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Sample records for hmx based explosive

  1. The Evolution of Sensitivity in Hmx-Based Explosives during the Reversion from Delta to Beta Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P. D.; Lee, K.-Y.; Moore, D. S.; Scharff, R. J.; Avilucea, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    In an effort to better understand the evolution of sensitivity in HMX-based explosives formulations during the reversion from the delta to the beta polymorph, we have performed friction and impact experiments on Class 1 (coarse) and Class 2 (fine) HMX [1]. Initial baselines for Type 12 drop weight impact and BAM friction sensitivities were obtained for the β-HMX starting material. The HMX was then heated at ˜184 °C for 14 h. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the conversion to delta-phase. Raman results show that the δ material remains δ for long periods when stored in a dessicator at room temperature (RT), converts to alpha when stored at RT and 20-40% relative humidity (RH) over a period of days, and reverts to beta over a period of days when stored at RT and 95-98% relative humidity (RH). Impact and friction tests were performed on the δ-HMX, converted α-HMX, and reverted β-HMX. The tests show similar sensitivities of the δ-HMX and converted α-HMX in both impact and friction, both of which are ˜10-20% more sensitive than the β-HMX and reverted beta depending on the particle size distribution. The α-HMX appears to be fairly stable over time (by Raman analysis) at ambient conditions, but fairly low humidity (20-40%), or in a dessicator.

  2. Driving Ability of HMX based Aluminized Explosive Affected by the Reaction Degree of Aluminum Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingliang

    2017-06-01

    Due to the time scale of aluminum reaction, the detonation process of the aluminized explosive becomes very complex, and there is less agreement on the reaction mechanism of aluminum powder. If the reaction of aluminum occurs in the reaction zone, the energy released will further strengthen the work ability of detonation wave. So it is very important for characterizing the detonation parameters and detonation driving ability to accurately understand the role of aluminum powder in the reaction zone. In this paper, detonation driving process of HMX based aluminized explosive was studied by cylinder test, obtaining the expansion track of cylinder wall. In order to further research the reaction degree (λ) of aluminum in the reaction zone, the thermodynamic program VHL was used to calculate the detonation process at different reaction degrees, obtaining the parameters of detonation products thermodynamic state. Using the dynamic software LS-DYNA and the JWL equation of state by fitting the pressure and relative volume relationship, the cylinder test was simulated. Compared with the experimental results, when the reaction degree is 20%, the driving ability is found to be in agreement with measured ones. It is concluded that the driving ability of HMX based aluminized explosive can be more accurately characterized by considering the reaction degree of aluminum powder in the reaction zone.

  3. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G; Roudot, M; Genetier, M; Mateille, P; Lefrançois, A

    2014-01-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  4. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, G.; Roudot, M.; Genetier, M.; Mateille, P.; Lefrançois, A.

    2014-05-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  5. Frictional properties of single crystals HMX, RDX and PETN explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.Q.; Huang, F.L.

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of single crystals of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) secondary explosives are examined using a sensitive friction machine. The explosive crystals used for the measurements are at least 3.5 mm wide. The friction coefficients between crystals of the same explosive (i.e., HMX on HMX, etc.), crystals of different explosives (i.e., HMX on RDX, etc.), and each explosive and a well-polished gauge steel surface are determined. The frictional surfaces are also studied under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to analyze surface microstructural changes under increasing loading forces. The friction coefficients vary considerably with increasing normal loading forces and are particularly sensitive to slider shapes, crystal roughness and the mechanical properties of both the slider and the sample. With increasing loading forces, most friction experiments show surface damage, consisting of grooves, debris, and nano-particles, on both the slider and sample. In some cases, a strong evidence of a localized molten state is found in the central region of the friction track. Possible mechanisms that affect the friction coefficient are discussed based on microscopic observations.

  6. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-Off of an HMX Based High Explosive PBX 9501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Forbes, J.W.; Tarver, C.M.; Urtiew, P.A.; Greenwood, D.W.; Vandersall, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios

  7. Modeling solid thermal explosion containment on reactor HNIW and HMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Ping; Chang, Chang-Ping; Chou, Yu-Chuan; Chu, Yung-Chuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2010-01-01

    2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane (HNIW), also known as CL-20 and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), are highly energetic materials which have been popular in national defense industries for years. This study established the models of thermal decomposition and thermal explosion hazard for HNIW and HMX. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data were used for parameters determination of the thermokinetic models, and then these models were employed for simulation of thermal explosion in a 437 L barrel reactor and a 24 kg cubic box package. Experimental results indicating the best storage conditions to avoid any violent runaway reaction of HNIW and HMX were also discovered. This study also developed an efficient procedure regarding creation of thermokinetics and assessment of thermal hazards of HNIW and HMX that could be applied to ensure safe storage conditions.

  8. Measurement and reactive burn modeling of the shock to detonation transition for the HMX based explosive LX-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. D.; Ma, Xia; Clements, B. E.; Gibson, L. L.; Gustavsen, R. L.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun driven plate-impact techniques were used to study the shock to detonation transition in LX-14 (95.5 weight % HMX, 4.5 weight % estane binder). The transition was recorded using embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. Initial shock pressures, P, ranged from 2.5 to 8 GPa and the resulting distances to detonation, xD, were in the range 1.9 to 14 mm. Numerical simulations using the SURF reactive burn scheme coupled with a linear US -up / Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for the reactant and a JWL equation of state for the products, match the experimental data well. Comparison of simulation with experiment as well as the ``best fit'' parameter set for the simulations is presented.

  9. Effects of Aluminum Powder on Ignition Performance of RDX, HMX, and CL-20 Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Mao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of high explosives, aluminized explosive cannot release the energy maximumly, which is a key problem. Using DTA-TG equipment, the ignition performance of three kinds of aluminized explosives (RDX, HMX, and CL-20 with different mass percentages of aluminum powder (0%, 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, and 30 wt.% was investigated. The results showed that the energy release of the HMX/Al composite explosive with 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, and 30 wt.% aluminum powder was only equivalent to 80%, 65%, and 36% of pure HMX, respectively. It was similar to RDX/Al and CL-20/Al composite explosives, except the CL-20/Al mixture with 10% aluminum powder. Rather than participating in the ignition and combustion, the aluminum powder does effect the complete reaction of RDX, HMX, and CL-20 in the initial stage of ignition or in the lower temperature area of the boundary.

  10. HMX based enhanced energy LOVA gun propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghavi, R.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)]. E-mail: sanghavirr@yahoo.co.uk; Kamale, P.J. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shaikh, M.A.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shelar, S.D. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Kumar, K. Sunil [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Singh, Amarjit [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)

    2007-05-08

    Efforts to develop gun propellants with low vulnerability have recently been focused on enhancing the energy with a further improvement in its sensitivity characteristics. These propellants not only prevent catastrophic disasters due to unplanned initiation of currently used gun propellants (based on nitrate esters) but also realize enhanced energy levels to increase the muzzle velocity of the projectiles. Now, in order to replace nitroglycerine, which is highly sensitive to friction and impact, nitramines meet the requirements as they offer superior energy due to positive heat of formation, typical stoichiometry with higher decomposition temperatures and also owing to negative oxygen balance are less sensitive than stoichiometrically balanced NG. RDX has been widely reported for use in LOVA propellant. In this paper we have made an effort to present the work on scantily reported nitramine HMX based LOVA gun propellant while incorporating energetic plasticizer glycidyl azide polymer to enhance the energy level. HMX is known to be thermally stable at higher temperature than RDX and also proved to be less vulnerable to small scale shaped charge jet attack as its decomposition temperature is 270 deg. C. HMX also offers improved impulse due to its superior heat of formation (+17 kcal/mol) as compared to RDX (+14 kcal/mol). It has also been reported that a break point will not appear until 35,000 psi for propellant comprising of 5 {mu}m HMX. Since no work has been reported in open literature regarding replacement of RDX by HMX, the present studies were carried out.

  11. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX. Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were spherical in shape and 0.5–5 µm in size. Particles formed aggregates of numerous tiny plate-like cocrystals, whereas CL-20/HMX cocrystals had thicknesses of below 100 nm. Cocrystals were formed by C–H⋯O bonding between –NO2 (CL-20 and –CH2– (HMX. Nanococrystal explosives exhibited drop height of 47.3 cm, and friction demonstrated explosion probability of 64%. Compared with raw HMX, cocrystals displayed significantly reduced mechanical sensitivity.

  12. Mechanical and chemical responses of low-velocity impacted RDX and HMX explosive powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanqing; Guo, Hongfu; Huang, Fenglei; Bao, Xiaowei; Explosion; damage Team

    2017-06-01

    The experimental analyses of mechanical and chemical responses of RDX and HMX particles were performed based on the optimized drop-weight experimental system equipped with the High-Speed Camera (HSC). It has been found that Jetting phenomenon observed by HSC is the result of the energy released by gaseous products, which push the pulverized or melted explosives to splash radially. Jetting is the only and the most obvious difference between reactive and inert particles prior to combustion so that jetting can be regarded as the sign of ignition. Area expansion velocity, jetting velocity, and flame propagation velocity have been estimated via image processing, making it possible to characterize mechanical deformation and violence of reaction of each stage. Hot-spots coalescence promotes flame propagation whose velocity reflects the violence of deflagration reaction. Jetting appearance time can be used to determine time-to-ignition more accurately than other ways. For RDX, molten phase plays an important role to the formation of the hot-spots. Multiple particles experienced more severe burning reactions than an individual particle. China National Nature Science Foundation (11572045), ``Science Challenging Program'' (JCKY2016212A501),opening fund from Safety ammunition research and Development Center (RMC2015B03).

  13. Gas gun experiments and numerical simulations on the HMX-based explosive PBX 9501 in the overdriven 30 to 120 GPa pressure regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, E. R.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Hagelberg, C. R.; Schmidt, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    The focus of this set of experiments is the development of data on the Hugoniot for the overdriven products equation of state (EOS) of PBX 9501 (95 weight % HMX, 5 weight % plastic binder) and to extend data from which current computational EOS models draw. This series of shots was conducted using the two-stage gas-guns at Los Alamos and aimed to gather data in the 30 to 120 GPa pressure regime. Experiments were simulated using FLAG, a Langrangian multiphysics code, using a one-dimensional setup which employs the Wescott Stewart Davis (WSD) reactive burn model. Prior to this study, data did not extend above 90 GPa, so the new data allowed the model to be re-evaluated. A comparison of the simulations with the experimental data shows that the model fits well below 80 GPa. However, the model did not fall within the error bars of the data for higher pressures. This is an indication that the PBX 9501 overdriven EOS products model could be modified to better match the data.

  14. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E and energy release rate (η peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  15. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qingjie; Wang, Qiushi; Nie, Jianxin; Guo, Xueyong; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Wenqi

    2018-03-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX) based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm) grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es) continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb) increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E) and energy release rate (η) peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  16. New approaches to the CL-20/HMX cocrystal a less sensitive high power explosive

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmannsdörfer, Dirk; Herrmann, Michael; Heintz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the kinetic and thermodynamic of the formation of the 2:1 cocrystal of CL-20 and HMX is a key factor to optimize crystallization procedures in regard to time and material efficiency as well as crystal purity. Here we describe the temperature and polymorph dependency of the solvent-mediated cocrystallization of HMX and CL-20 in 2-propanol as well as the solubility curves of CL-20 and HMX in acetone/2-propanol mixtures and acetonitrile/2-propanol mixtures at room temperature. The ...

  17. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    An, Chongwei; Li, Hequn; Ye, Baoyun; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-01-01

    Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX). Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were sph...

  18. Some analytical methods for explosives: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1965-12-08

    This report is the second compilation of methods for analyzing explosives. All the methods were developed for routine performance by techniques, and an attempt has therefore been made to keep them as simple as possible. Methods are presented for analyzing plastic-bonded explosives based on sym-cyclomethylenetetra-nitramine (HMX), based on viton in addition to HMX, and based on pentraerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  19. Oblique impact and friction of HMX and/or TATB-based PBXs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picart, Didier; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2017-06-01

    Transportation, handling, vibrations can lead to moderate compressive but dynamic loadings requiring the characterization of the safety of PBXs submitted to such scenarios. Knowing that ignition can occur at a lower critical height during a fall on an inclined surface than a normal impact, the attention is focused in this paper on the heating due to the friction between PBXs and surfaces. A lot of experiments have been made using free-falling samples in vertical drop configurations on inclined targets or pendulum (skid) drop configurations (Green et al. 1971; Randolph et al. 1976). Data obtained on our HMX and/or TATB-based plastic-bonded explosives using pendulum drop configurations will be detailed. Evaluation of the heating due to friction requires the determination of the tangential projectile/target relative displacement and the contact pressure. The pressure is related to the normal force during the impact and the evolving contact surface, the latter being evaluated using a series of normal impacts. The aim of our paper is to compare the experimental diameter of the contact zones to (i) the classical Hertz's theory of contacting elastic solids and (ii) a spring-mass description of the impact. Data and models are then used to evaluate the increase of the temperature at the projectile/target interface for our explosives. We highlight the experimental bias which has already been attributed to the grits used to mimic the roughness of the surfaces.

  20. A thermodynamically based definition of fast verses slow heating in secondary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The thermal response of energetic materials is often categorized according to the rate of heating as either fast or slow, e.g. slow cook-off. Such categorizations have most often followed some operational rationale, without a material based definition. We have spent several years demonstrating that for the energetic material octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) a single mechanism of thermal response reproduces times to ignition independent of rate or means of heating over the entire range of thermal response. HMX is unique in that bulk melting is rarely observed in either thermal ignition or combustion. We have recently discovered a means of expressing this mechanism for HMX in a reduced form applicable to many secondary explosives. We will show that with this mechanism a natural definition of fast versus slow rates of heating emerges, related to the rate of melting, and we use this to illustrate why HMX does not exhibit melting, and why a number of other secondary explosives do, and require the two separate categories.

  1. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  2. Burning rate characteristics of energetic CMDB propellants. Part 2. Effect of HMX addition; Ko enerugi CMDB suishin yaku no nensho sokudo tokusei ( II ) - HMX tenka no koka -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Burning rate and specific impulse of a solid propellant are extremely important parameters in a design of a solid rocket motor. In this study, the relations between the burning rate and the amount of energy contained in HMX-CMDB propellants wherein the amount of energy is varied by adding HMX (High Melting Point Explosive). The following results are obtained. The final flame temperature is getting higher when the amount of energy is increased by adding HMX into a double-base propellant. The higher the final flame temperature is, the lower the burning rate is. Dark zone temperature, as a physical property, is lowered when the containing amount of energy is increased by adding HMX into the double-base propellant. This is because that, when weight fraction of HMX is increased, reaction heat at burning surface decreases, and the reaction in fizz zone is getting slower. The higher the dark zone temperature is, the higher the burning rate is. 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Understanding metastable phase transformation during crystallization of RDX, HMX and CL-20: experimental and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mrinal; Banerjee, Shaibal; Shafeeuulla Khan, Md Abdul; Sikder, Nirmala; Sikder, Arun Kanti

    2016-09-14

    Multiphase growth during crystallization severely affects deliverable output of explosive materials. Appearance and incomplete transformation of metastable phases are a major source of polymorphic impurities. This article presents a methodical and molecular level understanding of the metastable phase transformation mechanism during crystallization of cyclic nitramine explosives, viz. RDX, HMX and CL-20. Instantaneous reverse precipitation yielded metastable γ-HMX and β-CL-20 which undergo solution mediated transformation to the respective thermodynamic forms, β-HMX and ε-CL-20, following 'Ostwald's rule of stages'. However, no metastable phase, anticipated as β-RDX, was evidenced during precipitation of RDX, which rather directly yielded the thermodynamically stable α-phase. The γ→β-HMX and β→ε-CL-20 transformations took 20 and 60 minutes respectively, whereas formation of α-RDX was instantaneous. Density functional calculations were employed to identify the possible transition state conformations and to obtain activation barriers for transformations at wB97XD/6-311++G(d,p)(IEFPCM)//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The computed activation barriers and lattice energies responsible for transformation of RDX, HMX and CL-20 metastable phases to thermodynamic ones conspicuously supported the experimentally observed order of phase stability. This precise result facilitated an understanding of the occurrence of a relatively more sensitive and less dense β-CL-20 phase in TNT based melt-cast explosive compositions, a persistent and critical problem unanswered in the literature. The crystalline material recovered from such compositions revealed a mixture of β- and ε-CL-20. However, similar compositions of RDX and HMX never showed any metastable phase. The relatively long stability with the highest activation barrier is believed to restrict complete β→ε-CL-20 transformation during processing. Therefore a method is suggested to overcome this issue.

  4. Treatment of HMX and RDX contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Card, R.E. Jr.; Autenrieth, R.

    1998-03-01

    HMX and RDX are often found in the soil, groundwater, and surface waters at facilities where they are manufactured as the result of negligent disposal methods. The toxicity of these compounds and their degradation products has led to concern about their fate in the environment and the potential for human exposure. HMX and RDX are recalcitrant in the environment with low rates of biodegradation and photolysis. Several methods of treating contaminated soils and waters have been developed and studied. Many of these technologies (i.e., carbon adsorption, oxidation, and chemical treatment) have been developed to treat munition plant wastewaters that are contaminated with explosives. These methods need to be adapted to remediate contaminated water. Other technologies such as bioremediation and composting are being developed as methods of remediating HMX and RDX contamination in a solid matrix. This report describes and evaluates each of these technologies. This report also describes the processes which affect HMX and RDX in the environment. The major transformation processes of RDX and HMX in the environment are biodegradation and photolysis. A major factor affecting the transport and treatment of RDX and HMX in soil-water environments is their sorption and desorption to soil particles. Finally, this report draws conclusions as to which treatment methods are currently most suitable for the remediation of contaminated soils and waters

  5. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Qingjie Jiao; Qiushi Wang; Jianxin Nie; Xueyong Guo; Wei Zhang; Wenqi Fan

    2018-01-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-...

  6. Fizičko-hemijske i detonacione karakteristike nitraminskih eksploziva - RDX, HMX i CL-20 / Physico-chemical and detonation properties of nitramine explosives: RDX, HMX and CL-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Anđelković-Lukić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane fizičko-hemijske i detonacione karakteristike nitraminskih brizantnih eksploziva, heksogena i oktogena, uporedene sa osobinama novog cikličnog nitraminskog eksploziva CL-20. Novi visokobrizantni eksploziv CL-20 postoji u četiri kristalne forme, stabilne na različitim temepraturama. Ima bolje detonacione karakteristike od heksogena i oktogena veću gustinu i brzinu detonacije, all mnogo veću osetljivost na udar i trenje, reda PETN. Zbog toga se ovaj eksploziv flegmatizuje sa polimerima etilenvinilacetatom (EVA i estanom. Da bi se povećale energetske performanse eksploziva i smanjila osetljivost na mehanička dejstva eksplozivu CL-20 dodaju se visokoenergetski materijali, fluoronitrojedinjenja (FEFO. / In this paper the physico-chemical and detonation properties of nitramine high explosives, hexogen and octogen, are presented and compared with a polycyclic nitramine high explosive CL-20. This new high explosive CL-20 exists in four crystalline forms, stable at different temperatures. CL-20 has better detonation properties than hexogen and octogen, higher density and detonation rate, but greater impact and friction sensitivity (of PETN class. So it is necessary to bond this explosive with polymers-ethylenvinil acetat (EVA and estane to reduce sensitivity to mechanical effects. CL-20 can be prepared by adding high energy materials-fluoro-nitro compounds (FEFO as regulators of energy performances.

  7. Toward Improved Fidelity of Thermal Explosion Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, A L; Becker, R; Howard, W M; Wemhoff, A

    2009-07-17

    We will present results of an effort to improve the thermal/chemical/mechanical modeling of HMX based explosive like LX04 and LX10 for thermal cook-off. The original HMX model and analysis scheme were developed by Yoh et.al. for use in the ALE3D modeling framework. The current results were built to remedy the deficiencies of that original model. We concentrated our efforts in four areas. The first area was addition of porosity to the chemical material model framework in ALE3D that is used to model the HMX explosive formulation. This is needed to handle the roughly 2% porosity in solid explosives. The second area was the improvement of the HMX reaction network, which included the inclusion of a reactive phase change model base on work by Henson et.al. The third area required adding early decomposition gas species to the CHEETAH material database to develop more accurate equations of state for gaseous intermediates and products. Finally, it was necessary to improve the implicit mechanics module in ALE3D to more naturally handle the long time scales associated with thermal cook-off. The application of the resulting framework to the analysis of the Scaled Thermal Explosion (STEX) experiments will be discussed.

  8. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Gerard; Roudot, Marie; Genetier, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Composite HMX and NTO based high explosives (HE) are widely used in ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside HE. Comparing to a pressed HE, a composite HE is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain - binder interface leading to a different behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. An investigation of how shock-to-detonation transition occurs inside composite HE containing RDX and NTO is proposed in this lecture. Two composite HE have been studied. The first one is HMX - HTPB 82:18. The second one is HMX - NTO - HTPB 12:72:16. These HE have been submitted to plane sustained shock waves at different pressure levels using a laboratory powder gun. Pressure signals are measured using manganin gauges inserted at several distances inside HE. The corresponding run-distances to detonation are determined using wedge test experiments where the plate impact is performed using a powder gun. Both HE exhibit a single detonation buildup curve in the distance - time diagram of shock-to-detonation transition. This feature seems a common shock-to-detonation behavior for composite HE without porosity. This behavior is also confirmed for a RDX - HTPB 85:15 based composite HE. Such a behavior is exploited to determine the heterogeneous reaction rate versus the shock pressure using a method based on the Cauchy-Riemann problem inversion. The reaction rate laws obtained allow to compute both run-distance to detonation and pressure signals.

  9. On the low pressure shock initiation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine based plastic bonded explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Tarver, Craig M.; Garcia, Frank; Chidester, Steven K.

    2010-05-01

    In large explosive and propellant charges, relatively low shock pressures on the order of 1-2 GPa impacting large volumes and lasting tens of microseconds can cause shock initiation of detonation. The pressure buildup process requires several centimeters of shock propagation before shock to detonation transition occurs. In this paper, experimentally measured run distances to detonation for lower input shock pressures are shown to be much longer than predicted by extrapolation of high shock pressure data. Run distance to detonation and embedded manganin gauge pressure histories are measured using large diameter charges of six octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) based plastic bonded explosives (PBX's): PBX 9404; LX-04; LX-07; LX-10; PBX 9501; and EDC37. The embedded gauge records show that the lower shock pressures create fewer and less energetic "hot spot" reaction sites, which consume the surrounding explosive particles at reduced reaction rates and cause longer distances to detonation. The experimental data is analyzed using the ignition and growth reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives. Using minimum values of the degrees of compression required to ignite hot spot reactions, the previously determined high shock pressure ignition and growth model parameters for the six explosives accurately simulate the much longer run distances to detonation and much slower growths of pressure behind the shock fronts measured during the shock initiation of HMX PBX's at several low shock pressures.

  10. Laser-based optical detection of explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrino, Paul M; Farrell, Mikella E

    2015-01-01

    Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understa...

  11. Preparation and Characterization of the Solid Spherical HMX/F2602 by the Suspension Spray-Drying Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Jingyu; Ye, Baoyun; Wang, Cailing

    2016-10-01

    Solid spherical octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine/fluororubber2602 (HMX/F2602) was prepared by the suspension spray-drying method as follows: firstly, thinning octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was obtained by a solvent-anti-solvent method. Secondly, thinning HMX suspended in ethyl acetate solvent in a solution of a binder-F2602-was made into a suspension. Finally, the samples were prepared by spray drying. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and its thermal stability as well as mechanical and spark sensitivities were measured. The results of SEM showed that the grain of HMX/F2602 was solid spherical and the particle distribution was homogeneous. The results of XPS indicated that F2602 can be successfully coated on the surface of HMX crystals. Compared to raw HMX, th characteristic drop height was increased from 19.60 to 40.37 cm, an increase of 79.10%. The friction sensitivities of HMX reduced from 100 to 28% and the spark sensitivity of HMX/F2602 increased. The critical explosion temperatures of raw HMX and HMX/F2602 were 275.43 and 274.30°C, respectively. The amount of gas evolution of raw HMX and HMX/F2602 was 0.15 and 0.12 ml.(5 g)-1, respectively. The results of DSC and vacuum stability tests (VSTs) indicate that the thermal stability of HMX/F2602 was equal to that of raw HMX and HMX and F2602 had good compatibility.

  12. Small Scale Characterization of the Presence of the Explosive Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7 tetrazocine (HMX) Near Former Naval Sites on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, C. C.; Carvalho-Knighton, K. M.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetrazocine (HMX) is a synthetic energetic compounds that has been commonly used in military munitions. The presence and movement of HMX through the environment is of growing concern because of potential civilian exposure and impacts on human health. HMX remains in the environment unreactive with little degradation. It can be transported great distances in water thus having the possibility for migrating into groundwater. The former naval sites in Vieques were used for weapons training and housed several disposal sites. Previous studies around these sites indicate the presence of radioactive materials produced through thermal fission, such as Cs-137. Since HMX was primarily used to implode fissionable materials in nuclear devices, evaluating the release of HMX and consequent movement through the environment at these sites is essential. Surface water and soil samples as well as core and pore water samples were collected from two sites in Vieques; Kiani Lagoon and Mosquito Bay. All samples were extracted using EPA method 8330 and analyzed using RP-HPLC analysis with a C-18 column. HMX was undetected in samples collected from both Kiani Lagoon and Mosquito Bay. The development of a model that studies the flow rates and fate of water runoff in these areas of interest, coupled with data on groundwater testing inside the actual former naval facilities, is being explored for further sample collection and analysis.

  13. Study of nano-nitramine explosives: preparation, sensitivity and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-nitramine explosives (RDX, HMX, CL-20 are produced on a bi-directional grinding mill. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observations show that the prepared particles are semi-spherical, and the narrow size distributions are characterized using the laser particle size analyzer. Compared with the micron-sized samples, the nano-products show obvious decrease in friction and impact sensitivities. In the case of shock sensitivities, nano-products have lower values by 59.9% (RDX, 56.4% (HMX, and 58.1% (CL-20, respectively. When nano-RDX and nano-HMX are used in plastic bonded explosives (PBX as alternative materials of micron-sized particles, their shock sensitivities are significantly decreased by 24.5% (RDX and 22.9% (HMX, and their detonation velocities are increased by about 1.7%. Therefore, it is expected to promote the application of nano-nitramine explosives in PBXs and composite modified double-based propellants (CMDBs so that some of their properties would be improved.

  14. A laser-based FAIMS detector for detection of ultra-low concentrations of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmalov, Artem E.; Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.; Sychev, Alexey V.; Tugaenko, Anton V.; Bogdanov, Artem S.; Perederiy, Anatoly N.; Spitsyn, Eugene M.

    2014-06-01

    A non-contact method for analyzing of explosives traces from surfaces was developed. The method is based on the laser desorption of analyzed molecules from the surveyed surfaces followed by the laser ionization of air sample combined with the field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS). The pulsed radiation of the fourth harmonic of a portable GSGG: Cr3+ :Nd3+ laser (λ = 266 nm) is used. The laser desorption FAIMS analyzer have been developed. The detection limit of the analyzer equals 40 pg for TNT. The results of detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) are presented. It is shown that laser desorption of nitro-compounds from metals is accompanied by their surface decomposition. A method for detecting and analyzing of small concentrations of explosives in air based on the laser ionization and the FAIMS was developed. The method includes a highly efficient multipass optical scheme of the intracavity fourthharmonic generation of pulsed laser radiation (λ = 266 nm) and the field asymmetric ion mobility (FAIM) spectrometer disposed within a resonator. The ions formation and detection proceed inside a resonant cavity. The laser ion source based on the multi-passage of radiation at λ = 266 nm through the ionization region was elaborated. On the basis of the method the laser FAIMS analyzer has been created. The analyzer provides efficient detection of low concentrations of nitro-compounds in air and shows a detection limit of 10-14 - 10-15 g/cm3 both for RDX and TNT.

  15. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  16. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Strellis, Dan

    2007-08-01

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals.

  17. Effects of high shock pressures and pore morphology on hot spot mechanisms in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, H. K.; Tarver, C. M.; Bastea, S.

    2017-01-01

    The shock initiation and detonation behavior of heterogeneous solid explosives is governed by its microstructure and reactive properties. New additive manufacturing techniques offer unprecedented control of explosive microstructures previously impossible, enabling us to develop novel explosives with tailored shock sensitivity and detonation properties. Since microstructure-performance relationships are not well established for explosives, there is little material design guidance for these manufacturing techniques. In this study, we explore the effects of high shock pressures (15-38 GPa) with long shock durations and different pore morphologies on hot spot mechanisms in HMX. HMX is chosen as the model material because we have experimental data on many of the chemical-thermal-mechanical properties required for pore collapse simulations. Our simulations are performed using the multi-physics arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite element hydrocode, ALE3D, with Cheetah-based models for the unreacted and the product equation-of-states. We use a temperature-dependent specific heat with the unreacted equation-of-state and a temperature-dependent viscosity model to ensure accurate shock temperatures for subsequent chemistry. The Lindemann Law model is used for shock melting in HMX. In contrast to previous pore collapse studies at lower shock pressures (≤10 GPa) in HMX and shorter post-collapse burning times, our calculations show that shock melting occurs above 15 GPa due to higher bulk heating and a prominent elongated ("jet-like") hot spot region forms at later times. The combination of the elongated, post-collapse hot spot region and the higher bulk heating with increasing pressure dramatically increases the growth rate of reaction. Our calculations show that the reaction rate, dF/dt, increases with increasing shock pressure. We decompose the reaction rate into ignition ((dF/dt)ig) and growth ((dF/dt)gr) phases to better analyze our results. We define the ignition phase

  18. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  19. Human health risks from TNT, RDX, and HMX in environmental media and consideration of the US Regulatory Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.I.; Knezovich, J.P.

