mesoblastic nephroma was pure cellular, in two mixed, and in two classic. The mean ages at diagnosis were 107 days for those with the cellular form, and 32 days for those with the classic form. Hypoechoic or low-attenuation regions representing necrosis or hemorrhage were found in all children with the cellular form and in none of those with the classic form. Hypertension was present in 70% and hypercalcemia in 20% of the children and resolved following nephrectomy. Two cellular tumors encased major abdominal vessels. Local recurrence and metastases occurred within 6 months of tumor resection in two children with the cellular form. Intraspinal extension and intratumoral pseudoaneurysm were seen in one child with the cellular form. The cellular tumors shared histopathologic features with infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS), and RT-PCR testing in two children with the cellular form revealed the t(12;15) ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion common to IFS. Distinct from the classic form, cellular mesoblastic nephroma is more heterogeneous in appearance on imaging, tends to be larger and present later in infancy, and can exhibit aggressive behavior including vascular encasement and metastasis. Intraspinal extension and intratumoral pseudoaneurysm are previously unreported findings encountered in our cellular mesoblastic nephroma series. The shared histopathology and translocation gene fusion support the concept of cellular mesoblastic nephroma as the renal form of IFS. (orig.)

  15. Muscular involvement by malignant lymphoma: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Baek Hyun

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the CT and MR findings of muscular involvement by malignant lymphoma. Thirteen patients with biopsy-proved muscular involvement by malignant lymphoma were included in this study. Two patients were primary muscle lymphoma and 11 patients were muscle lymphoma by secondary involvement of malignant lymphoma. CT of 10 patients (6 pre-contrast CT and 9 postcontrast CT) and MRI of 6 patients (all with pre a nd post-contrast studies) were retrospectively analyzed. In the majority of patients (84.6%, 11/13), the appearance of muscular involvement was the diffuse enlargement of several muscles as like as a group. The muscles involved by malignant lymphoma showed iso-attenuation (5/6) and homogeneity (6/6) on pre-contrast CT scan, and high attenuation (5/9) or iso-attenuation (4/9) and homogeneity (7/9) on post-contrast CT scan. The signal intensity of involved muscle showed slightly hyper- (4/6) or iso-intense (2/6) and homogeneous (6/6) on T1-weighted images, and hyper-intense (6/6) and homogeneous (4/6) on T2- and Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. Adjacent bone change was demonstrated in 69.2% (9/13), subcutaneous fat change in 61.5% (8/13), and neurovascular encasement within involved muscle in 53.8% (7/13). The CT and MR findings of muscular involvement by malignant lymphoma were diffuse enlargement of several muscles with homogeneous attenuation or signal intensity, and frequent changes in adjacent bones and subcutaneous fat, or neurovascular encasement. (author)

  16. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  17. Imaging of non-central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumours: Diagnostic features and correlation with outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, E.A.; McHugh, K.; Kimber, C.; Michalski, A

    2001-03-01

    AIM: To document the varied radiological features before, during, and after treatment of non-Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNETs), which are rare tumours of childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children with PNETs have been treated at our institution between 1990 and 1999. Full radiological and clinical follow-up was obtained in 29 (17 females, 12 males). Imaging was retrospectively reviewed, with particular attention to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Age range at diagnosis was 0-16 years old (mean 4.4 years). There were five main sites of tumour: head and neck (n = 7), scapula/axilla (n 2), chest (n = 11), abdomen (n = 3), and spinal/paraspinal (n = 6). Overall mortality was 62%. Tumours of the scapula or paraspinal region appear to show better survival than other sites. Of 23 patients who had Tc99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans at diagnosis, four patients showed widespread distant metastases, seven showed focal increased uptake in an adjacent bone only, and 12 had normal examinations. CT was performed in 25 patients and MRI in 20, both at diagnosis and follow-up. Average size of tumours at presentation was 4.5 cm in the paraspinal, head and neck and scapular regions and 7.5 cm in the chest and abdomen. Tumours were typically of soft tissue density on CT with the larger (>5 cm) masses tending to be more heterogeneous in character. The lesions were slightly higher signal than muscle on T1-weighted (T1W) MRI and all masses were heterogeneous on T2W sequences. Calcification was uncommon (n = 6) and generally sparse. Tumours tended to displace adjacent soft tissue structures such as vessels and bronchi rather than invade or encase them. Tumours rarely crossed the midline. Local or bony invasion was seen in 12 patients at diagnosis. Metastases were identified in the lung (n = 5), pleura (n = 2), brain (n = 4), bone (n = 4), lymph nodes (n = 2), liver (n = 2), subcutaneous tissues

  18. Imaging of non-central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumours: Diagnostic features and correlation with outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, E.A.; McHugh, K.; Kimber, C.; Michalski, A.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To document the varied radiological features before, during, and after treatment of non-Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNETs), which are rare tumours of childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children with PNETs have been treated at our institution between 1990 and 1999. Full radiological and clinical follow-up was obtained in 29 (17 females, 12 males). Imaging was retrospectively reviewed, with particular attention to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Age range at diagnosis was 0-16 years old (mean 4.4 years). There were five main sites of tumour: head and neck (n = 7), scapula/axilla (n 2), chest (n = 11), abdomen (n = 3), and spinal/paraspinal (n = 6). Overall mortality was 62%. Tumours of the scapula or paraspinal region appear to show better survival than other sites. Of 23 patients who had Tc99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans at diagnosis, four patients showed widespread distant metastases, seven showed focal increased uptake in an adjacent bone only, and 12 had normal examinations. CT was performed in 25 patients and MRI in 20, both at diagnosis and follow-up. Average size of tumours at presentation was 4.5 cm in the paraspinal, head and neck and scapular regions and 7.5 cm in the chest and abdomen. Tumours were typically of soft tissue density on CT with the larger (>5 cm) masses tending to be more heterogeneous in character. The lesions were slightly higher signal than muscle on T1-weighted (T1W) MRI and all masses were heterogeneous on T2W sequences. Calcification was uncommon (n = 6) and generally sparse. Tumours tended to displace adjacent soft tissue structures such as vessels and bronchi rather than invade or encase them. Tumours rarely crossed the midline. Local or bony invasion was seen in 12 patients at diagnosis. Metastases were identified in the lung (n = 5), pleura (n = 2), brain (n = 4), bone (n = 4), lymph nodes (n = 2), liver (n = 2), subcutaneous tissues

  19. Investigating microbial colonization in actively forming hydrothermal deposits using thermocouple arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivey, M. K.; Reysenbach, A. L.; Hirsch, M.; Steinberg, J.; Flores, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Investigations of microbial colonization of very young hydrothermal deposits were carried out in 2009 at hydrothermal vents in the Lau Basin (SW Pacific), and in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, with a test deployment at the Rainbow vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 2008. Our method entailed razing active chimneys and placing arrays of temperature probes (8 titanium-encased probes with their tips placed within a titanium cage) over the active flow. The chimneys that grew back through each array, encasing the temperature probe tips, were recovered after 2 to 15 days, along with temperature records. Molecular phylogenetic methods are being used to reveal the members of the microbial communities that developed in each chimney of known age and thermal history. A total of 15 array deployments were made at 10 vents in 6 different vent fields. Similar morphology beehives (with porous fine-grained interiors and steep temperature gradients across the outermost more-consolidated “wall”) formed at 2 of the 3 vents in Guaymas Basin (in 2 and 5 days at one vent and 3 and 15 days at a second), and at one vent each in the Kilo Moana (in 3 days), Tahi Moana (in 2.5 days), and Tui Malila (in 3 and 8 days) vent fields in the Lau Basin. In contrast, open conduit, thin walled chimneys grew within arrays at the Mariner vent field, Lau Basin, at 3 different vents (in 3 days at one vent, in 3 and 11 days at a second vent, and in 13 days at a third vent). A lower temperature (Archaea showed very little change in diversity over time, with members of the genera Thermococcus and Methanocaldococcus present in all samples analyzed, irrespective of location and timing of sampling. This is very different from a 72-hour test array deployment done in 2008 at Rainbow vent field, where the deposited soft material was colonized only by the sulfate-reducing archaeum, Archaeoglobus. These samples (8 beehives, 4 open conduit smokers, one diffuser spire, from chimneys of known composition

  20. Role of Early Postradiation Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans in Children With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Christine [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kaushal, Aradhana, E-mail: kaushala@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hammoud, Dima A. [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Steffen-Smith, Emilie A.; Bent, Robyn [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Citrin, Deborah; Camphausen, Kevin [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Warren, Katherine E. [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine optimal timing of assessing postradiation radiographic response on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated on a prospective study at the National Cancer Institute (Protocol no. 06-C-0219) evaluating the effects of radiotherapy (RT). Standard RT was administered in standard fractionation over 6 weeks. Postradiation MRI scans were performed at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Results: Eleven patients with DIPG were evaluated. Median age was 6 years (range, 4-13 years). Patients were treated with external-beam RT to 55.8 Gy (n = 10) or 54 Gy (n = 1), with a gross tumor volume to planning target volume expansion of 1.8-2.0 cm. All patients received prescribed dose and underwent posttreatment MRI scans at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Pretreatment imaging revealed compression of fourth ventricle (n = 11); basilar artery encasement (n = 9); tumor extension outside the pons (n = 11); and tumor hemorrhage (n = 2). At the 2-week scan, basilar artery encasement improved in 7 of 9 patients, and extent of tumor was reduced in 5 of 11 patients. Fourth ventricle compression improved in 6 of 11 patients but worsened in 3 of 11 patients. Presumed necrosis was observed in 5 of 11 patients at 2 weeks and in 1 additional patient at 6-8 weeks. There was no significant difference in mean anteroposterior and transverse diameters of tumor between the 2- and 6-8-week time points. Six of 11 patients had increasing ventricular size, with no evidence of obstruction. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in tumor size of DIPG patients who have received standard RT when measured at 2 weeks vs. 6-8 weeks after RT. The majority of patients had the largest change in tumor size at the 2-week post-RT scan, with evolving changes documented on the 6-8-week scan. Six of 11 patients had progressive ventriculomegaly without obstruction, suggestive of communicating hydrocephalus. To the best

  1. Electro-catalytic properties of graphene composites containing gold or silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R.; Coros, Maria; Watanabe, Fumiya; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphene sheets with embedded gold or silver nanoparticles were prepared by RF-cCVD method. ► The crystallinity of the composite samples is less influenced by the type of metallic nanoparticles (silver or gold). ► The composite nanostructures exhibit excellent electro-catalytic properties toward carbamazepine oxidation. -- Abstract: Composite nanostructures based on few-layers graphene with encased gold or silver nanoparticles (denoted as Gr-Au and Gr-Ag, respectively) were separately prepared in a single-step synthesis by radio frequency catalytic chemical vapor deposition (RF-cCVD) over Au x /MgO and Ag x /MgO catalytic system (where x = 3 wt.%), respectively. Their morphological properties were investigated by electron microscopy techniques (TEM/HRTEM), which demonstrated that the number of graphitic layers within the sheet varied between 2 and 7. Thorough TEM analysis also indicated that gold nanoparticles had a mean size of 22 nm, while silver nanoparticles were found to be larger with a mean size of 35 nm. X-ray powder diffraction proved that the crystallinity of the Gr-Au or Gr-Ag samples is less influenced by the type of metallic nanoparticles (silver or gold) encased between the graphitic layers. The mean value of the crystalline domain perpendicular to graphene (0 0 2) crystallographic plane was determined to be approximately 2.25 nm (for Gr-Au sample) and 2.14 nm (for Gr-Ag sample), both corresponding to 6 graphitic layers. Gr-Ag and Gr-Au nanostructures were used to modify platinum substrates and subsequently employed for the electrochemical analysis of carbamazepine. A significant decrease in the electrochemical oxidation potential of carbamazepine (150 mV) was obtained with both modified electrodes. The detection limit (DL) was found to be 2.75 × 10 −5 M and 2.92 × 10 −5 M for the Pt/Gr-Ag and Pt/Gr-Au electrode, respectively

  2. Preventing Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Children. A Randomized Trial of Mite-Impermeable Bedcovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare S; Foden, Philip; Sumner, Helen; Shepley, Elizabeth; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela

    2017-07-15

    Allergen exposure in sensitized individuals with asthma interacts with viruses to increase the risk of asthma exacerbation. To evaluate the use of house dust mite-impermeable bedding and its impact on severe asthma exacerbations in children. We randomized mite-sensitized children with asthma (ages 3-17 yr) after an emergency hospital attendance with an asthma exacerbation to receive mite-impermeable (active group) or control (placebo group) bed encasings. Over a 12-month intervention period, the occurrence of severe asthma exacerbations was investigated. Of 434 children with asthma who consented, 286 (mean age, 7.7 yr; male sex, 65.8%) were mite sensitized, and 284 were randomized (146 to the active group and 138 to the placebo group). At 12 months, significantly fewer children in the active group than in the placebo group had attended the hospital with an exacerbation (36 [29.3%] of 123 vs. 49 [41.5%] of 118; P = 0.047). In the multivariable analysis, the risk of emergency hospital attendance was 45% lower in the active group (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.85; P = 0.006) than in the placebo group. The annual rate of emergency hospital attendance with exacerbations was 27% lower in the active group than in the placebo group, but this did not reach significance (estimated marginal mean [95% CI], active, 0.38 [0.26-0.56] vs. placebo, 0.52 [0.35-0.76]; P = 0.18). No difference between the groups in the risk of prednisolone use for exacerbation was found (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.58-1.17; P = 0.28). Mite-impermeable encasings are effective in reducing the number of mite-sensitized children with asthma attending the hospital with asthma exacerbations but not the number requiring oral prednisolone. This simple measure may reduce the health care burden of asthma exacerbations in children. Clinical trial registered with www.isrctn.com (ISRCTN 69543196).

  3. Advanced biomaterial strategies to transplant preformed micro-tissue engineered neural networks into the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. P.; Struzyna, L. A.; Murphy, P. L.; Adewole, D. O.; Kuo, E.; Cullen, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Connectome disruption is a hallmark of many neurological diseases and trauma with no current strategies to restore lost long-distance axonal pathways in the brain. We are creating transplantable micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), which are preformed constructs consisting of embedded neurons and long axonal tracts to integrate with the nervous system to physically reconstitute lost axonal pathways. Approach. We advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-TENNs consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. Further, we improved the biomaterial encasement scheme by adding a thin layer of low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to enable needle-less insertion and rapid softening for mechanical similarity with brain tissue. Main results. The engineered architecture of cortical micro-TENNs facilitated robust neuronal viability and axonal cytoarchitecture to at least 22 days in vitro. Micro-TENNs displayed discrete neuronal populations spanned by long axonal fasciculation throughout the core, thus mimicking the general systems-level anatomy of gray matter—white matter in the brain. Additionally, micro-columns with thin CMC-coating upon mild dehydration were able to withstand a force of 893 ± 457 mN before buckling, whereas a solid agarose cylinder of similar dimensions was predicted to withstand less than 150 μN of force. This thin CMC coating increased the stiffness by three orders of magnitude, enabling needle-less insertion into brain while significantly reducing the footprint of previous needle-based delivery methods to minimize insertion trauma. Significance. Our novel micro-TENNs are the first strategy designed for minimally invasive implantation to facilitate nervous system repair by simultaneously providing neuronal replacement and physical reconstruction of long-distance axon pathways in the brain

  4. Ultrasound, elastography, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in Riedel's thyroiditis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slman, Rouba; Monpeyssen, Hervé; Desarnaud, Serge; Haroche, Julien; Fediaevsky, Laurence Du Pasquier; Fabrice, Menegaux; Seret-Begue, Dominique; Amoura, Zahir; Aurengo, André; Leenhardt, Laurence

    2011-07-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare disease characterized by a chronic inflammatory lesion of the thyroid gland with invasion by a dense fibrosis. Publications of the imaging features of RT are scarce. To our knowledge, ultrasound elastography (USE) findings have not been previously reported. Therefore, we describe two patients with RT who were imaged with ultrasonography (US), USE, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Two women were referred for a large, hard goiter with compressive symptoms (dyspnea and dysphagia); in one patient, the goiter was associated with retroperitoneal fibrosis. In both cases, RT was confirmed by surgical biopsy with pathological examination. Thyroid US imaging was performed with a US scan and a 10-13 MHz linear transducer. The hardness of the tissues was analyzed using transient USE (ShearWave, Aixplorer-SuperSonic Imagine). PET/CT scanning was performed with a Philips Gemini GXL camera (GE Medical Systems). In the first patient, US examination revealed a compressive multinodular goiter with large solid hypoechoic and poorly vascularized areas adjacent to the nodules. The predominant right nodule was hypoechoic with irregular margins. The second patient had a hypoechoic goiter with large bilateral hypoechoic areas. In both cases, an unusual feature was observed: the presence of tissue surrounding the primitive carotid artery, associated with thrombi of the internal jugular vein. Further, USE showed heterogeneity in the stiffness values of the thyroid parenchyma varying between 21 kPa and 281 kPa. FDG-PET/CT imaging showed uptake foci in the thyroid gland. In both cases, US showed a decrease in the thyroid gland volume and the disappearance of encasement of the neck vasculature in response to corticosteroid treatment. In contrast, the FDG-PET/CT features remained unchanged. US features, such as vascular encasement and improvement under corticosteroid treatment, seem to be specific to this

  5. Semi-field assessment of the BG-Malaria trap for monitoring the African malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis P A Batista

    Full Text Available Odour-baited technologies are increasingly considered for effective monitoring of mosquito populations and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. The BG-Malaria trap (BGM, which is an upside-down variant of the widely used BG-Sentinel trap (BGS, has been demonstrated to be effective to sample the Brazilian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi. We evaluated the BGM as an improved method for sampling the African malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis. Experiments were conducted inside a large semi-field cage to compare trapping efficiencies of BGM and BGS traps, both baited with the synthetic attractant, Ifakara blend, supplemented with CO2. We then compared BGMs baited with either of four synthetic mosquito lures, Ifakara blend, Mbita blend, BG-lure or CO2, and an unbaited BGM. Lastly, we compared BGMs baited with the Ifakara blend dispensed via either nylon strips, BG cartridges (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in cylindrical plastic cartridge or BG sachets (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in plastic sachets. All tests were conducted between 6P.M. and 7A.M., with 200-600 laboratory-reared An. arabiensis released nightly in the test chamber. The median number of An. arabiensis caught by the BGM per night was 83, IQR:(73.5-97.75, demonstrating clear superiority over BGS (median catch = 32.5 (25.25-37.5. Compared to unbaited controls, BGMs baited with Mbita blend caught most mosquitoes (45 (29.5-70.25, followed by BGMs baited with CO2 (42.5 (27.5-64, Ifakara blend (31 (9.25-41.25 and BG lure (16 (4-22. BGM caught 51 (29.5-72.25 mosquitoes/night, when the attractants were dispensed using BG-Cartridges, compared to BG-Sachet (29.5 (24.75-40.5, and nylon strips (27 (19.25-38.25, in all cases being significantly superior to unbaited controls (p < 000.1. The findings demonstrate potential of the BGM as a sampling tool for African malaria vectors over the standard BGS trap. Its efficacy can be optimized by selecting

  6. Life in Ice: Implications to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2008 Tawani International Expedition Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Antarctica Expedition, living and instantly motile bacteria were found in freshly thawed meltwater from ice of the Schirmacher Oasis Lakes, the Anuchin Glacier ice and samples of the that perennial ice sheet above Lake Untersee. This phenomenon of living bacteria encased in ice had previously been observed in the 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Tunnel. The bacteria found in this ice included the strain FTR1T which was isolated and published as valid new species (Carnobacterium pleistocenium) the first validly published living Pleistocene organism still alive today. Living bacteria were also extracted from ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The discovery that many strains of bacteria are able to survive and remain alive while frozen in ice sheets for long periods of time may have direct relevance to Astrobiology. The abundance of viable bacteria in the ice sheets of Antarctica suggests that the presence of live bacteria in ice is common, rather than an isolated phenomenon. This paper will discuss the results of recent studies at NSSTC of bacteria cryopreserved in ice. This paper advances the hypothesis that cryopreserved cells, and perhaps even viable bacterial cells, may exist today--frozen in the water-ice of lunar craters, the Polar Caps or craters of Mars; or in the permafrost of Mars; ice and rocks of comets or water bearing asteroids; or in the frozen crusts of the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The existence of bacterial life in ice suggests that it may not be necessary to drill through a thick ice crust to reach liquid water seas deep beneath the icy crusts of Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus. The presence of viable bacteria in the ice of the Earth s Polar Caps suggests that the possibility that cryo-panspermia (i.e., the trans-planetary transfer of microbial life by impact ejection/spallation of bacteria-rich polar ice masses) deserves serious consideration and study as a

  7. Effects of indocyanine green videoangiography and electrophysiological monitoring on surgery for intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yoshikazu; Kitai, Ryuhei; Awara, Kosuke

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the outcome of 62 consecutive patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm treated by surgical clipping. Thirty-one cases were operated without intraoperative monitoring, 17 cases with indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGA), and 14 cases with electrophysiological monitoring (EPM) in addition to ICGA. Complete obliteration of the aneurysm was confirmed in all 62 cases. Diffusion-weighted imaging of MRI disclosed no ischemic lesions after surgery in any of the cases. Asymptomatic venous infarction was detected by CT study in 2 cases. Cranial nerve palsy occurred in 4 cases but EPM could not detect it. There was no difference among the group without monitoring, the group with ICGA and the group with ICGA and EPM. The mortality and morbidity of all cases was calculated as 0% and 6.5%, respectively. ICGA appeared to be useful in surgery for aneurysms encasing perforators or for repair of problems such as premature rupture. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seemed effective in surgery for anterior choroidal artery aneurysms or aneurysms requiring trapping before clipping. However, monitoring would not have been effective without extensive dissection of aneurysms, suggesting that basic microsurgical techniques are crucial for successful surgery. (author)

  8. An x-ray-based capsule for colorectal cancer screening incorporating single photon counting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Ronen; Kimchy, Yoav; Gelbard, Nir; Leibushor, Avi; Golan, Oleg; Elgali, Avner; Hassoon, Salah; Kaplan, Max; Smirnov, Michael; Shpigelman, Boaz; Bar-Ilan, Omer; Rubin, Daniel; Ovadia, Alex

    2017-03-01

    An ingestible capsule for colorectal cancer screening, based on ionizing-radiation imaging, has been developed and is in advanced stages of system stabilization and clinical evaluation. The imaging principle allows future patients using this technology to avoid bowel cleansing, and to continue the normal life routine during procedure. The Check-Cap capsule, or C-Scan ® Cap, imaging principle is essentially based on reconstructing scattered radiation, while both radiation source and radiation detectors reside within the capsule. The radiation source is a custom-made radioisotope encased in a small canister, collimated into rotating beams. While traveling along the human colon, irradiation occurs from within the capsule towards the colon wall. Scattering of radiation occurs both inside and outside the colon segment; some of this radiation is scattered back and detected by sensors onboard the capsule. During procedure, the patient receives small amounts of contrast agent as an addition to his/her normal diet. The presence of contrast agent inside the colon dictates the dominant physical processes to become Compton Scattering and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), which differ mainly by the energy of scattered photons. The detector readout electronics incorporates low-noise Single Photon Counting channels, allowing separation between the products of these different physical processes. Separating between radiation energies essentially allows estimation of the distance from the capsule to the colon wall, hence structural imaging of the intraluminal surface. This allows imaging of structural protrusions into the colon volume, especially focusing on adenomas that may develop into colorectal cancer.

  9. Corrosion of high-level radioactive waste iron-canisters in contact with bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, Stephan; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sanders, Daniel; Dohrmann, Reiner

    2015-03-21

    Several countries favor the encapsulation of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) in iron or steel canisters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite. In the present study the corrosion of iron in contact with different bentonites was investigated. The corrosion product was a 1:1 Fe layer silicate already described in literature (sometimes referred to as berthierine). Seven exposition test series (60 °C, 5 months) showed slightly less corrosion for the Na-bentonites compared to the Ca-bentonites. Two independent exposition tests with iron pellets and 38 different bentonites clearly proved the role of the layer charge density of the swelling clay minerals (smectites). Bentonites with high charged smectites are less corrosive than bentonites dominated by low charged ones. The type of counterion is additionally important because it determines the density of the gel and hence the solid/liquid ratio at the contact to the canister. The present study proves that the integrity of the multibarrier-system is seriously affected by the choice of the bentonite buffer encasing the metal canisters in most of the concepts. In some tests the formation of a patina was observed consisting of Fe-silicate. Up to now it is not clear why and how the patina formed. It, however, may be relevant as a corrosion inhibitor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Religious Conflicts between India and Pakistan%印巴地区的宗教冲突

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐孟生

    2012-01-01

    1947年印度和巴基斯坦分治。时过65载,印巴两国之间的对立和冲突非但未减,反而演变成为一个难以解开的死结,严重影响着印巴之间正常关系的建立,极大制约着地区经济的发展。学界普遍认为,宗教矛盾是引发冲突的核心因素。本文拟从宗教层面对印巴地区冲突进行粗浅的解读。%India and Pakistan were divided in 1947 . Sixty-five years have passed, the confrontation and conflict between India and Pakistan have not decreased but evolved into an encased knot more difficult to solve, which caused serious impacts on the establishment of normal rela-tions between India and Pakistan and have greatly restricted the develop-ment of regional economy. It is generally believed that religious contradic-tion is the essential cause of India-Pakistan conflict. This article intends to interpret the regional conflict between India and Pakistan on the perspec-tive of religious factors.

  11. Tracking of the micro-structural changes of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Kálmán; Szente, Virág; Süvegh, Károly; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-12-01

    The morphology and the micro-structural changes of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (IUSs) were studied in relation to the duration of their application. The morphology of the removed IUSs was examined without pre-treatment by scanning electron microscopy. The micro-structural changes of the different layers of IUSs were tracked by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Besides the previously found incrustation formation, the free volume of the hormone containing reservoir was remarkably increased after 3 years of application, thus increasing the real volume of the core of the systems. Although the free volume of the membrane encasing the core was not significantly changed in the course of the application, as a result of the core expansion, microcracks could be formed on the membrane surface. Along these cracks, deposits of different compositions can be formed, causing inflammatory complications and influencing the drug release of IUSs. Stability tests in combination with micro-structural screening of such IUSs could be required during their development phase to avoid the undesired side effects. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Presenting as Massive Hematemesis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Varshney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Splenic artery Pseudoaneurysm, a complication of chronic pancreatitis, presenting as massive hematemesis is a rare presentation. Case Report. We present a case of 38-year-old male admitted with chief complaints of pain in the upper abdomen and massive hematemesis for the last 15 days. On examination there was severe pallor. On investigating the patient, Hb was 4.0 gm/dL, upper GI endoscopy revealed a leiomyoma in fundus of stomach, and EUS Doppler also supported the UGI findings. On further investigation of the patient, CECT of the abdomen revealed a possibility of distal pancreatic carcinoma encasing splenic vessels and infiltrating the adjacent structure. FNA taken at the time of EUS was consistent with inflammatory pathology. Triple phase CT of the abdomen revealed a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm with multiple splenic infarcts. After resuscitation we planned an emergency laparotomy; splenic artery pseudoaneurysm densely adherent to adjacent structures and associated with distal pancreatic necrosis was found. We performed splenectomy with repair of the defect in the stomach wall and necrosectomy. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient was discharged on day 8. Conclusion. Pseudoaneurysm can be at times a very difficult situation to manage; options available are either catheter embolisation if patient is vitally stable, or otherwise, exploration.

  13. An Universal packaging technique for low-drift implantable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert; Powell, Charles R; Ziaie, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring bodily pressures provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. In particular, long-term measurement through implantable sensors is highly desirable in situations where percutaneous access can be complicated or dangerous (e.g., intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic patients). In spite of decades of progress in the fabrication of miniature solid-state pressure sensors, sensor drift has so far severely limited their application in implantable systems. In this paper, we report on a universal packaging technique for reducing the sensor drift. The described method isolates the pressure sensor from a major source of drift, i.e., contact with the aqueous surrounding environment, by encasing the sensor in a silicone-filled medical-grade polyurethane balloon. In-vitro soak tests for 100 days using commercial micromachined piezoresistive pressure sensors demonstrate a stable operation with the output remaining within 1.8 cmH2O (1.3 mmHg) of a reference pressure transducer. Under similar test conditions, a non-isolated sensor fluctuates between 10 and 20 cmH2O (7.4-14.7 mmHg) of the reference, without ever settling to a stable operation regime. Implantation in Ossabow pigs demonstrate the robustness of the package and its in-vivo efficacy in reducing the baseline drift.

  14. Poly-N-acetylglucosamine matrix polysaccharide impedes fluid convection and transport of the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride through bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshnarayan, Krishnaraj; Shah, Suhagi M; Libera, Matthew R; Santostefano, Anthony; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2009-03-01

    Biofilms are composed of bacterial cells encased in a self-synthesized, extracellular polymeric matrix. Poly-beta(1,6)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) is a major biofilm matrix component in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. In this study we investigated the physical and chemical properties of the PNAG matrix in biofilms produced in vitro by the gram-negative porcine respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and the gram-positive device-associated pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. The effect of PNAG on bulk fluid flow was determined by measuring the rate of fluid convection through biofilms cultured in centrifugal filter devices. The rate of fluid convection was significantly higher in biofilms cultured in the presence of the PNAG-degrading enzyme dispersin B than in biofilms cultured without the enzyme, indicating that PNAG decreases bulk fluid flow. PNAG also blocked transport of the quaternary ammonium compound cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) through the biofilms. Binding of CPC to biofilms further impeded fluid convection and blocked transport of the azo dye Allura red. Bioactive CPC was efficiently eluted from biofilms by treatment with 1 M sodium chloride. Taken together, these findings suggest that CPC reacts directly with the PNAG matrix and alters its physical and chemical properties. Our results indicate that PNAG plays an important role in controlling the physiological state of biofilms and may contribute to additional biofilm-associated processes such as biocide resistance.

  15. Small proteins link coat and cortex assembly during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebmeier, Sarah E.; Tan, Irene S.; Clapham, Katie Rose; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mature spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis are encased by two concentric shells: an inner shell (the ‘cortex’), made of peptidoglycan; and an outer proteinaceous shell (the ‘coat’), whose basement layer is anchored to the surface of the developing spore via a 26-amino-acid-long protein called SpoVM. During sporulation, initiation of cortex assembly depends on the successful initiation of coat assembly, but the mechanisms that co-ordinate the morphogenesis of both structures are largely unknown. Here, we describe a sporulation pathway involving SpoVM and a 37-amino-acid-long protein named ‘CmpA’ that is encoded by a previously un-annotated gene and is expressed under control of two sporulation-specific transcription factors (σE and SpoIIID). CmpA localized to the surface of the developing spore and deletion of cmpA resulted in cells progressing through the sporulation programme more quickly. Overproduction of CmpA did not affect normal growth or cell division, but delayed entry into sporulation and abrogated cortex assembly. In those cells that had successfully initiated coat assembly, CmpA was removed by a posttranslational mechanism, presumably in order to overcome the sporulation inhibition it imposed. We propose a model in which CmpA participates in a developmental checkpoint that ensures the proper orchestration of coat and cortex morphogenesis by repressing cortex assembly until coat assembly successfully initiates. PMID:22463703

  16. The resistance of austenitic stainless steels to pitting corrosion in simulated BFS/OPC pore waters containing thiosulphate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, A.J.; Newman, R.C.

    1989-06-01

    Current plans for the disposal of intermediate-level nuclear waste involve the use of austenitic stainless steel drums. The immediate environment seen by both the inner and outer surfaces of these drums will be alkaline, as a consequence of the encasement of both the drum and its contents in concrete. Normally there would be no risk of localized corrosion of the steel in this situation, but a possible complication is introduced by the use of blast-furnace slag (BFS) to decrease the permeability of the concrete. Metal sulphides in the BFS react with air and water to yield thiosulphate ions, which are known to be corrosive towards stainless steels in environments of near-neutral pH. This research was carried out to study the effects of thiosulphate at alkaline pH, simulating the concrete environment. Types 304L and 316L stainless steel have been tested for pitting corrosion resistance in simulated BFS/Ordinary Portland Cement pore waters of pH 10-13, at 20 o C and 50 o C. The results show that the 316L steel is essentially immune to pitting. The 304L steel shows some pitting at the higher temperature, especially at the higher chloride concentrations, but only at pH values of less than 12, which would require serious deterioration of the cement matrix. (author)

  17. Pipe explorer trademark: Overview, applications, and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    As the Department of Energy (DOE) continues to dismantle its nuclear process facilities, site managers throughout the complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means of disposing or remediating hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. Much of this is buried or encased, making quantification of contamination levels inside the pipes extremely difficult. Without adequate characterization, it is usually necessary to assume the piping is contaminated and to extract and dispose of it accordingly. For buried drain lines this approach can cost on the order of $1,200/ft and is often unnecessary as residual contamination levels are below free release criteria. The Science ampersand Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) Pipe Explorer trademark technology offers a simple and effective approach of transporting characterization tools into pipes and ducts so that these costs can be avoided. The system uses a pneumatically operated tubular membrane to tow radiation detectors and video cameras into pipes while simultaneously providing a clean conduit for the sensors to travel through. This paper describes the operation of the system, the DOE sites where it has been used, and the cost savings that have resulted from its use. In addition, recently added features to the technology, such as the ability to perform alpha and video surveys, are discussed

  18. Centrioles are freed from cilia by severing prior to mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeremy D K; Hilton, Laura K; Diener, Dennis R; Rasi, M Qasim; Mahjoub, Moe R; Rosenbaum, Joel L; Quarmby, Lynne M

    2010-07-01

    Cilia are necessary for normal tissue development and homeostasis and are generally present during interphase, but not in mitosis. The precise mechanism of premitotic ciliary loss has been controversial, with data supporting either sequential disassembly through the transition zone or, alternatively, a severing event at the base of the cilia. Here we show by live cell imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy that resorbing flagella of Chlamydomonas leave remnants associated with the mother cell wall. We postulated that the remnants are the product of severing of doublet microtubules between the basal bodies and the flagellar transition zone, thereby freeing the centrioles to participate in spindle organization. We show via TEM that flagellar remnants are indeed flagellar transition zones encased in vesicles derived from the flagellar membrane. This transition zone vesicle can be lodged within the cell wall or it can be expelled into the environment. This process is observable in Chlamydomonas, first because the released flagellar remnants can remain associated with the cell by virtue of attachments to the cell wall, and second because the Chlamydomonas transition zone is particularly rich with electron-dense structure. However, release of basal bodies for spindle-associated function is likely to be conserved among the eukaryotes. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  20. Heat generation by eddy currents in a shell of superconducting bus-bars for SIS100 particle accelerator at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomków Łukasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting magnets in the SIS100 particle accelerator require the supply of liquid helium and electric current. Both are transported with by-pass lines designed at Wrocław University of Technology. Bus-bars used to transfer an electric current between the sections of the accelerator will be encased in a steel shell. Eddy currents are expected to appear in the shell during fast-ramp operation of magnets. Heat generation, which should be limited in any cryogenic system, will appear in the shell. In this work the amount of heat generated is assessed depending on the geometry of an assembly of the bus-bars and the shell. Numerical and analytical calculations are described. It was found that heat generation in the shell is relatively small when compared to other sources present in the accelerator and its value strongly depends on the geometry of the shell. The distribution of eddy currents and generated heat for different geometrical options are presented. Based on the results of the calculations the optimal design is proposed.

  1. Fatal Clostridium botulinum toxicosis in eleven Holstein cattle fed round bale barley haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch, W J; Kerr, L A; Pringle, J K; Rohrbach, B W; Whitlock, R H

    2000-09-01

    Twenty-two lactating Holstein cattle in Tennessee had clinical signs of intoxication with preformed Clostridium botulinum toxin. These signs included weakness, paralysis of the tongue and chest muscles, abdominal breathing, and, in 11 of the 22 cows, death. Differential diagnoses included hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, carbohydrate overload, and several toxicoses including mycotoxin, lead, nitrate, organophosphate, atropine or atropine-like alkaloid, and botulism. A diagnosis of botulism by the ingestion of preformed C. botulinum type B toxin was made by eliminating these other diseases, by finding C. botulinum type B spores in 3 bales of round bale barley haylage fed to these cattle, and by isolating preformed type B toxin from 1 of the 3 bales. Confirmation of the toxin type was made by demonstrating mouse lethality by intraperitoneal injection of specimen extracts with neutralization by C. botulinum type B antitoxin. The haylage, harvested green and encased in black plastic bags to facilitate fermentation, was presumably contaminated by the botulinum toxin when fermentation failed to produce enough acid to lower the pH to 4.5, the pH below which C. botulinum growth is inhibited. Farmers and ranchers who use round hay balers to produce haylage should be alert to this potential problem.

  2. Pneumococci in biofilms are non-invasive: implications on nasopharyngeal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Paul Gilley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the human nasopharynx asymptomatically. Invasive pneumococcal disease develops following bacterial aspiration into the lungs. Pneumococci within the nasopharynx exist as biofilms, a growth phenotype characterized by surface attachment, encasement within an extracellular matrix, and antimicrobial resistance. Experimental evidence indicates that biofilm pneumococci are attenuated versus their planktonic counterpart. Biofilm pneumococci failed to cause invasive disease in experimentally challenged mice and in vitro were shown to be non-invasive despite being hyper-adhesive. This attenuated phenotype corresponds with observations that biofilm pneumococci elicit significantly less cytokine and chemokine production from host cells than their planktonic counterparts. Microarray and proteomic studies show that pneumococci within biofilms have decreased metabolism, less capsular polysaccharide, and reduced production of the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin. Biofilm pneumococci are predominately in the transparent phenotype, which has elevated cell wall phosphorylcholine, an adhesin subject to C-reactive protein mediated opsonization. Herein, we review these changes in virulence, interpret their impact on colonization and transmission, and discuss the notion that non-invasive biofilms are principal lifestyle of S. pneumoniae.