    1994-12-01

    Although the most economical method for disposing of unwanted energetic high explosives [HEs; e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-triazine (RDX, also known as Cyclonite), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, also known as Octogen)] involves open burning and open or underground detonation [OB/O(U)D]; federal, state, and even local government agencies in the United States (U.S.) are implementing stricter environmental regulations that eventually may prevent such activities. These stricter regulations will promote alternative technologies that are designed to be environmentally benign. However, past HE-waste disposal practices at manufacturing and fabrication facilities in the U.S. have included uncontrolled OB/O(U)D, as well as direct surface discharge of HE-contaminated waste water, resulting in contaminated environmental media (e.g., ground water, soil, and perhaps even edible vegetation) near residential areas. Using TNT, RDX, and HMX as examples, this paper describes how risk-based standards for HEs can be derived that account for potential multimedia exposures (associated with contaminated air, water, food, and soil) by individuals near a contaminated site, and used to (1) protect public health and safety; (2)prevent limited resources from being dedicated to unnecessary cleanup activities; and (3) identify the most cost-effective, practical, and environmentally benign technologies suitable for integrating with the handling of the large quantity of high explosives scheduled for demilitarization

  20. An approach to incorporate the detonation shock dynamics into the calculation of explosive acceleration of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingzhong; Sun Chengwei; Zhao Feng; Gao Wen; Wen Shanggang; Liu Wenhan

    1999-11-01

    The generalized geometrical optics model for the detonation shock dynamics (DSD) has been incorporated into the two dimensional hydro-code WSU to form a combination code ADW for numerical simulation of explosive acceleration of metals. An analytical treatment of the coupling conditions at the nodes just behind the detonation front is proposed. The experiments on two kinds of explosive-flyer assemblies with different length/diameter ratio were carried out to verify the ADW calculations, where the tested explosive was HMX or TATB based. It is found that the combination of DSD and hydro-code can improve the calculation precision, and has advantages in larger meshes and less CPU time

  1. Nanoindentation of HMX and Idoxuridine to Determine Mechanical Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C. Burch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the mechanical behavior (elastic properties, plastic properties, and fracture phenomena of molecular crystals is often complicated by the difficulty in preparing samples. Pharmaceuticals and energetic materials in particular are often used in composite structures or tablets, where the individual grains can strongly impact the solid behavior. Nanoindentation is a convenient method to experimentally assess these properties, and it is used here to demonstrate the similarity in the mechanical properties of two distinct systems: individual crystals of the explosive cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX and the pharmaceutical idoxuridine were tested in their as-precipitated state, and the effective average modulus and hardness (which can be orientation dependent were determined. Both exhibit a hardness of 1.0 GPa, with an effective reduced modulus of 25 and 23 GPa for the HMX and idoxuridine, respectively. They also exhibit similar yield point behavior. This indicates idoxuridine may be a suitable mechanical surrogate (or “mock” for HMX. While the methodology to assess elastic and plastic properties was relatively insensitive to specific crystal orientation (i.e., a uniform distribution in properties was observed for all random crystals tested, the indentation-induced fracture properties appear to be much more sensitive to tip-crystal orientation, and an unloading slope analysis is used to demonstrate the need for further refinement in relating toughness to orientation in these materials with relatively complex slip systems and crystal structures.

  2. Nanopowder synthesis based on electric explosion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhevich, D. S.; Zolnikov, K. P.; Korchuganov, A. V.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    A computer simulation of the bicomponent nanoparticle formation during the electric explosion of copper and nickel wires was carried out. The calculations were performed in the framework of the molecular dynamics method using many-body potentials of interatomic interaction. As a result of an electric explosion of dissimilar metal wires, bicomponent nanoparticles having different stoichiometry and a block structure can be formed. It is possible to control the process of destruction and the structure of the formed bicomponent nanoparticles by varying the distance between the wires and the loading parameters.

  3. Changes in Blow-Off Velocity Observed in Two Explosives at the Threshold for Sustained Ignition Using the Modified Gap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. J.; Forbes, J. W.; Tasker, D. G.; Orme, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Modified Gap Test was used to quantify different levels of partial reaction for various input stresses. This test configuration has been historically useful in highlighting thresholds for first reaction, sustained ignition, and detonation. Two different HMX based compositions were studied; a cast-cured composition with 87% HMX and a pressed composition with 92% HMX. Each explosive was prepared from large industrially produced batches consisting of different unreactive polymeric binder systems. Short samples (50.8 mm in diameter and 12.7 mm thick) were shock loaded using the standard large-scale gap test donor system. Product-cloud blow-off velocities at the opposite end of the sample were measured using a high-speed digital-camera. Velocity versus input pres sure plots provided changes in reactivity that had developed by the 12.7 mm run distance. Results appear consistent for the lower input stresses. In contrast, the results varied widely in a range of input stresses around the transition to detonation in both explosives. These results indicate that both explosives are subject to large variation in blow-off velocity in a range of input stresses near the threshold for prompt detonation. This is explained by localized variations of HMX particle size and density in industrially prepared samples. Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited, IHDIV Log No. 09-108.

  4. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  5. A mass spectrometer based explosives trace detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkov, Andrey; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Hanold, Karl; Syage, Jack A.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we describe the application of mass spectrometry (MS) to the detection of trace explosives. We begin by reviewing the issue of explosives trace detection (ETD) and describe the method of mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative to existing technologies. Effective security screening devices must be accurate (high detection and low false positive rate), fast and cost effective (upfront and operating costs). Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the most commonly deployed method for ETD devices. Its advantages are compact size and relatively low price. For applications requiring a handheld detector, IMS is an excellent choice. For applications that are more stationary (e.g., checkpoint and alternatives to IMS are available. MS is recognized for its superior performance with regard to sensitivity and specificity, which translate to lower false negative and false positive rates. In almost all applications outside of security where accurate chemical analysis is needed, MS is usually the method of choice and is often referred to as the gold standard for chemical analysis. There are many review articles and proceedings that describe detection technologies for explosives. 1,2,3,4 Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Mass spectrometry (MS): MS offers high levels of sensitivity and specificity compared to other technologies for chemical detection. Its traditional disadvantages have been high cost and complexity. Over the last few years, however, the economics have greatly improved and MS is now capable of routine and automated operation. Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS): 5 MS-ETD Screening System IMS is similar in concept to MS except that the ions are dispersed by gas-phase viscosity and not by molecular weight. The main advantage of IMS is that it does not use a vacuum system, which greatly reduces the size, cost, and complexity

  6. Experimental Studies on Improved Plastic Bonded Explosives Materials (PBXs for Controlled Fragmentation Warheads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsharkawy Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes formulations of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs based on three highly brisant explosives, namely 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX, 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX and pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN with polyurethane (PU based on Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP as an energetic binder in comparison with composition-B, which used in the fragmentation warheads. The sensitivity and performance properties of different types of PBXs were evaluated by experimental results of prepared selected PBX compositions. Casting technique was used to prepare the selected compositions containing 14% PU based on GAP. It has been observed that the brisance of the PBX based on HMX was higher than that of comp-B by 21.3 %, the detonation velocity showed a remarkable increase of the order of 8480 (m/s while that of comp-B was 7638 (m/s. A controlled fragmentation warhead with an outer grooving warhead case of dimensions 100x35x4 mm was used and arena test was carried out to determine the lethal zone of the fragmentation warhead. The lethal zone obtained from arena test for PBX composition based on HMX named PBXHG4 was higher than that based on RDX or PETN, and than that of comp-B by 40%.

  7. Thermal hazard assessment of AN and AN-based explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, T.; Lightfoot, P. D.; Fouchard, R.; Jones, D. E. G. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-12-01

    Ammonium-based aqeous solutions of various concentrations are processed in both the fertilizer and explosives industry, and ammonium nitrate emulsions form the basis of bulk ammonium nitrate emulsion explosives. Major accidents involving overheating of large quantities of these products are not uncommon. To provide guidance to handling large bulk quantities of these materials laboratory experiments must be carried out in such a way as to minimize heat losses from the samples. In this study experiments were performed on pure ammonium, the popular commercial explosive ANFO, various aqueous ammonium solutions and typical bulk and packaged ammonium nitrate emulsions, using two laboratory-scale calorimeters (accelerating rate calorimeter and adiabatic Dewar calorimeter). The objective of the experiments was to study the effects of sample mass, atmosphere, and formulation on the resulting onset temperatures. Result from the two techniques were compared and a method for extrapolating these results to large-scale inventories was proposed. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  8. A two-phase model for aluminized explosives on the ballistic and brisance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wuhyun; Gwak, Min-cheol; Lee, Young-hun; Yoh, Jack J.

    2018-02-01

    The performance of aluminized high explosives is considered by varying the aluminum (Al) mass fraction in a heterogeneous mixture model. Since the time scales of the characteristic induction and combustion of high explosives and Al particles differ, the process of energy release behind the leading detonation wave front occurs over an extended period of time. For simulating the performance of aluminized explosives with varying Al mass fraction, HMX (1,3,5,7-tetrahexmine-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane) is considered as a base explosive when formulating the multiphase conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy exchanges between the HMX product gases and Al particles. In the current study, a two-phase model is utilized in order to determine the effects of the Al mass fraction in a condensed phase explosive. First, two types of confined rate stick tests are considered to investigate the detonation velocity and the acceleration ability, which refers to the radial expansion velocity of the confinement shell. The simulation results of the confined rate stick test are compared with the experimental data for the Al mass fraction range of 0%-25%, and the optimal Al mass fraction is provided, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Additionally, a series of plate dent test simulations are conducted, the results of which show the same tendency as those of the experimental tests with varying Al mass fractions.

  9. Chemistry resolved kinetic flow modeling of TATB based explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Peter; Fried, Laurence E.; William, Howard; Levesque, George; Souers, P. Clark

    2012-03-01

    Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB-based explosives are believed to have multiple time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. We use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. We term our model chemistry resolved kinetic flow, since CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonation wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. We present here two variants of our new rate model and comparison with hot, ambient, and cold experimental data for PBX 9502.

  10. Water-bearing explosive containing nitrogen-base salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunglinson, C.; Lyerly, W.M.

    1968-10-21

    A water-bearing explosive composition consists of an oxidizing salt component, a fuel component, and water. A sensitizer is included having an oxygen balance more positive than -150%, and consisting of a salt of an inorganic oxidizing acid and of an acyclic nitrogen base having no more than 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to the basic nitrogen and up to 3 carbons per basic nitrogen, and/or of a phenyl amine. 41 claims.

  11. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  12. High-Pressure Behaviour of β-HMX Crystal Studied by DFT-LDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Lian; Lai-Yu, Lu; Dong-Qing, Wei; Qing-Ming, Zhang; Zi-Zheng, Gong; Yong-Xin, Guo

    2008-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) with local density approximation (LDA) is employed to study the structural and electronic properties of the high explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under high pressure compression up to 40 GPa. Pressure dependences of the cell volume, lattice constants, and molecular geometry of solid β-HMX are presented and discussed. It is found that N-N and N-C bonds are subject to significant change. This may implies that these bonds may be related to the sensitivity. The band gap is calculated and plotted as a function of pressure. Compared the experimental results with other theoretical works we find that LDA gives good results

  13. Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) Simulations of HMX Powder Using the HERMES Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradley; Reaugh, John; Tringe, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    We performed computer simulations of DDT experiments with Class I HMX powder using the HERMES model (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) in ALE3D. Parameters for the model were fitted to the limited available mechanical property data of the low-density powder, and to the Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) test results. The DDT tests were carried out in steel-capped polycarbonate tubes. This arrangement permits direct observation of the event using both flash X-ray radiography and high speed camera imaging, and provides a stringent test of the model. We found the calculated detonation transition to be qualitatively similar to experiment. Through simulation we also explored the effects of confinement strength, the HMX particle size distribution and porosity on the computed detonation transition location. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Toward an Empirically-based Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.; Ruppert, S.; Matzel, E.; Hauk, T. F.; Gok, R.

    2010-12-01

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases (Pn, Pg, and Lg) that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. These parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. There is a correlation of high gas-porosity (low strength) with increased spectral slope. However, there are trade-offs between the slope and corner-frequency, which we try to independently constrain using Mueller-Murphy relations and coda-ratio techniques. The relationship between the parametric equation and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source, and aid in the prediction of observed local and regional distance seismic amplitudes for event identification and yield determination in regions with incomplete or no prior history of underground nuclear testing.

  15. Thermal hazard assessment of AN and AN-based explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, R; Lightfoot, P D; Fouchard, R; Jones, D E G

    2003-07-04

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is an essential ingredient in most fertilizers. It is also widely used in the commercial explosives industry. In this latter application, it is mostly mixed with fuel oil to form the most popular commercial explosive: ANFO. In both the fertilizer and the explosive industry, aqueous AN solutions (ANS) of various concentrations are processed. These solutions also form the basis of ammonium nitrate emulsion explosives (also called ammonium nitrate emulsions or ANE), which are produced either in bulk or in packaged form. For all these AN-based products, quantities of the order of 20,000kg are being manufactured, transported, stored, and processed at elevated temperatures and/or elevated pressures. Correspondingly, major accidents involving overheating of large quantities of these products have happened in several of these operations. In comparison, convenient laboratory quantities to investigate thermal decomposition properties are generally less than 1kg. As a result, in order to provide information applicable to real-life situations, any laboratory study must use techniques that minimize heat losses from the samples to their environment. In the present study, two laboratory-scale calorimeters providing an adiabatic environment were used: an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) and an adiabatic Dewar calorimeter (ADC). Experiments were performed on pure AN, ANFO, various ANS systems, and typical bulk and packaged ANE systems. The effects of sample mass, atmosphere, and formulation on the resulting onset temperatures were studied. A comparison of the results from the two techniques is provided and a proposed method to extrapolate these results to large-scale inventories is examined.

  16. Thermal decomposition and reaction of confined explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, E.; McGuire, R.; Lee, E.; Wrenn, E.; Ornellas, D.; Walton, J.

    1976-01-01

    Some new experiments designed to accurately determine the time interval required to produce a reactive event in confined explosives subjected to temperatures which will cause decomposition are described. Geometry and boundary conditions were both well defined so that these experiments on the rapid thermal decomposition of HE are amenable to predictive modelling. Experiments have been carried out on TNT, TATB and on two plastic-bonded HMX-based high explosives, LX-04 and LX-10. When the results of these experiments are plotted as the logarithm of the time to explosion versus 1/T K (Arrhenius plot), the curves produced are remarkably linear. This is in contradiction to the results obtained by an iterative solution of the Laplace equation for a system with a first order rate heat source. Such calculations produce plots which display considerable curvature. The experiments have also shown that the time to explosion is strongly influenced by the void volume in the containment vessel. Results of the experiments with calculations based on the heat flow equations coupled with first-order models of chemical decomposition are compared. The comparisons demonstrate the need for a more realistic reaction model

  17. Explosive emission cathode on the base of carbon plastic fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Baranov, A.M.; Kostyuchenko, S.V.; Chernenko, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    A fabrication process for explosive emission cathodes on the base of carbon plastic fibre of practically any geometrical shape and dimensions is developed. Experimental studies of electron beam current collection from cathodes, 2cm in diameter, at voltages across the diode of 10 and 150-250kV. It is shown that the ignition voltage for cathode plasma is ∼2kV at the interelectrode diode gap of 5mm and residual gas pressure of ∼5x10 -5 Torr. The carbon-fibre cathode, fabricated in this way, provides more stable current collection of an electron beam (without oscillations) than other cathodes

  18. Sub-sonic thermal explosions investigated by radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the past 5 years of experiments utilizing radiographic techniques to study defiagration in thermal explosions in HMX based formulations. Details of triggering and timing synchronization are given. Radiographic images collected using both protons and x-rays are presented. Comparisons of experiments with varying size, case confinement, binder, and synchronization are presented. Techniques for quantifying the data in the images are presented and a mechanism for post-ignition burn propagation in a thermal explosion is discussed. From these experiments, we have observed a mechanism for sub-sonic defiagration with both gas phase convective and solid phase conductive burning. The convective front velocity is directly measured from the radiographic images and consumes only a small fraction of the HE. It lights the HE as it passes beginning the slower solid state conductive burn process. This mechanism is used to create a model to simulate the radiographic results and a comparison will be shown.

  19. Feature extraction using distribution representation for colorimetric sensor arrays used as explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Raich, Raviv; Kostesha, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    is required. We present a new approach of extracting features from a colorimetric sensor array based on a color distribution representation. For each sensor in the array, we construct a K-nearest neighbor classifier based on the Hellinger distances between color distribution of a test compound and the color......We present a colorimetric sensor array which is able to detect explosives such as DNT, TNT, HMX, RDX and TATP and identifying volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air. To analyze colorimetric sensors with statistical methods, a suitable representation of sensory readings...

  20. Compaction of granular HMX: P-α porosity model in CTH hydrocode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Mahon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Compaction waves traveling through porous cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX are computationally modeled using the Eulerian hydrocode CTH and validated with gas gun experimental data. The method employed use of a newly generated set of P-α parameters for granular HMX in a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The P-α model adds a separate parameter to differentiate between the volume changes of a solid material due to compression from the volume change due to compaction, void collapse in a granular material. Computational results are compared via five validation schema for two different initial-porosity experiments. These schema include stress measurements, velocity rise times and arrival times, elastic sound speeds though the material and final compaction densities for a series of two different percent Theoretical Maximum Density (TMD HMX sets of experimental data. There is a good agreement between the simulations and the experimental gas gun data with the largest source of error being an 11% overestimate of the peak stress which may be due to impedance mismatch on the experimental gauge interface. Determination of these P-α parameters are important as they enable modeling of porosity and are a vital first step in modeling of precursory hotspots, caused by hydrodynamic collapse of void regions or grain interactions, prior to deflagration to detonation transition of granular explosives.

  1. Mesoscale meteorological model based on radioactive explosion cloud simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi; Zhang Yan; Ying Chuntong

    2008-01-01

    In order to simulate nuclear explosion and dirty bomb radioactive cloud movement and concentration distribution, mesoscale meteorological model RAMS was used. Particles-size, size-active distribution and gravitational fallout in the cloud were considered. The results show that the model can simulate the 'mushroom' clouds of explosion. Three-dimension fluid field and radioactive concentration field were received. (authors)

  2. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  3. Review on the explosive consolidation methods to fabricate tungsten based PFMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuming, E-mail: wangshuming@ustb.edu.cn; Sun, Chongxiao; Guo, Wenhao; Yan, Qingzhi; Zhou, Zhangjian; Zhang, Yingchun; Shen, Weiping; Ge, Changchun

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten is one of the best candidates for plasma-facing materials in the fusion reactors, owing to its many unique properties. In the development of tungsten-based Plasma Facing Materials/Components (PFMs/PFCs), materials scientists have explored many different, innovative preparation and processing routes to meet the requirement of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Some explosive consolidation technology intrinsic characteristics, which make it suitable for powder metallurgy (powders consolidation) and PFMs production, are the high pressure processing, highly short heating time and can be considered as a highly competitive green technology. In this work, an overview of explosive consolidation techniques applied to fabricate tungsten-based PFMs is presented. Emphasis is given to describe the main characteristics and potentialities of the explosive sintering, explosive consolidation techniques. The aspects presented and discussed in this paper indicate the explosive consolidation processes as a promising and competitive technology for tungsten-based PFMs processing.

  4. Tracing explosive in solvent using quantum cascade laser with pulsed electric discharge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Tian, Chao; Martini, Rainer, E-mail: rmartini@stevens.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1 Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Chen, Gang [School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, I-chun Anderson [Newport Corporation/Oriel Instruments, 150 Long Beach Boulevard, Stratford, Connecticut 06615 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N{sub 2}O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10 ppb, which corresponds to a 15 pg of HMX.

  5. Tracing explosive in solvent using quantum cascade laser with pulsed electric discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Tian, Chao; Martini, Rainer; Chen, Gang; Chen, I-chun Anderson

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N 2 O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10 ppb, which corresponds to a 15 pg of HMX

  6. Modeling compaction-induced energy dissipation of granular HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonthier, K.A. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-12-31

    A thermodynamically consistent model is developed for the compaction of granular solids. The model is an extension of the single phase limit of two-phase continuum models used to describe Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) experiments. The focus is on the energetics and dissipation of the compaction process. Changes in volume fraction are partitioned into reversible and irreversible components. Unlike conventional DDT models, the model is applicable from the quasi-static to dynamic compaction regimes for elastic, plastic, or brittle materials. When applied to the compaction of granular HMX (a brittle material), the model predicts results commensurate with experiments including stress relaxation, hysteresis, and energy dissipation. The model provides a suitable starting point for the development of thermal energy localization sub-scale models based on compaction-induced dissipation.

  7. The signature-based radiation-scanning approach to standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, R.L.; Dunn, W.L.; Heider, S.; Matthew, C.; Yang, X.

    2012-01-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique for detection of improvised explosive devices is described. The technique seeks to detect nitrogen-rich chemical explosives present in a target. The technology compares a set of “signatures” obtained from a test target to a collection of “templates”, sets of signatures for a target that contain an explosive in a specific configuration. Interrogation of nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples, which serve as surrogates for explosives, is shown experimentally to be able to discriminate samples of 3.8 L and larger. - Highlights: ► Signature-based radiation-scanning techniques applied to detection of explosives. ► Nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples served as surrogate explosive samples. ► Signatures of a target compared to collections of templates of surrogate explosives. ► Figure-of-merit determined for neutron and neutron-induced gamma-ray signatures. ► Discrimination of surrogate explosive from inert samples of 3.8 L and larger.

  8. Recent advances in thermal analysis and stability evaluation of insensitive plastic bonded explosives (PBXs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Qi-Long; Zeman, Svatopluk; Elbeih, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We summarize currently used insensitive polymer based explosives and their ingredients. ► We examine the calculation methods that are suitable for kinetic evaluation of polymer based explosives. ► The calculation method for thermal stability parameters of polymer based explosives are summarized, which mainly include shelf life, explosion delay, critical temperature, thermostability threshold, 500 day cookoff temperature and approximate time to explosion. ► The polymer bases could greatly affect the thermal properties of PBXs, including their thermal stability, kinetic parameters and thermodynamic properties. ► PBXs, containing some innovative energetic fillers such as CL-20, NTO, Fox-12 and BCHMX, are only at design stage, which need more research work in the future. - Abstract: In this paper, several fundamental investigations published over the past decades with regard to the thermal analysis of polymer-based explosives (PBXs) have been briefly reviewed. A number of explosive fillers and polymer bases that were used as their main ingredients of PBXs are summarized herein. In addition, the calculation methods for their decomposition kinetics and thermal stability parameters are also introduced in detail. It was concluded that only PBXs based on HMX, RDX and TATB have been widely investigated, and that some other PBXs containing innovative fillers, such as CL-20, TNAZ, NTO and BCHMX are at the design stage. The isoconversional methods and model fitting procedures are usually used to analyze the discrete thermolysis processes of PBXs. In addition, their thermal stability parameters such as shelf life, explosion delay, critical temperature, thermostability threshold, 500-day cookoff temperature and approximate time to explosion could be calculated easily from the kinetic data.

  9. Recognition of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake based on neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Jia Weimin

    2000-01-01

    Many features are extracted to improve the identified rate and reliability of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake. But how to synthesize these characters is the key of pattern recognition. Based on the improved Delta algorithm, features of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake are inputted into BP neural network, and friendship functions are constructed to identify the output values. The identified rate is up to 92.0%, which shows that: the way is feasible

  10. Slurry explosives containing the combination of nitrogen-base salt and hard solid particles as sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, W.M.

    1971-11-02

    In recent years, blasting agents, particularly those of the type known as water gels or slurry explosives have gained considerable commercial acceptance. Generally, the slurry explosives are comprised of an inorganic oxidizing salt, predominantly ammonium nitrate, a thickening agent for the liquid, water, and fuel. The density, velocity of detonation, and ability to sustain detonation are increased so that the compositions propagate in small diameter boreholes. A water-bearing slurry explosive is described containing inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, water and thickener together with nitrogen- base salt and solid particles having a hardness of at least 4 on the Mohs scale and that have an acoustic impedance at least 2 times that of the matrix of the slurry explosive. (15 claims)

  11. Study on explosion field temperature testing system based on wireless data transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinling; Sun Yunqiang

    2011-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the transient temperature value produced by explosive blasting may provide the basis for distinguishing the types of the explosive, the power contrast of the explosive and the performance evaluation in the weapons research process. To solve the problems of the Universal Test System emplaced inconveniently and the stored testing system need to be recycled, it has designed the explosion field application in wireless sensor system of temperature measurement. The system based on PIC16F877A micro controller, CPLD complex programmable logic devices and nRF24L01 wireless transmission chip sensor. The system adopts the Tungsten-Rhenium Thermocouple as the temperature sensor, DS600 temperature sensor for cold temperature compensation. This system has arrangement convenient, high-speed data acquisition, trigger and working parameters of adjustable characteristics, has been successfully applied in a test system. (authors)

  12. Frequency of damage by external explosion hazards based on geographical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Guenter; Camarinopoulos, Alexis; Theodora, Karali; Camarinopoulos, Leonidas; Schubert, B.

    2013-01-01

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighbourhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. A probabilistic model has been developed to calculate frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. (orig.)

  13. Frequency of damage by external explosion hazards based on geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Guenter [Risa Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin-Charlottenburg (Germany); Camarinopoulos, Alexis; Theodora, Karali [Environment Reliability and Risk Analysis (ERRA), Athens (Greece); Camarinopoulos, Leonidas [Piraeus Univ. (Greece); Schubert, B. [VENE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighbourhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. A probabilistic model has been developed to calculate frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. (orig.)

  14. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk [Sensor Tech Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H]{sup -} for TNT and DNT or [M]{sup ·-}. for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO]{sup -}. These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee; Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk

    2013-01-01

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H] - for TNT and DNT or [M] ·- . for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO] - . These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available

  16. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives in gas and liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the research project "Xsense" at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT, TATP, HMX, RDX and identification of reagents needed for making homemade explosives. The tec......In the framework of the research project "Xsense" at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT, TATP, HMX, RDX and identification of reagents needed for making homemade explosives...... to the analytes creates a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and VOCs. Such sensing technology can be used for screening relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas and liquid phases....... This sensor array is inexpensive, and can potentially be produced as single use disposable....

  17. Neutron-based techniques for detection of explosives and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, B.; Olah, L.; Csikai, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron reflection, scattering and transmission methods combined with the detection of characteristic gamma rays have an increasing role in the identification of hidden explosives, illicit drugs and other contraband materials. There are about 100 million land mines buried in some 70 countries. Among the abandoned anti-personnel land mines (APL) certain types have low mass (about 100 g) and contain little or no metal. Therefore, these plastic APL cannot be detected by the usual metal detectors. The IAEA Physics Section has organized a CRP in 1999 for the development of novel methods in order to speed up the removing process of APL. The transportation of illicit drugs has shown an increasing trend during the last decade. Developments of fast, non-destructive interrogation methods are required for the inspection of cargo containers, trucks and airline baggage. The major constituents of plastic APL and drugs are H, C, N and O which can be identified by the different neutron interactions. The atom fractions of these elements, in particular the C/O, C/N and C/H ratios, are quite different for drugs and explosives as compared to other materials used to hide them. Recently, we have carried out systematic measurements and calculations on the neutron fields from the 9 Be(d,n), 2 H(d,n), 252 Cf and Pu-Be sources passing through different bulky samples, on the possible use of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons in elemental analysis and on the advantages and limitations of the thermal neutron reflection method in the identification of land mines and illicit drugs. The measured spectral shapes of neutrons were compared with the calculated results using the MCNP-4A and MCNP-4B codes. (author)

  18. Deflagration to detonation experiments in granular HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnside, N.J.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Dickson, P.M.

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors report on continuing work involving a series of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) experiments in which they study the piston-initiated DDT of heavily confined granular cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX). These experiments were designed to he useful in model development and evaluation. A main focus of these experiments is the effect of density on the DDT event. Particle size distribution and morphology are carefully characterized. In this paper they present recent surface area analysis. Earlier studies demonstrated extensive fracturing and agglomeration in samples at densities as low as 75% TMD as evidenced by dramatic decreases in particle size distribution due to mild stimulus. This is qualitatively confirmed with SEM images and quantitatively studied with gas absorption surface area analysis. Also, in this paper they present initial results using a microwave interferometer technique. Dynamic calibration of the technique was performed, a 35 GHz signal is used to increase resolution, and the system has been designed to be inexpensive for repeated experiments. The distance to where deformation of the inner wall begins for various densities is reported. This result is compared with the microwave interferometer measurements.