  3. A combined tactile and Raman probe for tissue characterization—design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, Morgan; Candefjord, Stefan; Ramser, Kerstin; Lindahl, Olof A; Jalkanen, Ville

    2012-01-01

    Histopathology is the golden standard for cancer diagnosis and involves the characterization of tissue components. It is labour intensive and time consuming. We have earlier proposed a combined fibre-optic near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIR-RS) and tactile resonance method (TRM) probe for detecting positive surgical margins as a complement to interoperative histopathology. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of attaching an RS probe inside a cylindrical TRM sensor and to investigate how laser-induced heating of the fibre-optic NIR-RS affected the temperature of the RS probe tip and an encasing TRM sensor. In addition, the possibility to perform fibre-optic NIR-RS in a well-lit environment was investigated. A small amount of rubber latex was preferable for attaching the thin RS probe inside the TRM sensor. The temperature rise of the TRM sensor due to a fibre-optic NIR-RS at 270 mW during 20 s was less than 2 °C. Fibre-optic NIR-RS was feasible in a dimmed bright environment using a small light shield and automatic subtraction of a pre-recorded contaminant spectrum. The results are promising for a combined probe for tissue characterization. (paper)

  4. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  5. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  6. A Novel Type of Polyhedral Viruses Infecting Hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2017-07-01

    Encapsidation of genetic material into polyhedral particles is one of the most common structural solutions employed by viruses infecting hosts in all three domains of life. Here, we describe a new virus of hyperthermophilic archaea, Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1 (SPV1), which condenses its circular double-stranded DNA genome in a manner not previously observed for other known viruses. The genome complexed with virion proteins is wound up sinusoidally into a spherical coil which is surrounded by an envelope and further encased by an outer polyhedral capsid apparently composed of the 20-kDa virion protein. Lipids selectively acquired from the pool of host lipids are integral constituents of the virion. None of the major virion proteins of SPV1 show similarity to structural proteins of known viruses. However, minor structural proteins, which are predicted to mediate host recognition, are shared with other hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses infecting members of the order Sulfolobales The SPV1 genome consists of 20,222 bp and contains 45 open reading frames, only one-fifth of which could be functionally annotated. IMPORTANCE Viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea display a remarkable morphological diversity, often presenting architectural solutions not employed by known viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. Here we present the isolation and characterization of Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1, which condenses its genome into a unique spherical coil. Due to the original genomic and architectural features of SPV1, the virus should be considered a representative of a new viral family, "Portogloboviridae." Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Morphology and genome organization of the virus PSV of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus: a novel virus family, the Globuloviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häring, Monika; Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Rachel, Reinhard; Stetter, Karl O; Garrett, Roger A; Prangishvili, David

    2004-06-01

    A novel virus, termed Pyrobaculum spherical virus (PSV), is described that infects anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea of the genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus. Spherical enveloped virions, about 100 nm in diameter, contain a major multimeric 33-kDa protein and host-derived lipids. A viral envelope encases a superhelical nucleoprotein core containing linear double-stranded DNA. The PSV infection cycle does not cause lysis of host cells. The viral genome was sequenced and contains 28337 bp. The genome is unique for known archaeal viruses in that none of the genes, including that encoding the major structural protein, show any significant sequence matches to genes in public sequence databases. Exceptionally for an archaeal double-stranded DNA virus, almost all the recognizable genes are located on one DNA strand. The ends of the genome consist of 190-bp inverted repeats that contain multiple copies of short direct repeats. The two DNA strands are probably covalently linked at their termini. On the basis of the unusual morphological and genomic properties of this DNA virus, we propose to assign PSV to a new viral family, the Globuloviridae.

  8. Slab edge insulating form system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brain E [Corral de Tierra, CA; Barsun, Stephan K [Davis, CA; Bourne, Richard C [Davis, CA; Hoeschele, Marc A [Davis, CA; Springer, David A [Winters, CA

    2009-10-06

    A method of forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising constructing a foundation frame, the frame comprising an insulating form having an opening, inserting a pocket former into the opening; placing concrete inside the foundation frame; and removing the pocket former after the placed concrete has set, wherein the concrete forms a pocket in the placed concrete that is accessible through the opening. The method may further comprise sealing the opening by placing a sealing plug or sealing material in the opening. A system for forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising a plurality of interconnected insulating forms, the insulating forms having a rigid outer member protecting and encasing an insulating material, and at least one gripping lip extending outwardly from the outer member to provide a pest barrier. At least one insulating form has an opening into which a removable pocket former is inserted. The system may also provide a tension anchor positioned in the pocket former and a tendon connected to the tension anchor.

  9. Hilar Inflammatory Pseudotumour with Hepatic Artery Atheroma- mimicker of Klatskin Tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archana; Bihari, Chhagan; Gupta, Nalini; Deka, Pranjal; Kumar, Arvind; Negi, Sanjay Singh; Arora, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumour of hilar biliary structures is an extremely rare benign lesion that can mimic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Clinical presentation and imaging findings often pose diagnostic difficulties. Main histopathological findings are the presence of myofibroblastic spindle cells, plasma cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes without cellular atypia or atypical mitotic figures. We describe a case of 62 year old male who presented with surgical obstructive jaundice. Imaging revealed a mass lesion involving the biliary confluence with upstream dilatation of biliary tree. Diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with type III hilar block was made. Intraoperately hilar mass lesion was found which was encasing right hepatic artery with no evidence of metastasis. The patient underwent Right hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy with complete common bile duct (CBD) excision with Roux en Y hepaticojejunostomy. Unexpectedly histopathological examination showed no evidence of malignancy and revealed hilar inflammatory pseudotumour with hepatic artery atherosclerosis. Preoperative imaging, operative management, pathologic diagnosis and literature review are being presented in view of rarity of the case.

  10. A remotely interrogatable sensor for chemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, P. G.; Doherty, S. A.; Grimes, C. A.; Seitz, W. R.

    1998-01-01

    A new type of continuously operating, in-situ, remotely monitored sensor is presented. The sensor is comprised of a thin film array of magnetostatically coupled, magnetically soft ferromagnetic thin film structures, adhered to or encased within a thin polymer layer. The polymer is made so that it swells or shrinks in response to the chemical analyte of interest, which in this case is pH. As the polymer swells or shrinks, the magnetostatic coupling between the magnetic elements changes, resulting in changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the sensor. Placed within a sinusoidal magnetic field the magnetization vector of the coupled sensor elements periodically reverses directions, generating magnetic flux that can be remotely detected as a series of voltage spikes in appropriately placed pickup coils. one preliminary sensor design consists of four triangles, initially spaced approximately 50 micrometers apart, arranged to form a 12 mm x 12 mm square with the triangle tips centered at a common origin. Our preliminary work has focused on monitoring of pH using a lightly crosslinked pH sensitive polymer layer of hydroxyethylmethacrylate and 2-(dimethylamino) ethylmethacrylate. As the polymer swells or shrinks the magnetostatic coupling between the triangles changes, resulting in measurable changes in the amplitude of the detected voltage spirits.

  11. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  12. Towards a miniature self-propelled jellyfish-like swimming robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhi Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish uses jet propulsion to achieve a diversity of propulsion modes in the water. In this article, a miniature jellyfish-inspired swimming robot is designed and built, which is capable of executing horizontal and vertical propulsion and maneuvers. In order to imitate the jellyfish in terms of morphology and kinematics, the robotic jellyfish is designed to be comprised of a streamlined head, a cavity shell, four separate drive units with bevel gears, and a soft outer skin encasing the drive units. A combination of four six-bar linkage mechanisms that are centrally symmetric is adopted as the driver to regulate the phases of contraction and relaxation of the bell-shaped body. Furthermore, a triangle wave generator is incorporated to generate rhythmic drive signals, which is implemented on the microcontroller. Through independent and coordinated control of the four drive units, the robotic jellyfish is able to replicate various propulsion modes similar to real jellyfish. Aquatic tests on the actual robot verify the effectiveness of the formed design scheme along with the proposed control methods.

  13. Measurement and Analysis of the Extreme Physical Shock Environment Experienced by Crane-Mounted Radiation Detection Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, M [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Erchinger, J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marianno, C [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kallenbach, Gene A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grypp, M [US Dept. of the Navy

    2017-09-01

    Potentially, radiation detectors at ports of entry could be mounted on container gantry crane spreaders to monitor cargo containers entering and leaving the country. These detectors would have to withstand the extreme physical environment experienced by these spreaders during normal operations. Physical shock data from the gable ends of a spreader were recorded during the loading and unloading of a cargo ship with two Lansmont SAVER 9X30 units (with padding) and two PCB Piezotronics model 340A50 accelerometers (hard mounted). Physical shocks in the form of rapid acceleration were observed in all accelerometer units with values ranging from 0.20 g’s to 199.99 g’s. The majority of the shocks for all the Lansmont and PCB accelerometers were below 50 g’s. The Lansmont recorded mean shocks of 21.83 ± 13.62 g’s and 24.78 ± 11.49 g’s while the PCB accelerometers experienced mean shocks of 34.39 ± 25.51 g’s and 41.77 ± 22.68 g’s for the landside and waterside units, respectively. Encased detector units with external padding should be designed to withstand at least 200 g’s of acceleration without padding and typical shocks of 30 g’s with padding for mounting on a spreader.

  14. Poor outcome in radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 ± 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage

  15. Radial-firing optical fiber tip containing conical-shaped air-pocket for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ryu, Yong-Tak; Son, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Han, Won-Taek

    2015-08-10

    We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis.

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  17. Upper abdominal teratomas in infants: radiological findings and importance of the vascular anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Jonathan; Mazrani, Waseem; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Niall; Kiely, Edward M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Surgery Department, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Pathology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Primary upper abdominal teratomas are extremely rare tumours, most commonly arising in infants. The radiological literature relating to them is sparse. Surgical resection is difficult due to distortion of the vascular anatomy. To reassess the value of preoperative imaging with specific reference to the presence/absence of typical features of teratoma, anatomical location and adjacent vascular anatomy. The histopathology database was used to identify infants with upper abdominal teratoma. Pathological, surgical and radiological data were reviewed. The search of the database identified 12 infants (10 girls, 2 boys) with an abdominal/retroperitoneal teratoma during the period 1993 to 2006. All teratomas were benign. In the majority of infants, typical radiological features of teratoma were demonstrated (fat, calcium). Identification of the major abdominal vessels on CT scan (most commonly the inferior vena cava) was not possible in all infants. Distortion (and commonly encasement) of the adjacent major abdominal vessels was usually evident. Upper abdominal teratomas in infants have typical radiological features. Preoperative delineation of the major vascular anatomy is often imprecise. Significant distortion of vascular anatomy was present in all infants and awareness of this feature impacts on surgical planning. (orig.)

  18. Characterization and testing of monolithic RERTR fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.; Jue, J.F.; Burkes, D.E. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Monolithic fuel plates are being developed as a LEU (low enrichment uranium) fuel for application in research reactors throughout the world. These fuel plates are comprised of a U-Mo alloy foil encased in aluminum alloy cladding. Three different fabrication techniques have been looked at for producing monolithic fuel plates: hot isostatic pressing (HIP), transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB), and friction stir welding (FSW). Of these three techniques, HIP and FSW are currently being emphasized. As part of the development of these fabrication techniques, fuel plates are characterized and tested to determine properties like hardness and the bond strength at the interface between the fuel and cladding. Testing of HIP-made samples indicates that the foil/cladding interaction behavior depends on the Mo content in the UMo foil, the measured hardness values are quite different for the fuel, cladding, and interaction zone phase and Ti, Zr and Nb are the most effective diffusion barriers. For FSW samples, there is a dependence of the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface on the type of tool that is employed for performing the actual FSW process. (authors)

  19. Migration of an Intracranial Subdural Hematoma to the Spinal Subdural Space: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O Ik; Son, Dong Wuk; Kim, Young Ha; Kim, Young Soo; Sung, Soon Ki; Lee, Sang Weon; Song, Geun Sung

    2015-09-01

    A 57-year-old man complained of severe lower back pain and radicular pain in both legs for 1 week after falling from a ladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed a subdural hematoma (SDH), which was surgically removed. The patient had no back pain or the radicular leg pain at 2 weeks post-surgery. However, he complained of diffuse headaches upon follow-up. Brain computed tomography (CT) and MRI revealed an intracranial SDH, which was immediately removed by surgery. During his 1-year follow-up, he reported that the pain had resolved without recurrence. Simultaneous spinal and intracranial SDH are rare and no standard treatment exists for this condition. This case suggests that it is possible that an intracranial SDH can migrate into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space through an arachnoid tear. CSF circulation allows the intracranial SDH to enter subarachnoid spaces encasing the spinal cord. In order to prevent irreversible damage, surgical intervention should be considered for case of spinal SDH with progressive neurological deficits.

  20. Developing a model of chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingyang; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2011-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition that has a high incidence in the increasing elderly population of many countries. Pathologically, it is defined as a persistent liquefied hematoma in the subdural space more than 3 weeks old that is generally encased by a membraneous capsule. CSDHs likely originate after minor head trauma, with a key factor in its development being the potential for a subdural cavity to permit its expansion within, which is usually due to craniocerebral disproportion. The pathogenesis of CSDH has been attributed to osmotic or oncotic pressure differences, although measurements of these factors in the CSDH fluid do not support this theory. Current belief is that CSDH arises from recurrent bleeding in the subdural space, caused by a cycle of local angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation and ongoing fibrinolysis. However, because of a lack of detailed knowledge about the precise mechanisms, treatment is often limited to surgical interventions that are invasive and often prone to recurrence. Thus, it is possible that an easily reproducible and representative animal model of CSDH would facilitate research in the pathogenesis of CSDH and aid with development of treatment options.

  1. Cyclic Behavior of Low Rise Concrete Shear Walls Containing Recycled Coarse and Fine Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qiyun; Cao, Wanlin; Qian, Zhiwei; Li, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wenwen; Liu, Wenchao

    2017-12-07

    In this study, the cyclic behaviors of low rise concrete shear walls using recycled coarse or fine aggregates were investigated. Eight low rise Recycled Aggregates Concrete (RAC) shear wall specimens were designed and tested under a cyclic loading. The following parameters were varied: replacement percentages of recycled coarse or fine aggregates, reinforcement ratio, axial force ratio and X-shaped rebars brace. The failure characteristics, hysteretic behavior, strength and deformation capacity, strain characteristics and stiffness were studied. Test results showed that the using of the Recycled Coarse Aggregates (RCA) and its replacement ratio had almost no influence on the mechanical behavior of the shear wall; however, the using of Recycled Fine Aggregates (RFA) had a certain influence on the ductility of the shear wall. When the reinforcement ratio increased, the strength and ductility also increased. By increasing the axial force ratio, the strength increased but the ductility decreased significantly. The encased brace had a significant effect on enhancing the RAC shear walls. The experimental maximum strengths were evaluated with existing design codes, it was indicated that the strength evaluation of the low rise RAC shear walls can follow the existing design codes of the conventional concrete shear walls.

  2. B Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    The B aggregate area is made up of 13 operable units; 200-BP 1 through 200-BP 1 1, 200-IU-6, and 200-SS-1 that consist of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, B Plant operations. This report describes B Plant and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  3. Design and Fabrication of the KSTAR Poloidal Field Coil Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. K.; Choi, C. H.; Sa, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    The KSTAR magnet system consists of 16 toroidal field(TF) coils. 4 pairs of central solenoid(CS) coils, and 3 pairs of outer poloidal field(PF) coils. The TF coils are encased in a structure to enhance mechanical stability. The CS coil structure is supported on top of the TF coil structure and supplies a vertical compression of 15 MN to prevent lateral movement due to a repulsive force between the CS coils. The PF coil system is vertically symmetry to the machine mid-plane and consists of 6 coils and 80 support structures(i.e, 16 for PF5, 32 for PF6 and 32 fort PF7). All PF coil structures should absorb the thermal contraction difference between TF coil structure and PF coils due to cool down and endure the vertical and radial magnetic forces due to current charging. In order to satisfy these structural requirements. the PF5 coil structure is designed base on hinges and both of PF6 and PF7 coil structures based on flexible plates. The PF coil structures are assembled on the TF coil structure with an individual basement that is welded on the TF coil structure

  4. Groundwater biofilm dynamics grown in situ along a nutrient gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Wendy M; Close, Murray E; Leonard, Margaret M; Webber, Judith B; Lin, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the in situ response of groundwater biofilms in an alluvial gravel aquifer system on the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. Biofilms were developed on aquifer gravel, encased in fine mesh bags and suspended in protective columns in monitoring wells for at least 20 weeks. Four sites were selected in the same groundwater system where previous analyses indicated a gradient of increasing nitrate down the hydraulic gradient from Sites 1 to 4. Measurements during the current study classified the groundwater as oligotrophic. Biofilm responses to the nutrient gradients were assessed using bioassays, with biomass determined using protein and cellular and nucleic acid staining and biofilm activity using enzyme assays for lipid, carbohydrate, phosphate metabolism, and cell viability. In general, biofilm activity decreased as nitrate levels increased from Sites 1 to 4, with the opposite relationship for carbon and phosphorus concentrations. These results showed that the groundwater system supported biofilm growth and that the upper catchment supported efficient and productive biofilms (high ratio of activity per unit biomass). © 2012, Institute of Environmental Science & Research Ltd (ESR). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Gas pipelines and the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.A. [Connecticut Univ., Groton, CT (United States); Clancy, M. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Cobb, J.S. [Rhode Island Univ., Kingston, RI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    One of the main objectives of the megabenthic study of the New England continental shelf conducted during the 1970s and the 1980s was to define the migratory behavior and overall ecology of the offshore American lobster. The study involved more than 100 manned submersible divers on the outer continental shelf, upper continental slope, Georges Bank and submarine canyons. It also included an extensive lobster tagging program. The study provided valuable information on the ecology and behaviour of the lobster and several other megabenthic fauna that could be affected by the presence of a gas pipeline running parallel to the outer continental shelf, from eastern Georges Bank to northern New Jersey. The study showed that an exposed 2-4 diameter pipeline would impede the normal onshore and offshore migration of this deep water lobster species because its' migration is done by walking rather than swimming, and any overhanging structure would block its path. It was emphasized that it is extremely important to maintain spring to early summer onshore migration in the multi-million dollar lobster industry. This paper offered suggestions for modifying pipe encasements to solve the migration problem.

  6. Evidence for the bioerosion of deep-water corals by echinoids in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Angela; Rocha, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations of echinoids interacting with deep-sea coral are common in the deep-sea, but paradoxically the deep-sea literature is devoid of reports of bioerosion by extant echinoids. Here we present evidence of contemporary bioerosion of cold-water coral by four species of deep-sea echinoids, Gracilechinus elegans, Gracilechinus alexandri, Cidaris cidaris, and Araeosoma fenestratum, showing that they actively predate on the living framework of reef building corals, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, in the NE Atlantic. Echinoid specimens were collected in six canyons located in the Bay of Biscay, France and two canyons on the north side of the Porcupine Bank and Goban Spur, Ireland. A total of 44 live specimens from the four taxa (9 of G. elegans, 4 of G. alexandri, 21 of C. cidaris and 10 of A. fenestratum) showed recent ingestion of the coral infrastructure. Upon dissection, live coral skeleton was observed encased in a thick mucus layer within the gastrointestinal tract of G. elegans and G. alexandri while both live and dead coral fragments were found in C. cidaris and A. fenestratum. Echinoid bioerosion limits the growth of shallow-water reefs. Our observations suggest that echinoids may also play an important role in the ecology of deep-water coral reefs.

  7. Unexpected Cartilage Phenotype in CD4-Cre-Conditional SOS-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittard, Geoffrey; Gallardo, Devorah L; Li, Wenmei; Melis, Nicolas; Lui, Julian C; Kortum, Robert L; Shakarishvili, Nicholas G; Huh, Sunmee; Baron, Jeffrey; Weigert, Roberto; Kramer, Joshua A; Samelson, Lawrence E; Sommers, Connie L

    2017-01-01

    RAS signaling is central to many cellular processes and SOS proteins promote RAS activation. To investigate the role of SOS proteins in T cell biology, we crossed Sos1 f/f Sos2 -/- mice to CD4-Cre transgenic mice. We previously reported an effect of these mutations on T cell signaling and T cell migration. Unexpectedly, we observed nodules on the joints of greater than 90% of these mutant mice at 5 months of age, especially on the carpal joints. As the mice aged further, some also displayed joint stiffness, hind limb paralysis, and lameness. Histological analysis indicated that the abnormal growth in joints originated from dysplastic chondrocytes. Second harmonic generation imaging of the carpal nodules revealed that nodules were encased by rich collagen fibrous networks. Nodules formed in mice also deficient in RAG2, indicating that conventional T cells, which undergo rearrangement of the T cell antigen receptor, are not required for this phenotype. CD4-Cre expression in a subset of cells, either immune lineage cells (e.g., non-conventional T cells) or non-immune lineage cells (e.g., chondrocytes) likely mediates the dramatic phenotype observed in this study. Disruptions of genes in the RAS signaling pathway are especially likely to cause this phenotype. These results also serve as a cautionary tale to those intending to use CD4-Cre transgenic mice to specifically delete genes in conventional T cells.

  8. Pyrochemical separation of radioactive components from inert materials in ICPP high-level calcined waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    Since 1963, calcination of aqueous wastes from reprocessing of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels has resulted in the accumulation of approximately 3800 m 3 of high-level waste (HLW) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The waste is in the form of a granular solid called calcine and is stored on site in stainless steel bins which are encased in concrete. Due to the leachability of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and possibly other radioactive components, the calcine is not suitable for final disposal. Hence, a process to immobilize calcine in glass is being developed. Since radioactive components represent less than 1 wt % of the calcine, separation of actinides and fission products from inert components is being considered to reduce the volume of HLW requiring final disposal. Current estimates indicate that compared to direct vitrification, a volume reduction factor of 10 could result in significant cost savings. Aqueous processes, which involve calcine dissolution in nitric acid followed by separation of actinide and fission products by solvent extraction and ion exchange methods, are being developed. Pyrochemical separation methods, which generate small volumes of aqueous wastes and do not require calcine dissolution, have been evaluated as alternatives to aqueous processes. This report describes three proposed pyrochemical flowsheets and presents the results of experimental studies conducted to evaluate their feasibility. The information presented is a consolidation of three reports, which should be consulted for experimental details

  9. Two genetic loci produce distinct carbohydrate-rich structural components of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lisa; Kolter, Roberto

    2004-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which are cellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix. Molecular genetics studies of three common autoaggregative phenotypes, namely wrinkled colonies, pellicles, and solid-surface-associated biofilms, led to the identification of two loci, pel and psl, that are involved in the production of carbohydrate-rich components of the biofilm matrix. The pel gene cluster is involved in the production of a glucose-rich matrix material in P. aeruginosa strain PA14 (L. Friedman and R. Kolter, Mol. Microbiol. 51:675-690, 2004). Here we investigate the role of the pel gene cluster in P. aeruginosa strain ZK2870 and identify a second genetic locus, termed psl, involved in the production of a mannose-rich matrix material. The 11 predicted protein products of the psl genes are homologous to proteins involved in carbohydrate processing. P. aeruginosa is thus able to produce two distinct carbohydrate-rich matrix materials. Either carbohydrate-rich matrix component appears to be sufficient for mature biofilm formation, and at least one of them is required for mature biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and ZK2870. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology

  10. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Taglialegna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  11. The fabrication of a vanadium-stainless steel test section for MHD testing of insulator coatings in flowing lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.; Tsai, H.-C.; Morgan, G.D.; Wille, G.W.; Young, C.

    1996-01-01

    To test the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop reduction performance of candidate insulator coatings for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium Breeding Blanket, a test section comprised of a V- 4Cr-4Ti liner inside a stainless steel pipe was designed and fabricated. Theoretically, the MHD pressure drop reduction benefit resulting, from an electrically insulating coating on a vanadium- lined pipe is identical to the benefit derived from an insulated pipe fabricated of vanadium alone. A duplex test section design consisting of a V alloy liner encased in a SS pressure boundary provided protection for vanadium from atmospheric contamination during operation at high temperature and obviated any potential problems with vanadium welding while also minimizing the amount of V alloy material required. From the MHD and insulator coating- point of view, the test section outer SS wall and inner V alloy liner can be modeled simply as a wall having a sandwich construction. Two 52.3 mm OD x 2.9 m long V-alloy tubes were fabricated by Century Tubes from 64 mm x 200 mm x 1245 mm extrusions produced by Teledyne Wah Chang. The test section's duplex structure was subsequently fabricated at Century Tubes by drawing down a SS pipe (2 inch schedule 10) over one of the 53.2 mm diameter V tubes

  12. Wearable device for monitoring momentary presence of intense x-ray and/or ultra-violet radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A credit-card-size clear-plastic-encased device can be worn or carried by a person to warn him of the momentary presence of dangerous intensities of ultra-violet and/or x-ray radiations. A base lamina (e.g. of cardboard) is coated with a material (e.g. zinc-cadmium sulfide or lead-barium sulfate) which fluoresces under such radiations. Numerals, letters, words or symbols are printed over the fluorescent coat with a material inhibitory to said radiations so that a warning message in dark print will appear on a light background when dangerous intensities of said radiations are present. An x-ray-warning area is covered with an ultra-violet absorbing screen so that said area will glow only under x-rays (Which rays will also activate the remaining ultra-violet-responsive area). The colors of the laminas and the coats are so selected that the messages are not visible when dangerous radiations are not present. If desired, only the message can be printed with fluorescent material so as to glow on a darker background. Optionally, step-layer attenuation devices can be added to indicate degrees of radiation; and reflecting surfaces can underlie the fluorescent coat to increase efficiency and/or sensitively

  13. Conformational Thermodynamics of DNA Strands in Hydrophilic Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernando J A L; Mota, Jose P B

    2016-08-18

    Enhanced sampling techniques spanning a sub-microsecond timescale reveal that a double-stranded DNA dodecamer can be spontaneously encapsulated into (51,0) and (40,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes under the influence of an electric field, leading to hybrids with a 40 kJ/mol enhanced free-energy. The confinement mechanism allows the nucleic acid to retain its mobility, diffusing anisotropically along the endohedral volume, visiting regions of space determined by entropic factors (diameter, free-volume) and linked by a thermodynamical highway. In spite of the energetic similarities between both topologies (4.1× 103 kJ/mol), the biomolecule favours positioning either parallel to the nanopore central axis, (40,0), or in close contact with the solid walls, (51,0), in the latter encasing a hollow cylindrical domain of diameter 1 - 1.5 nm. Precise physiological conditions allow the extrapolation of results to in vivo systems and constitute a novel and thorough contribution to nanotube technology in the areas of nucleic acid encapsulation/delivery and personalized therapeutics.

  14. Characterization of laser-induced plasmas as a complement to high-explosive large-scale detonations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Kimblin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations into the characteristics of laser-induced plasmas indicate that LIBS provides a relatively inexpensive and easily replicable laboratory technique to isolate and measure reactions germane to understanding aspects of high-explosive detonations under controlled conditions. Spectral signatures and derived physical parameters following laser ablation of aluminum, graphite and laser-sparked air are examined as they relate to those observed following detonation of high explosives and as they relate to shocked air. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS reliably correlates reactions involving atomic Al and aluminum monoxide (AlO with respect to both emission spectra and temperatures, as compared to small- and large-scale high-explosive detonations. Atomic Al and AlO resulting from laser ablation and a cited small-scale study, decay within ∼10-5 s, roughly 100 times faster than the Al and AlO decay rates (∼10-3 s observed following the large-scale detonation of an Al-encased explosive. Temperatures and species produced in laser-sparked air are compared to those produced with laser ablated graphite in air. With graphite present, CN is dominant relative to N2+. In studies where the height of the ablating laser’s focus was altered relative to the surface of the graphite substrate, CN concentration was found to decrease with laser focus below the graphite surface, indicating that laser intensity is a critical factor in the production of CN, via reactive nitrogen.

  15. Contrast enhancement by arterial perfusion during computed tomography (computed tomographic arteriography) of the pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Yukiari

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) was performed on 52 cases of pancreatic disease in which was suspected clinically, and in which other method failed to yield a definitive diagnosis. For CTA, 65% meglumine diatrizoate 20 ml, diluted 1:3, was injected via a catherter inserted in an artery connected with the pancreas and the change with time of the pacreas CT number was studied. The normal pancreas stains deeply and the best contrast enhancement was obtained between 17 to 21 seconds after instillation of contrast medium. In the CTA findings in pancreatic cancer, low density areas with irregular internal structures are characteristic, and these characteristics were seen even in minute pancreatic cancers which could not be recognized by CT or the intravenous bolus injection method. On the other hand, in chronic pancreatitis, even when differentiation from pancreatic cancer is difficult with arterial and venous encasement in angiography, as long as the chronic pancreatitis is not very advanced ischemic changes are not seen, and this permits differentiation form normal pancreas. This also facilitates differentiation between pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In the intravenous bolus injection method, the chronological change of contrast enhancement in the pancreas was studied and the best contrast enhancement was obtained after 60 to 120 seconds. This method revealed no findings peculiar to pancreatic cancer. Based on the above, CTA was found to be useful for making in contributing to establishing a definitive diagnosis, detecting minute pancreatic cancer and to differentiate pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis. (author)

  16. Elastin Cables Define the Axial Connective Tissue System in the Murine Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Willi; Bennett, Robert D; Ackermann, Maximilian; Ysasi, Alexandra B; Belle, Janeil; Valenzuela, Cristian D; Pabst, Andreas; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A; Mentzer, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    The axial connective tissue system is a fiber continuum of the lung that maintains alveolar surface area during changes in lung volume. Although the molecular anatomy of the axial system remains undefined, the fiber continuum of the lung is central to contemporary models of lung micromechanics and alveolar regeneration. To provide a detailed molecular structure of the axial connective tissue system, we examined the extracellular matrix of murine lungs. The lungs were decellularized using a 24 hr detergent treatment protocol. Systematic evaluation of the decellularized lungs demonstrated no residual cellular debris; morphometry demonstrated a mean 39 ± 7% reduction in lung dimensions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated an intact structural hierarchy within the decellularized lung. Light, fluorescence, and SEM of precision-cut lung slices demonstrated that alveolar duct structure was defined by a cable line element encased in basement membrane. The cable line element arose in the distal airways, passed through septal tips and inserted into neighboring blood vessels and visceral pleura. The ropelike appearance, collagenase resistance and anti-elastin immunostaining indicated that the cable was an elastin macromolecule. Our results indicate that the helical line element of the axial connective tissue system is composed of an elastin cable that not only defines the structure of the alveolar duct, but also integrates the axial connective tissue system into visceral pleura and peripheral blood vessels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The oldest magnetic record in our solar system identified using nanometric imaging and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Williams, Wyn; Almeida, Trevor P; Nagy, Lesleis; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Kovács, András; Valdez-Grijalva, Miguel A; Fabian, Karl; Russell, Sara S; Genge, Matthew J; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2018-03-21

    Recordings of magnetic fields, thought to be crucial to our solar system's rapid accretion, are potentially retained in unaltered nanometric low-Ni kamacite (~ metallic Fe) grains encased within dusty olivine crystals, found in the chondrules of unequilibrated chondrites. However, most of these kamacite grains are magnetically non-uniform, so their ability to retain four-billion-year-old magnetic recordings cannot be estimated by previous theories, which assume only uniform magnetization. Here, we demonstrate that non-uniformly magnetized nanometric kamacite grains are stable over solar system timescales and likely the primary carrier of remanence in dusty olivine. By performing in-situ temperature-dependent nanometric magnetic measurements using off-axis electron holography, we demonstrate the thermal stability of multi-vortex kamacite grains from the chondritic Bishunpur meteorite. Combined with numerical micromagnetic modeling, we determine the stability of the magnetization of these grains. Our study shows that dusty olivine kamacite grains are capable of retaining magnetic recordings from the accreting solar system.

  18. Biofilms at work: Bio-, phyto- and rhizoremediation approaches for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merily Horwat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been released into the environment for decades due to anthropogenic activities, but are also naturally produced in small amounts through volcanic eruptions and geochemical processes. Although toxic to humans and other organisms, the natural production of these compounds has resulted in the evolution of naturally occurring organohalide-respiring bacteria that possess the enzymes necessary to degrade PCB compounds to non-toxic products. The efficiency of PCB degradation can be improved by facilitating the formation of organohalide-respiring biofilms. During biofilm colonization on a surface or interface, bacteria are encased in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS or “slime,” which allows them to share nutrients and remain protected from environmental stresses. Effective bioremediation of PCBs involves facilitation of biofilm growth to promote cooperation between bacteria, which can be further enhanced by the presence of certain plant species. This review aims to give an overview of biofilm processes involved in the detoxification of PCBs including anaerobic and aerobic PCB degradation by bacteria as well as the ability of plants to stimulate microbial activity and degradation (rhizoremediation and phytoremediation.

  19. Activity and lifetime of urease immobilized using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly on silicon microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Scott R; Elmore, Bill B; Palmer, James D

    2005-01-01

    Urease has been immobilized and layered onto the walls of manufactured silicon microchannels. Enzyme immobilization was performed using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly. Alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, with enzyme layers "encased" between them, were deposited onto the walls of the silicon microchannels. The polycations used were polyethylenimine (PEI), polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA), and polyallylamine (PAH). The polyanions used were polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyvinylsulfate (PVS). The activity of the immobilized enzyme was tested by pumping a 1 g/L urea solution through the microchannels at various flow rates. Effluent concentration was measured using an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer by monitoring the absorbance of a pH sensitive dye. The architecture of PEI/PSS/PEI/urease/PEI with single and multiple layers of enzyme demonstrated superior performance over the PDDA and PAH architectures. The precursor layer of PEI/PSS demonstrably improved the performance of the reactor. Conversion rates of 70% were achieved at a residence time of 26 s, on d 1 of operation, and >50% at 51 s, on d 15 with a six-layer PEI/urease architecture.

  20. Coastal Changes in Temperature and Salinity Observed during Hurricane Isaac Recorded and Downloaded by NASA DRIFTERs Moored in Heron Bay and at Half Moon Island, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcic, Maria; Iturriaga, Rodolfo H.; Kuper, Philip D.; O'Neal, Stanford Duane; Underwood, Lauren; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Major changes in salinity (approx.14 ppt.) and temperature (approx.40C) were continuously registered by two prototype NASA DRIFTERs, surface moored floaters, that NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO) has developed. The DRIFTER floating sensor module is equipped with an Arduino open-source electronics prototyping platform and programming language (http://www.arduino.cc), a GPS (Global Positioning System) module with antenna, a cell phone SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and a cellular antenna which is used to transmit data, and a probe to measure temperature and conductivity (from which salinity can be derived). The DRIFTER is powered by a solar cell panel and all the electronic components are mounted and sealed in [ waterproof encasement. Position and measurement data are transmitted via short message service (SMS) messaging to a Twitter site (DRIFTER 002@NASADRIFTER_002 and DRIFTER 004@NASADRIFTER_004), which provides a live feed. These data are the imported into a Google spreadsheet where conductivity is converted to salinity, and graphed in real-time. The spreadsheet data will be imported into a webpage maintained by ASTPO, where it will be displayed available for dO\\\\1lload.

  1. Shrouds of the Night Masks of the Milky Way and Our Awesome New View of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Block, David L

    2009-01-01

    The Milky Way has captivated the mind of multitudes ever since the beginning of time. Particularly striking are its apparent dusty gaping voids. With the advent of near-infrared technology, astronomers have discovered an awesome new view of its structure, and of the structure of other galaxies around us. Galaxies are encased within shrouds of the night: shrouds or veils of cosmic dust, which have given us a totally incomplete picture of what our majestic Universe actually looks like. Shrouds of the Night features some of the most remarkable early photographic work of masters such as Isaac Roberts and Edward Barnard, before presenting to the reader the unmasked (dust penetrated) view of our cosmos, using some of the world’s largest ground and space-based telescopes. "Galaxies are the 'ecosystems' of the cosmos – vast assemblages in which gas and dust are recycled through successive generations of stars. The authors of this beautiful book describe our ever-sharpening view of the Milky Way, the galaxy that i...

  2. A lifting-surface theory solution for the diffraction of internal sound sources by an engine nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R.

    1986-07-01

    Lifting-surface theory is used to solve the problem of diffraction by a rigid open-ended pipe of zero thickness and finite length, with application to the prediction of acoustic insertion-loss performance for the encasing structure of a ducted propeller or turbofan. An axisymmetric situation is assumed, and the incident field due to a force applied directly to the fluid in the cylinder axial direction is used. A virtual-source distribution of unsteady dipoles is found whose integrated component of radial velocity is set to cancel that of the incident field over the surface. The calculated virtual load is verified by whether its effect on the near-field input power at the actual source is consistent with the far-field power radiated by the system, a balance which is possible if the no-flow-through boundary condition has been satisfied over the rigid pipe surface such that the velocity component of the acoustic intensity is zero.

  3. Effect of Concrete Waste Form Properties on Radionuclide Migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Skinner, De'Chauna J.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation) the mechanism of contaminant release, the significance of contaminant release pathways, how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. Numerous sets of tests were initiated in fiscal years (FY) 2006-2009 to evaluate (1) diffusion of iodine (I) and technetium (Tc) from concrete into uncontaminated soil after 1 and 2 years, (2) I and rhenium (Re) diffusion from contaminated soil into fractured concrete, (3) I and Re (set 1) and Tc (set 2) diffusion from fractured concrete into uncontaminated soil, (4) evaluate the moisture distribution profile within the sediment half-cell, (5) the reactivity and speciation of uranium (VI) (U(VI)) compounds in concrete porewaters, (6) the rate of dissolution of concrete monoliths, and (7) the diffusion of simulated tank waste into concrete.

  4. Clival Ectopic Pituitary Adenoma Mimicking a Chordoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine L. Karras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Purely ectopic pituitary adenomas are exceedingly rare. Here we report on a patient that presented with an incidental clival mass thought to be a chordoma. Endonasal resection, tumor pathology, and endocrinology workup revealed a prolactinoma. Case Presentation. A 41-year-old male presented with an incidental clival lesion presumed to be a chordoma. On MRI it involved the entire clivus, extended laterally to the petroclival junction, and invaded the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, encasing both internal carotid arteries, without direct extension into the sella. Intraoperatively, it was clear that the tumor originated from the clivus and that the sellar dura was completely intact. Frozen-section pathology was consistent with a pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining was positive for synaptophysin and prolactin with a low Ki-67 index, suggestive of a prolactinoma. Additional immunohistochemical stains seen in chordomas (EMA, S100, and Brachyury and other metastatic tumors were negative. A postoperative endocrine workup revealed an elevated serum prolactin of 881.3 ng/mL (normal < 20. Conclusions. In conclusion, it is crucial to maintain an extensive differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with a clival lesion. Ectopic clival pituitary adenomas, although rare, may warrant an endocrinological workup preoperatively as the majority may respond to medical treatment.