  19. Development of compressible density-based steam explosion simulation code ESE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.

    2004-01-01

    A steam explosion is a fuel coolant interaction process by which the energy of the corium is transferred to water in a time-scale smaller than the time-scale for system pressure relief and induces dynamic loading of surrounding structures. A strong enough steam explosion in a nuclear power plant could jeopardize the containment integrity and so lead to a direct release of radioactive material to the environment. To help finding answers on open questions regarding steam explosion understanding and modelling, the steam explosion simulation code ESE-2 is being developed. In contrast to the developed simulation code ESE-1, where the multiphase flow equations are solved with pressure-based numerical methods (best suited for incompressible flow), in ESE-2 densitybased numerical methods (best suited for compressible flow) are used. Therefore ESE-2 will enable an accurate treatment of the whole steam explosion process, which consists of the premixing, triggering, propagation and expansion phase. In the paper the basic characteristics of the mathematical model and the numerical solution procedure in ESE-2 are described. The essence of the numerical treatment is that the convective terms in the multiphase flow equations are calculated with the AUSM+ scheme, which is very time efficient since no field-by-field wave decomposition is needed, using second order accurate discretization. (author)

  20. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and

  1. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Ultra-violet and visible absorption characterization of explosives by differential reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Moyant, Kyle; Hummel, Rolf E

    2013-03-15

    This study presents some optical properties of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX, HMX and tetryl, specifically their absorption spectra as a function of concentration in various solvents in the ultraviolet and visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. We utilize a standoff explosives detection method, called differential reflectometry (DR). TNT was diluted in six different solvents (acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, and toluene), which allowed for a direct comparison of absorption features over a wide range of concentrations. A line-shape analysis was adopted with great accuracy (R(2)>0.99) to model the absorption features of TNT in differential reflectivity spectra. We observed a blue shift in the pertinent absorption band with decreasing TNT concentration for all solvents. Moreover, using this technique, it was found that for all utilized solvents the concentration of TNT as well as of RDX, HMX, and tetryl, measured as a function of the transition wavelength of the ultra-violet absorption edge in differential reflectivity spectra shows three distinct regions. A model is presented to explain this behavior which is based on intermolecular hydrogen bonding of explosives molecules with themselves (or lack thereof) at different concentrations. Other intermolecular forces such as dipole-dipole interactions, London dispersion forces and π-stacking contribute to slight variations in the resulting spectra, which were determined to be rather insignificant in comparison to hydrogen bonding. The results are aimed towards a better understanding of the DR spectra of explosives energetic materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Theoretical insight into the binding energy and detonation performance of ε-, γ-, β-CL-20 cocrystals with β-HMX, FOX-7, and DMF in different molar ratios, as well as electrostatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Hai; Ren, Fu-de; Gou, Rui-Jun; Gao, Li

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics method was employed to study the binding energies on the selected crystal planes of the ε-, γ-, β-conformation 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (ε-, γ-, β-CL-20) cocrystal explosives with 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7), 1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane with β-conformation (β-HMX) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in different molar ratios. The oxygen balance, density, detonation velocity, detonation pressure, and surface electrostatic potential were analyzed. The results indicate that the binding energies E b (*) and stabilities are in the order of 1:1 > 2:1 > 3:1 > 5:1 > 8:1 (CL-20:FOX-7/β-HMX/DMF). The values of E b (*) and stabilities of the energetic-nonenergetic CL-20/DMF cocrystals are far larger than those of the energetic-energetic CL-20/FOX-7 and CL-20/β-HMX, and those of CL-20/β-HMX are the smallest. For CL-20/FOX-7 and CL-20/β-HMX, the largest E b (*) appears in the cocrystals with the 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3 molar ratio, and the stabilities of the cocrystals with the excess ratio of CL-20 are weaker than those in the cocrystals with the excess ratio of FOX-7 or β-HMX. In CL-20/FOX-7, CL-20 prefers adopting the γ-form, and ε-CL-20 is the preference in CL-20/β-HMX, and ε-CL-20 and β-CL-20 can be found in CL-20/DMF. The CL-20/FOX-7 and CL-20/β-HMX cocrystals with low molar ratios can meet the requirements of low sensitive high energetic materials. Surface electrostatic potential reveals the nature of the sensitivity change upon the cocrystal formation. Graphical Abstract MD method was employed to study the binding energies on the selected crystal planes in the ε-, γ-, β-CL-20 cocrystals with FOX-7, β-HMX and DMF in different molar ratios. Surface electrostatic potential reveals the nature of the sensitivity change in cocrystals.

  4. Investigation on energetics of ex-vessel vapor explosion based on spontaneous nucleation fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2002-01-01

    A computer code PROVER-I is developed for propagation phase of vapor explosion. A new thermal fragmentation model is proposed with three kinds of time scale for modeling instant fragmentation, spontaneous nucleation fragmentation and normal boiling fragmentation. The energetics of ex-vessel vapor explosion is investigated based on different fragmentation models. A higher pressure peak and a larger mechanical energy conversion ratio are obtained by spontaneous nucleation fragmentation. A smaller energy conversion ratio results from normal boiling fragmentation. When the delay time in thermal fragmentation model is near 0.0 ms, the pressure propagation behavior tends to be analogous with that in hydrodynamic fragmentation. If the delay time is longer, pressure attenuation occurs at the shock front. The high energy conversion ratio (>4%) is obtained in a small vapor volume fraction together with spontaneous nucleation fragmentation. These results are consistent with fuel-coolant interaction experiments with alumina melt. However, in larger vapor volume fraction conditions (α υ >0.3), the vapor explosion is weak. For corium melt, a coarse mixture with void fraction of more than 30% can be generated in the pre-mixing process because of its physical properties. In the mixture with such a high void fraction the energetic vapor explosion hardly takes place. (author)

  5. A Photoluminescence-Based Field Method for Detection of Traces of Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roland Menzel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a photoluminescence-based field method for detecting traces of explosives. In its standard version, the method utilizes a commercially available color spot test kit for treating explosive traces on filter paper after swabbing. The colored products are fluorescent under illumination with a laser that operates on three C-size flashlight batteries and delivers light at 532 nm. In the fluorescence detection mode, by visual inspection, the typical sensitivity gain is a factor of 100. The method is applicable to a wide variety of explosives. In its time-resolved version, intended for in situ work, explosives are tagged with europium complexes. Instrumentation-wise, the time-resolved detection, again visual, can be accomplished in facile fashion. The europium luminescence excitation utilizes a laser operating at 355 nm. We demonstrate the feasibility of CdSe quantum dot sensitization of europium luminescence for time-resolved purposes. This would allow the use of the above 532 nm laser.

  6. Simulations of Si-PIN photodiode based detectors for underground explosives enhanced by ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mete; Bayrak, Ahmet; Yücel, Esra Barlas; Ozben, Cenap S.

    2018-02-01

    Massive Ammonium Nitrate (NH4-NO3) based explosives buried underground are commonly used in terror attacks. These explosives can be detected using neutron scattering method with some limitations. Simulations are very useful tools for designing a possible detection system for these kind of explosives. Geant4 simulations were used for generating neutrons at 14 MeV energy and tracking them through the scattering off the explosive embedded in soil. Si-PIN photodiodes were used as detector elements in the design for their low costs and simplicity for signal readout electronics. Various neutron-charge particle converters were applied on to the surface of the photodiodes to increase the detection efficiency. Si-PIN photodiodes coated with 6LiF provided the best result for a certain energy interval. Energy depositions in silicon detector from all secondary particles generated including photons were taken into account to generate a realistic background. Humidity of soil, one of the most important parameter for limiting the detection, was also studied.

  7. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.J.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    A laboratory prototype system has been developed for the experimental evaluation of an explosives detection technique based on nuclear resonance absorption of gamma rays in nitrogen. Major subsystems include a radiofrequency quadrupole proton accelerator and associated beam transport system, a high-power gamma-ray production target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection system, and an image- processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported

  8. Microbial Degradation of RDX and HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    cultivated in the M-succinate medium as previously described (Coleman et al., 1998). P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725 was provided by Ian Reid (Paprican...Sunahara. 1999. Ecotoxicological Evaluation of a Bench–Scale Bioslurry Treating Explosives – Spiked Soil. Bioremediation J. 3(3), 233-245. 217...1999. Ecotoxicological characterization of energetic substances using a soil extraction procedure. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 43, 138-148

  9. Features of the incorporation of single and double based powders within emulsion explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. B.; Mendes, R.; Tavares, B.; Louro, C.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, features of the thermal and detonation behaviour of compositions resulting from the mixture of single and double based powders within ammonium nitrate based emulsion explosives are shown. Those features are portrayed through results of thermodynamic-equilibrium calculations of the detonation velocity, the chemical compatibility assessment through differential thermal analysis [DTA] and thermo gravimetric analysis [TGA], the experimental determination of the detonation velocity and a comparative evaluation of the shock sensitivity using a modified version of the "gap-test". DTA/TGA results for the compositions and for the individual components overlap until the beginning of the thermal decomposition which is an indication of the absence of formation of any new chemical species and so of the compatibility of the components of the compositions. After the beginning of the thermal decomposition it can be seen that the rate of mass loss is much higher for the compositions with powder than for the one with sole emulsion explosive. Both, theoretical and experimental, values of the detonation velocity have been shown to be higher for the powdered compositions than for the sole emulsion explosive. Shock sensitivity assessments have ended-up with a slightly bigger sensitivity for the compositions with double based powder when compared to the single based compositions or to the sole emulsion.

  10. Features of the Valorization of Single and Double Based Powders for Codetonation in Emulsion Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jose; Mendes, Ricardo; Tavares, Bruno; Louro, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    In this work, features of the thermal and detonation behavior of compositions resulting from the mixture of single and double based gun powder within ammonium nitrate (AN) based emulsion explosives are shown. That includes results of thermodynamic-equilibrium calculations of the detonation velocity, the chemical compatibility assessment through differential scanning calorimetry [DSC] and thermo gravimetric analysis [TGA], the experimental determination of the detonation velocity and a comparative evaluation of the shock sensitivity using a modified version of the ``gap-test''. DSC/TGA results for the compositions and for the individual components overlap until the beginning of the thermal decomposition which is an indication of the absence of formation of any new chemical specimens and so of the capability of the composition components. After the beginning of the thermal decomposition it can be seen that the rate of mass loss is much higher for the compositions with gun powder than for the sole emulsion explosive. Both, theoretical and experimental, values of the detonation velocity have shown to be higher for the powdered compositions than for the pure emulsion explosive. Shock sensitivity assessment have ended-up with a slightly bigger sensitivity for the compositions with double based gun powder when compared to the single based compositions or to the pure emulsion.

  11. Features of the incorporation of single and double based powders within emulsion explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J B; Mendes, R; Tavares, B; Louro, C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, features of the thermal and detonation behaviour of compositions resulting from the mixture of single and double based powders within ammonium nitrate based emulsion explosives are shown. Those features are portrayed through results of thermodynamic-equilibrium calculations of the detonation velocity, the chemical compatibility assessment through differential thermal analysis [DTA] and thermo gravimetric analysis [TGA], the experimental determination of the detonation velocity and a comparative evaluation of the shock sensitivity using a modified version of the g ap-test . DTA/TGA results for the compositions and for the individual components overlap until the beginning of the thermal decomposition which is an indication of the absence of formation of any new chemical species and so of the compatibility of the components of the compositions. After the beginning of the thermal decomposition it can be seen that the rate of mass loss is much higher for the compositions with powder than for the one with sole emulsion explosive. Both, theoretical and experimental, values of the detonation velocity have been shown to be higher for the powdered compositions than for the sole emulsion explosive. Shock sensitivity assessments have ended-up with a slightly bigger sensitivity for the compositions with double based powder when compared to the single based compositions or to the sole emulsion.

  12. A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model of ground radioactive fallout for atmospheric nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi

    2008-01-01

    A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model for atmospheric nuclear explosion radioactive prediction was presented. The deposition of particles and initial cloud radius changing with time before the cloud stabilization was considered. Large-scale relative diffusion theory was used after cloud stabilization. The model was considered reasonable and dependable in comparison with four U.S. nuclear test cases and DELFIC model results. (authors)

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82MeV) following radiative neutron capture by (14)N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 10(10) fast neutrons per second (E=2.5MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an FPGA-based multipoint laser pyroshock measurement system for explosive bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Syed Haider; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Zaeill

    2016-01-01

    Pyroshock can cause failure to the objective of an aerospace structure by damaging its sensitive electronic equipment, which is responsible for performing decisive operations. A pyroshock is the high intensity shock wave that is generated when a pyrotechnic device is explosively triggered to separate, release, or activate structural subsystems of an aerospace architecture. Pyroshock measurement plays an important role in experimental simulations to understand the characteristics of pyroshock on the host structure. This paper presents a technology to measure a pyroshock wave at multiple points using laser Doppler vibrometers (LDVs). These LDVs detect the pyroshock wave generated due to an explosive-based pyrotechnical event. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) based data acquisition is used in the study to acquire pyroshock signals simultaneously from multiple channels. This paper describes the complete system design for multipoint pyroshock measurement. The firmware architecture for the implementation of multichannel data acquisition on an FPGA-based development board is also discussed. An experiment using explosive bolts was configured to test the reliability of the system. Pyroshock was generated using explosive excitation on a 22-mm-thick steel plate. Three LDVs were deployed to capture the pyroshock wave at different points. The pyroshocks captured were displayed as acceleration plots. The results showed that our system effectively captured the pyroshock wave with a peak-to-peak magnitude of 303 741 g. The contribution of this paper is a specialized architecture of firmware design programmed in FPGA for data acquisition of large amount of multichannel pyroshock data. The advantages of the developed system are the near-field, multipoint, non-contact, and remote measurement of a pyroshock wave, which is dangerous and expensive to produce in aerospace pyrotechnic tests.

  15. Development of an FPGA-based multipoint laser pyroshock measurement system for explosive bolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Syed Haider; Lee, Jung-Ryul [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jae-Kyeong [The Engineering Institute-Korea, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Zaeill [The 4th R& D Institute-1st directorate, Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Pyroshock can cause failure to the objective of an aerospace structure by damaging its sensitive electronic equipment, which is responsible for performing decisive operations. A pyroshock is the high intensity shock wave that is generated when a pyrotechnic device is explosively triggered to separate, release, or activate structural subsystems of an aerospace architecture. Pyroshock measurement plays an important role in experimental simulations to understand the characteristics of pyroshock on the host structure. This paper presents a technology to measure a pyroshock wave at multiple points using laser Doppler vibrometers (LDVs). These LDVs detect the pyroshock wave generated due to an explosive-based pyrotechnical event. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) based data acquisition is used in the study to acquire pyroshock signals simultaneously from multiple channels. This paper describes the complete system design for multipoint pyroshock measurement. The firmware architecture for the implementation of multichannel data acquisition on an FPGA-based development board is also discussed. An experiment using explosive bolts was configured to test the reliability of the system. Pyroshock was generated using explosive excitation on a 22-mm-thick steel plate. Three LDVs were deployed to capture the pyroshock wave at different points. The pyroshocks captured were displayed as acceleration plots. The results showed that our system effectively captured the pyroshock wave with a peak-to-peak magnitude of 303 741 g. The contribution of this paper is a specialized architecture of firmware design programmed in FPGA for data acquisition of large amount of multichannel pyroshock data. The advantages of the developed system are the near-field, multipoint, non-contact, and remote measurement of a pyroshock wave, which is dangerous and expensive to produce in aerospace pyrotechnic tests.

  16. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor; Mendius, E. Louise [Editor

    2003-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  5. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2010-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  7. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Francesca C.; Mendius, E. Louise

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  10. Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Shea, Patrick J.; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2007-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (Fe 0 , ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe 0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl - and Br - was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br - was present in solution. - The addition of halide ions promotes the degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

  11. Peierls–Nabarro stresses of dislocations in monoclinic cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Anirban; Picu, Catalin R.

    2018-06-01

    HMX (cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine) is an energetic material which releases substantial amounts of energy upon decomposition. The role of defects and deformation in causing reaction initiation was discussed in the literature but remains insufficiently understood. In this work, we identify, using computational methods, the slip systems which are potentially active in β-HMX and rank them in terms of their propensity for slip. To this end, we develop first a tentative ranking based on the degree of steric hindrance associated with slip. This is quantified using a geometric analog of the γ-surface. Further, we use atomistic models to compute the Peierls–Nabarro (PN) stress for the motion of dislocations in the slip systems with smallest degree of steric hindrance. A complex mechanical behavior is observed, including strong slip asymmetry, twinning and cleavage. The five systems with the lowest PN stress are (011)[01\\bar{1}], (011)[100], (101)[010], (101)[10\\bar{1}] and (021)[100]. We conclude that the material has enough slip systems available for supporting a generalized state of plastic strain provided the twinning system (101)[10\\bar{1}] is taken into consideration and that the resolved shear stress is at least 260 MPa.

  12. Toxicity and uptake of cyclic nitramine explosives in ryegrass Lolium perenne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Lachance, Bernard; Kuperman, Roman G.; Hawari, Jalal; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I.

    2008-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) are cyclic nitramines used as explosives. Their ecotoxicities have been characterized incompletely and little is known about their accumulation potential in soil organisms. We assessed the toxicity and uptake of these explosives in perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L. exposed in a Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) or in a sandy soil (DRDC, CL-20 only) containing contrasting clay contents (11% and 0.3%, respectively). A 21-d exposure to RDX, HMX or CL-20 in either soil had no adverse effects on ryegrass growth. RDX and HMX were translocated to ryegrass shoots, with bioconcentration factors (BCF) of up to 15 and 11, respectively. In contrast, CL-20 was taken up by the roots (BCF up to 19) with no translocation to the shoots. These studies showed that RDX, HMX, and CL-20 can accumulate in plants and may potentially pose a risk of biomagnification across the food chain. - Cyclic nitramine explosives accumulate in perennial ryegrass and exhibit distinct uptake patterns

  13. Toxicity and uptake of cyclic nitramine explosives in ryegrass Lolium perenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Lachance, Bernard [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Kuperman, Roman G. [Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States); Hawari, Jalal [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy [Defense Research and Development Canada, 2459 Pie IX Boulevard, Val Belair, Quebec G3J 1X5 (Canada); Sunahara, Geoffrey I. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada)], E-mail: geoffrey.sunahara@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca

    2008-11-15

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) are cyclic nitramines used as explosives. Their ecotoxicities have been characterized incompletely and little is known about their accumulation potential in soil organisms. We assessed the toxicity and uptake of these explosives in perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L. exposed in a Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) or in a sandy soil (DRDC, CL-20 only) containing contrasting clay contents (11% and 0.3%, respectively). A 21-d exposure to RDX, HMX or CL-20 in either soil had no adverse effects on ryegrass growth. RDX and HMX were translocated to ryegrass shoots, with bioconcentration factors (BCF) of up to 15 and 11, respectively. In contrast, CL-20 was taken up by the roots (BCF up to 19) with no translocation to the shoots. These studies showed that RDX, HMX, and CL-20 can accumulate in plants and may potentially pose a risk of biomagnification across the food chain. - Cyclic nitramine explosives accumulate in perennial ryegrass and exhibit distinct uptake patterns.

  14. Earthquake—explosion discrimination using genetic algorithm-based boosting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, Niksa; Loncaric, Sven

    2010-02-01

    An important and challenging problem in seismic data processing is to discriminate between natural seismic events such as earthquakes and artificial seismic events such as explosions. Many automatic techniques for seismogram classification have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods have a similar approach to seismogram classification: a predefined set of features based on ad-hoc feature selection criteria is extracted from the seismogram waveform or spectral data and these features are used for signal classification. In this paper we propose a novel approach for seismogram classification. A specially formulated genetic algorithm has been employed to automatically search for a near-optimal seismogram feature set, instead of using ad-hoc feature selection criteria. A boosting method is added to the genetic algorithm when searching for multiple features in order to improve classification performance. A learning set of seismogram data is used by the genetic algorithm to discover a near-optimal feature set. The feature set identified by the genetic algorithm is then used for seismogram classification. The described method is developed to classify seismograms in two groups, whereas a brief overview of method extension for multiple group classification is given. For method verification, a learning set consisting of 40 local earthquake seismograms and 40 explosion seismograms was used. The method was validated on seismogram set consisting of 60 local earthquake seismograms and 60 explosion seismograms, with correct classification of 85%.

  15. Initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds with fast semiconductor switches and energy-releasing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, G. G.; Kardo-Sysoev, A. F.; Zegrya, A. G.; Os'kin, I. A.; Bragin, V. A.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2017-10-01

    The first findings concerning the initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds via the electrical explosion of a semiconductor bridge are presented. The obtained results indicate that the energy parameters of an explosive conversion depend on the mass of a combustible agent—namely, nanoporous silicon—and the silicon-doping type.

  16. Prototype selection based on FCM and its application in discrimination between nuclear explosion and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoqing; Li Xihai; Song Zibiao; Liu Daizhi

    2007-01-01

    The synergetic pattern recognition is a new way of pattern recognition with many excellent features such as noise resistance and deformity resistance. But when it is used in the discrimination between nuclear explosion and earthquake using existing methods of prototype selection, the results are not satisfying. A new method of prototype selection based on FCM is proposed in this paper. First, each group of training samples is clustered into c groups using FCM; then c barycenters or centers are chosen as prototypes. Experiment results show that compared with existing methods of prototype selection this new method is effective and it increases the recognition ratio greatly. (authors)

  17. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  18. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2018-01-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  19. Developing an ontological explosion knowledge base for business continuity planning purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Kalatpour, Omid; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Khotanlou, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial accidents are among the most known challenges to business continuity. Many organisations have lost their reputation following devastating accidents. To manage the risks of such accidents, it is necessary to accumulate sufficient knowledge regarding their roots, causes and preventive techniques. The required knowledge might be obtained through various approaches, including databases. Unfortunately, many databases are hampered by (among other things) static data presentations, a lack of semantic features, and the inability to present accident knowledge as discrete domains. This paper proposes the use of Protégé software to develop a knowledge base for the domain of explosion accidents. Such a structure has a higher capability to improve information retrieval compared with common accident databases. To accomplish this goal, a knowledge management process model was followed. The ontological explosion knowledge base (EKB) was built for further applications, including process accident knowledge retrieval and risk management. The paper will show how the EKB has a semantic feature that enables users to overcome some of the search constraints of existing accident databases.

  20. Measurement of the flow properties within a copper tube containing a deflagrating explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We report on the propagation of deflagration waves in the high explosive (HE) PBX 9501 (95 wt % HMX, 5 wt% binder). Our test configuration, which we call the def1agration cylinder test (DFCT), is fashioned after the detonation cylinder test (DTCT) that is used to calibrate the JWL detonation product equation of state (EOS). In the DFCT, the HE is heated to a uniform slightly subcritical temperature, and is ignited at one end by a hot wire. For some configurations and initial conditions, we observe a quasi-steady wave that flares the tube into a funnel shape, stretching it to the point of rupture. This behavior is qualitatively like the DTCT, such that, by invoking certain additional approximations that we discuss, its behavior can be analyzed by the same methods. We employ an analysis proposed by G.I. Taylor to infer the pressure-volume curve for the burning, expanding flow. By comparing this result to the EOS of HMX product gas alone. we infer that only {approx}20 wt% of the HMX has burned at tube rupture. This result confirms pre-existing observations about the role of convective burning in HMX cookoff explosions.

  1. Development of ab initio techniques critical for future science-based explosives R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixom, Ryan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Mattsson, Ann Elisabet [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) has emerged as an indispensable tool in materials research, since it can accurately predict properties of a wide variety of materials at both equilibrium and extreme conditions. However, for organic molecular crystal explosives, successful application of DFT has largely failed due to the inability of current exchange-correlation functionals to correctly describe intermolecular van der Waals (vdWs) forces. Despite this, we have discovered that even with no treatment of vdWs bonding, the AM05 functional and DFT based molecular dynamics (MD) could be used to study the properties of molecular crystals under compression. We have used DFT-MD to predict the unreacted Hugoniots for PETN and HNS and validated the results by comparison with crystalline and porous experimental data. Since we are also interested in applying DFT methods to study the equilibrium volume properties of explosives, we studied the nature of the vdWs bonding in pursuit of creating a new DFT functional capable of accurately describing equilibrium bonding of molecular crystals. In this report we discuss our results for computing shock Hugoniots of molecular crystals and also what was learned about the nature of bonding in these materials.

  2. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P., E-mail: philippe.hebert@cea.fr; Doucet, M. [CEA, DAM, Le RIPAULT, F-37620 Monts (France); Resseguier, T. de [Institut P' , UPR CNRS 3346, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, F-86961 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France)

    2015-01-14

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  3. Satellite-based constraints on explosive SO2 release from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Prata, Fred J.

    2010-09-01

    Numerous episodes of explosive degassing have punctuated the 1995-2009 eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV), Montserrat, often following major lava dome collapses. We use ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) satellite measurements to quantify sulfur dioxide (SO2) released by explosive degassing, which is not captured by routine ground-based and airborne gas monitoring. We find a total explosive SO2 release of ˜0.5 Tg, which represents ˜6% of total SO2 emissions from SHV since July 1995. The majority of this SO2 (˜0.4 Tg) was vented following the most voluminous SHV dome collapses in July 2003 and May 2006. Based on our analysis, we suggest that the SO2 burden measured following explosive disruption of lava domes depends on several factors, including the instantaneous lava effusion rate, dome height above the conduit, and the vertical component of directed explosions. Space-based SO2 measurements merit inclusion in routine gas monitoring at SHV and other dome-forming volcanoes.

  4. Comparison of Omega-2 and Omega-3 calibration explosions basing on regional seismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Sokolova, I.N.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of different parameters of seismic records of Omega-2 and Omega-3 calibration explosions was performed. It was shown that despite the equal charge the level of seismic oscillations was lower during the Omega-3 explosion than during Omega-2. Spectral composition, polarization of oscillations, wave picture is identical at a given station for both explosions. Assumptions were made on the reason of such difference in seismic effect. (author)

  5. Damage assessment of mission essential buildings based on simulation studies of low yield explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas G. L.

    2006-04-01

    There has been a lack of investigations related to low yield explosives instigated by terrorist on small but high occupancy buildings. Also, mitigating the threat of terrorist attacks against high occupancy buildings with network equipment essential to the mission of an organization is a challenging task. At the same time, it is difficult to predict how, why, and when terrorists may attack theses assets. Many factors must be considered in creating a safe building environment. Although it is possible that the dominant threat mode may change in the future, bombings have historically been a favorite tactic of terrorists. Ingredients for homemade bombs are easily obtained on the open market, as are the techniques for making bombs. Bombings are easy and quick to execute. This paper discusses the problems with and provides insights of experience gained in analyzing small scale explosions on older military base buildings. In this study, we examine the placement of various bombs on buildings using the shock wave simulation code CTH and examine the damage effects on the interior of the building, particularly the damage that is incurred on a computer center. These simulation experiments provide data on the effectiveness of a building's security and an understanding of the phenomenology of shocks as they propagate through rooms and corridors. It's purpose is to motivate researchers to take the seriousness of small yield explosives on moderately sized buildings. Visualizations from this analysis are used to understand the complex flow of the air blasts around corridors and hallways. Finally, we make suggestions for improving the mitigation of such terrorist attacks. The intent of this study is not to provide breakthrough technology, but to provide a tool and a means for analyzing the material hardness of a building and to eventually provide the incentive for more security. The information mentioned in this paper is public domain information and easily available via the

  6. Detection Dynamics Of Nitrogen Based Explosive Quantities In Selected Cylindrical Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngusha Tavershima Almighty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set up for examining the variation of detection intensity with explosive quantity has been studied. Containers made from ceramic carbon steel wood and HDPE were filled with explosive masses ranging from 10 kg to 500 kg and irradiated by a 14.1 MeV point isotropic neutron source. The resulting gamma photons were analyzed for their C N and O composition and the sum computed to yield a quantity known as the material quotient MQ. Examination of MQ values indicates an initial increase in detection intensity with increasing explosive quantity. Saturation is however reached at an explosive quantity of about 25kg where detection intensity reduces with further increase in explosive quantity. Effects of variation in explosive quantity appeared to be more pronounced for explosives contained in HDPE and wooden containers and least pronounced for those in steel containers. Source-detector configuration was identified as a major factor affecting effective detection of large masses of explosives.

  7. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Alok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  8. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Alok; Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk

    2014-01-01

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  9. A new method of explosive detection based on dual-energy X-ray technology and forward-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kun; Li Jianmin

    2004-01-01

    Based on dual-energy X-ray technology combined with forward-scattering, a brand new explosive detection method is presented. Dual-energy technology can give the information on the effective atomic number (Z eff ) of an irradiated component, while the intensity of the forward scattered photons can reveal the density information according to our research. Therefore, the existence of the explosive can be effectively identified by combining these two characteristic quantities. Compared with the earlier inspection approaches, the new one has a series of particular advantages, such as high detection rate, low false alarm rate, automatic alarm and so forth. The project is ongoing. (authors)

  10. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for an Adolescent Presenting with ADHD and Explosive Anger: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janise; Zaboski, Brian; Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana

    2016-01-01

    This case demonstrates the efficacy of utilizing an intensive, multi-faceted behavioral intervention paradigm. A comprehensive, integrative, school-based service model was applied to address attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptomology, oppositional behaviors, and explosive anger at the secondary level. The case reviews a multi-modal…

  11. Expansion of the HMX-1 Flight Envelope With the EDU-5/P Laser Eye Protection Spectacles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penhallegon, William

    2004-01-01

    ...) takeoffs and landings. Flight testing determined that fit, internal and external lighting conditions, aircrew experience, and aircrafi type are important factors in determining the suitability of the EDU-iIP in HMX-I plafforms...

  12. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

    2014-05-01

    Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

  13. The research based on intelligent night-time elimination of "red explosion" and "white explosion" vehicle license plate capturing and identifying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tian-Yu; Duanmu, Qing-Duo; Liu, Jing; Wu, Bo-Qi

    2018-03-01

    At night, high-speed road/all levels of road electronic cameras need to pass the white light flash can be used to obtain the road vehicle license plate and car appearance and the other related information, in order to solve the problems of the drivers' short dazzle caused by the flash of the camera, this paper shows a novel method to eliminate the "red explosion" and "white explosion" dazzle vehicle license plate capture and recognition system. This paper is based on the inconsistent principle of the absorption characteristics of the reflective film layer dye in the overlapping reflection process of the multispectral spectrums. The relationship between the wavelength of the reflective film and the back layer dye in different wavelength and the absorption/reflection is analyzed, and a dual-band active illumination method is developed. The system utilizes the visual features of human eyes in the sensitive insensitive area near infrared 390 nm 810 nm band, combining the enhanced Hough and Canny operator to preprocess the captured images, effectively obtains the license information of the fast moving vehicle at night or low illumination, and accurately locates the vehicle contour features, The high contour gray color rendering with the wavelet and Fourier filtering is used to distinguish the authenticity of the license plate quickly. To achieve the rapid statistics on the number of vehicles and containers on ground mobile vehicles and logistics sites, and provide a reliable technical guarantee for road security, because of its small weight and high intelligence, it's suitable for a variety of loading installations, and has a wide application foreground in the future.

  14. Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Sanchez, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. They also examined products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide

  15. An ICF system based on Z-pinch radiation produced by an explosive magnetic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garanin, S.G.; Ivanovsky, A.V.; Mkhitariyan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a thermonuclear target can be ignited by an implosion accomplished with X-radiation generated by means of laser radiation conversion or by a Z pinch formed by a high-power current pulse. For these purposes laser facility NIF has been constructed in the USA, 'Megajoule' is being constructed in France and there is a project of laser facility UFL in Russia. The project of stationary facility X has been developed in SNL USA to produce a Z pinch capable of generating an x-ray pulse with parameters close to the ignition threshold. There is a great chance, however, that the already tested technologies, including disc explosive magnetic generators (DEMG), systems of current peaking based on electrically exploded foil opening switches and high-voltage switching devices, allow the intriguing problem of the ignition feasibility to be solved and the quickest and cheapest way to accomplish this to be provided. To explore this possibility, the paper will sequentially analyse the ignition conditions. The required parameters of Z pinch X-radiation and the size of the DEMG-based facility to obtain these parameters will be evaluated. Capabilities of the new current sources based on the DEMG and of the devices shaping a current pulse will be presented and compared with those required for the ignition.

  16. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  17. Effect of Long Term Low-Level Gamma Radiation on Thermal Sensitivity of RDX/HMX Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    1.1x10 R. It was concluded that the slight exothermic reaction before the 3^6 HMX polymorphic transition could be caused by a radiation-induced...Radiation on Thermal Sensitivity of RDX / HMX Mixtures 5. TYPE OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED Final Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7...and Identity by block number) Gamma radiation Weight loss HMX Impact sensitivity test RDX Vacuum stability test DTA Infrared spectrometry TGA

  18. MEMS-based Porous Silicon Preconcentrators Filled with Carbopack-B for Explosives Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Camara , El Hadji Malik; James , Franck; Breuil , Philippe; Pijolat , Christophe; Briand , Danick; De Rooij , Nicolaas F

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we report the detection of explosive compounds using a miniaturized gas preconcentrator (μGP) made of porous silicon (PS) filled in with Carbopack B as an adsorbent material. The μGP includes also a platinum heater patterned at the backside and fluidic connectors sealed on the glass cover. Our μGP is designed and optimized through fluidic and thermal simulations for meeting the requirements of trace explosives detection. The thermal mass of the device was...

  19. Effectiveness of laser sources for contactless sampling of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmalov, Artem E.; Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.

    2016-05-01

    A mass-spectrometric study of photo processes initiated by ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation in explosives adsorbed on metal and dielectric substrates has been performed. A calibrated quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to determine a value of activation energy of desorption and a quantity of explosives desorbed by laser radiation. A special vacuumoptical module was elaborated and integrated into a vacuum mass-spectrometric system to focus the laser beam on a sample. It has been shown that the action of nanosecond laser radiation set at q= 107 - 108 W/cm2, λ=266 nm on adsorbed layers of molecules of trinitrotoluene (TNT ) and pentaerytritoltetranitrate (PETN) leads not only to an effective desorption, but also to the non-equilibrium dissociation of molecules with the formation of nitrogen oxide NO. The cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) dissociation products are observed only at high laser intensities (q> 109 W/cm2) thus indicating the thermal nature of dissociation, whereas desorption of RDX is observed even at q> 107 W/cm2 from all substrates. Desorption is not observed for cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) under single pulse action: the dissociation products NO and NO2 are registered only, whereas irradiation at 10Hz is quite effective for HMX desorption. The results clearly demonstrate a high efficiency of nanosecond laser radiation with λ = 266 nm, q ~ 107 - 108 W/cm2, Epulse= 1mJ for desorption of molecules of explosives from various surfaces.

  20. Computer simulation of explosion crater in dams with different buried depths of explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Ye, Longzhen

    2018-04-01

    Based on multi-material ALE method, this paper conducted a computer simulation on the explosion crater in dams with different buried depths of explosive using LS-DYNA program. The results turn out that the crater size increases with the increase of buried depth of explosive at first, but closed explosion cavity rather than a visible crater is formed when the buried depth of explosive increases to some extent. The soil in the explosion cavity is taken away by the explosion products and the soil under the explosion cavity is compressed with its density increased. The research can provide some reference for the anti-explosion design of dams in the future.

  1. Specific Heat of Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - Tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - Tetrazocine (HMX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    impurities probably consist of molecules of similar atomic weights as those present in the HMX molecule. Usually the major impurity in HMX is RDX (5...crystal and powdered blend HMX . Data beyond the normal transformation temperature (i.e. 0*6 transition ) were obtained from 472 to 486*K. Also, due to the...Cady, H.H.; Smith, L.C., "Studies on the Polymorphs of HMX ," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., LAMS-2652, May 1962. (6) Brill, T.B

  2. New directions in the science and technology of advanced sheet explosive formulations and the key energetic materials used in the processing of sheet explosives: Emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Jangid, S K; Nath, T; Sinha, R K; Asthana, S N

    2015-12-30

    This review presents the work carried out by the international community in the area of sheet explosive formulations and its applications in various systems. The sheet explosive is also named as PBXs and is a composite material in which solid explosive particles like RDX, HMX or PETN are dispersed in a polymeric matrix, forms a flexible material that can be rolled/cut into sheet form which can be applied to any complex contour. The designed sheet explosive must possess characteristic properties such as flexible, cuttable, water proof, easily initiable, and safe handling. The sheet explosives are being used for protecting tanks (ERA), light combat vehicle and futuristic infantry carrier vehicle from different attacking war heads etc. Besides, sheet explosives find wide applications in demolition of bridges, ships, cutting and metal cladding. This review also covers the aspects such as risks and hazard analysis during the processing of sheet explosive formulations, effect of ageing on sheet explosives, detection and analysis of sheet explosive ingredients and the R&D efforts of Indian researchers in the development of sheet explosive formulations. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no review article published in the literature in the area of sheet explosives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactive Emissions from Fission-Based Medical Isotope Production and Their Effect on Global Nuclear Explosion Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.; Saey, P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of medical isotopes, such as Tc-99m, is widespread with over 30 million procedures being performed every year, but the fission-based production of isotopes used for medical procedures causes emissions into the environment. This paper will show that gaseous radioactive isotopes of xenon, such as Xe-133, are released in high quantities, because they have a high fission cross section and they are difficult to scrub from the processes used to produce the medical isotopes due to their largely unreactive nature. Unfortunately, the reasons that large amounts of radioactive xenon isotopes are emitted from isotope production are the same as those that make these isotopes the most useful isotopes for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Relatively recently, the nuclear explosion monitoring community has established a provisional monitoring network for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) that includes radioactive xenon monitoring as a major component. This community has discovered that emissions from medical isotope production present a more serious problem to nuclear explosion monitoring than thought when the network was first conceived. To address the growing problem, a group of scientists in both the monitoring and the isotope production communities have come together to attempt to find scientific and pragmatic ways to address the emissions problems, recognizing that medical isotope production should not be adversely affected, while monitoring for nuclear explosions should remain effective as isotope production grows, changes, and spreads globally. (author)

  4. Stellar explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.

    1987-01-01

    What is the energy source and which physical processes are powerful enough to generate this explosion which scatters the star. The knowledge progress of very dense matter allows the scenario reconstitution. An instability in the star core which is developing during milliseconds is the cause of this explosion [fr

  5. EXPLOSIVE COMPACTION OF CLAD GRAPHITE POWDERS AND OBTAINING OF COATINGS ON THEIR BASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. PEIKRISHIVILI; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    In order to consolidate graphite based powders and in order to obtain coatings with density values near to the theoretical ones clad graphite powders of the C{sub graphite} - Ni (C{sub g} - Ni) compositions were explosively compacted under different loading conditions. Theoretical calculations revealed that for assessing the stress-deformed state of C{sub g} - Ni compositions and computing the normal and tangent stress components (when V{sub D} < C{sub longitudinal} and V{sub D} < C{sub transversal}) it is recommended to apply the dynamic problem's solution model while the pressure impulse P = f(x) is being uniformly spread with constant rate along the boundary of a semi-infinite elastic body. The results of our experiments showed that it is possible to obtain high dense coatings from C{sub g}-Ni compositions bonded by an intermediate layer to the substrate material. The structure and properties of the coatings depends on the intensity of the shock loading and temperature. The effect of the shock loading conditions (temperature, loading intensity) on the structure, properties and structure/properties relationships for the C{sub g} - Ni coatings are discussed.

  6. Carbon nanotubes-based chemiresistive immunosensor for small molecules: detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miso; Cella, Lakshmi N; Chen, Wilfred; Myung, Nosang V; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, there has been a growing focus on use of one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires, as transducer elements for label-free chemiresistive/field-effect transistor biosensors as they provide label-free and high sensitivity detection. While research to-date has elucidated the power of carbon nanotubes- and other 1-D nanostructure-based field effect transistors immunosensors for large charged macromolecules such as proteins and viruses, their application to small uncharged or charged molecules has not been demonstrated. In this paper we report a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-based chemiresistive immunosensor for label-free, rapid, sensitive and selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a small molecule. The newly developed immunosensor employed a displacement mode/format in which SWNTs network forming conduction channel of the sensor was first modified with trinitrophenyl (TNP), an analog of TNT, and then ligated with the anti-TNP single chain antibody. Upon exposure to TNT or its derivatives the bound antibodies were displaced producing a large change, several folds higher than the noise, in the resistance/conductance of SWNTs giving excellent limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor detected between 0.5 ppb and 5000 ppb TNT with good selectivity to other nitroaromatic explosives and demonstrated good accuracy for monitoring TNT in untreated environmental water matrix. We believe this new displacement format can be easily generalized to other one-dimensional nanostructure-based chemiresistive immuno/affinity-sensors for detecting small and/or uncharged molecules of interest in environmental monitoring and health care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The reactants equation of state for the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) based explosive PBX 9502

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq D.

    2017-07-01

    The response of high explosives (HEs), due to mechanical and/or thermal insults, is of great importance for both safety and performance. A major component of how an HE responds to these stimuli stems from its reactant equation of state (EOS). Here, the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene based explosive PBX 9502 is investigated by examining recent experiments. Furthermore, a complete thermal EOS is calibrated based on the functional form devised by Wescott, Stewart, and Davis [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053514 (2005)]. It is found, by comparing to earlier calibrations, that a variety of thermodynamic data are needed to sufficiently constrain the EOS response over a wide range of thermodynamic state space. Included in the calibration presented here is the specific heat as a function of temperature, isobaric thermal expansion, and shock Hugoniot response. As validation of the resulting model, isothermal compression and isentropic compression are compared with recent experiments.

  8. Detection of nitro-based and peroxide-based explosives by fast polarity-switchable ion mobility spectrometer with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Haiyang

    2015-05-29

    Ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been widely deployed for on-site detection of explosives. The common nitro-based explosives are usually detected by negative IMS while the emerging peroxide-based explosives are better detected by positive IMS. In this study, a fast polarity-switchable IMS was constructed to detect these two explosive species in a single measurement. As the large traditional Faraday detector would cause a trailing reactant ion peak (RIP), a Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity was developed by reducing the detector radius to 3.3 mm and increasing the voltage difference between aperture grid and its front guard ring to 591 V, which could remove trailing peaks from RIP without loss of signal intensity. This fast polarity-switchable IMS with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector was employed to detect a mixture of 10 ng 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 50 ng hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) by polarity-switching, and the result suggested that [TNT-H](-) and [HMTD+H](+) could be detected in a single measurement. Furthermore, the removal of trailing peaks from RIP by the Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity also promised the accurate identification of KClO4, KNO3 and S in common inorganic explosives, whose product ion peaks were fairly adjacent to RIP.

  9. Experimental investigation of powerful pulse current generators based on capacitive storage and explosive magnetic generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Zavalova, V. E.; Kozlov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A.; Povareshkin, M. N.; Kozlov, A. A.; Shurupova, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental models of microsecond duration powerful generators of current pulses on the basis of explosive magnetic generators and voltage impulse generator have been developed for the electromagnetic pulse effects on energy facilities to verify their stability. Exacerbation of voltage pulse carried out through the use of electro explosive current interrupter made of copper wires with diameters of 80 and 120 μm. Experimental results of these models investigation are represented. Voltage fronts about 100 ns and the electric field strength of 800 kV/m are registered.

  10. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Edward L.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Jewell, J. Keith; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Klinger, Jeffery B.

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004

  11. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Edward L. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States)]. E-mail: reber@inel.gov; Blackwood, Larry G. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Edwards, Andrew J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Jewell, J. Keith [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Rohde, Kenneth W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Seabury, Edward H. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Klinger, Jeffery B. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  12. Theoretical insight into the solvent effect of H2O and formamide on the cooperativity effect in HMX complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui-Hong; Cao, Xiong; Hu, Shuang-Qi; Hu, Li-Shuang

    2017-08-01

    The cooperativity effects of the H-bonding interactions in HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane)∙∙∙HMX∙∙∙FA (formamide), HMX∙∙∙HMX∙∙∙H 2 O and HMX∙∙∙HMX∙∙∙HMX complexes involving the chair and chair-chair HMX are investigated by using the ONIOM2 (CAM-B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p):PM3) and ONIOM2 (M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p):PM3) methods. The solvent effect of FA or H 2 O on the cooperativity effect in HMX∙∙∙HMX∙∙∙HMX are evaluated by the integral equation formalism polarized continuum model. The results show that the cooperativity and anti-cooperativity effects are not notable in all the systems. Although the effect of solvation on the binding energy of ternary system HMX∙∙∙HMX∙∙∙HMX is not large, that on the cooperativity of H-bonds is notable, which leads to the mutually strengthened H-bonding interaction in solution. This is perhaps the reason for the formation of different conformation of HMX in different solvent. Surface electrostatic potential and reduced density gradient are used to reveal the nature of the solvent effect on cooperativity effect in HMX∙∙∙HMX∙∙∙HMX. Graphical abstract RDG isosurface and electrostatic potential surface of HMX∙∙∙HMX∙∙∙HMX.

  13. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  14. Analysis of compaction shock interactions during DDT of low density HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in confined, low density granular HMX occurs by a complex mechanism that involves compaction shock interactions within the material. Piston driven DDT experiments indicate that detonation is abruptly triggered by the interaction of a strong combustion-supported secondary shock and a piston-supported primary (input) shock, where the nature of the interaction depends on initial packing density and primary shock strength. These interactions influence transition by affecting dissipative heating within the microstructure during pore collapse. Inert meso-scale simulations of successive shock loading of low density HMX are performed to examine how dissipation and hot-spot formation are affected by the initial density, and the primary and secondary shock strengths. This information is used to formulate an ignition and burn model for low density HMX that accounts for the effect of shock densensitization on burn. Preliminary DDT predictions are presented that illustrate how primary shock strength affects the transition mechanism.

  15. Pressure Dependent Decomposition Kinetics of the Energetic Material HMX up to 3.6 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Zaug, J M; Burnham, A K

    2009-05-29

    The effect of pressure on the thermal decomposition rate of the energetic material HMX was studied. HMX was precompressed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and heated at various rates. The parent species population was monitored as a function of time and temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Decomposition rates were determined by fitting the fraction reacted to the extended-Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth model and the Friedman isoconversional method. The results of these experiments and analysis indicate that pressure accelerates the decomposition at low to moderate pressures (i.e. between ambient pressure and 1 GPa) and decelerates the decomposition at higher pressures. The decomposition acceleration is attributed to pressure enhanced autocatalysis whereas the deceleration at high pressures is attributed pressure inhibiting bond homolysis step(s), which would result in an increase in volume. These results indicate that both {beta} and {delta} phase HMX are sensitive to pressure in the thermally induced decomposition kinetics.

  16. Examining the effects of microstructure and loading on the shock initiation of HMX with mesoscale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, H. Keo; Tarver, Craig; Bastea, Sorin

    2015-06-01

    We perform reactive mesoscale simulations to study shock initiation in HMX over a range of pore morphologies and sizes, porosities, and loading conditions in order to improve our understanding of structure-performance relationships. These relationships are important because they guide the development of advanced macroscale models incorporating hot spot mechanisms and the optimization of novel energetic material microstructures. Mesoscale simulations are performed using the multiphysics hydrocode, ALE3D. Spherical, elliptical, polygonal, and crack-like pore geometries 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 microns in size and 2, 5, 10, and 14% porosity are explored. Loading conditions are realized with shock pressures of 6, 10, 20, 38, and 50 GPa. A Cheetah-based tabular model, including temperature-dependent heat capacity, is used for the unreacted and the product equation-of-state. Also, in-line Cheetah is used to probe chemical species evolution. The influence of microstructure and shock loading on shock-to-detonation-transition run distance, reaction rate and product gas species evolution are discussed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work is funded by the Joint DoD-DOE Munitions Program.

  17. Micromechanics-based determination of effective elastic properties of polymer bonded explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Biswajit; Adams, D.O.

    2003-01-01

    Polymer bonded explosives are particulate composites containing a high volume fraction of stiff elastic explosive particles in a compliant viscoelastic binder. Since the volume fraction of particles can be greater than 0.9 and the modulus contrast greater than 20 000, rigorous bounds on the elastic moduli of the composite are an order of magnitude different from experimentally determined values. Analytical solutions are also observed to provide inaccurate estimates of effective elastic properties. Direct finite element approximations of effective properties require large computational resources because of the complexity of the microstructure of these composites. An alternative approach, the recursive cells method (RCM) is also explored in this work. Results show that the degree of discretization and the microstructures used in finite element models of PBXs can significantly affect the estimated Young's moduli

  18. Reliability analysis for thermal cutting method based non-explosive separation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Woo; Hwang, Kuk Ha; Kim, Byung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the reliability of a separation device for a small satellite, a new non-explosive separation device is invented. This device is activated using a thermal cutting method with a Ni-Cr wire. A reliability analysis is carried out for the proposed non-explosive separation device by applying the Fault tree analysis (FTA) method. In the FTA results for the separation device, only ten single-point failure modes are found. The reliability modeling and analysis for the device are performed considering failure of the power supply, the Ni-Cr wire burns failure and unwinds, the holder separation failure, the balls separation failure, and the pin release failure. Ultimately, the reliability of the proposed device is calculated as 0.999989 with five Ni-Cr wire coils

  19. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  20. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-02-18

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  1. Reliability analysis for thermal cutting method based non-explosive separation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Woo; Hwang, Kuk Ha; Kim, Byung Kyu [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In order to increase the reliability of a separation device for a small satellite, a new non-explosive separation device is invented. This device is activated using a thermal cutting method with a Ni-Cr wire. A reliability analysis is carried out for the proposed non-explosive separation device by applying the Fault tree analysis (FTA) method. In the FTA results for the separation device, only ten single-point failure modes are found. The reliability modeling and analysis for the device are performed considering failure of the power supply, the Ni-Cr wire burns failure and unwinds, the holder separation failure, the balls separation failure, and the pin release failure. Ultimately, the reliability of the proposed device is calculated as 0.999989 with five Ni-Cr wire coils.

  2. Analysis of microstructure-dependent shock dissipation and hot-spot formation in granular metalized explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2016-07-01

    Variations in the microstructure of granular explosives (i.e., particle packing density, size, shape, and composition) can affect their shock sensitivity by altering thermomechanical fields at the particle-scale during pore collapse within shocks. If the deformation rate is fast, hot-spots can form, ignite, and interact, resulting in burn at the macro-scale. In this study, a two-dimensional finite and discrete element technique is used to simulate and examine shock-induced dissipation and hot-spot formation within low density explosives (68%-84% theoretical maximum density (TMD)) consisting of large ensembles of HMX (C4H8N8O8) and aluminum (Al) particles (size ˜ 60 -360 μm). Emphasis is placed on identifying how the inclusion of Al influences effective shock dissipation and hot-spot fields relative to equivalent ensembles of neat/pure HMX for shocks that are sufficiently strong to eliminate porosity. Spatially distributed hot-spot fields are characterized by their number density and area fraction enabling their dynamics to be described in terms of nucleation, growth, and agglomeration-dominated phases with increasing shock strength. For fixed shock particle speed, predictions indicate that decreasing packing density enhances shock dissipation and hot-spot formation, and that the inclusion of Al increases dissipation relative to neat HMX by pressure enhanced compaction resulting in fewer but larger HMX hot-spots. Ensembles having bimodal particle sizes are shown to significantly affect hot-spot dynamics by altering the spatial distribution of hot-spots behind shocks.

  3. Explosives and chemical warfare agents - detection and analysis with PTR-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzer, Philipp; Juerschik, Simone; Jaksch, Stefan; Jordan, Alfons; Hanel, Gernot; Hartungen, Eugen; Seehauser, Hans; Maerk, Lukas; Haidacher, Stefan; Schottkowsky, Ralf [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Petersson, Fredrik [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Maerk, Tilmann [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We utilized a recently developed high sensitivity PTR-MS instrument equipped with a high resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer for detailed investigations on explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We show that with this so called PTR-TOF 8000 it is possible to identify solid explosives (RDX, TNT, HMX, PETN and Semtex A) by analyzing the headspace above small quantities of samples at room temperature and from trace quantities not visible to the naked eye placed on surfaces. As the mentioned solid explosives possess very low vapor pressures, the main challenge for detecting them in the gas phase is to provide an instrument with a sufficient sensitivity. CWAs on the other side have very high vapor pressures but are difficult to identify unambiguously as their nominal molecular masses are usually comparably small and therefore hard to distinguish from harmless everyday-compounds (e.g. mustard gas: 159 g/mol). In the present work we demonstrate that we can detect a broad range of dangerous substances, ranging from the CWA mustard gas to the explosive HMX.

  4. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  5. Convolutional neural network based side attack explosive hazard detection in three dimensional voxel radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Blake; Veal, Charlie; Dowdy, Joshua; Anderson, Derek T.; Williams, Kathryn; Luke, Robert; Sheen, David

    2018-04-01

    The identification followed by avoidance or removal of explosive hazards in past and/or present conflict zones is a serious threat for both civilian and military personnel. This is a challenging task as variability exists with respect to the objects, their environment and emplacement context, to name a few factors. A goal is the development of automatic or human-in-the-loop sensor technologies that leverage signal processing, data fusion and machine learning. Herein, we explore the detection of side attack explosive hazards (SAEHs) in three dimensional voxel space radar via different shallow and deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. Dimensionality reduction is performed by using multiple projected images versus the raw three dimensional voxel data, which leads to noteworthy savings in input size and associated network hyperparameters. Last, we explore the accuracy and interpretation of solutions learned via random versus intelligent network weight initialization. Experiments are provided on a U.S. Army data set collected over different times, weather conditions, target types and concealments. Preliminary results indicate that deep learning can perform as good as, if not better, than a skilled domain expert, even in light of limited training data with a class imbalance.

  6. Impact of surface energy on the shock properties of granular explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, X.; Pineau, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the first part of a two-fold molecular dynamics study of the impact of the granularity on the shock properties of high explosives. Recent experimental studies show that the granularity can have a substantial impact on the properties of detonation products {i.e., variations in the size distributions of detonation nanodiamonds [V. Pichot et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2159 (2013)]}. These variations can have two origins: the surface energy, which is a priori enhanced from micro- to nano-scale, and the porosity induced by the granular structure. In this first report, we study the impact of the surface-energy contribution on the inert shock compression of TATB, TNT, α-RDX, and β-HMX nano-grains (triaminotrinitrobenzene, trinitrotoluene, hexogen and octogen, respectively). We compute the radius-dependent surface energy and combine it with an ab initio-based equation of state in order to obtain the resulting shock properties through the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. We find that the enhancement of the surface energy results in a moderate overheating under shock compression. This contribution is minor with respect to porosity, when compared to a simple macroscopic model. This result motivates further atomistic studies on the impact of nanoporosity networks on the shock properties.

  7. Hot spot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shocked HMX crystals with nanovoids: a large-scale reactive molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Lou, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yangeng; Song, Huajie; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-07-14

    We report million-atom reactive molecular dynamic simulations of shock initiation of β-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) single crystals containing nanometer-scale spherical voids. Shock induced void collapse and subsequent hot spot formation as well as chemical reaction initiation are observed which depend on the void size and impact strength. For an impact velocity of 1 km s(-1) and a void radius of 4 nm, the void collapse process includes three stages; the dominant mechanism is the convergence of upstream molecules toward the centerline and the downstream surface of the void forming flowing molecules. Hot spot formation also undergoes three stages, and the principal mechanism is kinetic energy transforming to thermal energy due to the collision of flowing molecules on the downstream surface. The high temperature of the hot spot initiates a local chemical reaction, and the breakage of the N-NO2 bond plays the key role in the initial reaction mechanism. The impact strength and void size have noticeable effects on the shock dynamical process, resulting in a variation of the predominant mechanisms leading to void collapse and hot spot formation. Larger voids or stronger shocks result in more intense hot spots and, thus, more violent chemical reactions, promoting more reaction channels and generating more reaction products in a shorter duration. The reaction products are mainly concentrated in the developed hot spot, indicating that the chemical reactivity of the hmx crystal is greatly enhanced by void collapse. The detailed information derived from this study can aid a thorough understanding of the role of void collapse in hot spot formation and the chemical reaction initiation of explosives.

  8. Graphene oxide-based optical biosensor functionalized with peptides for explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2015-06-15

    A label-free optical biosensor was constructed with biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) for specific detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). By chemically binding TNT-specific peptides with GO, the biosensor gained unique optoelectronic properties and high biological sensitivity, with transducing bimolecular bonding into optical signals. Through UV absorption detection, increasing absorbance responses could be observed in presence of TNT at different concentrations, as low as 4.40×10(-9) mM, and showed dose-dependence and stable behavior. Specific responses of the biosensor were verified with the corporation of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT), which had similar molecular structure to TNT. Thus, with high sensitivity and selectivity, the biosensor provided a convenient approach for detection of explosives as miniaturizing and integrating devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of Nonvolatile Inorganic Oxidizer-Based Explosives from Wipe Collections by Infrared Thermal Desorption-Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Sisco, Edward; Staymates, Matthew

    2018-05-07

    Infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) was coupled with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the detection of both inorganic and organic explosives from wipe collected samples. This platform generated discrete and rapid heating rates that allowed volatile and semivolatile organic explosives to thermally desorb at relatively lower temperatures, while still achieving elevated temperatures required to desorb nonvolatile inorganic oxidizer-based explosives. IRTD-DART-MS demonstrated the thermal desorption and detection of refractory potassium chlorate and potassium perchlorate oxidizers, compounds difficult to desorb with traditional moderate-temperature resistance-based thermal desorbers. Nanogram to sub-nanogram sensitivities were established for analysis of a range of organic and inorganic oxidizer-based explosive compounds, with further enhancement limited by the thermal properties of the most common commercial wipe materials. Detailed investigations and high-speed visualization revealed conduction from the heated glass-mica base plate as the dominant process for heating of the wipe and analyte materials, resulting in thermal desorption through boiling, aerosolization, and vaporization of samples. The thermal desorption and ionization characteristics of the IRTD-DART technique resulted in optimal sensitivity for the formation of nitrate adducts with both organic and inorganic species. The IRTD-DART-MS coupling and IRTD in general offer promising explosive detection capabilities to the defense, security, and law enforcement arenas.