  5. Development of Middleware Applied to Microgrids by Means of an Open Source Enterprise Service Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez-Molina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of the smart grid relies heavily on the integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs and interoperability among the hardware elements that are present as part of either the smart grid itself or in a smaller size deployment, such as a microgrid. Therefore, establishing an accurate design for software architectures that guarantee interoperability and are able to abstract hardware heterogeneity in this application domain, along with a clearly defined procedure on how to implement and test a solution like this, becomes a desirable objective. This paper describes the requirements needed to design a secure, decentralized and semantic middleware architecture for microgrids and the procedures used to develop it, so that the mandatory software components that have to be encased by the solution, as well as the steps that should be followed to make it happen, become clear for any designer, software architect or programmer that has to tackle similar challenges. In order to demonstrate the usability of the ideas put forward here, two successful pilots where middleware solutions were created according to these principles have been described.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of intracavernous pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Masaki; Yasui, Toshihiro; Yagura, Hisatsugu; Fu, Yoshihiko; Baba, Mitsuru [Baba Memorial Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Hakuba, Akira; Nishimura, Shuro

    1989-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of intracavernous pathology, T{sub 1}-weighted spin echo images of four vascular lesions and 10 neoplastic lesions with surgically confirmed cavernous sinus (CS) invasion were reviewed retrospectively. In one case of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) and one of dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM), the internal carotid artery (ICA) and rapid shunted flow were depicted as signal voids, and the relationship between the ICA and shunted flow was clearly shown. Normal venous flow appeared as a low-intensity area and was observed even in the presence of the CCF and dural AVM. In two cases of thrombosed aneurysms, the thrombosis was clearly demonstrated, along with patent arterial flow in one case; in the other case, however, it was impossible to differentiate patent arterial flow from calcification. The intensity of all neoplastic lesions was similar to that of the cerebral cortex. The relationship between the ICA and the tumors was clearly demonstrated. The visual pathways were also plainly shown unless they were involved, or markedly compressed, by tumor. CS invasion was strongly associated with four findings: (1) encasement of the ICA by the tumor; (2) marked displacement of the ICA; (3) absence of low intensity, which reflects normal venous flow, in the CS; and (4) extension of extrasellar tumors to the medial wall or of intrasellar tumors to the lateral wall. MR imaging was judged promising in the evaluation of intracavernous pathology. (author).

  7. A molecular study of gas solubility in nitrile rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Musab; Mostofi, Arash; Sutton, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    One of the most important uses of elastomers in the oil industry is for seals to encase and protect sensitive monitoring equipment from contamination by gases and liquids at the high pressures and temperatures in the well. Failure of such seals sometimes occurs on decompression when they are returned to the surface. The conditions in the well lead to gases being absorbed by Nitrile rubber (NBR) seals. NBR exhibits a strong permselectivity towards CO2 compared to other gases; something attributed experimentally to the enhanced solubility of CO2. In this study an explanation is sought at the molecular level for this phenomenon. A series of molecular mechanics calculations are performed to compute solubilities of different gases in NBR. The effect of acrylonitrile content on their solubilities is studied for the first time by simulation, and we discuss the important issue of convergence with respect to the sampling of different elastomer configurations. It is observed that the presence of cyano groups has a marked impact on the solubility of CO2 and an explanation is offered.

  8. NaOCl effect on biofilm produced by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milking environment and mastitis infected cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana de Castro Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms constitute a physical barrier, protecting the encased bacteria from detergents and sanitizers. The objective of this work was to analyze the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk of cows with subclinical mastitis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milking environment (blowers and milk conducting tubes. The results revealed that, in the presence of NaOCl (150ppm, the number of adhered cells of the twelve S. aureus strains was significantly reduced. When the same strains were evaluated in biofilm condition, different results were obtained. It was found that, after a contact period of five minutes with NaOCl (150ppm, four strains (two strains from milk , one from the blowers and one from a conductive rubber were still able to grow. Although with the increasing contact time between the bacteria and the NaOCl (150ppm, no growth was detected for any of the strains. Concerning the efficiency of NaOCl on total biofilm biomass formation by each S. aureus strain, a decrease was observed when these strains were in contact with 150 ppm NaOCl for a total period of 10 minutes. This study highlights the importance of a correct sanitation protocol of all the milk processing units which can indeed significantly reduce the presence of microorganisms, leading to a decrease of cow´s mastitis and milk contamination.

  9. Communication and logging hub for rapid prototyping of environmental sensors: presenting the Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.

    2017-12-01

    When desiging prototype sensors for environmental variables a critical step is a comparison campaign where the new sensor is compared to current state of the art sensors. In this step one of the headaches for researchers can be connecting their sensor to a logging or communication device. I present a simple solution: to use smartphone that scans for Bluetooth Low Energy transmissions and uploads any measurement to a data server. In this way the prototype sensor only has to transmit its measurement values over BLE, which can be done using off-the-shelf components. The sensors don't have to be physically connected to the phone, allowing for very rapid deployment of sensors in locations that have a communication hub (ie. phone) installed. The communication and logging hub consists of nothing more than a low cost Android smartphone running a dedicated app. The phone is encased in a waterproof box with a large powerbank and a solar panel. I will demonstrate this live at the Fall Meeting. By installing these phones along permanent WMO certified station locations, comparisons campaigns can use the "golden standard" from the WMO without much problems.

  10. Packaging of active fiber composites for improved sensor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnykowycz, M; Barbezat, M; Koller, R; Brunner, A J

    2010-01-01

    Active fiber composites (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between two interdigitated electrodes provide a thin and flexible smart material device which can act as a sensor or actuator. The thin profiles of AFC make them ideal for integration in glass or carbon fiber composite laminates. However, due to the low tensile limit of the PZT fibers, AFC can fail at strains below the tensile limit of many composites. This makes their use as a component in an active laminate design somewhat undesirable. In the current work, tensile testing of smart laminates composed of AFC integrated in glass fiber laminates was conducted to assess the effectiveness of different packaging strategies for improving AFC sensor performance at high strains relative to the tensile limit of the AFC. AFC were encased in carbon fiber, silicon, and pre-stressed carbon fiber to improve the tensile limit of the AFC when integrated in glass fiber laminates. By laminating AFC with pre-stressed carbon fiber, the tensile limit and strain sensor ability of the AFC were significantly improved. Acoustic emission monitoring was used and the results show that PZT fiber breakage was reduced due to the pre-stressed packaging process

  11. Assessment of a Polyester-Covered Nitinol Stent in the Canine Aorta and Iliac Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Flavio; Ball-Kell, Susan M.; Young, Kate; Li Ruizong

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the patency and healing characteristics of a woven polyester fabric-covered stent in the canine model.Methods: Twenty-four self-expanding covered stents were placed in the infrarenal aorta and bilateral common iliac arteries of eight dogs and evaluated at 1 (n = 2), 3 (n = 2), and 6 (n = 4) months. Stent assessment was done using angiography prior to euthanasia, and light and scanning electron microscopy.Results: Angiographically, just prior to euthanasia, 8 of 8 aortic and 14 of 16 iliac endovascular covered stents were patent. Histologically, the stented regions showed complete endothelialization 6 months after graft implantation. A neointima had formed inside the stented vessel regions resulting in complete encasement of the fabric-covered stent by 3 months after graft implantation. Medial compression with smooth muscle cell atrophy was present in all stented regions. Explanted stent wires, examined by scanning electron microscopy, showed pitting but no cracks or breakage.Conclusion: The covered stent demonstrated predictable healing and is effective in preventing stenosis in vessels 10.0 mm or greater in diameter but does not completely preclude stenosis in vessels 6.0 mm or less in diameter

  12. Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas in a male patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yoshida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs make up a morphologic family of similar appearing tumors arising in the ovary and various extraovarian organs such as pancreas, hepatobiliary tract and mesentery. MCNs of the pancreas occur almost exclusively in women. Here, we report a rare case of MCN in a male patient. A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaint of back pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a multilocular cyctic mass 6.3 cm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. In addition, the outer wall and septae with calcification were demonstrated in the cystic lesion. On magnetic resonance imaging , the cystic fluid had low intensity on T1-weighted imaging and high intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP showed neither communication between the cystic lesion and the main pancreatic duct nor encasement of the main pancreatic duct. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed neither solid component nor thickness of the septae in the cystic lesion. Consequently, we performed distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy under the diagnosis of cystic neoplasia of the pancreas. Histopathologically, the cystic lesion showed two distinct component: an inner epithelial layer and an outer densely cellular ovarian-type stromal layer. Based on these findings, the cystic lesion was diagnosed as MCN.

  13. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Early, R.A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2 1/2-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields. 6 refs., 6 figs

  14. Model tests and numerical analyses on horizontal impedance functions of inclined single piles embedded in cohesionless soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goit, Chandra Shekhar; Saitoh, Masato

    2013-03-01

    Horizontal impedance functions of inclined single piles are measured experimentally for model soil-pile systems with both the effects of local soil nonlinearity and resonant characteristics. Two practical pile inclinations of 5° and 10° in addition to a vertical pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to lateral harmonic pile head loadings for a wide range of frequencies are considered. Results obtained with low-to-high amplitude of lateral loadings on model soil-pile systems encased in a laminar shear box show that the local nonlinearities have a profound impact on the horizontal impedance functions of piles. Horizontal impedance functions of inclined piles are found to be smaller than the vertical pile and the values decrease as the angle of pile inclination increases. Distinct values of horizontal impedance functions are obtained for the `positive' and `negative' cycles of harmonic loadings, leading to asymmetric force-displacement relationships for the inclined piles. Validation of these experimental results is carried out through three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses, and the results from the numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental data. Sensitivity analyses conducted on the numerical models suggest that the consideration of local nonlinearity at the vicinity of the soil-pile interface influence the response of the soil-pile systems.

  15. Ambush marketing vs. official sponsorship: is the international I.P. an unfair competition regime a good referee?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pardo Amézquita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambush marketing is a practice that will usually occurs in large-scale events, is not a sponsor seeks to gain benefits of brand exposure and awareness in a context that it would otherwise be available only to official sponsors. This paper addresses why and to what extend ambush marketing be contrasted, provided that it is a practice that current intellectual property and competition law has been unable to deter as well as an alternative measures are difficult to adopt at an international level. This difficulty jeopardizes official sponsoring’s interest on major events and the events themselves. As a result, this paper will (i briefly examine the intersection between intellectual property rights and sport business in order to (ii encase ambush marketing as a controversial –yet not necessarily illegal- business practice that exploits another’s commercial effort and deflects attention from official sponsorship of major events. It will then present (iii the traditional and extraordinary legal responses to these practices, and the issues that they raise, to finally conclude that (iv there is an urgent need to harmonize, at an international level, the legality –or not- of the matter, regardless of (v the inherent ambush marketing paradoxes.

  16. Metamorphism of cosmic dust: Processing from circumstellar outflows to the cometary regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuth, J.A. III.

    1989-01-01

    Metamorphism of refractory particles continues in the interstellar medium (ISM) where the driving forces are sputtering by cosmic ray particles, annealing by high energy photons, and grain destruction in supernova generated shocks. Studies of the depletion of the elements from the gas phase of the interstellar medium tell us that if grain destruction occurs with high efficiency in the ISM, then there must be some mechanism by which grains can be formed in the ISM. Most grains in a cloud which collapses to form a star will be destroyed; many of the surviving grains will be severely processed. Grains in the outermost regions of the nebula may survive relatively unchanged by thermal processing or hydration. It is these grains which one hopes to find in comets. However, only those grains encased in ice at low temperature can be considered pristine since a considerable degree of hydrous alteration might occur in a cometary regolith if the comet enters the inner solar system. The physical, chemical and isotopic properties of a refractory grain at each stage of its life cycle will be discussed

  17. Forced flow cooling of ISABELLE dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Aggus, J.; Brown, D.P.; Kassner, D.A.; Sondericker, J.H.; Strobridge, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The superconducting magnets for ISABELLE will use a forced flow supercritical helium cooling system. In order to evaluate this cooling scheme, two individual dipole magnets were first tested in conventional dewars using pool boiling helium. These magnets were then modified for forced flow cooling and retested with the identical magnet coils. The first evaluation test used a l m-long ISA model dipole magnet whose pool boiling performance had been established. The same magnet was then retested with forced flow cooling, energizing it at various operating temperatures until quench occurred. The magnet performance with forced flow cooling was consistent with data from the previous pool boiling tests. The next step in the program was a full-scale ISABELLE dipole ring magnet, 4.25 m long, whose performance was first evaluated with pool boiling. For the forced flow test the magnet was shrunk-fit into an unsplit laminated core encased in a stainless steel cylinder. The high pressure gas is cooled below 4 K by a helium bath which is pumped below atmospheric pressure with an ejector nozzle. The performance of the full-scale dipole magnet in the new configuration with forced flow cooling, showed a 10 percent increase in the attainable maximum current as compared to the pool boiling data

  18. Silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles as antimicrobial additives to dental polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, C; Stewart, S B; Su, B; Jenkinson, H F; Sandy, J R; Ireland, A J

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this in vitro study were to produce a filled resin containing Ag-TiO 2 filler particles and to test its antibacterial properties. Ag-TiO 2 particles were manufactured using the ball milling method and incorporated into an epoxy resin using a high speed centrifugal mixer. Using UV/vis spectrophotometry investigations were performed to assess how the photocatalytic properties of the Ag-TiO 2 particles are affected when encased in resin. Adopting the bacteria colony counting technique, the antibacterial properties of Ag-TiO 2 particles and Ag-TiO 2 containing resins were assessed using Streptococcus mutans under varying lighting conditions. Ag doping of TiO 2 results in a band gap shift towards the visible spectrum enabling Ag-TiO 2 to exhibit photocatalytic properties when exposed to visible light. Small quantities of Ag-TiO 2 were able to produce a bactericidal effect when in contact with S. mutans under visible light conditions. When incorporated into the bulk of an epoxy resin, the photocatalytic properties of the Ag-TiO 2 particles were significantly reduced. However, a potent bactericidal effect was still achieved against S. mutans. Ag-TiO 2 filled resin shows promising antimicrobial properties, which could potentially be used clinically. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

    2005-05-01

    Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

  20. Fuel behavior and fission product release under HTGR accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Hayashi, K.; Shiba, K.

    1990-01-01

    In early 1989 a final decision was made over construction of a 30 MWth HTGR called the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, HTTR, in Japan in order to utilize it for high temperature gas engineering tests and various nuclear material tests. The HTTR fuel is a pin-in-block type fuel element which is composed of a hexagonal graphite block with dimension of 580 mm in length and 360 mm in face-to-face distance and about 30 of the fuel rods inserted into the coolant channels drilled in the block. The TRISO coated fuel particles for HTTR are incorporated with graphite powder and phenol resin into the fuel compacts, 19 of which are encased into a graphite sleeve as a fuel rod. It is necessary for the HTTR licensing to prove the fuel stability under predicted accidents related to the high temperature events. Therefore, the release of the fission products and the fuel failure have been investigated in the irradiation---and the heating experiments simulating these conditions at JAERI. This report describes the HTTR fuel behavior at extreme temperature, made clear in these experiments

  1. Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae of angiosperms: The interaction between Boletus rubropunctus (Boletaceae) and Quercus species (Fagaceae) in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Pfister, Donald H

    2009-09-01

    Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae (TECM) are unique structures in which aggregates of ectomycorrhizal roots are encased in a covering of fungal hyphae. The function of TECM is unknown, but they probably enhance the nitrogen nutrition and disease resistance of host plants. Trees in the Pinaceae form TECM with species of Rhizopogon and Suillus (Suillineae, Boletales). Similar tubercules are found with diverse angiosperms, but their mycobionts have not been phylogenetically characterized. We collected TECM in Mexico and the USA that were similar to TECM in previous reports. We describe these TECM and identify both the plant and fungal symbionts. Plant DNA confirms that TECM hosts are Quercus species. ITS sequences from tubercules and sclerotia (hyphal aggregations that serve as survival structures) matched sporocarps of Boletus rubropunctus. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that this fungus belongs to the suborder Boletineae (Boletales). This is the first published report of TECM formation in the Boletineae and of sclerotia formation by a Boletus species. Our data suggest that the TECM morphology is an adaptive feature that has evolved separately in two suborders of Boletales (Suillineae and Boletineae) and that TECM formation is controlled by the mycobiont because TECM are found on distantly related angiosperm and gymnosperm host plants.

  2. Portable fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for in-situ interrogation of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Teixeira Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Kurachi, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime techniques are potential methods for optical diagnosis and characterization of biological tissues with an in-situ, fast, and noninvasive interrogation. Several diseases may be diagnosed due to differences in the fluorescence spectra of targeted fluorophores, when, these spectra are similar, considering steady-state fluorescence, others may be detected by monitoring their fluorescence lifetime. Despite this complementarity, most of the current fluorescence lifetime systems are not robust and portable, and not being feasible for clinical applications. We describe the assembly of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system in a suitcase, its characterization, and validation with clinical measurements of skin lesions. The assembled system is all encased and robust, maintaining its mechanical, electrical, and optical stability during transportation, and is feasible for clinical measurements. The instrument response function measured was about 300 ps, and the system is properly calibrated. At the clinical study, the system showed to be reliable, and the achieved spectroscopy results support its potential use as an auxiliary tool for skin diagnostics.