  10. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  11. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  12. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  13. Synthesis and densification of Cu added Fe-based BMG composite powders by gas atomization and electrical explosion of wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.C., E-mail: jckimpml@ulsan.ac.k [University of Ulsan, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H.J.; Kim, J.S. [University of Ulsan, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B.K.; Kim, Y.J. [Department of Powder Materials, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.J. [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-26

    In this study, the Fe-based (Fe-C-Si-B-P-Cr-Mo-Al) BMG powders were produced by the high pressure gas atomization process, and they were combined with the ductile Cu powders produced by the electrical explosion of wire (EEW). The Fe-based amorphous powders and Cu added BMG composite powders were compacted by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes into cylindrical shape. In the SPS press, the as-prepared powders were sintered at 793 K and 843 K. The relative density increased to 98% when the pressure increased up to 500 MPa by optimum control of the SPS process parameters. The micro-Vickers hardness was over 1100 Hv.

  14. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions associated with pneumonia (parapneumonic effusions are one of the most common causes of exudative pleural effusions in the world. Approximately 20 to 40% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia will have an accompanying pleural effusion. The term 'Explosive pleuritis' was originally described by Braman and Donat in 1986 as pleural effusions developing within hours of admission. We report a 38 years old male patient with minimal pleural effusion which progressed rapidly within one day to involve almost whole of the hemithorax. There were multiple loculations on ultrasonography of thorax. Pleural fluid was sero-sanguinous and revealed gram positive diplococcic. The patient improved with antibiotics and pigtail catheter drainage.

  15. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  16. A metal-organic framework based on nanosized hexagonal channels as fluorescent indicator for detection of nitroaromatic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xin-Long; Su, Zhong-Min

    2018-02-01

    A novel Zn-MOF (metal organic framework) [Zn3(NTB)2(DMA)2]·12DMA (NTB = 4,4‧,4″-nitrilotrisbenzoic acid; DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide) (1) was obtained under solvothermal condition. The resulted MOF which is based on {Zn3} SBU displays an interesting (3,6)-connected three-dimensional net with nanosized, hexagonal channels. Additionally, 1 can be a useful fluorescent indicator for the detection of nitroaromatic explosives qualitatively and quantitatively via a strong quenching effect, especially for picric acid (PA). With increasing - NO2 groups, energy transfer from the electron-donating framework to high electron deficiency becomes more, making the effect of fluorescence quenching more obvious. The result demonstrates that the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is responsible for the emission quenching.

  17. The nature and role of trap states in a dendrimer-based organic field-effect transistor explosive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoqiang; Chen, Simon S. Y.; Lee, Kwan H.; Pivrikas, Almantas; Aljada, Muhsen; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Shaw, Paul E.

    2013-06-01

    We report the fabrication and charge transport characterization of carbazole dendrimer-based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) for the sensing of explosive vapors. After exposure to para-nitrotoluene (pNT) vapor, the OFET channel carrier mobility decreases due to trapping induced by the absorbed pNT. The influence of trap states on transport in devices before and after exposure to pNT vapor has been determined using temperature-dependent measurements of the field-effect mobility. These data clearly show that the absorption of pNT vapor into the dendrimer active layer results in the formation of additional trap states. Such states inhibit charge transport by decreasing the density of conducting states.

  18. Effect of Progressive Volume-Based Overload During Plyometric Training on Explosive and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Burgos, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Zapata, Daniel; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Baez, Eduardo I; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Peñailillo, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of progressive volume-based overload with constant volume-based overload on muscle explosive and endurance performance adaptations during a biweekly short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) plyometric training intervention in young soccer players. Three groups of young soccer players (age 13.0 ± 2.3 years) were divided into: control (CG; n = 8) and plyometric training with (PPT; n = 8) and without (NPPT; n = 8) a progressive increase in volume (i.e., 16 jumps per leg per week, with an initial volume of 80 jumps per leg each session). Bilateral and unilateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), 10-m sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) were measured. Although both experimental groups significantly increased CMJA, RSI20, CODS, and endurance performance, only PPT showed a significant improvement in MKV and 10-m sprint time. In addition, only PPT showed a significantly higher performance improvement in jumping, MKV, and Yo-Yo IR1 compared with CG. Also, PPT showed higher meaningful improvement compared with NPPT in all (except 1) jump performance measures. Furthermore, although PPT involved a higher total volume compared with NPPT, training efficiency (i.e., percentage change in performance/total jump volume) was similar between groups. Our results show that PPT and NPPT ensured significant improvement in muscle explosive and endurance performance measures. However, a progressive increase in plyometric training volume seems more advantageous to induce soccer-specific performance improvements.

  19. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Chunjiang; He Yanling; Huang Guohe; Liu Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1 g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  20. Design and fabrication of optical chemical sensor for detection of nitroaromatic explosives based on fluorescence quenching of phenol red immobilized poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ali Reza; Ghazanchayi, Behnam

    2016-04-01

    The present study developed a new optical chemical sensor for detection of nitroaromatic explosives in liquid phase. The method is based on the fluorescence quenching of phenol red as fluorophore in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membrane in the presence of nitroaromatic explosives as quenchers, e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and nitrobenzene (NB). For chemical immobilization of phenol red in PVA, phenol red reacted with formaldehyde to produce hydroxymethyl groups and then attached to PVA membrane through the hydroxymethyl groups. The optical sensor showed strong quenching of nitroaromatic explosives. A Stern-Volmer graph for each explosive was constructed and showed that the range of concentration from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 2.5 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) was linear for each explosive and sensitivity varied as TNB >TNT>2,4-DNT>NB>4-NT. The response time of the sensor was within 1 min. The proposed sensor showed good reversibility and reproducibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vibrational Spectrum of HMX at CO2 Laser Wavelengths: A Combined DRIFT and LPAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Puiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational spectrum of solid standard HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine was investigated. Two spectroscopic techniques were adopted for their different sensitivity and resolution. A preliminary survey of the absorption bands of the compound was performed in the 8000–400 cm−1 spectral range by employing the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT technique at room temperature. The high-resolution line spectrum of HMX was obtained in the 9.2–10.8 μm spectral range by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS method, using a line tuneable 10 W stabilised cw CO2 laser light source. By comparing the data collected with the two techniques in the common frequency range, a very good agreement was observed.

  2. Phytoremediation of explosives in groundwater using innovative wetlands-based treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, F.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Coonrod, H.S.; Phillips, W.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Environmental Research Center; Bader, D.F. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many army ammunition plants across the country have problems with groundwater contaminated with explosives. A field demonstration was initiated at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant near Milan, Tennessee early in 1996 to demonstrate the feasibility of treating contaminated groundwater with constructed wetlands. Two different systems were designed and installed. A lagoon system consisted of two cells in series with each cell having dimensions of 24 x 9.4 x 0.6 m (L x W x H). A gravel-bed system consisted of three gravel-beds operated in series with a primary anaerobic cell having dimensions of 32 x 11 x 1.4 m (L x W x H), followed by a pair of secondary cells each with dimensions of 5.5 x 11 x 1.4 m (L x W x H). The primary cell is maintained anaerobic by adding powdered milk to the water every two weeks. The secondary cells are maintained aerobic via reciprocation, whereby water is pumped back and forth from one cell to another to cause a recurrent fill and drain action. The lagoons were planted with sago pond weed, water stargrass, elodea, and parrot feather. The gravel-bed wetlands were planted with canary grass, wool grass, sweet flag, and parrot feather. Water began flowing to each of the wetland treatment systems at 19 L min{sup {minus}1} starting in June 1996. The design hydraulic retention time through each treatment system was approximately 10 days. Influent and effluent water samples were collected every 2 weeks. Intensive sampling of water interior to the wetlands occurred every 2 months.

  3. Development of a Risk-Based Decision-Support-Model for Protecting an Urban Medical Center from a Nuclear Explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dor, G.; Shohet, I.M.; Ornai, D.; Brosh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear explosion is the worst man-made physical threat on the human society. The nuclear explosion includes several consequences, some of them are immediate and others are long term. The major influences are: long duration blast, extreme thermal release, nuclear radiations, and electro-magnetic pulse (EMP). Their damage range is very wide. When nuclear explosion occurs above or in an urban area it is possible that one or more medical centers will be affected. Medical centers include several layers of structures defined by their resistance capacity to the nuclear explosion influences, beginning with the structure's frame and ending with different systems and with vulnerable medical critical infrastructures such as communications, medical gas supply, etc. A comprehensive literature survey revealed that in spite of the necessity and the importance of medical centers in the daily life and especially in emergency and post nuclear explosion, there is a lack of research on this topic

  4. Assessment of Sampling Error Associated with Collection and Analysis of Soil Samples at a Firing Range Contaminated with HMX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenkins, Thomas F

    1997-01-01

    Short-range and mid-range (grid size) spatial heterogeneity in explosives concentrations within surface soils was studied at an active antitank firing range at the Canadian Force Base-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec...

  5. Determination of TNT explosive based on its selectively interaction with creatinine-capped CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Simonet, Bartolomé M.; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Creatinine-modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots fluorescent probe has been prepared. •This modified QDs has been used for sensing 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene explosive (TNT). •The selectivity of fluorescence quenching of creatinine-QD for TNT has been evaluated. •The potential application of the proposed methodology for the determination of TNT in spiked soils has been demonstrated. -- Abstract: Here, a creatinine-modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots fluorescent probe has been prepared and used for sensing 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene explosive (TNT). The proposed method is based on the selective interaction between creatinine and nitroaromatic compounds according to the well-known Jaffé reaction. The procedure for the synthesis of creatinine-CdSe/ZnS reagent is very simple and reproducible and its fluorescent characteristics are reported. We found that the presence of TNT quenches the original fluorescence of creatinine-QD according to the Stern–Volmer model. Under the working conditions, the calibration plot of I o /I versus concentration of TNT was linear in the range 10–300 μg L −1 (R 2 = 0.996). The mechanism interaction is discussed. The selectivity of fluorescence quenching of creatinine-QD for TNT has been evaluated. Finally, the potential application of the proposed methodology for the determination of TNT in spiked soils is demonstrated. For the analysis of soil samples a solid-liquid extraction is carried out and a four-point standard addition protocol is used to correct the matrix effect. The method, which is simple and rapid, allows the detection of 0.057 μg g −1 of TNT in soil samples. This sensor could be a useful tool for environmental studies, a crucial topic for nanotechnology nowadays

  6. Quasi-dynamic pressure and temperature initiated βδ solid phase transitions in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, Joseph M.; Farber, Daniel L.; Craig, Ian M.; Blosch, Laura L.; Shuh, David K.; Hansen, Donald W.; Aracne-Ruddle, Chantel M.

    2000-04-01

    The phase transformation of β-HMX (>0.5% RDX) to δ phase has been studied for over twenty years and more recently with an high-contrast optical second harmonic generation technique. Shock studies of the plastic binder composites of HMX have indicated that the transition is perhaps irreversible, a result that concurs with the static pressure results published by F. Goetz et al. [1] in 1978. However, the stability field favors the β polymorph over δ as pressure is increased (up to 5.4 GPa) along any thermodynamically reasonable isotherm. In this experiment, strict control of pressure and temperature is maintained while x-ray and optical diagnostics are applied to monitor the conformational dynamics of HMX. Unlike the temperature induced β→δ transition, the pressure induced is heterogeneous in nature. The 1 bar 25 °C δ→β transition is not immediate, occuring over tens of hours. Transition points and kinetics are path dependent and consequently this paper describes our work in progress.

  7. Explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-04-01

    An explosive composition containing ammonium nitrate consists of (1) from 40 to 75 Pt. by wt of particulate ammonium nitrate, (2) from 20 to 35 Pt. by wt of a solution selected from the group consisting of aqueous magnesium nitrate, aqueous ammonium nitrate and aqueous ammoniacal ammonium nitrate; and (3) at least 2 Pt. by wt of a setting agent selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal oxides, zinc oxide, lead monoxide, calcined dolomitic limestone, anhydrous calcium sulfate, anhydrous magnesium sulfate, anhydrous sodium tetrapyrophosphate and anhydrous sodium thiosulfate. The setting agent is further characterized in setting the composition to a solid material which contains solvent used in the liquid phase. (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  8. Explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slykhouse, T E

    1968-05-09

    An ammonium nitrate explosive composition is characterized in that it contains from 40 to 75 parts by wt of particulate ammonium nitrate, from 20 to 35 parts by wt of a solution selected from the group consisting of aqueous magnesium nitrate, aqueous ammonium nitrate, and aqueous ammoniacal ammonium nitrate. It also contains at least 2 parts by wt of a setting agent selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal oxides, zinc oxide, lead monoxide, calcined dolomitic limestone, substantially anhydrous calcium sulfate, substantially anhydrous magnesium sulfate, substantially anhydrous sodium tetrapyrophosphate and substantially anhydrous sodium thiosulfate. The setting agent is further characterized in that it sets the composition to a solid material which contains solvent used in the liquid phase. (12 claims)

  9. Slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-08-23

    A slurry explosive is comprised of (1) a composition consisting of ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate; or an alkaline earth metal nitrate; or an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate; at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels; and water; (2) 0.1 to 2.0% of guar gum; (3) between 0% and 0.3% of a sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium borate; and greater than 0% but not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine; and (4) 0.02 to 2.0% of antimony potassium tartarate, antimony trioxide, antimony trisulfide or a mixture of these antimony compounds, % by wt.

  10. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. [[Page 64247

  11. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  12. A test to measure the minimum burning pressure of water-based commercial explosives and their precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, R.; Feng, H.; Badeen, C.M.; Goldthorp, S.; Johnson, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory; Chan, S.K. [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, PQ (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    This paper described a testing protocol developed to measure the minimum burning pressure (MBP) of ammonium nitrate water-based emulsions (AWEs). Oxidizer solutions were prepared in a stainless steel beaker. A modified commercial mixer was used to emulsify the oil-surfactant phase with the oxidizer solutions and blend dry ingredients. Five high water content AWEs were then prepared and placed in pressurized vessels. Samples were ignited using a straight length of nichrome wire. Emulsion samples were transferred into a cylindrical test cell painted with non-conductive paint. Copper conductor leg-wires were connected to electrodes passing through the body of the vessel. When samples were equilibrated to the desired initial pressure, a constant current was supplied to the hot wire. Solid state relays were used to switch the current power supply on and off. Hot wire voltage signals were used to obtain temperature profiles for onset and ignition temperatures. The procedure to perform the MBP measurements was based on 3 types of classifying events, namely (1) no reaction, (2) partial reaction, and (3) slow decomposition. Results of the tests demonstrated that the 5 emulsions exhibited large differences in respective MBP values. Data from the study will be used to develop standards for the authorization of high explosives in Canada. 15 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  13. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a noise reduction program of a prompt gamma spectrum based on principal component analysis for an explosive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Im, Hee Jung; Song, Byung ChoI; Park, Yong Joon; Kim, Won Ho; Cho, Jung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates a developed program to reduce noises of a prompt gamma-ray spectrum measured by irradiating neutrons into baggage. The noises refer to random variations mainly caused by electrical fluctuations and also by a measurement time. Especially, since the short measurement time yields such a noisy spectrum in which its special peak can not be observed, it is necessary to extract its characteristic signals from the spectrum to identify an explosive hidden in luggage. Principal component analysis(PCA) that is a multivariate statistical technique is closely related to singular value decomposition(SVD). The SVD-based PCA decreases the noise by reconstructing the spectrum after determining the number of principal components corresponding important signals based on the history data that sufficiently describe its population. In this study, we present a visualized program of the above procedure using the MATLAB 7.04 programming language. When our program is started, it requires an arbitrary measured spectrum to be reduced and history spectra as input files. If user selects the files with menu, our program automatically carries out the PCA procedure and provides its noise-reduced spectrum plot as well as the original spectrum plot into an output window. In addition, user can obtain signal-to-noise ratio of an interesting peak by defining the peak and noise ranges with menu

  15. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  16. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  17. Effects of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials on the thermal decomposition, burning rate, and explosive heat of ammonium perchlorate-based composite solid propellant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leili; Li, Jie; Zhang, Lingyao; Tian, Siyu

    2018-01-15

    MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 were prepared, and their structure and hydrogen storage properties were determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal analyzer. The effects of MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 on the thermal decomposition, burning rate, and explosive heat of ammonium perchlorate-based composite solid propellant were subsequently studied. Results indicated that MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 can decrease the thermal decomposition peak temperature and increase the total released heat of decomposition. These compounds can improve the effect of thermal decomposition of the propellant. The burning rates of the propellant increased using Mg-based hydrogen storage materials as promoter. The burning rates of the propellant also increased using MgH 2 instead of Al in the propellant, but its explosive heat was not enlarged. Nonetheless, the combustion heat of MgH 2 was higher than that of Al. A possible mechanism was thus proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. EARS: An Online Bibliographic Search and Retrieval System Based on Ordered Explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, R.; Drury, Colin G.

    1987-01-01

    Provides overview of Ergonomics Abstracts Retrieval System (EARS), an online bibliographic search and retrieval system in the area of human factors engineering. Other online systems are described, the design of EARS based on inverted file organization is explained, and system expansions including a thesaurus are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  19. A novel method for the measurement of the von Neumann spike in detonating high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollier, A.; Bouyer, V.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in T2 (97 wt. % TATB) and TX1 (52 wt. % TATB and 45 wt. % HMX) high explosives. The experiments consisted in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. Free surface velocity wave profiles were measured at the explosive/air interface using a Photon Doppler Velocimetry system. We demonstrate that a comparison of these free surface wave profiles with those measured at explosive/window interfaces in similar conditions allows to bracket the von Neumann spike in a narrow range. For T2, our measurements show that the spike pressure lies between 35.9 and 40.1 GPa, whereas for TX1, it lies between 42.3 and 47.0 GPa. The numerical simulations performed in support to these measurements show that they can be used to calibrate reactive burn models and also to check the accuracy of the detonation products equation of state at low pressure.

  20. Fessibility Study on Nitrogen in Explosives using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Chemical Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dararutana, P.

    2014-01-01

    It was known that an explosive is defined as a material which contains a large amount of energy stored in chemical bonds. The energetic stability of gaseous products, and hence, their generation come from the strong bond formation of carbon (mono/di)oxide and (di)nitrogen. Consequently, most commercial explosives are contained -NO 2 , -ONO 2 and/or -NHNO 2 groups which when detonated release gases like the aforementioned ones, e.g., nitroglycerin, TNT, HMX, PETN, nitrocellulose, etc. It was revealed that the elemental compositions, especially N was found in most of the explosive and fertilizer. Chemical fertilizers that used as explosive stimulants were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). XPS spectra showed relatively high amount of nitrogen (N) in the various samples, especially sample #6 and #7. In addition, the elemental analysis revealed the presence of trace elements. Explosives and fertilizers have differences in specific compositions. It can be concluded that these methods seem to be used as a fingerprint examination to identify various kinds of explosives and fertilizers.

  1. In Situ Imaging during Compression of Plastic Bonded Explosives for Damage Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia W. Manner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs is known to influence behavior during mechanical deformation, but characterizing the microstructure can be challenging. For example, the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient X-ray contrast to obtain three-dimensional data by in situ, absorption contrast imaging. To address this difficulty, we have formulated a series of PBXs using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX crystals and low-density binder systems. The binders were hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB or glycidyl azide polymer (GAP cured with a commercial blend of acrylic monomers/oligomers. The binder density is approximately half of the HMX, allowing for excellent contrast using in situ X-ray computed tomography (CT imaging. The samples were imaged during unaxial compression using micro-scale CT in an interrupted in situ modality. The rigidity of the binder was observed to significantly influence fracture, crystal-binder delamination, and flow. Additionally, 2D slices from the segmented 3D images were meshed for finite element simulation of the mesoscale response. At low stiffness, the binder and crystal do not delaminate and the crystals move with the material flow; at high stiffness, marked delamination is noted between the crystals and the binder, leading to very different mechanical properties. Initial model results exhibit qualitatively similar delamination.

  2. In-Situ Monitoring of the Microstructure of TATB-based Explosive Formulations During Temperature Cycling using Ultra-small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; Hoffman, D M; van Buuren, T; Lauderbach, L; Ilavsky, J; Gee, R H; Maiti, A; Overturf, G; Fried, L

    2008-02-06

    TATB (1,3,5 triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), an extremely insensitive explosive, is used both in plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) and as an ultra-fine pressed powder (UFTATB). With both PBXs and UFTATB, an irreversible expansion occurs with temperature cycling known as ratchet growth. In TATB-based explosives using Kel-F 800 as binder (LX-17 and PBX-9502), additional voids, sizes hundreds of nanometers to a few microns account for much of the volume expansion caused by temperature cycling. These voids are in the predicted size regime for hot-spot formation during ignition and detonation, and thus an experimental measure of these voids is important feedback for hot-spot theory and for determining the relationship between void size distributions and detonation properties. Also, understanding the mechanism of ratchet growth allows future choice of explosive/binder mixtures to minimize these types of changes to explosives, further extending PBX shelf life. This paper presents the void size distributions of LX-17, UFTATB, and PBXs using commercially available Cytop M, Cytop A, and Hyflon AD60 binders during temperature cycling between -55 C and 70 C. These void size distributions are derived from ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), a technique sensitive to structures from about 10 nm to about 2 mm. Structures with these sizes do not appreciably change in UFTATB, indicating voids or cracks larger than a few microns appear in UFTATB during temperature cycling. Compared to Kel-F 800 binders, Cytop M and Cytop A show relatively small increases in void volume from 0.9% to 1.3% and 0.6% to 1.1%, respectively, while Hyflon fails to prevent irreversible volume expansion (1.2% to 4.6%). Computational mesoscale models of ratchet growth and binder wetting and adhesion properties point to mechanisms of ratchet growth, and are discussed in combination with the experimental results.

  3. Identification of Metabolic Routes and Catabolic Enzymes Involved in Phytoremediation of the Nitro-Substituted Explosives TNT, RDX, and HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-31

    from various well-studied spermatophyte plants species (e.g., A. thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa). The two P. trichocarpa housekeeping genes used as...Nitrate oxidoreductase from Aspergillus niger. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 3104-3108. Bhushan, B., Trott, S., Spain, J. C., Halasz, A., Pacquet, L

  4. The explosive cathode on the base of carbon-fibrous plastic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Baranov, A.M.; Kostyuchenko, S.V.; Chernenko, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    Production process of exploseve cathodes on the base of carbon-fibrous plastic material of any geometric form and size is discussed. Experimental study of current take-off from cathodes with diameter 2 cm of 10 kV and 150-250 kV voltage are given. It is shown that ignition voltage of cathode plasma is 2 kV with 5 mm gap electrode of diode and 5 ·10 -5 Tor pressure of residual gas. It is shown that carbon-fibrous cathode, made by this technology, provides more stable current take-off electron beam (withoud oscillations) in comparison with other cathodes

  5. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  6. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  7. Combustion synthesis and catalytic activity of LaCoO{sub 3} for HMX thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Zhi-Xian; Chi, Ying-Nan [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology (China); Hu, Chang-Wen [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science, Technology Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Liu, Hai-Yan [Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, North China University, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    2009-10-15

    Perovskite-type LaCoO{sub 3} was prepared by stearic acid solution combustion method and characterized by XRD, DSC-TG, and XPS techniques. The catalytic activities of LaCoO{sub 3} for HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) thermal decomposition were investigated. The as-prepared LaCoO{sub 3} shows higher activity than the calcined one. This could be due to higher concentration of surface-adsorbed oxygen and hydroxyl species as well as higher BET surface area of the as-prepared LaCoO{sub 3}. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Near infrared optical biosensor based on peptide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrids for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2018-06-01

    A near infrared (NIR) optical biosensor based on peptide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrids for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection was developed. The TNT binding peptide was directly anchored on the sidewall of the SWCNTs using the π-π interaction between the aromatic amino acids and SWCNTs, forming the peptide-SWCNTs hybrids for near infrared absorption spectra measurement. The evidence of the morphology of peptide-SWCNTs hybrids was obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that peptide-SWCNTs hybrids based NIR optical biosensor exhibited sensitive and highly selective for TNT explosive determination, addressing a promising optical biosensor for security application. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Thermal chemical-mechanical reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.L. III; Tarver, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The three dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic computer code ALE3D with fully coupled thermal-chemical-mechanical material models provides the framework for the development of a physically realistic model of shock initiation and detonation of solid explosives. The processes of hot spot formation during shock compression, subsequent ignition of reaction or failure to react, growth of reaction in individual hot spots, and coalescence of reacting hot spots during the transition to detonation can now be modeled using Arrhenius chemical kinetic rate laws and heat transfer to propagate the reactive flow. This paper discusses the growth rates of reacting hot spots in HMX and TATB and their coalescence during shock to detonation transition. Hot spot deflagration rates are found to be fast enough to consume explosive particles less than 10 mm in diameter during typical shock duration times, but larger particles must fragment and create more reactive surface area in order to be rapidly consumed

  10. Mathematical modelling of the decomposition of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev P

    2010-01-01

    Studies on mathematical modelling of the molecular and supramolecular structures of explosives and the elementary steps and overall processes of their decomposition are analyzed. Investigations on the modelling of combustion and detonation taking into account the decomposition of explosives are also considered. It is shown that solution of problems related to the decomposition kinetics of explosives requires the use of a complex strategy based on the methods and concepts of chemical physics, solid state physics and theoretical chemistry instead of empirical approach.

  11. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  12. W17_geonuc “Application of the Spectral Element Method to improvement of Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rougier, Esteban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lei, Zhou [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-15

    This project is in support of the Source Physics Experiment SPE (Snelson et al. 2013), which aims to develop new seismic source models of explosions. One priority of this program is first principle numerical modeling to validate and extend current empirical models.

  13. The sensitivity studies of a landmine explosive detection system based on neutron backscattering using Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hamda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a Monte Carlo simulation of a landmine detection system, using the MCNP5 code, for the detection of concealed explosives such as trinitrotoluene and cyclonite. In portable field detectors, the signal strength of backscattered neutrons and gamma rays from thermal neutron activation is sensitive to a number of parameters such as the mass of explosive, depth of concealment, neutron moderation, background soil composition, soil porosity, soil moisture, multiple scattering in the background material, and configuration of the detection system. In this work, a detection system, with BF3 detectors for neutrons and sodium iodide scintillator for g-rays, is modeled to investigate the neutron signal-to-noise ratio and to obtain an empirical formula for the photon production rate Ri(n,γ= SfGfMf(d,m from radiative capture reactions in constituent nuclides of trinitrotoluene. This formula can be used for the efficient landmine detection of explosives in quantities as small as ~200 g of trinitrotoluene concealed at depths down to about 15 cm. The empirical formula can be embedded in a field programmable gate array on a field-portable explosives' sensor for efficient online detection.

  14. Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely A. Quina

    2012-11-01

    Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM, whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ∼410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ∼80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ∼500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear

  15. Calculating overpressure from BLEVE explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas-Cuchi, E.; Casal, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Technological Risk Studies; Salla, J.M. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Department of Heat Engines

    2004-11-01

    Although a certain number of authors have analyzed the prediction of boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) and fireball effects, only very few of them have proposed methodologies for predicting the overpressure from such explosions. In this paper, the methods previously published are discussed and shown to introduce a significant overestimation due to erroneous thermodynamic assumptions - ideal gas behaviour and isentropic vapour expansion - on which they are based (in fact, they give the maximum value of overpressure which can be caused by a BLEVE). A new approach is proposed, based on the - more realistic - assumption of an adiabatic and irreversible expansion process; the real properties of the substance involved in the explosion are used. The two methods are compared through the application to a given case. (author)

  16. Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on the Ecosystem of Old ... intensity and temperature of explosive dissolution in the mine environment shows that TNT ... based on their physical/chemical properties as: gelatin.

  17. Treatment of RDX & HMX Plumes Using Mulch Biowalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    BAK Benzalkonium chloride BGS Below Ground Surface BRAC Base Realignment and Closure CHAAP Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant CDPHE Colorado...Metabolism, and Reductive Transformation of RDX .............................................................. 9  Figure 4. Plan View Schematic of...43  Figure 17. Oxidation- reduction Potential (ORP) Measurement Averaged Over Different Well- rows

  18. 3-D Velocity Model of the Coachella Valley, Southern California Based on Explosive Shots from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed explosive shot data from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) across a 2-D seismic array and 5 profiles in the Coachella Valley to produce a 3-D P-wave velocity model that will be used in calculations of strong ground shaking. Accurate maps of seismicity and active faults rely both on detailed geological field mapping and a suitable velocity model to accurately locate earthquakes. Adjoint tomography of an older version of the SCEC 3-D velocity model shows that crustal heterogeneities strongly influence seismic wave propagation from moderate earthquakes (Tape et al., 2010). These authors improve the crustal model and subsequently simulate the details of ground motion at periods of 2 s and longer for hundreds of ray paths. Even with improvements such as the above, the current SCEC velocity model for the Salton Trough does not provide a match of the timing or waveforms of the horizontal S-wave motions, which Wei et al. (2013) interpret as caused by inaccuracies in the shallow velocity structure. They effectively demonstrate that the inclusion of shallow basin structure improves the fit in both travel times and waveforms. Our velocity model benefits from the inclusion of known location and times of a subset of 126 shots detonated over a 3-week period during the SSIP. This results in an improved velocity model particularly in the shallow crust. In addition, one of the main challenges in developing 3-D velocity models is an uneven stations-source distribution. To better overcome this challenge, we also include the first arrival times of the SSIP shots at the more widely spaced Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) in our inversion, since the layout of the SSIP is complementary to the SCSN. References: Tape, C., et al., 2010, Seismic tomography of the Southern California crust based on spectral-element and adjoint methods: Geophysical Journal International, v. 180, no. 1, p. 433-462. Wei, S., et al., 2013, Complementary slip distributions

  19. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of “neat-pressed” polycrystalline TATB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Darby J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-08

    We detail a modeling approach to simulate the anisotropic thermal expansion of polycrystalline (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) TATB-based explosives that utilizes microstructural information including porosity, crystal aspect ratio, and processing-induced texture. This report, the first in a series, focuses on nonlinear thermal expansion of “neat-pressed” polycrystalline TATB specimens which do not contain any binder; additional complexities related to polymeric binder and irreversible ratcheting behavior are briefly discussed, however detailed investigation of these aspects are deferred to subsequent reports. In this work we have, for the first time, developed a mesoscale continuum model relating the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB specimens to their microstructural characteristics. A self-consistent homogenization procedure is used to relate macroscopic thermoelastic response to the constitutive behavior of single-crystal TATB. The model includes a representation of grain aspect ratio, porosity, and crystallographic texture attributed to the consolidation process. A quantitative model is proposed to describe the evolution of preferred orientation of graphitic planes in TATB during consolidation and an algorithm constructed to develop a discrete representation of the associated orientation distribution function. Analytical and numerical solutions using this model are shown to produce textures consistent with previous measurements and characterization for isostatic and uniaxial “die-pressed” specimens. Predicted thermal strain versus temperature for textured specimens are shown to be in agreement with corresponding experimental measurements. Using the developed modeling approach, several simulations have been run to investigate the influence of microstructure on macroscopic thermal expansion behavior. Results from these simulations are used to identify qualitative trends. Implications of the identified trends are discussed in the context of

  20. The Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry: A Domino Effect-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri , Farid; Chatelet , E.; Lallement , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the field of risks analysis, the domino effect has been documented in technical literature since 1947. The accidents caused by the domino effect are the most destructive accidents related to industrial plants. Fire and explosion are among the most frequent primary accidents for a domino effect due to the units under pressure and the storage of flammable and dangerous substances. Heat radiation and overpressure are one of major factors leading to domino effect on ind...

  1. A COMPARISON OF THERMAL EXPLOSIONS IN PBX 9501 AND PBXN-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.

    2009-01-01

    We have used a variety of observables to study the response of HMX based energetic materials formulations to thermal stimuli. In this paper, we compare the response of PBX 9501 and PBXN-9 to a temperature of 205 deg. C. Both undergo thermal runaway at this boundary condition with similar preignition behavior. However, the post-ignition burn propagations of the two formulations are very different with the final reaction violence significantly lower for PBXN-9 than for PBX 9501.

  2. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  3. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  4. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU fP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estïmate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  5. New high-nitrogen materials based on nitroguanyl-tetrazines: explosive properties, thermal decomposition and combustion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Hiskey, Michael A.; Son, Steve F.; Harry, Herbert; Montoya, Dennis; Hagelberg, Stephanie [Dynamic Experimentation Division, DX-2 Materials Dynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the explosive sensitivity and performance properties of two novel high-nitrogen materials, 3,6-bis-nitroguanyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (1, (NQ{sub 2}Tz)) and its corresponding bis-triaminoguanidinium salt (2, (TAG){sub 2}(NQ){sub 2}Tz). These materials exhibit very low pressure dependence in burning rate. Flash pyrolysis/FTIR spectroscopy was performed, and insight into this interesting burning behavior was obtained. Our studies indicate that 1 and 2 exhibit highly promising energetic materials properties. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  7. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  8. Chernobyl explosion bombshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is suggested that the explosion at the Chernobyl-4 reactor in April 1986 was a nuclear explosion. The evidence for this is examined. The sequence of events at Chernobyl is looked at to see if the effects were like those from a nuclear explosion. The question of whether a United Kingdom reactor could go prompt critical is discussed. It is concluded that prompt criticality excursions are possible, but the specific Chernobyl sequence is impossible. (UK)

  9. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  10. Coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of high explosives under different rubbing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y Q; Chaudhri, M Munawar

    2013-01-01

    The coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of commonly used high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and beta-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) under several rubbing configurations and at a relative sliding speed of 0.22 mm s -1 were measured. The sliding configurations were (1) crystal-polished steel pairs, (2) like-crystal pairs and (3) unlike-crystal pairs. For every rubbing configuration the friction force showed oscillations, which are thought to be caused by the formation and shearing of the adhesive junctions formed at the surface of the rubbing crystals. This shearing of the adhesive junctions led to the formation of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles, which were confirmed by an environmental scanning electron microscope study. For every rubbing configuration and for relatively high normal loads pressing the rubbing crystals together, the coefficient of friction was generally in the range 0.2-0.25 and it has been concluded that the coefficient of friction is controlled by the adhesion with almost negligible contribution from the ploughing component. From a knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the uniaxial yield stress values of single crystals of RDX and β-HMX, the shear strength of these crystals were determined to be ∼13.4 MPa and ∼16.8 MPa, respectively.

  11. Ignition criterion for heterogeneous energetic materials based on hotspot size-temperature threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, A.; Kim, S.; Horie, Y.; Zhou, M.

    2013-02-01

    A criterion for the ignition of granular explosives (GXs) and polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) under shock and non-shock loading is developed. The formulation is based on integration of a quantification of the distributions of the sizes and locations of hotspots in loading events using a cohesive finite element method (CFEM) developed recently and the characterization by Tarver et al. [C. M. Tarver et al., "Critical conditions for impact- and shock-induced hot spots in solid explosives," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 5794-5799 (1996)] of the critical size-temperature threshold of hotspots required for chemical ignition of solid explosives. The criterion, along with the CFEM capability to quantify the thermal-mechanical behavior of GXs and PBXs, allows the critical impact velocity for ignition, time to ignition, and critical input energy at ignition to be determined as functions of material composition, microstructure, and loading conditions. The applicability of the relation between the critical input energy (E) and impact velocity of James [H. R. James, "An extension to the critical energy criterion used to predict shock initiation thresholds," Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 21, 8-13 (1996)] for shock loading is examined, leading to a modified interpretation, which is sensitive to microstructure and loading condition. As an application, numerical studies are undertaken to evaluate the ignition threshold of granular high melting point eXplosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,2,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX) and HMX/Estane PBX under loading with impact velocities up to 350 ms-1 and strain rates up to 105 s-1. Results show that, for the GX, the time to criticality (tc) is strongly influenced by initial porosity, but is insensitive to grain size. Analyses also lead to a quantification of the differences between the responses of the GXs and PBXs in terms of critical impact velocity for ignition, time to ignition, and critical input energy at ignition. Since the framework permits

  12. Predicting stability limits for pure and doped dicationic noble gas clusters undergoing coulomb explosion: A parallel tempering based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Sankar; Chaudhury, Pinaki

    2018-05-30

    We have used a replica exchange Monte-Carlo procedure, popularly known as Parallel Tempering, to study the problem of Coulomb explosion in homogeneous Ar and Xe dicationic clusters as well as mixed Ar-Xe dicationic clusters of varying sizes with different degrees of relative composition. All the clusters studied have two units of positive charges. The simulations reveal that in all the cases there is a cutoff size below which the clusters fragment. It is seen that for the case of pure Ar, the value is around 95 while that for Xe it is 55. For the mixed clusters with increasing Xe content, the cutoff limit for suppression of Coulomb explosion gradually decreases from 95 for a pure Ar to 55 for a pure Xe cluster. The hallmark of this study is this smooth progression. All the clusters are simulated using the reliable potential energy surface developed by Gay and Berne (Gay and Berne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1982, 49, 194). For the hetero clusters, we have also discussed two different ways of charge distribution, that is one in which both positive charges are on two Xe atoms and the other where the two charges are at a Xe atom and at an Ar atom. The fragmentation patterns observed by us are such that single ionic ejections are the favored dissociating pattern. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evolution of Carbon Clusters in the Detonation Products of the Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB)-Based Explosive PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Erik B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Velizhanin, Kirill A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Dattelbaum, Dana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Gustavsen, Richard L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Aslam, Tariq D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Podlesak, David W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Huber, Rachel C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Firestone, Millicent A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Ringstrand, Bryan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, United States; Willey, Trevor M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States; Bagge-Hansen, Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States; Hodgin, Ralph [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States; Lauderbach, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States; van Buuren, Tony [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States; Sinclair, Nicholas [Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States; Seifert, Soenke [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Gog, Thomas [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States

    2017-10-05

    The detonation of carbon-rich high explosives yields solid carbon as a major constituent of the product mixture and, depending on the thermodynamic conditions behind the shock front, a variety of carbon allotropes and morphologies may form and evolve. We applied time-resolved small angle x-ray scattering (TR-SAXS) to investigate the dynamics of carbon clustering during detonation of PBX 9502, an explosive composed of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and 5 wt% fluoropolymer binder. Solid carbon formation was probed from 0.1 to 2.0 μs behind the detonation front and revealed rapid carbon cluster growth which reached a maximum after ~200 ns. The late-time carbon clusters had a radius of gyration of 3.3 nm which is consistent with 8.4 nm diameter spherical particles and matched particle sizes of recovered products. Simulations using a clustering kinetics model were found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements of cluster growth when invoking a freeze-out temperature, and temporal shift associated with the initial precipitation of solid carbon. Product densities from reactive flow models were compared to the electron density contrast obtained from TR-SAXS and used to approximate the carbon cluster composition as a mixture of 20% highly ordered (diamond-like) and 80% disordered carbon forms, which will inform future product equation of state models for solid carbon in PBX 9502 detonation product mixtures.

  14. An examination of Southwest Pacific explosive cyclones, 1989 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, M T; Pezza, A B; Kreft, P

    2010-01-01

    This study has assembled a climatology of Southwest Pacific explosively developing cyclones, based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' ERA-Interim reanalysis data, over the 21-year period from 1989 to 2009. The recently developed 'combined explosive' expression, a refinement of the 'relative explosive' criterion, was used to identify cyclones deemed explosive with respect to both the drop in central pressure and the climatological pressure gradient. Over the period of analysis, 47 explosive cyclones were identified within the Southwest Pacific, equating to an average of 2.2 explosive events per year. Seasonally, explosive cyclones are most frequent during the winter months, while least frequent during the summer. Two case explosive systems are briefly considered, with their corresponding measures of intensity and scale placed into climatological perspective.

  15. Design and construction of an explosive detection system by Tna methods, using 252Cf radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli Farsouli, A.

    1999-01-01

    Bombs concealed in luggage have threatened human life and property throughout the world's traffic. The plastic explosives could not checked by the X-ray detecting device. Thermal Neutron Activation method has been tested in the present work for non-destructive detection of explosives. A radioisotope neutron source 252 Cf and two gamma spectroscopy systems have been used as a tool to find explosives, regardless of the bomb's shape and the packing materials. The MCNP code has been used to design the neutronic section of the system. The measured thermal neutron fluxes by the gold foils in some location of the system were in good agreement with those data obtained by the MCNP code. Also, detection limits for nitrogen in various counting times were measured. The measurements show that the system is capable to detect 417 gr of HMX explosive material (158 gr nitrogen) by 10 minutes of counting time. To modify the system and to decrease the detection limits some opinions are given

  16. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  17. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10 6 M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints

  18. Comprehensive Characterization of Voids and Microstructure in TATB-based Explosives from 10 nm to 1 cm: Effects of Temperature Cycling and Compressive Creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; Lauderbach, L; Gagliardi, F; Cunningham, B; Lorenz, K T; Lee, J I; van Buuren, T; Call, R; Landt, L; Overturf, G

    2010-02-26

    This paper outlines the characterization of voids and Microstructure in TATB-based Explosives over several orders of magnitude, from sizes on the order of 10 nm to about 1 cm. This is accomplished using ultra small angle x-ray scattering to investigate voids from a few nm to a few microns, ultra small angle neutron scattering for voids from 100 nm to 10 microns, and x-ray computed microtomography to investigate microstructure from a few microns to a few centimeters. The void distributions of LX-17 are outlined, and the microstructure of LX-17 is presented. Temperature cycling and compressive creep cause drastically different damage to the microstructure. Temperature cycling leads to a volume expansion (ratchet growth) in TATB-based explosives, and x-ray scattering techniques that are sensitive to sizes up to a few microns indicated changes to the void volume distribution that had previously accounted for most, but not all of the change in density. This paper presents the microstructural damage larger than a few microns caused by ratchet growth. Temperature cycling leads to void creation in the binder poor regions associated with the interior portion of formulated prills. Conversely, compressive creep causes characteristically different changes to microstructure; fissures form at binder-rich prill boundaries prior to mechanical failure.

  19. Ignition and Growth Modeling of Detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% VITON) Using New and Previously Obtained Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Craig

    2017-06-01

    An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% Viton) was developed using new and previously obtained experimental data on: cylinder test expansion; wave curvature; failure diameter; and laser interferometric copper and tantalum foil free surface velocities and LiF interface particle velocity histories. A reaction product JWL EOS generated by the CHEETAH code compared favorably with the existing, well normalized LX-04 product JWL when both were used with the Ignition and Growth model. Good agreement with all existing experimental data was obtained. Keywords: LX-04, HMX, detonation, Ignition and Growth PACS:82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  1. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  2. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  3. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Electron source with the explosion-emission cathode on the base of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two electron sources with explosion-emission cathode on the basis of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x ceramics are described. The scheme of electron gun for formation of electron beams of microsecond length consists of vacuum chamber, flow-passage insulator and cathode with ceramic emitter. The pulse duration by 600 kV voltage equals 1 μs. The split anode, two short magnetic lenses and Rogovsky belt are used for production of low-energy beams. The nanosecond electrical beams with energy of 10-25 keV were produced through this electron source. The beam cross-sectional non-uniformity did not exceed 5% by the beam diameter of 1 cm. 11 refs., 4 figs

  5. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  6. Underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Gary H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  7. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.

    1970-01-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  8. Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J L

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

  9. EVENT, Explosive Transients in Flow Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrae, R.W.; Tang, P.K.; Bolstad, J.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: A major concern of the chemical, nuclear, and mining industries is the occurrence of an explosion in one part of a facility and subsequent transmission of explosive effects through the ventilation system. An explosive event can cause performance degradation of the ventilation system or even structural failures. A more serious consequence is the release of hazardous materials to the environment if vital protective devices such as air filters, are damaged. EVENT was developed to investigate the effects of explosive transients through fluid-flow networks. Using the principles of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, governing equations for the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum are formulated. These equations are applied to the complete network subdivided into two general components: nodes and branches. The nodes represent boundaries and internal junctions where the conservation of mass and energy applies. The branches can be ducts, valves, blowers, or filters. Since in EVENT the effect of the explosion, not the characteristics of the explosion itself, is of interest, the transient is simulated in the simplest possible way. A rapid addition of mass and energy to the system at certain locations is used. This representation is adequate for all of the network except the region where the explosion actually occurs. EVENT84 is a modification of EVENT which includes a new explosion chamber model subroutine based on the NOL BLAST program developed at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland. This subroutine calculates the confined explosion near-field parameters and supplies the time functions of energy and mass injection. Solid-phase or TNT-equivalent explosions (which simulate 'point source' explosions in nuclear facilities) as well as explosions in gas-air mixtures can be simulated. The four types of explosions EVENT84 simulates are TNT, hydrogen in air, acetylene in air, and tributyl phosphate (TBP or 'red oil

  10. Chapter 2. Peculiarities of radioactive particle formation and isotope fractionation resulted from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive particles, forming terrain fallouts from underground nuclear explosion differ sufficiently from radioactive particles, produced by atmospheric nuclear explosions. Patterns of underground nuclear explosion development, release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, formation of a cloud and base surge, peculiarities of formed radioactive particles, data on isotope fractionation in radioactive particles are presented. Scheme of particle activation, resulted from underground explosions is given

  11. Explosives 92. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnfield, R.A. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    17 papers are presented. Topics covered include: the POG system - a new concept in the use of ANFO; demolition of a motorway bridge; presplit and smooth blasting; VIBReX - a predictive code for assessing the effect of blast design on ground vibration; ground vibrations from blasting; digital seismographs; human response to blasting and the effects on planning conditions; landform construction by restoration blasting; use of small diameter explosives; efficient priming; safety management in the explosives industry; and the law on packaging of explosives. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  12. A fluorescent probe based on nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots for turn off sensing of explosive and detrimental water pollutant, TNP in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manjot; Mehta, Surinder K.; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the carbonization assisted green approach for the fabrication of nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs). The obtained N-GQDs displayed good water dispersibility and stability in the wide pH range. The as synthesized N-GQDs were used as a fluorescent probe for the sensing of explosive 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) in aqueous medium based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), molecular interactions and charge transfer mechanism. The quenching efficiency was found to be linear in proportion to the TNP concentration within the range of 0-16 μM with detection limit (LOD) of 0.92 μM. The presented method was successfully applied to the sensing of TNP in tap and lake water samples with satisfactory results. Thus, N-GQDs were used as a selective, sensitive and turn off fluorescent sensor for the detection of perilous water contaminant i.e. TNP.

  13. Explosives detection via fast neutron transmission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overley, J.C.; Chmelik, M.S.; Rasmussen, R.J.; Schofield, R.M.S.; Sieger, G.E.; Lefevre, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    A review of a five-year project on detection of explosives in luggage is presented. Experimental methods are described. Explosive detection algorithms based on elemental distributions in a 5-dimensional space are also described. Single-blind tests of the method suggest that a false-alarm rate of 4% and a detection rate of 93% are possible. Improvements in the method are suggested. Measurements of neutron total cross sections for chlorine are presented

  14. The control and prevention of dust explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented discussed: explosion characteristics and hybrid mixtures explosion characteristics and influencing factors, propagation of dust explosions in ducts, prevention of dust explosions, desensitization, explosion-proof type of construction, explosion pressure relief, optical flame barriers, slide-valves for explosion protection, Ventex explosion barrier valves, grinding and mixing plants, spray driers, dust explosions in silos, and explosion-proof bucket elevators. One paper has been abstracted separately.

  15. Thermal explosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Tso Chin [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1984-12-01

    The phenomenon of thermal explosion arises in several important safety problems, yet scientists are still baffled by its origin. This article reviews some of the models that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon.

  16. Thermal explosion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chin Ping

    1984-01-01

    The phenomenon of thermal explosion arises in several important safety problems, yet scientists are still baffled by its origin. This article reviews some of the models that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. (author)

  17. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  18. Nuclear explosive driven experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment

  19. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  20. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing or breaking objects, or other temper tantrums ...

  1. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  2. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  3. Sensitivities of ionic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Lane, Pat; Murray, Jane S.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the relevance for ionic explosive sensitivity of three factors that have been demonstrated to be related to the sensitivities of molecular explosives. These are (1) the maximum available heat of detonation, (2) the amount of free space per molecule (or per formula unit) in the crystal lattice and (3) specific features of the electrostatic potential on the molecular or ionic surface. We find that for ionic explosives, just as for molecular ones, there is an overall tendency for impact sensitivity to increase as the maximum detonation heat release is greater. This means that the usual emphasis upon designing explosives with large heats of detonation needs to be tempered somewhat. We also show that a moderate detonation heat release does not preclude a high level of detonation performance for ionic explosives, as was already demonstrated for molecular ones. Relating the free space per formula unit to sensitivity may require a modified procedure for ionic explosives; this will continue to be investigated. Finally, an encouraging start has been made in linking impact sensitivities to the electrostatic potentials on ionic surfaces, although limited so far to ammonium salts.

  4. Compaction shock dissipation in low density granular explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A., E-mail: gonthier@me.lsu.edu; Chakravarthy, Sunada [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The microstructure of granular explosives can affect dissipative heating within compaction shocks that can trigger combustion and initiate detonation. Because initiation occurs over distances that are much larger than the mean particle size, homogenized (macroscale) theories are often used to describe local thermodynamic states within and behind shocks that are regarded as the average manifestation of thermodynamic fields at the particle scale. In this paper, mesoscale modeling and simulation are used to examine how the initial packing density of granular HMX (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}) C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8} having a narrow particle size distribution influences dissipation within resolved, planar compaction shocks. The model tracks the evolution of thermomechanical fields within large ensembles of particles due to pore collapse. Effective shock profiles, obtained by averaging mesoscale fields over space and time, are compared with those given by an independent macroscale compaction theory that predicts the variation in effective thermomechanical fields within shocks due to an imbalance between the solid pressure and a configurational stress. Reducing packing density is shown to reduce the dissipation rate within shocks but increase the integrated dissipated work over shock rise times, which is indicative of enhanced sensitivity. In all cases, dissipated work is related to shock pressure by a density-dependent power law, and shock rise time is related to pressure by a power law having an exponent of negative one.

  5. Empirical equation of state of the products of the detonation of a liquid explosive based on mixtures of tetranitromethane and nitrobenzene of various compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adigamova, T.A.; Davydov, N.B.

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state of the products of the detonation of liquid explosives has been derived by theoretical analysis and calculations. The dependence of the detonation rate on the oxygen balance has been obtained using the existing data on the physicomechanical and detonation properties of liquid explosive mixtures. Calculation dependences of the density on the weight content of nitrobenzene have been obtained [ru

  6. A study on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.; Shoji, M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out for vapor explosions of molten tin falling in water. For various initial metal temperatures and subcooling of water, transient pressure of the explosions, relative frequency of the explosions and the position where the explosions occur were measured in detail. The influence of ambient pressure was also investigated. From the results, it was concluded that the vapor explosion is closely related to the collapse of a vapor film around the molten metal. (author)

  7. Soudage par explosion thermique sous charge de cermets poreux à base de TiC-Ni sur substrat en acier-comportement tribologique Welding of porous TiC–Ni based cermets on substrate steel by thermal explosion under load-tribological behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemboub Samia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail, nous nous intéressons à l'élaboration de cermets à base de TiC-Ni par dispersion de particules de carbures, oxydes ou borures dans une matrice de nickel, grâce à la technique de l'explosion thermique sous une charge de 20 MPa. La combustion de mélanges actifs (Ti-C-Ni-An où An = Al2O3, MgO, SiC, TiB2, WC, basée sur la réaction de synthèse de TiC (ΔHf298K = −184 kJ/mole, génère des cermets complexes. Un court maintien sous charge du cermet à 1373 K, après l'explosion thermique, permet son soudage sur un substrat en acier XC55. Les cermets obtenus dans ces conditions demeurent poreux et conservent une porosité de l'ordre de 25–35 %. La densité relative du cermet, sa dureté et son comportement tribologique, dépendront de la nature de l'addition dans les mélanges de départ. Porous TiC-Ni based cermets were obtained by dispersion of carbides, oxides or borides particles in a nickel matrix thanks to the thermal explosion technique realized under a load of 20 MPa. The combustion of active mixtures (Ti-C-Ni-An where An = Al2O3, MgO, SiC, TiB2 or WC based on the titanium carbide reaction synthesis (ΔHf = −184 kJ/mol, generates porous complex cermets. After the thermal explosion, a short maintenance under load at 1373 K of the combustion product, allows at the same time the cermets welding on a carbon steel substrate. The obtained cermets under these conditions preserve a porosity of about 25–35%. The relative density, hardness and tribological behaviour of the complex cermets depend on the additions nature (An in the starting mixtures.

  8. Patterning high explosives at the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafday, Omkar A.; Pitchimani, Rajasekar; Weeks, Brandon L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Haaheim, Jason [NanoInk Inc., 8025 Lamon Ave., Skokie, IL 60077 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    For the first time, we have shown that spin coating and Dip pen nanolithography (DPN trademark) are simple methods of preparing energetic materials such as PETN and HMX on the nanoscale, requiring no heating of the energetic material. Nanoscale patterning has been demonstrated by the DPN method while continuous thin films were produced using the spin coating method. Results are presented for preparing continuous PETN thin films of nanometer thickness by the spin coating method and for controlling the architecture of arbitrary nanoscale patterns of PETN and HMX by the DPN method. These methods are simple for patterning energetic materials and can be extended beyond PETN and HMX, opening the door for fundamental studies at the nanoscale. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Progress in model development to quantify High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) to mechanical insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaugh, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid release of chemical energy has found application for industrial and military purposes since the invention of gunpowder. Black powder, smokeless powder of various compositions, and pyrotechnics all exhibit the rapid release of energy without detonation when they are being used as designed. The rapidity of energy release for these materials is controlled by adjustments to the particle surface area (propellant grain configuration or powder particle size) in conjunction with the measured pressure-dependent burning rate, which is very subsonic. In this way a manufacturing process can be used to engineer the desired violence of the explosion. Detonations in molecular explosives, in contrast, propagate with a supersonic velocity that depends on the loading density, but is independent of the surface area. In ideal detonations, the reaction is complete within a small distance of the propagating shock front. Non-ideal detonations in molecular and composite explosives proceed with a slower velocity, and the reaction may continue well behind the shock front. We are developing models to describe the circumstances when molecular and composite explosives undergo a rapid release of energy without detonating. The models also apply to the behavior of rocket propellants subject to mechanical insult, whether for accidents (Hazards) or the suite of standardized tests used to assess whether the system can be designated an Insensitive Munition (IM). In the application described here, we are studying an HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane) explosive developed in the UK, which is 91% by weight HMX and 9% binder-plasticizer. Most explosives and propellants, when subjected to a mechanical insult, drop or impact that is well below the threshold for detonation have been observed to react violently. This behavior is known as High Explosive Violent Reaction (HEVR). The basis of our model is the observation that the mechanical insult produces damage in a volume of the

  10. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  11. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J

    2015-09-30

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  12. A Multipathway Model for High Explosives and Barium Transport Using GoldSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B. D.; Hickmott, D. D.; Keating, E. H.; Robinson, B. A.; Gard, M. O.

    2002-05-01

    Outfalls from High Explosives (HE) production sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) discharged RDX, TNT, HMX, and barium contaminated waters onto a mesa /canyon system on the western edge of the Pajarito Plateau from 1944 to 1996. HE concentrations in surface soils ranged to over 20 wt.%, and HE in waters range to over 800 ug/L. HE in water is present in springs, surface waters, alluvial waters and deep perched (> 700 ft. depth) and possibly regional (> 1200 ft depth) groundwaters. Barium concentrations range to over 4 wt.% in sediments, and to over 5000 ug/L in spring and alluvial waters. Because of the size of contaminant inventories and observations of HE in the perched zone and possibly deeper, there has been concern that there may be a long-term risk at a downgradient drinking water supply well. To address this concern, a GoldSim multipathway model was developed to simulate transport of HE and barium from source areas to the supply well. The objectives of the modeling effort were to generate a preliminary assessment of potential concentrations at the supply well and to identify any model components/parameters that require additional characterization based on model sensitivity and uncertainty. The model evaluates two main source areas, one is controlled by flow through the mesa vadose zone, and the other by flow through the canyon vadose zone. The two vadose zone modules feed into a saturated zone module that terminates at a pumping well (drinking water) module. The hydrogeology of the site is extremely complex and includes a heterogeneous, unfractured/fractured tuff vadose zone geology, ponds, springs, alluvial aquifers, a perennial stream reach, and two deep aquifers. Because of this complexity, and limited characterization and contaminant inventory information, we used a stochastic approach to quantitatively represent model/parameter uncertainties. Model parameters were developed using a variety of information including flow and transport modeling

  13. Thermal Decomposition Behaviors and Burning Characteristics of AN/Nitramine-Based Composite Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Tomoki; Kohga, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) has attracted much attention due to its clean burning nature as an oxidizer. However, an AN-based composite propellant has the disadvantages of low burning rate and poor ignitability. In this study, we added nitramine of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) or cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) as a high-energy material to AN propellants to overcome these disadvantages. The thermal decomposition and burning rate characteristics of the prepared propellants were examined as the ratio of AN and nitramine was varied. In the thermal decomposition process, AN/RDX propellants showed unique mass loss peaks in the lower temperature range that were not observed for AN or RDX propellants alone. AN and RDX decomposed continuously as an almost single oxidizer in the AN/RDX propellant. In contrast, AN/HMX propellants exhibited thermal decomposition characteristics similar to those of AN and HMX, which decomposed almost separately in the thermal decomposition of the AN/HMX propellant. The ignitability was improved and the burning rate increased by the addition of nitramine for both AN/RDX and AN/HMX propellants. The increased burning rates of AN/RDX propellants were greater than those of AN/HMX. The difference in the thermal decomposition and burning characteristics was caused by the interaction between AN and RDX.