  3. Prototyping of thermoplastic microfluidic chips and their application in high-performance liquid chromatography separations of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Sam; De Vos, Jelle; Dores-Sousa, José Luís; Wouters, Bert; Desmet, Gert; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2017-11-10

    The present paper discusses practical aspects of prototyping of microfluidic chips using cyclic olefin copolymer as substrate and the application in high-performance liquid chromatography. The developed chips feature a 60mm long straight separation channel with circular cross section (500μm i.d.) that was created using a micromilling robot. To irreversibly seal the top and bottom chip substrates, a solvent-vapor-assisted bonding approach was optimized, allowing to approximate the ideal circular channel geometry. Four different approaches to establish the micro-to-macro interface were pursued. The average burst pressure of the microfluidic chips in combination with an encasing holder was established at 38MPa and the maximum burst pressure was 47MPa, which is believed to be the highest ever report for these polymer-based microfluidic chips. Porous polymer monolithic frits were synthesized in-situ via UV-initiated polymerization and their locations were spatially controlled by the application of a photomask. Next, high-pressure slurry packing was performed to introduce 3μm silica reversed-phase particles as the stationary phase in the separation channel. Finally, the application of the chip technology is demonstrated for the separation of alkyl phenones in gradient mode yielding baseline peak widths of 6s by applying a steep gradient of 1.8min at a flow rate of 10μL/min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acceleration of small, light projectiles (including hydrogen isotopes) to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Small, light projectiles have been accelerated to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With 35-mg plastic projectiles (4 mm in diameter), speeds of up to 4.5 km/s have been recorded. The ''pipe gun'' technique for freezing hydrogen isotopes in situ in the gun barrel has been used to accelerate deuterium pellets (nominal diameter of 4 mm) to velocities of up to 2.85 km/s. The primary application of this technology is for plasma fueling of fusion devices via pellet injection of hydrogen isotopes. Conventional pellet injectors are limited to pellet speeds in the range 1-2 km/s. Higher velocities are desirable for plasma fueling applications, and the two-stage pneumatic technique offers performance in a higher velocity regime. However, experimental results indicate that the use of sabots to encase the cryogenic pellets and protect them for the high peak pressures will be required to reliably attain intact pellets at speeds of ∼3 km/s or greater. In some limited tests, lithium hydride pellets were accelerated to speeds of up to 4.2 km/s. Also, repetitive operation of the two-stage gun (four plastic pellets fired at ∼0.5 Hz) was demonstrated for the first time in preliminary tests. The equipment and operation are described, and experimental results and some comparisons with a theoretical model are presented. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Development of a two-stage light gas gun to accelerate hydrogen pellets to high speeds for plasma fueling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Fehling, D.T.; Sparks, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a two-stage light gas gun to accelerate hydrogen isotope pellets to high speeds is under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. High velocities (>2 km/s) are desirable for plasma fueling applications, since the faster pellets can penetrate more deeply into large, hot plasmas and deposit atoms of fuel directly in a larger fraction of the plasma volume. In the initial configuration of the two-stage device, a 2.2-l volume (/ 3 for frozen hydrogen isotopes). However, the use of sabots to encase and protect the cryogenic pellets from the high peak pressures will probably be required to realize speeds of ∼3 km/s or greater. The experimental plan includes acceleration of hydrogen isotopes as soon as the gun geometry and operating parameters are optimized; theoretical models are being used to aid in this process. The hardware is being designed to accommodate repetitive operation, which is the objective of this research and is required for future applications. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Neuronal correlates to consciousness. The "Hall of Mirrors" metaphor describing consciousness as an epiphenomenon of multiple dynamic mosaics of cortical functional modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, Luigi Francesco; Guidolin, Diego; Cortelli, Pietro; Genedani, Susanna; Cela-Conde, Camilo; Fuxe, Kjell

    2012-10-02

    Humans share the common intuition of a self that has access to an inner 'theater of mind' (Baars, 2003). The problem is how this internal theater is formed. Moving from Cook's view (Cook, 2008), we propose that the 'sentience' present in single excitable cells is integrated into units of neurons and glial cells transiently assembled into "functional modules" (FMs) organized as systems of encased networks (from cell networks to molecular networks). In line with Hebb's proposal of 'cell assemblies', FMs can be linked to form higher-order mosaics by means of reverberating circuits. Brain-level subjective awareness results from the binding phenomenon that coordinates several FM mosaics. Thus, consciousness may be thought as the global result of integrative processes taking place at different levels of miniaturization in plastic mosaics. On the basis of these neurobiological data and speculations and of the evidence of 'mirror neurons' the 'Hall of Mirrors' is proposed as a significant metaphor of consciousness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of cladding hulls by the HIPOW process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larker, H.T.; Tegman, R.

    1981-01-01

    The conditions for densifying and bonding Zircaloy cladding hulls from spent LWR fuel to blocks by the HIPOW (hot isostatic pressing of waste) process have been studied. Fully dense and mechanically strong blocks of Zircaloy can be made without additives at temperatures around 1000 0 C. A volume reduction of about seven times and surface area reduction of more than 300 times, compared to typical loose-filled cladding hulls remaining after the chop-leach operations in a reprocessing plant, can be obtained. A study of a possible process for industrial scale has been made. Handling under water can prevent any fire hazard in the preparation sequence. The use of a special hermetically sealed double-wall metal container encasing the hulls during the densification in the hot isostatic press virtually eliminates the problem of lasting contamination of this equipment, thus greatly simplifying service and maintenance. One hot isostatic press can serve a reprocessing line with an LWR fuel capacity of 800 tons/year. Fines (residues) from fuel dissolution and alpha-contaminated ashes from incinerated organic materials in the plant may also be incorporated in the Zircaloy blocks. Tritium can quantitatively be contained in these blocks

  8. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  9. Perfect zircon for rock dating no fairy tale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The scheme used to date rocks is based on the radioactive decay of uranium. Minute traces of uranium locked inside the zircon crystals have been decaying over aeons, producing lead. Scientists know that the decay occurs at a fixed rate and how quickly it happens. By measuring the relative amounts of uranium and lead encased in the crystals, scientists can determine how old the rock is. But sometimes lead is lost from zircon crystals via processes such as weathering (if the rocks were exposed on the surface) or deformation and metamorphism (if the rocks had crystallised deep in the earth and been subjected to high temperatures and pressure). Hence the special nature of the Temora rocks- a 417 million years old zirconium-containing rock which have been partially exposed in recent times in a remote paddock in NSW, Australia. SHRIMP dating was used for initial tests on the Temora rocks. Then, in December last year, the sample was sent to the world-recognised authority, Canada's Royal Ontario Museum, for independent analysis and dating via chemical decomposition. The museum confirmed the near perfect quality of the zircon and its age

  10. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  11. A new method to extract dental pulp DNA: application to universal detection of bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tran-Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental pulp is used for PCR-based detection of DNA derived from host and bacteremic microorganims. Current protocols require odontology expertise for proper recovery of the dental pulp. Dental pulp specimen exposed to laboratory environment yields contaminants detected using universal 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new protocol by encasing decontaminated tooth into sterile resin, extracting DNA into the dental pulp chamber itself and decontaminating PCR reagents by filtration and double restriction enzyme digestion. Application to 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria in 144 teeth collected in 86 healthy people yielded a unique sequence in only 14 teeth (9.7% from 12 individuals (14%. Each individual yielded a unique 16S rDNA sequence in 1-2 teeth per individual. Negative controls remained negative. Bacterial identifications were all confirmed by amplification and sequencing of specific rpoB sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new protocol prevented laboratory contamination of the dental pulp. It allowed the detection of bacteria responsible for dental pulp colonization from blood and periodontal tissue. Only 10% such samples contained 16S rDNA. It provides a new tool for the retrospective diagnostic of bacteremia by allowing the universal detection of bacterial DNA in animal and human, contemporary or ancient tooth. It could be further applied to identification of host DNA in forensic medicine and anthropology.

  12. Castor and Pollux - shielded cells for studying fuel treatment processes; Castor et Pollux chaines blindees d'etudes de procedes de traitement de combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faudot, G; Bathellier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    CASTOR and POLLUX, two alpha, beta, gamma cells are described in the present paper. They are located in the CEN at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). They are designed for improvement studies of the various aqueous separation processes used in irradiated fuels reprocessing plants. Located in the same air-tight steel encasement, they arc inter-connected by a pneumatic transfer. These two cells have a similar in-line conception and they include: a gamma shielding in lead of 10 cm of thickness; an inner air-tight box, made with stainless steel and plexiglas, is maintained in lowering in comparison to room pressure. Eleven Hobson model seven master-slave manipulators allow inner manipulations. Then the inner equipment is described briefly. (author) [French] Le present document decrit les cellules alpha, beta, gamma CASTOR et POLLUX edifiees au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Elles sont destinees aux etudes visant a l'amelioration des procedes de separation par voie aqueuse utilises dans les usines de retraitement des combustibles irradies. Ces deux chaines, implantees dans le meme caisson et reliees par convoyeur pneumatique, sont de conception identique et comprennent: une protection biologique constituee par 10 cm d'epaisseur de plomb; une enceinte interieure etanche alpha, en acier inoxidable et plexiglas, maintenue en depression. Des telemanipulateurs Hobson, modele 7, permettent les manipulations interieures. On decrit ensuite brievement les installations annexes. (auteur)

  13. GASSAR-6 (General Atomic Standard Safety Analysis Report). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A standard nuclear steam system for a 3000 MW(t), 1160 MW(e) high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear power station is described. The HTGR operates on a uranium-235/thorium-232 cycle. Spherical fuel pellets are coated with multiple layers of pyrolytic carbon, bonded into rods, and encased in hexagonal graphite fuel elements. The core is nuclear-purity-grade, near isotropic graphite machined in hexagonal blocks, which serves as moderator and the heat transfer medium between the fuel and the coolant. Forced helium is the primary coolant and water is the secondary coolant. A prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) houses the reactor core, primary coolant system and portions of the secondary coolant system, steam generators and circulators. A continuous internal steel liner in the PCRV acts as the primary coolant boundary and sealing membrane. The control rods contain boron carbide in a graphite matrix sheathed in Incoloy 800 cans. Boron constitutes about 40 percent of the absorber material by volume. The control rod drives provide insertion and withdrawal rates consistent with the required reactivity changes for operational load fluctuations and reactor shutdown. Control rods have shim and trip capability. (U.S.)

  14. RAPID-L Highly Automated Fast Reactor Concept Without Any Control Rods (1) Reactor concept and plant dynamics analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Tsunoda, Hirokazu; Mishima, Kaichiro; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2002-01-01

    The 200 kWe uranium-nitride fueled lithium cooled fast reactor concept 'RAPID-L' to achieve highly automated reactor operation has been demonstrated. RAPID-L is designed for Lunar base power system. It is one of the variants of RAPID (Refueling by All Pins Integrated Design), fast reactor concept, which enable quick and simplified refueling. The essential feature of RAPID concept is that the reactor core consists of an integrated fuel assembly instead of conventional fuel subassemblies. In this small size reactor core, 2700 fuel pins are integrated altogether and encased in a fuel cartridge. Refueling is conducted by replacing a fuel cartridge. The reactor can be operated without refueling for up to 10 years. Unique challenges in reactivity control systems design have been attempted in RAPID-L concept. The reactor has no control rod, but involves the following innovative reactivity control systems: Lithium Expansion Modules (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback, Lithium Injection Modules (LIM) for inherent ultimate shutdown, and Lithium Release Modules (LRM) for automated reactor startup. All these systems adopt lithium-6 as a liquid poison instead of B 4 C rods. In combination with LEMs, LIMs and LRMs, RAPID-L can be operated without operator. This is the first reactor concept ever established in the world. This reactor concept is also applicable to the terrestrial fast reactors. In this paper, RAPID-L reactor concept and its transient characteristics are presented. (authors)

  15. Anion-Regulated Selective Generation of Cobalt Sites in Carbon: Toward Superior Bifunctional Electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Gang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Yang, Ce [Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhao, Wanpeng [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Li, Qianru [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Wang, Ning [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Li, Tao [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhou, Hua [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Chen, Hangrong [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; Shi, Jianlin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China

    2017-11-06

    The introduction of active transition metal sites (TMSs) in carbon enables the synthesis of noble-metal-free electrocatalysts for clean energy conversion applications, however, there are often multiple existing forms of TMSs, which are of different natures and catalytic models. Regulating the evolution of distinctive TMSs is highly desirable but remains challenging to date. Anions, as essential elements involved in the synthesis, have been totally neglected previously in the construction of TMSs. Herein, the effects of anions on the creation of different types of TMSs is investigated for the first time. It is found that the active cobalt-nitrogen sites tend to be selectively constructed on the surface of N-doped carbon by using chloride, while metallic cobalt nanoparticles encased in protective graphite layers are the dominant forms of cobalt species with nitrate ions. The obtained catalysts demonstrate cobalt-sites-dependent activity for ORR and HER in acidic media. And the remarkably enhanced catalytic activities approaching that of benchmark Pt/C in acidic medium has been obtained on the catalyst dominated with cobalt-nitrogen sites, confirmed by the advanced spectroscopic . Our finding demonstrates a general paradigm of anion-regulated evolution of distinctive TMSs, providing a new pathway for enhancing performances of various targeted reactions related with TMSs.

  16. Dominant negative RPW8.2 fusion proteins reveal the importance of haustorium-oriented protein trafficking for resistance against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Berkey, Robert; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Wenming; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xianfeng; King, Harlan; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew fungi form feeding structures called haustoria inside epidermal cells of host plants to extract photosynthates for their epiphytic growth and reproduction. The haustorium is encased by an interfacial membrane termed the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). The atypical resistance protein RPW8.2 from Arabidopsis is specifically targeted to the EHM where RPW8.2 activates haustorium-targeted (thus broad-spectrum) resistance against powdery mildew fungi. EHM-specific localization of RPW8.2 suggests the existence of an EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway during EHM biogenesis. However, the importance of this specific trafficking pathway for host defense has not been evaluated via a genetic approach without affecting other trafficking pathways. Here, we report that expression of EHM-oriented, nonfunctional RPW8.2 chimeric proteins exerts dominant negative effect over functional RPW8.2 and potentially over other EHM-localized defense proteins, thereby compromising both RPW8.2-mediated and basal resistance to powdery mildew. Thus, our results highlight the importance of the EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway for host resistance against haustorium-forming pathogens such as powdery mildew fungi.

  17. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis broad-spectrum resistance gene RPW8.2 improves the resistance to powdery mildew in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Li, Yajuan; Hou, Fengjuan; Wan, Dongyan; Cheng, Yuan; Han, Yongtao; Gao, Yurong; Liu, Jie; Guo, Ye; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Yuejin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Powdery mildew is the most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis broad-spectrum disease resistance gene RPW8.2 could improve resistance to powdery mildew in Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless. The RPW8.2-YFP fusion gene was stably expressed in grapevines from either the constitutive 35S promoter or the native promoter (NP) of RPW8.2. The grapevine shoots and plantlets transgenic for 35S::RPW8.2-YFP showed reduced rooting and reduced growth at later development stages in the absence of any pathogens. Infection tests with an adapted grapevine powdery mildew isolate En NAFU1 showed that hyphal growth and sporulation were significantly restricted in transgenic grapevines expressing either of the two constructs. The resistance appeared to be attributable to the ectopic expression of RPW8.2, and associated with the enhanced encasement of the haustorial complex (EHC) and onsite accumulation of H 2 O 2 . In addition, the RPW8.2-YFP fusion protein showed focal accumulation around the fungal penetration sites. Transcriptome analysis revealed that ectopic expression of RPW8.2 in grapevines not only significantly enhanced salicylic acid-dependent defense signaling, but also altered expression of other phytohormone-associated genes. Taken together, our results indicate that RPW8.2 could be utilized as a transgene for improving resistance against powdery mildew in grapevines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo operation of the Boston 15-channel wireless subretinal visual prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Douglas B.; Doyle, Patrick; Kelly, Shawn K.; Gingerich, Marcus D.; Chen, Jinghua; Cogan, Stuart F.; Drohan, William A.; Mendoza, Oscar; Theogarajan, Luke; Wyatt, John; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2010-02-01

    This presentation concerns the engineering development of the Boston visual prosthesis for restoring useful vision to patients blind with degenerative retinal disease. A miniaturized, hermetically-encased, 15-channel wirelessly-operated retinal prosthetic was developed for implantation and pre-clinical studies in Yucatan mini-pig animal models. The prosthesis conforms to the eye and drives a microfabricated polyimide stimulating electrode array having sputtered iridium oxide electrodes. This array is implanted into the subretinal space using a specially-designed ab externo surgical technique; the bulk of the prosthesis is on the surface of the sclera. The implanted device includes a hermetic titanium case containing a 15-channel stimulator chip; secondary power/data receiving coils surround the cornea. Long-term in vitro pulse testing was also performed on the electrodes to ensure their stability over years of operation. Assemblies were first tested in vitro to verify wireless operation of the system in biological saline using a custom RF transmitter circuit and primary coils. Stimulation pulse strength, duration and frequency were programmed wirelessly using a computer with a custom graphical user interface. Operation of the retinal implant was verified in vivo in 3 minipigs for more than three months by measuring stimulus artifacts on the eye surface using contact lens electrodes.

  19. Role of MRI in the management of children with diffuse pontine tumors: a study of 15 patients and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, Liora; Schwarz, Michael; Karmazyn, Boaz; Horev, Gadi [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Department of Imaging, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cohen, Ian J.; Shuper, Avinoam; Yaniv, Issac [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Department of Hematology-Oncology, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Michovitz, Shalom [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Department of Neurosurgery, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Fenig, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Rabin Medical Center,Beilinson Campus, Institute of Oncology, Radiotherapy Unit, Petah Tiqva (Israel)

    2005-09-01

    Pontine tumors carry the worst prognosis of all brain tumors. In most cases, the diagnosis is based solely on MR imaging, without biopsy. To describe the MR findings of pontine tumors at diagnosis and during follow-up and correlate those with prognosis and to assess the value of MR imaging in patient management compared to clinical evaluation. Ninety-one MR scans of 15 children with diffuse pontine tumors were reviewed at diagnosis and during follow-up. The parameters analyzed were as follows: tumor extent, area, and volume; encasement of the basilar artery; presence of exophytic component; necrosis; cysts; hydrocephalus; and intensity and enhancement. Findings were correlated to length of progression-free and overall survival. Trends of amelioration or worsening on imaging were compared with the clinical findings. Median length of progression-free survival was 10 months, and median survival was 20 months. Only hydrocephalus at presentation was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P=0.02). On the last examination of each patient, the craniocaudal diameter was significantly greater than at diagnosis (P=0.03). The concordance between the imaging and the clinical findings was good. MR is the mainstay for the diagnosis and management of pontine tumors. Cranial growth seems to be an ominous sign. However, the prognostic value of MR is limited. MR findings correlate well with the clinical examination. (orig.)

  20. Giant Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas (⩾10 cm: The Clinical Features and CT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the clinical features and CT manifestations of giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma (≥10 cm. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and CT findings of 6 cases of this entity. Results. All 6 patients were symptomatic. The tumors were 10.2 cm–16.5 cm (median value, 13.0 cm. CT imaging revealed that all 6 cases showed microcystic appearances (n=5 or mixed microcystic and macrocystic appearances (n=1. Five patients with tumors at the distal end of the pancreas received distal pancreatectomy. Among these 5 patients, 2 patients underwent partial transverse colon resection or omentum resection due to close adhesion. One patient whose tumor was located in the pancreatic head underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy; however, due to encasement of the portal and superior mesenteric veins, the tumor was incompletely resected. One patient had abundant draining veins on the tumor surface and suffered large blood loss (700 mL. After 6–49 months of follow-up the 6 patients showed no tumor recurrence or signs of malignant transformation. Conclusions. Giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma necessitates surgical resection due to large size, symptoms, uncertain diagnosis, and adjacent organ compression. The relationship between the tumors and the neighboring organs needs to be carefully assessed before operation on CT image.

  1. Investigation of Genipin Cross-Linked Microcapsule for Oral Delivery of Live Bacterial Cells and Other Biotherapeutics: Preparation and In Vitro Analysis in Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral therapy utilizing engineered microorganisms has shown promise in the treatment of many diseases. By microencapsulation, viable cells can overcome the harsh gastrointestinal (GI environment and secrete needed therapeutics into the gut. These engineered cells should be encased without escaping into the GI tract for safety concerns, thus robust microcapsule membrane is requisite. This paper examined the GI performance of a novel microcapsule membrane using a dynamic simulated human GI model. Results showed that the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules possessed strong resistance to structural disintegration in the simulated GI environment. Leakage of encapsulated high molecular weight dextran, a model material to be protected during the simulated GI transit, was negligible over 72 h of exposure, in contrast to considerable leakage of dextran from the non-cross-linked counterparts. These microcapsules did not alter the microflora and enzymatic activities in the simulated human colonic media. This study suggested the potential of the GCAC microcapsules for oral delivery of live microorganisms and other biotherapeutics.