  14. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  15. Biodegradation of Nitro-Substituted Explosives 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5-Tetrazocine by a Phytosymbiotic Methylobacterium sp. Associated with Poplar Tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Benoit; Yoon, Jong Moon; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2004-01-01

    A pink-pigmented symbiotic bacterium was isolated from hybrid poplar tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34). The bacterium was identified by 16S and 16S-23S intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA analysis as a Methylobacterium sp. (strain BJ001). The isolated bacterium was able to use methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy, which is a specific attribute of the genus Methylobacterium. The bacterium in pure culture was shown to degrade the toxic explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX). [U-ring-14C]TNT (25 mg liter−1) was fully transformed in less than 10 days. Metabolites included the reduction derivatives amino-dinitrotoluenes and diamino-nitrotoluenes. No significant release of 14CO2 was recorded from [14C]TNT. In addition, the isolated methylotroph was shown to transform [U-14C]RDX (20 mg liter−1) and [U-14C]HMX (2.5 mg liter−1) in less than 40 days. After 55 days of incubation, 58.0% of initial [14C]RDX and 61.4% of initial [14C]HMX were mineralized into 14CO2. The radioactivity remaining in solution accounted for 12.8 and 12.7% of initial [14C]RDX and [14C]HMX, respectively. Metabolites detected from RDX transformation included a mononitroso RDX derivative and a polar compound tentatively identified as methylenedinitramine. Since members of the genus Methylobacterium are distributed in a wide diversity of natural environments and are very often associated with plants, Methylobacterium sp. strain BJ001 may be involved in natural attenuation or in situ biodegradation (including phytoremediation) of explosive-contaminated sites. PMID:14711682

  16. Explosive material treatment in particular the explosive compaction of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruemmer, R.

    1985-01-01

    The constructive use of explosives in the last decades has led to new procedures in manufacturing techniques. The most important of these are explosive forming and cladding, the latter especially for the production of compound materials. The method of explosive compaction has the highest potential for further innovation. Almost theoretical densities are achievable in the green compacts as the pressure released by detonating explosives are very high. Also, the production of new conditions of materials (metastable high pressure phases) is possible. (orig.) [de

  17. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating...

  18. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ..., including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating...

  19. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate. OSHA subsequently made several minor revisions to the standard (37 FR... explosives; storing ammonium nitrate; and storing small arms ammunition, small arms primers, and small arms..., which is extremely widespread, causes lung disease, silicosis and lung cancer. Terminating the...

  20. New slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, D.C.

    1982-12-01

    Mining engineers will soon have an additional 2 or 3 types of explosives which increase rock yield without increasing cost. A new variety of Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil (ANFO), which is much heavier and more powerful, is being introduced in the US. New types of NCN (nitrocarbonitrate) blasting agents have also been developed.

  1. "Fooling fido"--chemical and behavioral studies of pseudo-explosive canine training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, William D; Strange, Nicholas A; Goodpaster, John V

    2014-12-01

    Genuine explosive materials are traditionally employed in the training and testing of explosive-detecting canines so that they will respond reliably to these substances. However, challenges arising from the acquisition, storage, handling, and transportation of explosives have given rise to the development of "pseudo-explosive" training aids. These products attempt to emulate the odor of real explosives while remaining inert. Therefore, a canine trained on a pseudo-explosive should respond to its real-life analog. Similarly, a canine trained on an actual explosive should respond to the pseudo-explosive as if it was real. This research tested those assumptions with a focus on three explosives: single-base smokeless powder, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and a RDX-based plastic explosive (Composition C-4). Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction as a pre-concentration technique, we determined that the volatile compounds given off by pseudo-explosive products consisted of various solvents, known additives from explosive formulations, and common impurities present in authentic explosives. For example, simulated smokeless powders emitted terpenes, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Simulated TNT products emitted 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene. Simulated C-4 products emitted cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and dimethyldinitrobutane. We also conducted tests to determine whether canines trained on pseudo-explosives are capable of alerting to genuine explosives and vice versa. The results show that canines trained on pseudo-explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the pseudo-explosives they are trained on. Similarly, canines trained on actual explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the actual explosives on which they were trained.

  2. Modelling of vapour explosion in stratified geometrie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picchi, St.

    1999-01-01

    When a hot liquid comes into contact with a colder volatile liquid, one can obtain in some conditions an explosive vaporization, told vapour explosion, whose consequences can be important on neighbouring structures. This explosion needs the intimate mixing and the fine fragmentation between the two liquids. In a stratified vapour explosion, these two liquids are initially superposed and separated by a vapor film. A triggering of the explosion can induce a propagation of this along the film. A study of experimental results and existent models has allowed to retain the following main points: - the explosion propagation is due to a pressure wave propagating through the medium; - the mixing is due to the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by the shear velocity between the two liquids behind the pressure wave. The presence of the vapour in the volatile liquid explains experimental propagation velocity and the velocity difference between the two fluids at the pressure wave crossing. A first model has been proposed by Brayer in 1994 in order to describe the fragmentation and the mixing of the two fluids. Results of the author do not show explosion propagation. We have therefore built a new mixing-fragmentation model based on the atomization phenomenon that develops itself during the pressure wave crossing. We have also taken into account the transient aspect of the heat transfer between fuel drops and the volatile liquid, and elaborated a model of transient heat transfer. These two models have been introduced in a multi-components, thermal, hydraulic code, MC3D. Results of calculation show a qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental results and confirm basic options of the model. (author)

  3. Final Environmental Assessment: To Relocate Air Force Explosive Ordnance Disposal Administrative Complex at Eglin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE...Air Force Base, Florida To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 NOx (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000

  4. Environmental Assessment for Explosives Ordnance Disposal Proficiency Training Range at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ANTIOCH UNIVERSITY V1E1N JOE LEASING SPECIALIST EXCEL PM VIEW JOB NEWS PHOTOS & VIDEOS i~.-... --: i\\ ... I ,. j ... ’TouchdoW"n Jesus ’ i n...t Bald Eoglr - Wloll!rwll’/ c::::J Blllllng Star Skm Bom 209 Commttr=t Plrtwav P.D.Bax12B CottageGrovt.WI SJ$27·0128 phone: 606-839~1998 fu...line and the base hospital . The views of the residents of the Brick Quarters were solicited through the public notice put in the Dayton Daily News and

  5. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  6. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination; Explosion nucleaire et contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [French] Etudiant les modalites de la contamination interne par les elements radioactifs apparus lors d'une explosion nucleaire, le role de la 'masse' et le mode d'expression des doses sont envisages. La connaissance de la composition en 'masse' du melange contaminant et de son evolution en fonction du temps peut seule apporter les bases necessaires a l'etude de son comportement dans l'organisme. Les courbes donnant la composition du melange de produits de fission - en nombre de noyaux - - en fonction du temps - ont ete etablies. Quelques applications pratiques, relatives en particulier a la nature de la contamination, a la radiotoxicite de certains elements et a l'evaluation de risque, sont envisagees a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  7. Services Textbook of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    the propagation in such systems of the detonation wave which had been observed in 1881 by Berthelot and Vieille and by Mallard and le Chatelier . In...detonation, Berthelot and Le Chatelier , Dautrich 4 - 63: Calorometric value 4 -- 66, Power of explosive, lead block, Trauzl 4 - 67- Ballistic pendulum 4...the principles of electric ignition were applied to this system also. 75. In 1890-91 Curtius first prepared lead, silver and mercury azides. The

  8. Explosive Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Pierre; Moreau, Florian; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    We show that Leidenfrost droplets made of an aqueous solution of surfactant undergo a violent explosion in a wide range of initial volumes and concentrations. This unexpected behavior turns out to be triggered by the formation of a gel-like shell, followed by a sharp temperature increase. Comparing a simple model of the radial surfactant distribution inside a spherical droplet with experiments allows highlighting the existence of a critical surface concentration for the shell to form. The temperature rise (attributed to boiling point elevation with surface concentration) is a key feature leading to the explosion, instead of the implosion (buckling) scenario reported by other authors. Indeed, under some conditions, this temperature increase is shown to be sufficient to trigger nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the highly superheated liquid bulk, stretching the surrounding elastic shell up to its rupture limit. The successive timescales characterizing this explosion sequence are also discussed. Funding sources: F.R.S. - FNRS (ODILE and DITRASOL projects, RD and SRA positions of P. Colinet and S. Dorbolo), BELSPO (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST project).

  9. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E.H.; Caffrey, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  10. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  11. Explosive and accessories in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingua, B.M.P.; Nabiullah, M.; Jagdish, S.; Mishra, G.D.; Singh, T.N. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1999-02-01

    Chemical explosives are commonly used in the mining industry. Those used in India include nitroglycerine (NG) base, ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture (ANFO), slurry emulsion and liquid oxygen (LOX). Examples of each type and their general properties are lighted. The electric and non-electric detonating systems used are described. Two Indian companies are producing non-electric in-hole delay system. Raydet (IDL-make) and Excel (ICI-make). Their firing characteristics are listed. Tables are given for burden for different density of rock and explosive strength. Causes of bad blast are itemised. 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Vapor explosion studies for nuclear and non-nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. [Arden L. Bement, Jr. Professor Nuclear Engineering, School of Nuclear Engineering, 1290 Nuclear Engineering Building, Room 108C, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)]. E-mail: rusi@purdue.edu

    2005-05-01

    Energetic melt-water explosions are a well-established contributor to risk for nuclear reactors, and even more so for the metal casting industry. In-depth studies were undertaken in an industry-national laboratory collaborative effort to understand the root causes of explosion triggering and to evaluate methods for prevention. The steam explosion triggering studies (SETS) facility was devised and implemented for deriving key insights into explosion prevention. Data obtained indicated that onset of base surface-entrapment induced explosive boiling-caused trigger shocks is a result of complex combination of surface wettability, type of coating (organic versus inorganic), degree of coating wearoff, existence of bypass pathways for pressure relief, charring and non-condensable gas (NCG) release potential. Of these parameters NCGs were found to play a preeminent role on explosion prevention by stabilizing the melt-water steam interface and acting as a shock absorber. The role of NCGs was experimentally confirmed using SETS for their effect on stable film boiling using a downward facing heated body through which gases were injected. The presence of NCGs in the steam film layer caused a significant delay in the transitioning of film-to-nucleate boiling. The role of NCGs on explosion prevention was thereafter demonstrated more directly by introducing molten metal drops into water pools with and without NCG bubbling. Whereas spontaneous and energetic explosions took place without NCG injection, only benign quenching occurred in the presence of NCGs. Gravimetric analyses of organic coatings which are known to prevent explosion onset were also found to release significant NCGs during thermal attack by melt in the presence of water. These findings offer a novel, simple, cost-effective technique for deriving fundamental insights into melt-water explosions as well as for explosion prevention under most conditions of interest to metal casting, and possibly for nuclear reactor

  13. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal tools for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, are seismic networks and surveillance satellites. On-site inspections might also be required to resolve ambiguous events. The critical element of the monitoring system is the network of seismic stations, and in particular the in-country station. Internal stations provide much more useful data than do stations outside the borders of testing nations. For large events that are not eliminated by depth or location, one of the most useful discriminants is based on the ratio of surface-wave to body-wave magnitudes (M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ ). If an explosion and an earthquake have the same body-wave magnitude, the surface-wave magnitude for the earthquake is generally larger. It has yet to be proven that M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ is useful at low magnitudes, expecially when explosions are set off in long tunnels or odd-shaped cavities. A number of other promising regional discriminants have been suggested. Evasion opportunities and cavity decoupling are discussed

  14. Chernobyl: Anatomy of the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lvov, G.

    1992-01-01

    On Friday, 26 April 1986, it was planned to shut down the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, U.S.S.R., for periodic maintenance. The procedure supplied the opportunity to perform a further experiment; operation of the turbine in free rotation regime, which occurs when the steam is cut down while the turbine is still running. It so happened that carrying out this experiment turned out to be the worst accident in the history of nuclear power industry. The first part of the article proceeds to a second by second detailed analysis of the causes of the catastrophe. The analysis uses official data and reports. The author covers the sequence of events, which led up to two explosions in the second hour of that tragic morning. In the second part of the article, the author provides hints and suggestions, so that 'the tragedy of Chernobyl does not become a useless lesson'. With regard to what, so far, has been published, the novelty of the article may be a diagram showing the excessive changes that affected the main parameters (power, water flow through circulating pumps, steam pressure in separators, and length of the immersed part of control rods) in the fourth unit during the last seconds before the explosion. If may be noteworthy to mention that the curves supplied here are based on data stored in the computer 'SCALA'. 2 figs

  15. Methane explosion suppression characteristics based on the NaHCO3/red-mud composite powders with core-shell structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cheng, Yi-Shen; Yu, Ming-Gao; Li, Yao; Cao, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Li-Gang; Yi, Hong-Wei

    2017-08-05

    The NaHCO 3 /red-mud (RM) composite powders were successfully prepared by the solvent-anti-solvent method for methane explosion suppression. The RM was used as a carrier, and the NaHCO 3 was used as a loaded inhibitor. The NaHCO 3 /RM composite powders showed a special core-shell structure and excellent endothermic performance. The suppression properties of NaHCO 3 /RM composite for 9.5% CH 4 explosion were tested in a 20L spherical explosion vessel and a 5L Perspex duct. The results showed that the NaHCO 3 /RM composite powders displayed a much better suppression property than the pure RM or NaHCO 3 powders. The loading amount of NaHCO 3 has an intensive influence on the inhibition property of NaHCO 3 /RM composite powders. The best loaded content of NaHCO 3 is 35%. It exhibited significant inhibitory effect that the explosion max-pressure declined 44.9%, the max-pressure rise rate declined 96.3% and the pressure peak time delayed 366.7%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of L-cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots based ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for onsite visual determination of trace TNT explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Jing; Hua, Mengjuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Chengquan [Changzhou College of Information Technology, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Kan; Liu, Qian; Hao, Nan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2016-11-23

    New strategies for onsite determination of trace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives have become a research hotspot for homeland security needs against terrorism and environmental concerns. Herein, we designed a ratiometric fluorescence nanohybrid comprising 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped green-emitting CdTe quantum dots (gQDs) encapsulated into SiO{sub 2} sphere and L-cysteine (Lcys)-capped red-emitting CdTe QDs (rQDs) conjugated onto SiO{sub 2} surface. The surface Lcys can be used as not only the stabilizer of the rQDs but also the primary amine provider which can react with TNT to form Meisenheimer complexes. Without any additional surface modification procedure, the fluorescence of rQDs equipped with Lcys was selectively quenched by TNT because electrons of the rQDs transferred to TNT molecules due to the formation of Meisenheimer complexes. Meanwhile, the embedded gQDs always remained constant. Upon exposure to increasing amounts of TNT, the fluorescence of rQDs could be gradually quenched and consequently the logarithm of the dual emission intensity ratios exhibited a good linear negative correlation with TNT concentration over a range of 10 nM–8 μM with a low detection limit of 3.3 nM. One can perform onsite visual determination of TNT with high resolution because the ratiometric fluorescence nanosensing system exhibited obvious fluorescence color changes. This sensing strategy has been successfully applied in real samples and already integrated in a filter paper-based assay, which enables potential fields use application featuring easy handling and cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: • A facile strategy for preparing Lcys-capped rQDs based hybrid spheres was reported. • Lcys serves as the stabilizer of rQDs and primary amine provider to react with TNT. • One can perform onsite visual determination of TNT by using such probe. • The nanosensor exhibited a wide linear range and a low detection limit. • This sensing strategy can be fully

  17. Explosive processes in nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    There are many explosive processes in nucleosynthesis: big bang nucleosynthesis, the rp-process, the γ-process, the ν-process, and the r-process. However, I will discuss just the rp-process and the r-process in detail, primarily because both seem to have been very active research areas of late, and because they have great potential for studies with radioactive nuclear beams. I will also discuss briefly the γ-process because of its inevitability in conjunction with the rp-process. (orig.)

  18. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  19. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  20. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.G.; Scorgie, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained

  1. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I G; Scorgie, G C [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained.

  2. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Esters of nitro-substituted alcohols. Ethyl-tetryl. Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive... silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G Gelatinized...

  3. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Esters of nitro-substituted alcohols. Ethyl-tetryl. Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive.... Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G...

  4. CFD analysis of gas explosions vented through relief pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G

    2006-09-21

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safe locations by means of relief pipes. However, the presence of the duct increases the severity of explosion if compared to simply vented vessels (i.e. compared to cases where no duct is present). Besides, the identification of the key phenomena controlling the violence of explosion has not yet been gained. Multidimensional models coupling, mass, momentum and energy conservation equations can be valuable tools for the analysis of such complex explosion phenomena. In this work, gas explosions vented through ducts have been modelled by a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach in which the laminar, flamelet and distributed combustion models have been implemented. Numerical test have been carried out by varying ignition position, duct diameter and length. Results have evidenced that the severity of ducted explosions is mainly driven by the vigorous secondary explosion occurring in the duct (burn-up) rather than by the duct flow resistance or acoustic enhancement. Moreover, it has been found out that the burn-up affects explosion severity due to the reduction of venting rate rather than to the burning rate enhancement through turbulization.

  5. Explosion safety in industrial electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, S. V.; Kiss, I.; Berta, I.

    2011-01-01

    Complicated industrial systems are often endangered by electrostatic hazards, both from atmospheric (lightning phenomenon, primary and secondary lightning protection) and industrial (technological problems caused by static charging and fire and explosion hazards.) According to the classical approach protective methods have to be used in order to remove electrostatic charging and to avoid damages, however no attempt to compute the risk before and after applying the protective method is made, relying instead on well-educated and practiced expertise. The Budapest School of Electrostatics - in close cooperation with industrial partners - develops new suitable solutions for probability based decision support (Static Control Up-to-date Technology, SCOUT) using soft computing methods. This new approach can be used to assess and audit existing systems and - using the predictive power of the models - to design and plan activities in industrial electrostatics.

  6. Surface energy of explosive nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Nicolas; Bidault, Xavier; Soulard, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Recent experimental studies show that nanostructuration has a substantial impact on the detonation of high explosives: a nanostructured one leads to smaller nanodiamonds than a microstructured one. Whether it comes from a higher surface energy or from porosity, the origin of these different behaviors must be investigated. The surface energy of TATB nanoparticles with a radius from 2 nm upto 60 nm has been determined by means of ReaxFF-based simulations. Then, using the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and the equation of states of the bulk material, the contribution of this excess energy to the heating of a shock-compressed nanostructured (and porous) material is evaluated and compared to the thermal effect due to its porosity collapse. A maximum temperature increase of 50 K is found for 4-nm nanoparticles, which remains negligible when compared to the few hundred degrees induced by the compaction work.

  7. Peaceful nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-07-01

    Article V of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) specifies that the potential benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions be made available to non-nuclear weapon states party to the Treaty 'under appropriate international observation and through appropriate international procedures'. The International Atomic Energy Agency's responsibility and technical competence in this respect have been recognized by its Board of Governors, the Agency's General Conference and the United Nations' General Assembly. Since 1968 when the United Nations Conference of Non-Nuclear Weapon States also recommended that the Agency initiate the necessary studies in the peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) field, the Agency has taken the following steps: 1. The exchange of scientific and technical information has been facilitated by circulating information on the status of the technology and through the Agency's International Nuclear Information System. A bibliography of PNE-related literature was published in 1970. 2. In 1972, guidelines for 'the international observation of PNE under the provisions of NPT and analogous provisions in other international agreements' were developed and approved by the Board of Governors. These guidelines defined the basic purpose of international observation as being to verify that in the course of conducting a PNE project the intent and letter of Articles I and II of the NPT are not violated. 3. In 1974, an advisory group developed 'Procedures for the Agency to Use in Responding to Requests for PNE-Related Services'. These procedures have also been approved by the Board of Governors. 4. The Agency has convened a series of technical meetings which reviewed the 'state-of-the- art'. These meetings were convened in 1970, 1971, 1972 and in January 1975. The Fourth Technical Committee was held in Vienna from 20-24 January 1975 under the chairmanship of Dr. Allen Wilson of Australia with Experts from: Australia, France, Federal

  8. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  9. Precursors in detonations in porous explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, R.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Photographs of detonation waves in low-density HMX and PETN, made with an image-intensifier camera, show a brilliant band of light in front of the pressure jump. The radiation temperature is estimated to be 12,000 to 14,000 0 K. The spectrum of this light is continuous. A quartz gauge shows a gradual buildup of pressure from the material producing the light. The material has little effect on the propagation of detonation. Further observations, using pellets of plastic-bonded HMX and single crystals of PETN, show that the material thrown off the free surface is transparent, with a leading edge moving at approximately 20 mm/μs. Collision of this material with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) produces a brilliant light with a spectrum that is initially a narrow H/sub α/ line. Quartz gauges measure the rate of pessure buildup of this material

  10. Seismic waves travel-time curve, basing on the results of signal detection from chemical explosions detonated at Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Aristova, I.L.; Germanova, T.I.

    2001-01-01

    A large amount of digital seismic data from the permanent and temporary seismic stations was acquired in the result of detonation of large chemical explosions at Semipalatinsk Test Site. All the records were collected, systematized and processed, and databases were created. Travel-time curves for regional Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg waves were created and compared with the ones used in routine earthquake processing practice. (author)

  11. Femtosecond Laser Fabricated Ag@Au and Cu@Au Alloy Nanoparticles for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Based Trace Explosives Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moram Sree Satya Bharati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present results from our detailed studies on the fabrication of Ag@Au and Cu@Au alloy nanoparticles (NPs using the femtosecond laser ablation in liquid technique. The NPs were obtained by ablating the pure Ag, Cu targets (bulk in HAuCl4 (5 mM solution. The absorption properties of the obtained NPs colloids were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectrometer and their size, shape, and crystallinity were investigated using the XRD, FESEM and TEM techniques. The fabricated NPs were utilized for sensing of explosive molecules such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (PA, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT and a common dye methylene blue (MB using the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS technique. The detection limit in terms of weight was as low as few nano-grams in the case of nitroaromatic explosive compounds (PA, DNT and few picograms in the case of a common dye molecule (MB. Typical enhancement factors achieved were estimated to be ~104, ~105, and ~107, respectively, for PA, DNT, and MB. The significance of the present work lies in exploring the performance of the prepared NPs being used as SERS substrates for explosives detection using a portable Raman instrument. Such capability enables one to carry the spectrometer to the point of interest in the field and evaluate any hazardous samples within a short period of time.

  12. Kaliski's explosive driven fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment performed by a group in Poland on the production of DD fusion neutrons by purely explosive means is discussed. A method for multiplying shock velocities ordinarily available from high explosives by a factor of ten is described, and its application to DD fusion experiments is discussed

  13. Local and remote infrasound from explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; LE Pichon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled air corridors and thus pose a significant societal and economic hazard. In remote volcanic regions, satellite data are sometimes the only technology available to observe volcanic eruptions and constrain ash-release parameters for aviation safety. Infrasound (acoustic waves ~0.01-20 Hz) data fill this critical observational gap, providing ground-based data for remote volcanic eruptions. Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Advances in infrasound technology and the efficient propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere therefore greatly enhance our ability to monitor volcanoes in remote regions such as the North Pacific Ocean. Infrasound data can be exploited to detect, locate, and provide detailed chronologies of the timing of explosive volcanic eruptions for use in ash transport and dispersal models. We highlight results from case studies of multiple eruptions recorded by the International Monitoring System and dedicated regional infrasound networks (2008 Kasatochi, Alaska, USA; 2008 Okmok, Alaska, USA; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, Russian Federation; 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Icleand) and show how infrasound is currently used in volcano monitoring. We also present progress towards characterizing and modeling the variability in source mechanisms of infrasound from explosive eruptions using dedicated local infrasound field deployments at volcanoes Karymsky, Russian Federation and Sakurajima, Japan.

  14. Nuclear explosions and their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    A brief historical background is given of the development of the atomic bomb. Also included is an account of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombing, plus some information on the testing and production of nuclear weapons by the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia. More detailed consideration is given to the following: the scientific principles of fission and fusion explosions; the energy released in fission and the radioactivity of fission products; blast, thermal, and radiologicalal effects of nuclear explosions; long-term radiological hazards from fall-out; and genetic effects of nuclear explosions. A brief account is given of the fission chain process, the concept of critical size, and the principles of implosion as applied to nuclear explosions. Limited information is presented on the controlled release of thermonuclear energy and catalyzed fusion reaction. Discussions are included on dose rates from radiation sources inside and outside the body, the effect of nuclear explosions on the weather, and the contamination of fish and marine organisms.

  15. Thermochemistry of mixed explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janney, J.L.; Rogers, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In order to predict thermal hazards of high-energy materials, accurate kinetics constants must be determined. Predictions of thermal hazards for mixtures of high-energy materials require measurements on the mixtures, because interactions among components are common. A differential-scanning calorimeter (DSC) can be used to observe rate processes directly, and isothermal methods enable detection of mechanism changes. Rate-controlling processes will change as components of a mixture are depleted, and the correct depletion function must be identified for each specific stage of a complex process. A method for kinetics measurements on mixed explosives can be demonstrated with Composition B is an approximately 60/40 mixture of RDX and TNT, and is an important military explosive. Kinetics results indicate that the mator process is the decomposition of RDX in solution in TNT with a perturbation caused by interaction between the two components. It is concluded that a combination of chemical kinetics and experimental self-heating procedures provides a good approach to the production of predictive models for thermal hazards of high-energy materials. Systems involving more than one energy-contributing component can be studied. Invalid and dangerous predictive models can be detected by a failure of agreement between prediction and experiment at a specific size, shape, and density. Rates of thermal decomposition for Composition B appear to be modeled adequately for critical-temperature predictions with the following kinetics constants: E = 180.2 kJ mole -1 and Z = 4.62 X 10 16 s -1

  16. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  17. Integrated control system for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, William F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Integrated Control System (ICS) has been developed to facilitate Plowshare nuclear detonations by following a unified system approach. This system consolidates the techniques for firing, safety program, scientific program, and communications. Maximum emphasis is placed upon control and data transmission by radio rather than hardwire or coaxial cable. The ICS consists of a Command Point (CP) Trailer, a radio repeater station, a field station (the ICE Box), and several chassis located in the explosive canister. Commands originate in the CP and are transmitted via microwave radio to the ICE Box; monitors are returned to the CP from the canister, the ICE Box, and sensors near ground zero. The system allows complete checkout and operation before shipment to the field. The explosive canister may be dry-run at the assembly area (at NTS) before shipment to the field. The basic detonation functions for every event are: 1. Arming and firing commands in the explosive canister and at surface ground zero. 2. Environmental monitors and suitable arming monitors in the explosive canister. 3. Safety monitors at the zero site for weather, RAMS (Remote Area Monitoring System), and cavity collapse. Secondary functions that may be required for a specific project are: 4. Scientific program of phenomenology measurements. 5. Explosive performance measurements. 6. Ground zero television. 7. Auxiliary communications such as local telephones, VHF radio. By combining functions that have previously been performed by separate organizations and systems, the ICS attempts a minimum cost detonation service. Economy of operation results because: 1. Operating personnel work on more than one sub-system. 2. Interfaces and interface complexity are minimized. 3. A reduced dependence upon signal cables results from a microwave-based system. 4. Pre-fabrication allows test operation before shipment to the field and minimizes setup time in the field. The ICS is in use on the Sturtevant event and is

  18. Gas pressure from a nuclear explosion in oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The quantity of gas and the gas pressure resulting from a nuclear explosion in oil shale is estimated. These estimates are based on the thermal history of the rock during and after the explosion and the amount of gas that oil shale releases when heated. It is estimated that for oil shale containing less than a few percent of kerogen the gas pressure will be lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A field program to determine the effects of nuclear explosions in rocks that simulate the unique features of oil shale is recommended. (U.S.)

  19. On the prompt identification of traces of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobajo, M. T.; López-Cabeceira, M. M.; Carriegos, M. V.; Díez-Machío, H.

    2014-12-01

    Some recent results in the use of Raman spectroscopy for recognition of explosives are reviewed. Experimental study using spectra data base has been developed. In order to simulate a more real situation, both blank substances and explosives substances have been considered in this research. Statistic classification techniques have been performed. Estimations of prediction errors were obtained by cross-validation methods. These results can be applied in airport security systems in order to prevent terror acts (by the detection of explosive/flammable substances).