  2. The gastropod shell has been co-opted to kill parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, R

    2017-07-06

    Exoskeletons have evolved 18 times independently over 550 MYA and are essential for the success of the Gastropoda. The gastropod shell shows a vast array of different sizes, shapes and structures, and is made of conchiolin and calcium carbonate, which provides protection from predators and extreme environmental conditions. Here, I report that the gastropod shell has another function and has been co-opted as a defense system to encase and kill parasitic nematodes. Upon infection, cells on the inner layer of the shell adhere to the nematode cuticle, swarm over its body and fuse it to the inside of the shell. Shells of wild Cepaea nemoralis, C. hortensis and Cornu aspersum from around the U.K. are heavily infected with several nematode species including Caenorhabditis elegans. By examining conchology collections I show that nematodes are permanently fixed in shells for hundreds of years and that nematode encapsulation is a pleisomorphic trait, prevalent in both the achatinoid and non-achatinoid clades of the Stylommatophora (and slugs and shelled slugs), which diverged 90-130 MYA. Taken together, these results show that the shell also evolved to kill parasitic nematodes and this is the only example of an exoskeleton that has been co-opted as an immune system.

  3. Heat removal capability of divertor coaxial tube assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, Masanao; Nakahira, Masataka; Tada, Eisuke; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1994-05-01

    To deal with high power flowing in the divertor region, an advanced divertor concept with gas target has been proposed for use in ITER/EDA. The concept uses a divertor channel to remove the radiated power while allowing neutrals to recirculate. Candidate channel wall designs include a tube array design where many coaxial tubes are arranged in the toroidal direction to make louver. The coaxial tube consists of a Be protection tube encases many supply tubes wound helically around a return tube. V-alloy and hardened Cu-alloy have been proposed for use in the supply and return tubes. Some coolants have also been proposed for the design including pressurized He and liquid metals, because these coolants are consistent with the selection of coolants for the blanket and also meet the requirement of high temperature operation. In the coaxial tube design, the coolant area is restricted and brittle Be material is used under severe thermal cyclings. Thus, to obtain the coaxial tube with sufficient safety margin for the expected fusion power excursion, it is essential to understand its applicability limit. The paper discusses heat removal capability of the coaxial tube and recommends some design modifications. (author)

  4. Oogenesis and spawn formation in the invasive lionfish, Pterois miles and Pterois volitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Morris, Jr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific lionfish, Pterois miles and P. volitans, have recently invaded the U.S. east coast and the Caribbean and pose a significant threat to native reef fish communities. Few studies have documented reproduction in pteroines from the Indo-Pacific. This study provides a description of oogenesis and spawn formation in P. miles and P. volitans collected from offshore waters of North Carolina, U.S.A and the Bahamas. Using histological and laboratory observations, we found no differences in reproductive biology between P. miles and P. volitans. These lionfish spawn buoyant eggs that are encased in a hollow mass of mucus produced by specialized secretory cells of the ovarian wall complex. Oocytes develop on highly vascularized peduncles with all oocyte stages present in the ovary of spawning females and the most mature oocytes placed terminally, near the ovarian lumen. Given these ovarian characteristics, these lionfish are asynchronous, indeterminate batch spawners and are thus capable of sustained reproduction throughout the year when conditions are suitable. This mode of reproduction could have contributed to the recent and rapid establishment of these lionfish in the northwestern Atlantic and Caribbean.

  5. The role of three-dimensional imaging in evaluation of the sinonasal mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sue Yon; Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Hong, In Soo; Kim, Myung Soon; Oh, Jin Hwan; Paik, Seog In [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the role of 3D imaging in the sinonasal mass. Twenty patients with sinonasal mass(squamous cell carcinoma[n=6], spindle cell carcinoma[n=1], angiomatous polyp[n=1], giant cell reparative granuloma[n=1], non-Hodgkin's lymphjoma[n=1], melanoma[n=1], angiofibroma[n=1], inverted papilloma[n=1]) were studied with spiral CT. Reconstruction of surface rendered 3D images and segmentations were performed and compared with the 2D image. The 3D images enabled easy understanding of the characteristics of the mass in 12 casese. The 3D images displayed pathway of tumor extension in 5 cases and were helpful in assessing the primary site of the mass in 3 cases. In two cases with encasement of ICA by the mass, assessment of relationship between the mass and vessels were possible through the segmentation. The 3D image, as an adjunct to the 2D image, can help to evaluate the virtual appearance of bony change, the degree of extension of mass, the spreading route, the evaluation of origin site. It also provides valuable 3-dimensional conception of the mass, especially for the surgeon.

  6. Field Study of the Comparative Efficacy of Three Pyrethroid/Neonicotinoid Mixture Products for the Control of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture products: Tandem (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid, and Transport Mikron (bifenthrin + acetamiprid. No insecticides were applied in the Control apartments. In all apartments, we installed vinyl mattress encasements (if not already present and applied steam to beds and other infested upholstered furniture. Insecticide sprays were applied in the three treatments. Each treatment and the Control included 8–10 occupied apartments. Re-treatment was conducted during biweekly inspections if necessary. After eight weeks, the mean (± SEM bed bug count reduction in the Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron, and Control was 89 ± 9, 87 ± 6, 98 ± 1, and 23 ± 54%, respectively. Only Tandem and Transport Mikron treatments resulted in significantly higher population reduction than the Control at eight weeks. There were no significant differences in mean percent reduction among the three treatments (Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron at eight weeks. Tandem spray caused significantly faster bed bug reduction than Temprid SC spray and Transport Mikron spray.

  7. The evolution of solid density within a thermal explosion II. Dynamic proton radiography of cracking and solid consumption by burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Grim, G.; Mariam, F.; Schwartz, C. L.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; Espinoza, C.; Lewis, D.; Bainbridge, J.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report proton transmission images obtained subsequent to the laser assisted thermal ignition of a sample of PBX 9501 (a plastic bonded formulation of the explosive nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)). We describe the laser assisted thermal ignition technique as a means to synchronize a non-linear thermal ignition event while preserving the subsequent post-ignition behavior. We have obtained dynamic proton transmission images at two spatial magnifications and viewed both the radial and transverse axis of a solid cylindrical sample encased in aluminum. Images have been obtained with 3 to 15 μs temporal resolution and approximately 100 μm spatial resolution at the higher magnification. We observe case expansion from very early in the experiment, until case fragmentation. We observe spatially anisotropic features in the transmission which we attribute to cracking in the solid explosive, in agreement with previous measurements conducted on two dimensional samples with optical viewing. Digital analysis of the images also reveals spatially isotropic features which we attribute to the evolution of the loss of density by burning subsequent to thermal ignition.

  8. Giving structure to the biofilm matrix: an overview of individual strategies and emerging common themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Laura; Harkins, Catriona; MacPhee, Cait E; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are communities of microbial cells that underpin diverse processes including sewage bioremediation, plant growth promotion, chronic infections and industrial biofouling. The cells resident in the biofilm are encased within a self-produced exopolymeric matrix that commonly comprises lipids, proteins that frequently exhibit amyloid-like properties, eDNA and exopolysaccharides. This matrix fulfils a variety of functions for the community, from providing structural rigidity and protection from the external environment to controlling gene regulation and nutrient adsorption. Critical to the development of novel strategies to control biofilm infections, or the capability to capitalize on the power of biofilm formation for industrial and biotechnological uses, is an in-depth knowledge of the biofilm matrix. This is with respect to the structure of the individual components, the nature of the interactions between the molecules and the three-dimensional spatial organization. We highlight recent advances in the understanding of the structural and functional role that carbohydrates and proteins play within the biofilm matrix to provide three-dimensional architectural integrity and functionality to the biofilm community. We highlight, where relevant, experimental techniques that are allowing the boundaries of our understanding of the biofilm matrix to be extended using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Bacillus subtilis as exemplars. © FEMS 2015.

  9. Sensor Enclosures: Example Application and Implications for Data Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Maniatis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensors deployed in natural environments, such as rivers, beaches and glaciers, experience large forces and damaging environmental conditions. Sensors need to be robust, securely operate for extended time periods and be readily relocated and serviced. The sensors must be housed in materials that mimic natural conditions of size, density, shape and roughness. We have developed an encasement system for sensors required to measure large forces experienced by mobile river sediment grains. Sensors are housed within two discrete cases that are rigidly conjoined. The inner case exactly fits the sensor, radio components and power source. This case can be mounted within outer cases of any larger size and can be precisely moulded to match the shapes of natural sediment. Total grain mass can be controlled by packing the outer case with dense material. Case design uses Solid-WorksTM software, and shape-matching involved 3D laser scanning of natural pebbles. The cases were printed using a HP DesignjetTM 3D printer that generates high precision parts that lock rigidly in place. The casings are watertight and robust. Laboratory testing produces accurate results over a wider range of accelerations than previously reported.

  10. Cyclic Behavior of Low Rise Concrete Shear Walls Containing Recycled Coarse and Fine Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyun Qiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cyclic behaviors of low rise concrete shear walls using recycled coarse or fine aggregates were investigated. Eight low rise Recycled Aggregates Concrete (RAC shear wall specimens were designed and tested under a cyclic loading. The following parameters were varied: replacement percentages of recycled coarse or fine aggregates, reinforcement ratio, axial force ratio and X-shaped rebars brace. The failure characteristics, hysteretic behavior, strength and deformation capacity, strain characteristics and stiffness were studied. Test results showed that the using of the Recycled Coarse Aggregates (RCA and its replacement ratio had almost no influence on the mechanical behavior of the shear wall; however, the using of Recycled Fine Aggregates (RFA had a certain influence on the ductility of the shear wall. When the reinforcement ratio increased, the strength and ductility also increased. By increasing the axial force ratio, the strength increased but the ductility decreased significantly. The encased brace had a significant effect on enhancing the RAC shear walls. The experimental maximum strengths were evaluated with existing design codes, it was indicated that the strength evaluation of the low rise RAC shear walls can follow the existing design codes of the conventional concrete shear walls.

  11. MCNP6 simulation of radiographs generated from megaelectron volt X-rays for characterizing a computed tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Tringe, Joseph W.

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate conventional munition, we simulated an x-ray computed tomography (CT) system for generating radiographs from nominal x-ray energies of 6 or 9 megaelectron volts (MeV). CT simulations, informed by measured data, allow for optimization of both system design and acquisition techniques necessary to enhance image quality. MCNP6 radiographic simulation tools were used to model ideal detector responses (DR) that assume either (1) a detector response proportional to photon flux (N) or (2) a detector response proportional to energy flux (E). As scatter may become significant with MeV x-ray systems, simulations were performed with and without the inclusion of object scatter. Simulations were compared against measurements of a cylindrical munition component principally composed of HMX, tungsten and aluminum encased in carbon fiber. Simulations and measurements used a 6 MeV peak energy x-ray spectrum filtered with 3.175 mm of tantalum. A detector response proportional to energy which includes object scatter agrees to within 0.6 % of the measured line integral of the linear attenuation coefficient. Exclusion of scatter increases the difference between measurement and simulation to 5 %. A detector response proportional to photon flux agrees to within 20 % when object scatter is included in the simulation and 27 % when object scatter is excluded.

  12. Histopathology of a mesoparasitic hatschekiid copepod in hospite: does Mihbaicola sakamakii (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) fast within the host fish tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Euichi; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    Mihbaicola sakamakii is a mesoparasitic copepod that infests the branchiostegal membranes of groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae). In this study, we observed M. sakamakii within host tissue. Histologically, copepods were found enclosed inside a pouch composed of the thickened epidermis of the host, tightly encased on all sides by the host epidermal pouch wall. There were no host blood cells or other food resources in the pouch lumen. Since the host epidermis was intact and continuous, even in the vicinity of the oral region of the parasite, the copepod would not have access to the host blood in this state. However, the stomach (ampullary part of the mid gut) was filled with granular components, the majority of which were crystalloids that likely originated from fish erythrocyte hemoglobin. We supposed that the parasite drinks blood exuded from the lesion in the fish caused by copepod entry into the host tissue. Invasion of the parasite may elicit immune responses in the host, but there were no traces on the copepod of any cellular immune reactions, such as encapsulation. The array of minute protuberances on the copepod cuticle surface may be involved in avoidance of cell adhesion. After the lesion has healed, the copepod is enclosed in a tough epidermal pouch, in which it gradually digests the contents of its stomach and continues egg production.

  13. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legakis Nikolaos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. Case presentation A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Conclusion Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  14. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  15. Ionic liquid-based observation technique for nonconductive materials in the scanning electron microscope: Application to the characterization of a rare earth ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Waters, Kristian; Demers, Hendrix; Gauvin, Raynald

    2014-03-01

    A new approach for preparing geological materials is proposed to reduce charging during their characterization in a scanning electron microscope. This technique was applied to a sample of the Nechalacho rare earth deposit, which contains a significant amount of the minerals fergusonite and zircon. Instead of covering the specimen surface with a conductive coating, the sample was immersed in a dilute solution of ionic liquid and then air dried prior to SEM analysis. Imaging at a wide range of accelerating voltages was then possible without evidence of charging when using the in-chamber secondary and backscattered electrons detectors, even at 1 kV. High resolution x-ray and electron backscatter diffraction mapping were successfully obtained at 20 and 5 kV with negligible image drifting and permitted the characterization of the microstructure of the zircon/fergusonite-Y aggregates encased in the matrix minerals. Because of the absence of a conductive layer at the surface of the specimen, the Kikuchi band contrast was improved and the backscatter electron signal increased at both 5 and 20 kV as confirmed by Monte Carlo modeling. These major developments led to an improvement of the spatial resolution and efficiency of the above characterization techniques applied to the rare earth ore and it is expected that they can be applied to other types of ores and minerals. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The influence of object and background color manipulations on the electrophysiological indices of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Zimmer, Hubert D; Groh-Bordin, Christian

    2007-12-14

    In a recognition memory experiment, the claim was tested that intrinsic object features contribute to familiarity, whereas extrinsic context features do not. We used the study-test manipulation of color to investigate the perceptual specificity of ERP old-new effects associated with familiarity and recollection. Color was either an intrinsic surface feature of the object or a feature of the surrounding context (a frame encasing the object); thus, the same feature was manipulated across intrinsic/extrinsic conditions. Subjects performed a threefold (same color/different color/new object) decision, making feature information task-relevant. Results suggest that the intrinsic manipulation of color affected the mid-frontal old-new effect associated with familiarity, while this effect was not influenced by extrinsic manipulation. This ERP pattern could not be explained by basic behavioral performance differences. It is concluded that familiarity can be perceptually specific with regard to intrinsic information belonging to the object. The putative electrophysiological signature of recollection - a late parietal old-new effect - was not present in the data, and reasons for this null effect are discussed.

  17. U Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of U Plant. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation that was undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. U Plant refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separation facility constructed during World War II. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO 3 ) Plant constructed at the same time as 221-U as an adjunct to the original plutonium separation process but which, like 221-U, was converted for other missions. Waste sites are associated primarily with U Plant's 1952 through 1958 Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission and the U0 3 Plant's ongoing U0 3 mission. Waste sites include cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, a waste vault, and the lines and encasements that connect them. It also includes the U Pond and its feed ditches and an underground tank farm designed for high-level liquid wastes

  18. Benchmarking of the computer code and the thirty foot side drop analysis for the Shippingport (RPV/NST package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumpus, S.E.; Gerhard, M.A.; Hovingh, J.; Trummer, D.J.; Witte, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the benchmarking of a finite element computer code and the subsequent results from the code simulating the 30 foot side drop impact of the RPV/NST transport package from the decommissioned Shippingport Nuclear Power Station. The activated reactor pressure vessel (RPV), thermal shield, and other reactor external components were encased in concrete contained by the neutron shield tank (NST) and a lifting skirt. The Shippingport RPV/NST package, a Type B Category II package, weighs approximately 900 tons and has 17.5 ft diameter and 40.7 ft. length. For transport of the activated components from Shippingport to the burial site, the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) demonstrated that the package can withstand the hypothetical accidents of DOE Order 5480.3 including 10 CFR 71. Mathematical simulations of these accidents can substitute for actual tests if the simulated results satisfy the acceptance criteria. Any such mathematical simulation, including the modeling of the materials, must be benchmarked to experiments that duplicate the loading conditions of the tests. Additional confidence in the simulations is justified if the test specimens are configured similar to the package

  19. Cold Test and Performance Evaluation of Prototype Cryoline-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N.; Choukekar, K.; Kapoor, H.; Muralidhara, S.; Garg, A.; Kumar, U.; Jadon, M.; Dash, B.; Bhattachrya, R.; Badgujar, S.; Billot, V.; Bravais, P.; Cadeau, P.

    2017-12-01

    The multi-process pipe vacuum jacketed cryolines for the ITER project are probably world’s most complex cryolines in terms of layout, load cases, quality, safety and regulatory requirements. As a risk mitigation plan, design, manufacturing and testing of prototype cryoline (PTCL) was planned before the approval of final design of ITER cryolines. The 29 meter long PTCL consist of 6 process pipes encased by thermal shield inside Outer Vacuum Jacket of DN 600 size and carries cold helium at 4.5 K and 80 K. The global heat load limit was defined as 1.2 W/m at 4.5 K and 4.5 W/m at 80 K. The PTCL-X (PTCL for Group-X cryolines) was specified in detail by ITER-India and designed as well as manufactured by Air Liquide. PTCL-X was installed and tested at cryogenic temperature at ITER-India Cryogenic Laboratory in 2016. The heat load at 4.5 K and 80 K, estimated using enthalpy difference method, was found to be approximately 0.8 W/m at 4.5 K, 4.2 W/m at 80 K, which is well within the defined limits. Thermal shield temperature profile was also found to be satisfactory. Paper summarizes the cold test results of PTCL-X

  20. Retrieving microcatheters from Onyx casts in a series of brain arteriovenous malformations: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, A; Hyodo, A; Suzuki, K; Tanaka, Y; Uchida, T; Takano, I; Kowata, K; Iwatate, K; Suzuki, R

    2012-11-01

    To date, the "monorail snare technique" for the retrieval of entombed microcatheter tips during Onyx(TM) (ev3, Irvine, CA) embolisation of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) has not been described. We report our experiences and some technical aspects in using this technique for the retrieval of entombed Marathon(TM) microcatheter (ev3, Plymouth, MN) tips during Onyx embolisation of BAVM treatment. Onyx was used in the embolisation of 11 patients using 25 feeders over 14 sessions. The 'monorail snare technique' was employed for 14 feeders. Each time, an Amplatz 4 mm Gooseneck Microsnare(TM) (ev3, Plymouth, MN) was loaded into an Excelsior 1018(TM) microcatheter (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA). The Marathon microcatheter was cut just distal to the hub, and the Amplatz/Excelsior combination was introduced along the length of the Marathon microcatheter towards its distal end, as far as possible. The embedded catheter was ensnared and both catheters were pulled free. Microcatheter tip removal was successful in all cases, except for one microcatheter tip becoming detached and needing no further intervention. There were no complications as a direct result of the snare technique. The monorail snare technique is a safe and easy technique for retrieving Onyx-encased microcatheter tips in the treatment of BAVM.

  1. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman O. Machado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%, distension (44.9% or a mass (30.5%. Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2% without postoperative complications (88.1%.

  2. Brake Failure from Residual Magnetism in the Mars Exploration Rover Lander Petal Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft arrived at Mars. Each safely delivered an identical rover to the Martian surface in a tetrahedral lander encased in airbags. Upon landing, the airbags deflated and three Lander Petal Actuators opened the three deployable Lander side petals enabling the rover to exit the Lander. Approximately nine weeks prior to the scheduled launch of the first spacecraft, one of these mission-critical Lander Petal Actuators exhibited a brake stuck-open failure during its final flight stow at Kennedy Space Center. Residual magnetism was the definitive conclusion from the failure investigation. Although residual magnetism was recognized as an issue in the design, the lack of an appropriately specified lower bound on brake drop-out voltage inhibited the discovery of this problem earlier in the program. In addition, the brakes had more unit-to-unit variation in drop-out voltage than expected, likely due to a larger than expected variation in the magnetic properties of the 15-5 PH stainless steel brake plates. Failure analysis and subsequent rework of two other Lander Petal Actuators with marginal brakes was completed in three weeks, causing no impact to the launch date.

  3. Complete mesocolic excision and extended (D3) lymphadenectomy for colonic cancer: is it worth that extra effort? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Andrew; Haji, Amyn

    2016-04-01

    Recent interest in complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL) or extended (D3) lymphadenectomy (EL) for curative resection of colon cancer has been driven by published series from experienced practitioners showing excellent survival outcomes and low recurrence rates. In this article, we attempt to clarify the role of CME or EL in modern colorectal surgery. A narrative review of the evidence for CME and EL in the curative treatment of colon cancer. The principal of CME surgery, similar to total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer, is the removal of all lymphatic, vascular, and neural tissue in the drainage area of the tumour in a complete mesocolic envelope with intact mesentery, peritoneum and encasing fascia. Extended (D3) lymphadenectomy (EL) is based on similar principles. Sound anatomical and oncological arguments are made to support the principles of removing the tumor contained within an intact mesocolic facial envelope together with an extended lymph node harvest. Excellent oncological outcomes with minimal morbidity and mortality have been reported. This has led to calls for the standardisation of surgery for colon cancer using CME. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the prognostic benefit of greater lymph node harvests and the evidence for an oncological benefit of CME is limited by methodology flaws and several potential confounding factors. Although there is a reasonable anatomical and oncological basis for these techniques, there are no randomised controlled trials from which to draw confident conclusions and there is insufficient consistent high quality evidence to recommend widespread adoption of CME.

  4. MAKNA KEJAHATAN STRUKTURAL KORUPSI DALAM PERSPEKTIF TEORI STRUKTURASI ANTHONY GIDDENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imadah Thoyibbah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is the reality of crime that can not be separated from the structure and human agency. The perspective of structuration theory emphasizes the duality relation between agents and structures. The structure includes the rules and resources and the social systems are mobilized in space-time by the social agents. Corruption as a structural crime involving micro structures and macro structures. First, corruption is a crime that occurs due to banality (omission/habituation whose motive is greed, dishonesty, arrogance, pettiness, shallowness of thought and the subjective satisfaction. Motifs are encased in a system of production and reproduction of social activity that is dialectic. Secondly, corruption is sustained by the conditions of a globalized modernity as a result of events like the separation of time and spice, the development of disembedding mechanism of localized context, and the reflexive appropriation of knowledge. Agents are those that have a value of intervention (effect against a corrupt act. Various efforts to justify acts of corruption is a form of rationalization of actions by human agents as creative and reflexive beings. Their motive is to avoid moral responsibility and social law. Social change can be done by 'deroutinization' of structure or distancing by reflexive monitoring of structure while constraining and enabling the seeds of corruption that involves the structure of signification, domination, and legitimation in the constitutions of society.

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  6. Security problems arising from the use of radioactive sources in the study of the wear in refractory linings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Hours, R.; Le Clerc, P.; Pons, A.

    1960-01-01

    The determination of the wear in refractories is a problem to which these are at present only a few solutions, and these limited or delicate to use. That is the reason why the use of radioactive tracers contained in the refractory has met with rapid success. Unfortunately, the development of the method has been retarded by the need to limit severely the amounts of radioelement incorporated and also by the observation that diffusion of the radioactive product occurred in the refractory. As a result, the limiting amount of 1 mc/500 metric tons of cast-iron has been adopted in France, with the proviso that no single source exceeds 3 mc. Further, we have made special sources with a view to avoiding diffusion phenomena. The essential feature of these sources is that they use pyro-ceramic a non porous material having a high melting point and being, very inert chemically. In these sources, the radioelement can either be entirely encased in the pyro-ceramic or be an integral part of its composition. A comparative study of the two types of sources is actually under way. (author) [fr

  7. Organic matter and containment of uranium and fissiogenic isotopes at the Oklo natural reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, B.; Rigali, M.J.; Davis, D.W.; Parnell, J.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the Precambrian natural fission reactors at Oklo in Gabon contain abundant organic matter, part of which was liquefied at the time of criticality and subsequently converted to a graphitic solid. The liquid organic matter helps to reduce U(VI) to U(IV) from aqueous solutions, resulting in the precipitation of uraninite. It is known that in the prevailing reactor environments, precipitated uraninite grains incorporated fission products. We report here observations which show that these uraninite crystals were held immobile within the re-solidified, graphitic bituminous organics at Oklo thus enhanced radionuclide containment. Uraninite encased in solid graphitic matter in the organic-rich reactor zones lost virtually no fissiogenic lanthanide isotopes. The first major episode of uranium and lead migration was caused by the intrusion of a swarm of adjacent dolerite dykes about 1,100 Myr after the reactors went critical. Our results from Oklo imply that the use of organic, hydrophobic solids such as graphitic bitumen as a means of immobilizing radionuclides in pre-treated nuclear waste warrants further investigation. (author)

  8. Mechanism of internal fertilization in Pegea socia (Tunicata, Thaliacea), a salp with a solid oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L Z; Miller, R L

    1994-03-01

    The ovary of the salp Pegea socia (Bosc, 1802) is located at the end of an atrial diverticulum. The ovary consists of a single oocyte encased in a layer of follicle cells and is connected to the atrial epithelium by an oviduct. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the oocyte lacks a vitelline layer, cortical granules, and yolk granules and that the oviduct lacks a continuous lumen. What previous authors thought was a lumen is a line of dense intercellular junctions running down the center of the oviduct. The sperm nucleus in this species, as in other salps, is elongate. The tubular mitochondrion spirals about the sperm nucleus giving it a corkscrew-shape appearance. Sperm reach the ovary when the oocyte is still at the germinal vesicle stage. Many sperm swim up the atrial diverticulum and burrow through the cells of the atrial epithelium, oviduct, and follicular epithelium. Thus oviduct shortening, which occurs when the oocyte is in the meiotic divisions, is evidently unrelated to sperm moving up the oviduct. All previous authors, who argued either that a continuous lumen is necessary for sperm to move up the oviduct or that sperm bypass the oviduct, were incorrect. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Lea M M; Leonhard, Anne K; Widen Zakhary, Carina; Jørgensen, Annemette; Blaakaer, Jan; Dybkaer, Karen; Baandrup, Ulrik; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2017-10-01

    Recently, an association between human papillomavirus infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported human papillomavirus prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed to investigate human papillomavirus infection in placental tissue of a Danish study cohort. Furthermore, we studied the cellular localization of human papillomavirus. In this prospective case-control study, placental tissue was analyzed for human papillomavirus infection by nested PCR in the following four study groups: full-term delivery (n = 103), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 69), elective abortion (n = 54), and spontaneous abortion (n = 44). Moreover, human papillomavirus cellular target was identified using in situ hybridization. Human papillomavirus prevalence in placental tissue was 8.7% in full-term deliveries, 8.8% in spontaneous preterm deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. Twelve different human papillomavirus types were detected, and placental human papillomavirus infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells, and in parts of the encasing endometrium. Placental human papillomavirus infections are not likely to constitute a risk factor for spontaneous preterm labor or spontaneous abortions in the Danish population, although an effect of human papillomavirus DNA in placental cells cannot be excluded. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Zachary H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Kalukin, Andrew R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kuhn, Markus [Intel Corporation RA1-329, 5200 Northeast Elam Young Parkway, Hillsboro, Oregon 74124 (United States); Frigo, Sean P. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); McNulty, Ian [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Retsch, Cornelia C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang, Yuxin [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Arp, Uwe [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Lucatorto, Thomas B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Ravel, Bruce D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-05-01

    An integrated circuit interconnect was subject to accelerated-life test conditions to induce an electromigration void. The silicon substrate was removed, leaving only the interconnect test structure encased in silica. We imaged the sample with 1750 eV photons using the 2-ID-B scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the Advanced Photon Source, a third-generation synchrotron facility. Fourteen views through the sample were obtained over a 170 degree sign range of angles (with a 40 degree sign gap) about a single rotation axis. Two sampled regions were selected for three-dimensional reconstruction: one of the ragged end of a wire depleted by the void, the other of the adjacent interlevel connection (or ''via''). We applied two reconstruction techniques: the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique and a Bayesian reconstruction technique, the generalized Gaussian Markov random field method. The stated uncertainties are total, with one standard deviation, which resolved the sample to 200{+-}70 and 140{+-}30 nm, respectively. The tungsten via is distinguished from the aluminum wire by higher absorption. Within the void, the aluminum is entirely depleted from under the tungsten via. The reconstructed data show the applicability of this technique to three-dimensional imaging of buried defects in submicrometer structures relevant to the microelectronics industry. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Fusion of magnetic resonance angiography and magnetic resonance imaging for surgical planning for meningioma. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimura, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Arai, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    A fusion technique for magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and MR imaging was developed to help assess the peritumoral angioarchitecture during surgical planning for meningioma. Three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D-TOF) and 3D-spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) datasets were obtained from 10 patients with intracranial meningioma, and fused using newly developed volume registration and visualization software. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images from 3D-TOF MR angiography and axial SPGR MR imaging were displayed at the same time on the monitor. Selecting a vessel on the real-time MIP image indicated the corresponding points on the axial image automatically. Fusion images showed displacement of the anterior cerebral or middle cerebral artery in 7 patients and encasement of the anterior cerebral arteries in I patient, with no relationship between the main arterial trunk and tumor in 2 patients. Fusion of MR angiography and MR imaging can clarify relationships between the intracranial vasculature and meningioma, and may be helpful for surgical planning for meningioma. (author)

  12. Tuberculosis-associated Fibrosing Mediastinitis: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare condition defined by the presence of fibrotic mediastinal infiltrates that obliterate normal fat planes. It is a late complication of a previous granulomatous infection, such as histoplasmosis or tuberculosis (TB. Due to its rarity, fibrosing mediastinitis is often under-recognized, and the clinical presentation is variable and dependent on the extent of infiltration or encasement of structures within the mediastinum. We present a case of fibrosing mediastinitis in a man with a prior history of TB, who presented with progressive dyspnea and was found to have chronic mediastinal soft tissue opacities and pulmonary hypertension. His diagnosis was delayed due to the lack of recognition of this clinical/radiographic entity. Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare entity usually caused by granulomatous disease. Most cases develop as a late complication of histoplasmosis or TB. The presence of calcified mediastinal soft tissue infiltrates on advanced chest imaging can be diagnostic of fibrosing mediastinitis in patients with a prior history of a granulomatous infection once active processes such as malignancy are excluded.

  13. Free microvascular rotationplasty with nerve repair for rhabdomyosarcoma in a 18-month-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Alberto; Salom, Marta; Villaverde-Doménech, María Eloísa; Baixauli, Francisco; Simón-Sanz, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Rotationplasty is a limb-sparing surgical option in lower limb malignancies. Sciatic or tibial nerve encasement has been considered an absolute contraindication to this procedure. We report a case of an 18-month-old girl with a rhabdomyosarcoma that affected the leg and popliteal fossa, with neurovascular involvement. Knee and proximal leg intercalary resection was performed followed by reconstruction with free microvascular rotationplasty and neurorraphy from tibial division of sciatic nerve to sural and tibial nerves, and from saphenous nerve to superficial peroneal nerve. Postoperative course was uneventful and ambulation with a provisional prosthesis was restarted during the sixth week after surgery. Bone consolidation was observed after two months. Eighteen months later, the patient had a good gait pattern with a below-knee prosthesis and had recovered sensation in the whole foot and ankle area. This case shows that rotationplasty with nerve repair may provide a sensate stump, which is vital for successful prosthetic adaptation. We believe it may be considered as an alternative to above-knee amputation in tumors with sciatic involvement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ultrastructure of the Rust Fungus Puccinia miscanthi in the Teliospore Stage Interacting with the Biofuel Plant Miscanthus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Woo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of the the rust fungus Puccinia miscanthi with the biofuel plant Miscanthus sinensis during the teliospore phase was investigated by light and electron microscopy. P. miscanthi telia were oval-shaped and present on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Teliospores were brown, one-septate (two-celled, and had pedicels attached to one end. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous electron-translucent lipid globules in the cytoplasm of teliospores. Extensive cell wall dissolution around hyphae was not observed in the host tissues beneath the telia. Hyphae were found between mesophyll cells in the leaf tissues as well as in host cells. Intracellular hyphae, possibly haustoria, possessed electron-dense fungal cell walls encased by an electron-transparent fibrillar extrahaustorial sheath that had an electron-dense extrahaustorial membrane. The infected host cells appeared to maintain their membrane-bound structures such as nuclei and chloroplasts. These results suggest that the rust fungus maintains its biotrophic phase with most mesophyll cells of M. sinensis. Such a nutritional mode would permit the rust fungus to obtain food reserves for transient growth in the course of host alteration.

  15. Extended endoscopic endonasal surgery using three-dimensional endoscopy in the intra-operative MRI suite for supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuminari, Komatsu; Hideki, Atsumi; Manabu, Osakabe; Mitsunori, Matsumae

    2015-01-01

    We describe a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma that was safely removed using the extended endoscopic endonasal approach, and discuss the value of three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy and intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to this type of procedure. A 61-year-old-man with bitemporal hemianopsia was referred to our hospital, where MRI revealed an enhanced suprasellar tumor compressing the optic chiasma. The tumor extended on the planum sphenoidale and partially encased the right internal carotid artery. An endocrinological assessment indicated normal pituitary function. The extended endoscopic endonasal approach was taken using a 3D endoscope in the intraoperative MRI suite. The tumor was located above the diaphragma sellae and separated from the normal pituitary gland. The pathological findings indicated non-functioning pituitary adenoma and thus the tumor was diagnosed as a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma. Intra-operative MRI provided useful information to minimize dural opening and the supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma was removed from the complex neurovascular structure via the extended endoscopic endonasal approach under 3D endoscopic guidance in the intra-operative suite. Safe and effective removal of a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma was accomplished via the extended endoscopic endonasal approach with visual information provided by 3D endoscopy and intra-operative MRI.

  16. Volumetric accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography

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    Park, Cheol Woo; Kim, Jin Ho; Seo, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Sae Rom; Kang, Ju Hee; Oh, Song Hee; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of object shape and distance from the center of the image on the volumetric accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, according to different parameters of tube voltage and current. Four geometric objects (cylinder, cube, pyramid, and hexagon) with predefined dimensions were fabricated. The objects consisted of Teflon-perfluoroalkoxy embedded in a hydrocolloid matrix (Dupli-Coe-Loid TM; GC America Inc., Alsip, IL, USA), encased in an acrylic resin cylinder assembly. An Alphard Vega Dental CT system (Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) was used to acquire CBCT images. OnDemand 3D (CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea) software was used for object segmentation and image analysis. The accuracy was expressed by the volume error (VE). The VE was calculated under 3 different exposure settings. The measured volumes of the objects were compared to the true volumes for statistical analysis. The mean VE ranged from −4.47% to 2.35%. There was no significant relationship between an object's shape and the VE. A significant correlation was found between the distance of the object to the center of the image and the VE. Tube voltage affected the volume measurements and the VE, but tube current did not. The evaluated CBCT device provided satisfactory volume measurements. To assess volume measurements, it might be sufficient to use serial scans with a high resolution, but a low dose. This information may provide useful guidance for assessing volume measurements.

  17. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis.

  18. Si-Carbon Composite Nanofibers with Good scalability and Favorable Architecture for Highly Reversible Lithium Storage and Superb Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Song, Dahye; Shin, Dong Wook; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple electrospinning for preparing Si-carbon composite Nanofiber (NF) in which aciniform aggregates of Si particles are well encased by amorphous carbon. The Si-carbon composite NF exhibit a significantly improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 1250 mAh·g −1 and a superior cycling performance during 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. More importantly, Si-carbon composite NF maintain about 70% of initial capacity at 0.2 C and an excellent cycling stability even at 25 times higher current density compared to the initial condition, proving that it has superb kinetics compared to ever reported Si or SiO x materials. The electrochemical superiority of Si-carbon composite NF can be attributed to amorphous carbon framework accommodating the inherent volume expansion of Si during lithiation as well as the enlarged contact area between active materials and conducting agent attributed to the morphological characteristics of its one dimensional (1D) nanostructure

  19. Shock-induced modification of the structure of yttria stabilised zirconia powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, B.G.; Killen, P.D.; Page, N.W.; Charleson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Powder samples of 3 mol% yttria stabilised zirconia were shock compacted in Russia using the explosive flyer plate compaction technique in which a flyer plate is driven by an explosive charge to impact on the surface of a target fixture containing the powder. In these experiments the impact velocity of the flyer plate was approximately 2130 m.s -1 . Initial precompaction densities of 30% and 60% of solid phase densities were used in the shock compaction process. The precompaction densities were responsible for the different values of the shock strength transmitted to the sample. These pressures were 5 GPa and 16 GPa (for the 30% and 60% dense samples respectively). Fragments of all shock compacted samples were obtained for analysis with the only exception being one of the 5 GPa samples which remained intact and was encased in a resin. X-Ray diffraction scans of the recovered samples were analysed using the Rietveld refinement program GSAS. Results show significant changes in crystallite size and strain and an alteration to the shape of the monoclinic lattice as well as the pressure induced phase change from cubic to tetragonal described in another paper. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  20. Functional genomic profiling of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm reveals enhanced production of the mycotoxin gliotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Sandra; Seidler, Marc; Albrecht, Daniela; Salvenmoser, Stefanie; Remme, Nicole; Hertweck, Christian; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Müller, Frank-Michael C

    2010-09-01

    The opportunistic pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and in part immunocompetent patients. A. fumigatus can grow in multicellular communities by the formation of a hyphal network encased in an extracellular matrix. Here, we describe the proteome and transcriptome of planktonic- and biofilm-grown A. fumigatus mycelium after 24 and 48 h. A biofilm- and time-dependent regulation of many proteins and genes of the primary metabolism indicates a developmental stage of the young biofilm at 24 h, which demands energy. At a matured biofilm phase, metabolic activity seems to be reduced. However, genes, which code for hydrophobins, and proteins involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly upregulated. In particular, proteins of the gliotoxin secondary metabolite gene cluster were induced in biofilm cultures. This was confirmed by real-time PCR and by detection of this immunologically active mycotoxin in culture supernatants using HPLC analysis. The enhanced production of gliotoxin by in vitro formed biofilms reported here may also play a significant role under in vivo conditions. It may confer A. fumigatus protection from the host immune system and also enable its survival and persistence in chronic lung infections such as aspergilloma.