  20. Simulation of steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, Matjaž; Centrih, Vasilij; Uršič, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously in stratified configurations. • Considerable melt-coolant premixed layer formed in subcooled water with hot melts. • Analysis with MC3D code provided insight into stratified steam explosion phenomenon. • Up to 25% of poured melt was mixed with water and available for steam explosion. • Better instrumented experiments needed to determine dominant mixing process. - Abstract: A steam explosion is an energetic fuel coolant interaction process, which may occur during a severe reactor accident when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. In nuclear reactor safety analyses steam explosions are primarily considered in melt jet-coolant pool configurations where sufficiently deep coolant pool conditions provide complete jet breakup and efficient premixture formation. Stratified melt-coolant configurations, i.e. a molten melt layer below a coolant layer, were up to now believed as being unable to generate strong explosive interactions. Based on the hypothesis that there are no interfacial instabilities in a stratified configuration it was assumed that the amount of melt in the premixture is insufficient to produce strong explosions. However, the recently performed experiments in the PULiMS and SES (KTH, Sweden) facilities with oxidic corium simulants revealed that strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously also in stratified melt-coolant configurations, where with high temperature melts and subcooled water conditions a considerable melt-coolant premixed layer is formed. In the article, the performed study of steam explosions in a stratified melt-coolant configuration in PULiMS like conditions is presented. The goal of this analytical work is to supplement the experimental activities within the PULiMS research program by addressing the key questions, especially regarding the explosivity of the formed premixed layer and the mechanisms responsible for the melt-water mixing. To

  1. Steam explosion - physical foundations and relation to nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, U.

    1982-08-01

    'Steam explosion' means the sudden evaporation of a fluid by heat exchange with a hotter material. Other terms are 'vapour explosion', 'thermal explosion', and 'energetic fuel-coolant interaction (FCI)'. In such an event a large fraction of the thermal energy initially stored in the hot material may possibly be converted into mechanical work. For pressurized water reactors one discusses (e.g. in risk analysis studies) a core melt-down accident during which molten fuel comes into contact with water. In the analysis of the consequences one has to investigate steam explosions. In this report an overview over the state of the knowledge is given. The overview is based on an extensive literature review. The objective of the report is to provide the basic knowledge which is required for understanding of the most important theories on the process of steam explosions. Following topics are treated: overview on steam explosion incidents, work potential, spontaneous nucleation, concept of detonation, results of some typical experiments, hydrodynamic fragmentation of drops, bubbles and jets, coarse mixtures, film-boiling, scenario of a core melt-down accident with possible steam-explosion in a pressurized water reactor. (orig.) [de

  2. Trend analysis of explosion events at overseas nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed failures caused by disasters (e.g., severe storms, heavy rainfall, earthquakes, explosions and fires) which occurred during the 13 years from 1995 to 2007 at overseas nuclear power plants (NPPs) from the nuclear information database of the Institute of Nuclear Safety System. Incorporated (INSS). The results revealed that explosions were the second most frequent type of failure after fires. We conducted a trend analysis on such explosion events. The analysis by equipment, cause, and effect on the plant showed that the explosions occurred mainly at electrical facilities, and thus it is essential to manage the maintenance of electrical facilities for preventing explosions. In addition, it was shown that explosions at transformers and batteries, which have never occurred at Japan's NPPs, accounted for as much as 55% of all explosions. The fact infers that this difference is attributable to the difference in maintenance methods of transformers (condition based maintenance adopted by NPPs) and workforce organization of batteries (inspections performed by utilities' own maintenance workers at NPPs). (author)

  3. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.

    1975-12-01

    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  4. Donor free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  5. Explosive coalescence of Magnetic Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.I.

    1985-04-01

    An explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability is found through studies of particle and magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, in which the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures explode toward the explosion time t 0 as (t 0 -t)/sup 8/3/,(t 0 -t) -4 , and (t 0 -t)/sup -8/3/, respectively. Ensuing amplitude oscillations in these quantities are identified by deriving an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential

  6. Forensic analysis of high explosives residues in post-blast water samples employing solid phase extraction for analyte pro-concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Kalsom Ahmad; Rajendran, Sumathy; Ling, Lee Woan

    2008-01-01

    Nitro aromatic, nitramine and nitrate ester compounds are a major group of high order explosive or better known as military explosives. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitro-toluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) are secondary high explosives classified as most commonly used explosives components. There is an increasing demand for pre-concentration of these compounds in water samples as the sensitivity achieved by instrumental analytical methods for these high explosives residues are the main drawback in the application at trace levels for forensic analysis. Hence, a simple cartridge solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was optimized as the off-line extraction and pre-concentration method to enhance the detection limit of high explosive residues using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) methods. The SPE cartridges utilized LiChrolut EN as the SPE adsorbent. By emplying pre-concentration using SPE, the detection limits of the target analytes in water sample were lowered by more than 1000 times with good percentage recovery (>87%) for MEKC method and lowered by 120 times with more than 2 % percentage recovery for GC-ECD methods. In order to test the feasibility of the developed method to real cases, post-blast water samples were analyzed. The post-blast water samples which were collected from Baling Bom training range, Ulu Kinta, Perak contained RDX and PETN in the range of 0.05 - 0.17 ppm and 0.0124 - 0.0390 ppm respectively. (author)

  7. Optimization of biological and instrumental detection of explosives and ignitable liquid residues including canines, SPME/ITMS and GC/MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Harper, Ross J.; Perr, Jeannette M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2003-09-01

    A comprehensive study and comparison is underway using biological detectors and instrumental methods for the rapid detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILR) and high explosives. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been demonstrated to be an effective sampling method helping to identify active odor signature chemicals used by detector dogs to locate forensic specimens as well as a rapid pre-concentration technique prior to instrumental detection. Common ignitable liquids and common military and industrial explosives have been studied including trinitrotoluene, tetryl, RDX, HMX, EGDN, PETN and nitroglycerine. This study focuses on identifying volatile odor signature chemicals present, which can be used to enhance the level and reliability of detection of ILR and explosives by canines and instrumental methods. While most instrumental methods currently in use focus on particles and on parent organic compounds, which are often involatile, characteristic volatile organics are generally also present and can be exploited to enhance detection particularly for well-concealed devices. Specific examples include the volatile odor chemicals 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone, which are readily available in the headspace of the high explosive composition C-4; whereas, the active chemical cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) is not. The analysis and identification of these headspace 'fingerprint' organics is followed by double-blind dog trials of the individual components using certified teams in an attempt to isolate and understand the target compounds to which dogs are sensitive. Studies to compare commonly used training aids with the actual target explosive have also been undertaken to determine their suitability and effectiveness. The optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) is detailed including interface development

  8. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  9. Ferrofluid of magnetic clay and menthol based deep eutectic solvent: Application in directly suspended droplet microextraction for enrichment of some emerging contaminant explosives in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ali Reza; Nedaei, Maryam; Ghorbanian, Sohrab Ali

    2018-06-08

    In this work, for the first time, ferrofluid of magnetic montmorillonite nanoclay and deep eutectic solvent was prepared and coupled with directly suspended droplet microextraction. Incorporation of ferrofluid in a miniaturized sample preparation technique resulted in achieving high extraction efficiency while developing a green analytical method. The prepared ferrofluid has strong sorbing properties and hydrophobic characteristics. In this method, a micro-droplet of ferrofluid was suspended into the vortex of a stirring aqueous solution and after completing the extraction process, was easily separated from the solution by a magnetic rod without any operational problems. The predominant experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency of explosives were evaluated. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection were in the range 0.22-0.91 μg L -1 . The enrichment factors were between 23 and 93 and the relative standard deviations were <10%. The relative recoveries were ranged from 88 to 104%. This method was successfully applied for the extraction and preconcentration of explosives in water and soil samples, followed their determination by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Shock Initiation of Wedge-shaped Explosive Measured with Smear Camera and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) is an important insensitive high explosive in conventional weapons due to its safety and high energy. In order to have an insight into the shock initiation performance of a TATB-based insensitive high explosive (IHE), experimental measurements of the particle velocity histories of the TATB-based Explosive using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and shock wave profile of the TATB-based explosive using High Speed Rotating Mirror Smear Camera had been performed. In this paper, we would describe the shock initiation performance of the TATB-based explosive by run-to-detonation distance and the particle velocity history at an initialization shock of about 7.9 GPa. The parameters of hugoniot of unreacted the TATB-based explosive and Pop relationship could be derived with the particle velocity history obtained in this paper.

  11. Green primary explosives: 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V; Coburn, Michael D; Meyer, Thomas J; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-07-05

    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[Fe(II)(NT)(3)(H(2)O)(3)], cat(2)[Fe(II)(NT)(4)(H(2)O)(2)], cat(3)[Fe(II)(NT)(5)(H(2)O)], and cat(4)[Fe(II)(NT)(6)] with cat = cation and NT(-) = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2). With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2)-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries.

  12. Explosive actuated valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means

  13. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  14. The evolution of solid density within a thermal explosion II. Dynamic proton radiography of cracking and solid consumption by burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Grim, G.; Mariam, F.; Schwartz, C. L.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; Espinoza, C.; Lewis, D.; Bainbridge, J.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report proton transmission images obtained subsequent to the laser assisted thermal ignition of a sample of PBX 9501 (a plastic bonded formulation of the explosive nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)). We describe the laser assisted thermal ignition technique as a means to synchronize a non-linear thermal ignition event while preserving the subsequent post-ignition behavior. We have obtained dynamic proton transmission images at two spatial magnifications and viewed both the radial and transverse axis of a solid cylindrical sample encased in aluminum. Images have been obtained with 3 to 15 μs temporal resolution and approximately 100 μm spatial resolution at the higher magnification. We observe case expansion from very early in the experiment, until case fragmentation. We observe spatially anisotropic features in the transmission which we attribute to cracking in the solid explosive, in agreement with previous measurements conducted on two dimensional samples with optical viewing. Digital analysis of the images also reveals spatially isotropic features which we attribute to the evolution of the loss of density by burning subsequent to thermal ignition.

  15. The evolution of solid density within a thermal explosion II. Dynamic proton radiography of cracking and solid consumption by burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Grim, G.; Mariam, F.; Schwartz, C. L.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; Espinoza, C.; Lewis, D.; Bainbridge, J.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15

    We report proton transmission images obtained subsequent to the laser assisted thermal ignition of a sample of PBX 9501 (a plastic bonded formulation of the explosive nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)). We describe the laser assisted thermal ignition technique as a means to synchronize a non-linear thermal ignition event while preserving the subsequent post-ignition behavior. We have obtained dynamic proton transmission images at two spatial magnifications and viewed both the radial and transverse axis of a solid cylindrical sample encased in aluminum. Images have been obtained with 3 to 15 {mu}s temporal resolution and approximately 100 {mu}m spatial resolution at the higher magnification. We observe case expansion from very early in the experiment, until case fragmentation. We observe spatially anisotropic features in the transmission which we attribute to cracking in the solid explosive, in agreement with previous measurements conducted on two dimensional samples with optical viewing. Digital analysis of the images also reveals spatially isotropic features which we attribute to the evolution of the loss of density by burning subsequent to thermal ignition.

  16. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  17. Phenomenological modelling of steam explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Drumheller, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    During a hypothetical core meltdown accident, an important safety issue to be addressed is the potential for steam explosions. This paper presents analysis and modelling of experimental results. There are four observations that can be drawn from the analysis: (1) vapor explosions are suppressed by noncondensible gases generated by fuel oxidation, by high ambient pressure, and by high water temperatures; (2) these effects appear to be trigger-related in that an explosion can again be induced in some cases by increasing the trigger magnitude; (3) direct fuel liquid-coolant liquid contact can explain small scale fuel fragmentation; (4) heat transfer during the expansion phase of the explosion can reduce the work potential

  18. Water-bearing explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G M

    1970-12-21

    An explosive water-bearing composition, with high detonation velocity, comprises a mixture of (1) an inorganic oxidizer salt; (2) nitroglycerine; (3) nitrocellulose; (4) water; and (5) a water thickening agent. (11 claims)

  19. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with explosives...

  20. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.

    2018-02-13

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  1. 8. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter deals with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Described are the development of the underground nuclear explosion, properties of radionuclides formed during the explosion, their distribution, the release of radioactive products of underground nuclear explosions into the air, their propagation in the atmosphere, and fallout in the landscape. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 8 figs., 19 refs

  2. Numerical schemes for explosion hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, internal or external explosions can cause confinement breaches and radioactive materials release in the environment. Hence, modeling such phenomena is crucial for safety matters. Blast waves resulting from explosions are modeled by the system of Euler equations for compressible flows, whereas Navier-Stokes equations with reactive source terms and level set techniques are used to simulate the propagation of flame front during the deflagration phase. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of efficient numerical schemes to solve these complex models. The work presented here focuses on two major aspects: first, the development of consistent schemes for the Euler equations, then the buildup of reliable schemes for the front propagation. In both cases, explicit in time schemes are used, but we also introduce a pressure correction scheme for the Euler equations. Staggered discretization is used in space. It is based on the internal energy formulation of the Euler system, which insures its positivity and avoids tedious discretization of the total energy over staggered grids. A discrete kinetic energy balance is derived from the scheme and a source term is added in the discrete internal energy balance equation to preserve the exact total energy balance at the limit. High order methods of MUSCL type are used in the discrete convective operators, based solely on material velocity. They lead to positivity of density and internal energy under CFL conditions. This ensures that the total energy cannot grow and we can furthermore derive a discrete entropy inequality. Under stability assumptions of the discrete L8 and BV norms of the scheme's solutions one can prove that a sequence of converging discrete solutions necessarily converges towards the weak solution of the Euler system. Besides it satisfies a weak entropy inequality at the limit. Concerning the front propagation, we transform the flame front evolution equation (the so called

  3. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  4. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  5. Safety engineering experiments of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Noboru

    1987-07-24

    The outline of large scale experiments carried out every year since 1969 to obtain fundamental data and then establish the safety engineering standards concerning the manufacturing, storage and transportation, etc. of all explosives was described. Because it becomes recently difficult to ensure the safety distance in powder magazines and powder plants, the sandwich structure with sand is thought to be suitable as the neighboring barrier walls. The special vertical structure for embankments to provide against a emergency explosion is effective to absorb the blast. Explosion behaviors such as initiating sensitivity, detonation, sympathetic detonation, and shock occurence of the ANFO explosives in place of dynamite and the slurry explosives were studied. The safety engineering standards for the manufacturing and application of explosives were studied to establish because accidents by tabacco fire are not still distinguished. Much data concerning early stage fire fighting, a large quantity of flooding and shock occurence from a assumption of ignition during machining in the propellants manufacturing plant, could be obtained. Basic studies were made to prevent pollution in blasting sites. Collected data are utilized for the safety administration after sufficient discussion. (4 figs, 2 tabs, 3 photos, 17 refs)

  6. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  7. Trace explosives sensor testbed (TESTbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Greg E.; Malito, Michael P.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Giordano, Braden C.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Field, Christopher R.; Rogers, Duane A.; Jeffries, Russell A.; Colton, Richard J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source. Explosives and explosives-related vapors can be sourced through a number of means including gas cylinders, permeation tube ovens, dynamic headspace chambers, and a Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System coupled to a perfluoroalkoxy total-consumption microflow nebulizer. Key features of the TESTbed include continuous and pulseless control of trace vapor concentrations with wide dynamic range of concentration generation, six sampling ports with reproducible vapor profile outputs, limited low-volatility explosives adsorption to the manifold surface, temperature and humidity control of the vapor stream, and a graphical user interface for system operation and testing protocol implementation.

  8. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.

    1995-04-01

    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  9. Effects of frustration on explosive synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xia; Gao, Jian; Sun, Yu-Ting; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Can

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we consider the emergence of explosive synchronization in scale-free networks by considering the Kuramoto model of coupled phase oscillators. The natural frequencies of oscillators are assumed to be correlated with their degrees and frustration is included in the system. This assumption can enhance or delay the explosive transition to synchronization. Interestingly, a de-synchronization phenomenon occurs and the type of phase transition is also changed. Furthermore, we provide an analytical treatment based on a star graph, which resembles that obtained in scale-free networks. Finally, a self-consistent approach is implemented to study the de-synchronization regime. Our findings have important implications for controlling synchronization in complex networks because frustration is a controllable parameter in experiments and a discontinuous abrupt phase transition is always dangerous in engineering in the real world.

  10. Advances in impact resistance testing for explosion-proof electrical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculescu Vlad Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, construction and exploitation of electrical equipment intended to be used in potentially explosive atmospheres presents a series of difficulties. Therefore, the approach of these phases requires special attention concerning technical, financial and occupational health and safety aspects. In order for them not to generate an ignition source for the explosive atmosphere, such equipment have to be subjected to a series of type tests aiming to decrease the explosion risk in technological installations which operate in potentially explosive atmospheres. Explosion protection being a concern of researchers and authorities worldwide, testing and certification of explosion-proof electrical equipment, required for their conformity assessment, are extremely important, taking into account the unexpected explosion hazard due to potentially explosive atmospheres, risk which has to be minimized in order to ensure the occupational health and safety of workers, for preventing material losses and for decreasing the environmental pollution. Besides others, one of the type tests, which shall be applied, for explosion-proof electrical equipment is the impact resistance test, described in detail in EN 60079 which specifies the general requirements for construction, testing and marking of electrical equipment and Ex components intended for use in explosive atmospheres. This paper presents an analysis on the requirements of the impact resistance test for explosion-proof electrical equipment and on the possibilities to improve this type of test, by making use of modern computer simulation tools based on finite element analysis, techniques which are widely used nowadays in the industry and for research purposes.

  11. Mechanical efficiency of the energy release during a steam explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical processes during the expansion phase of a steam explosion with intimately fragmented liquid particles is investigated based on elementary principles and analytical solutions. During a short load pulse, the different densities of the water and the melted particles lead to different velocities. After the load pulse, viscosity effects lead to a slow down of the higher velocities and to a corresponding reconversion of the kinetic energy of the mixture into thermal energy. It is shown that both effects are proportional to each other. The ratio between the residual and the applied mechanical energy is defined as the mechanical efficiency of the steam explosion. Using data typical for a steam explosion in a pressurized water reactor, mechanical efficiencies of <50% are estimated. Considering that the thermodynamic efficiencies are quite limited, the very low conversion rates from thermal energy into mechanical energy observed during steam explosion experiments can be more easily understood

  12. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  13. The architectural evaluation of buildings’ indices in explosion crisis management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bitarafan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the probable damages plays an important role in preparing for encountering and resisting negative effects of martial attacks to urban areas. The ultimate goal of this study was to identify some facilities and solutions of immunizing buildings against marital attacks and resisting explosion effects. Explosion and its coming waves, which are caused by bombardment, will damage the buildings and cause difficulties. So, defining indices to identify architectural vulnerability of buildings in explosion is needed. The Basic indices for evaluating the blast-resistant architectural spaces were identified in this study using library resources. The proposed indices were extracted through interviewing architectural and explosive experts. This study has also applied group decision making method based on pairwise comparison model, and then the necessity degree of each index was calculated. Finally, the preferences and ultimate weights of the indices were determined.

  14. “Religious Freedom” as a Tool to Oppress: The Explosion in Religion-Based Attacks on Civil Rights in Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J. Luchenitser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half-decade, there has been an explosion in the United States of lawsuits in which claims to religious liberty have been used to justify abridging the civil rights of women, LGBTQ people, and other minorities. This article surveys such litigation in several areas: health-insurance coverage, healthcare services, marriage-related services, employment, and housing. For each area, the article analyzes recent litigation, compares it to earlier activity (if any, and discusses the kinds of arguments that have been made, how courts have responded to them, and how such arguments are likely to fare in the future. The article concludes that the ultimate fate of many of these kinds of cases will likely be determined by who the next member is of a U.S. Supreme Court that is currently split four-four between social liberals and conservatives.

  15. Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands and explosive particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.I.

    1985-07-01

    An explosive reconnection process associated with the nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability is found through studies of the electromagnetic particle simulation and the magnetohydrodynamic particle simulation. The explosive coalescence is a process of magnetic collapse, in which we find the magnetic and electrostatic field energies and temperatures (ion temperature in the coalescing direction, in particular) explode toward the explosion time t 0 as (t 0 - t)/sup -8/3/, (t 0 - t) -4 , and (t 0 - t)/sup -8/3/, respectively for a canonical case. Single-peak, double-peak, and triple-peak structures of magnetic energy, temperature, and electrostatic energy, respectively, are observed on the simulation as overshoot amplitude oscillations and are theoretically explained. The heuristic model of Brunel and Tajima is extended to this explosive coalescence in order to extract the basic process. Since the explosive coalescence exhibits self-similarity, a temporal universality, we theoretically search for a self-similar solution to the two-fluid plasma equations

  16. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  17. Development of steam explosion simulation code JASMINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro

    1995-11-01

    A steam explosion is considered as a phenomenon which possibly threatens the integrity of the containment vessel of a nuclear power plant in a severe accident condition. A numerical calculation code JASMINE (JAeri Simulator for Multiphase INteraction and Explosion) purposed to simulate the whole process of steam explosions has been developed. The premixing model is based on a multiphase flow simulation code MISTRAL by Fuji Research Institute Co. In JASMINE code, the constitutive equations and the flow regime map are modified for the simulation of premixing related phenomena. The numerical solution method of the original code is succeeded, i.e. the basic equations are discretized semi-implicitly, BCGSTAB method is used for the matrix solver to improve the stability and convergence, also TVD scheme is applied to capture a steep phase distribution accurately. Test calculations have been performed for the conditions correspond to the experiments by Gilbertson et al. and Angelini et al. in which mixing of solid particles and water were observed in iso-thermal condition and with boiling, respectively. (author).

  18. Development of steam explosion simulation code JASMINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun; Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro.

    1995-11-01

    A steam explosion is considered as a phenomenon which possibly threatens the integrity of the containment vessel of a nuclear power plant in a severe accident condition. A numerical calculation code JASMINE (JAeri Simulator for Multiphase INteraction and Explosion) purposed to simulate the whole process of steam explosions has been developed. The premixing model is based on a multiphase flow simulation code MISTRAL by Fuji Research Institute Co. In JASMINE code, the constitutive equations and the flow regime map are modified for the simulation of premixing related phenomena. The numerical solution method of the original code is succeeded, i.e. the basic equations are discretized semi-implicitly, BCGSTAB method is used for the matrix solver to improve the stability and convergence, also TVD scheme is applied to capture a steep phase distribution accurately. Test calculations have been performed for the conditions correspond to the experiments by Gilbertson et al. and Angelini et al. in which mixing of solid particles and water were observed in iso-thermal condition and with boiling, respectively. (author)

  19. Risk Quantitative Determination of Fire and Explosion in a Process Unit By Dow’s Fire and Explosion Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Varmazyar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Fire and explosion hazards are the first and second of major hazards in process industries, respectively. This study has been done to determine fire and explosion risk severity,radius of exposure and estimating of most probable loss.   Methods   In this quantitative study process unit has been selected with affecting parameters on  fire and explosion risk. Then, it was analyzed by DOW's fire and explosion index (F&EI. Technical data were obtained from process documents and reports, fire and explosion guideline.After calculating of DOW's index, radius of exposure determined and finally most  probable loss was estimated.   Results   The results showed an F&EI value of 226 for this process unit.The F&EI was extremely  high and unacceptable.Risk severity was categorized in sever class.Radius of exposure and damage factor were calculated 57 meters and 83%,respectively. As well as most probable loss was  estimated about 6.7 million dollars.   Conclusion   F&EI is a proper technique for risk assessment and loss estimation of fire and  explosion in process industries.Also,It is an important index for detecting high risk and low risk   areas in an industry. At this technique, all of factors affecting on fire and explosion risk was  showed as index that is a base for judgement risk class. Finally, estimated losses could be used as  a base of fire and explosion insurance.

  20. Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

    1999-12-01

    In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The

  1. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  2. Electromagnetic field effects in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: measurements of conductivity; enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Hayes...()^1 showed a strong correlation of peak electrical conductivity with carbon content of the detonation products. Ershov.......^2 linked detailed electrical conductivity measurements with reaction kinetics and this work was extended to enhance detonation performance electrically;...^3 for this, electrical power densities of the order of 100 TW/m^2 of explosive surface normal to the detonation front were required. However, small electrical powers are required to affect the initiation and growth of reaction.......^4,5 A continuation of this work will be reported. LA-UR 09-00873 .^1 B. Hayes, Procs. of 4th Symposium (International) on Detonation (1965), p. 595. ^2 A. Ershov, P. Zubkov, and L. Luk'yanchikov, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 10, 776-782 (1974). ^3 M. Cowperthwaite, Procs. 9th Detonation Symposium (1989), p. 388-395. ^4 M. A. Cook and T. Z. Gwyther, ``Influence of Electric Fields on Shock to Detonation Transition,'' (1965). ^5 D. Salisbury, R. Winter, and L. Biddle, Procs. of the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (2005) p. 1010-1013.

  3. A Local Propagation for Vapor Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, M.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    explosion can be made. Both theories postulate that spontaneous nucleation is a necessary requirement for vapor explosions. In the case of Freon-oil, which can be considered to be a 'well-wetted' system, this implies homogeneous nucleation. For metal-water systems, however, vapor-free heterogeneous nucleation may take place, in view of the unique surface properties of water. Indeed, for aqueous systems it is difficult to suppress very small pre-existing surface nuclei. The practical effect, however, is the same in that nucleation may occur in metal-water systems at liquid-liquid interfacial temperatures somewhat below the homogeneous nucleation temperature of water, but with comparable time scales and vapor pressures. Another important requirement common to both the splash and capture theories, as well as the Freon-oil data, is the necessity for film boiling to occur when the two liquids are initially mixed. This requirement is not satisfied by the sodium-UO 2 system, based on the Henry film bailing correlation. Rapid breakup therefore occurs as the two liquids are mixed, preventing a highly energetic interaction. Our current assessment, therefore, is that a sodium-UO 2 vapor explosion in a reactor environment is extremely unlikely

  4. Gas pollutants from detonation and combustion of industrial explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, J.; Pines, A.; Gois, J.C.; Portugal, A. (University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    The potential hazards of fumes, from blasting operations in underground mines, have long been recognised. Beyond this normal use of explosives, there are also large amounts of energy substances which cannot be used because their life time is outdated or they are not within the minimal quality requirements. There is a lack of information concerning tests, procedures and theoretical predictions of pollutant concentrations in fumes from detonation and combustion operations with industrial explosives. The most common industrial explosives in Portugal are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil compositions (anfo), and dynamite. Recently, ammonium nitrate based emulsion explosives are more and more used in industrial applications. This paper presents the structure and fundamental thermodynamic equations of THOR computer code to calculate the combustion and detonation products (CO[sub 2], CO, H[sub 2]O, N[sub 2], O[sub 2], H[sub 2], OH, NO, H, N, O, HCN, NH[sub 3], NO[sub 2], N[sub 2]O, CH[sub 4] gases and two kinds of solid carbon - graphite and diamond) for the minimum value of Gibbs free energy, using three well known equations of state - BKW, H9 and H12. Detonation experiments are described and gas analysis discussed. Measured pollutants concentrations (CO, CO[sub 2], NO and NO[sub 2]), as a function of volume of explosion chamber, prove the dependence of expansion mechanisms on CO and NO formation and recombination and validate theoretical predictions. Incineration of explosives in a fluidised bed is described. Products composition from isobare adiabatic combustion of selected explosives has been calculated and correlated with previous calculations for a detonation regime. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of predicting gas composition of detonation and combustion products of industrial explosives. 22 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Application of factor analysis to the explosive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Joon; Song, Byung Chul; Im, Hee Jung; Kim, Won Ho; Cho, Jung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    The detection of explosive devices hidden in airline baggage is significant problem, particularly in view of the development of modern plastic explosives which can formed into various innocent-appearing shapes and which are sufficiently powerful that small quantities can destroy an aircraft in flight. Besides, the biggest difficulty occurs from long detection time required for the explosive detection system based on thermal neutron interrogation, which involves exposing baggage to slow neutrons having energy in the order of 0.025 eV. The elemental compositions of explosives can be determined by the Neutron Induced Prompt gamma Spectroscopy (NIPS) which has been installed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a tool for the detection of explosives in passenger baggage. In this work, the factor analysis has been applied to the NIPS system to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the prompt gamma spectrum for the detection of explosive hidden in a passenger's baggage, especially for the noisy prompt gamma spectrum obtained with short measurement time

  6. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  7. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 x 10 -3 to as low as 5.8 x 10 -6 . Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson 8 provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10 -1

  8. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  9. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  10. Evidence for nearby supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Narciso; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. We show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at ∼130 pc from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. The deposition on Earth of 60 Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ∼2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction

  11. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  12. Explosions in Landau Vlasov dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Cussol, D.; Gregoire, C.; Boilley, D.; Pi, M.; Schuck, P.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1988-01-01

    A microscopic study of the quasi-fusion/explosion transition is presented in the framework of Landau-Vlasov simulations of intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions (bombarding energies between 10 and 100 MeV/A). A detailed analysis in terms of the Equation of State of the system is performed. In agreement with schematic models we find that the composite nuclear system formed in the collision does explode when it stays long enough in the mechanically unstable region (spinodal region). Quantitative estimates of the explosion threshold are given for central symmetric reactions (Ca+Ca and Ar+Ti). The effect of the nuclear matter compressibility modulus is discussed

  13. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  14. Biological consequences of atomic explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1984-01-01

    After an introductory chapter of the development and properties of nuclear weapons and the events of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, this books shows the effects of atomic explosions for man: effects of the pressure wave, thermal radiation, initial nuclear radiation alone or in conjunction and possible medical help. In addition the less massive damage caused by induced radioactivity and fallout, their prevention resp. treatment and the malignant/nonmalignant late effects are discussed. A further chapter deals with the psychological and epidemiological effects of atomic explosions, the consequences for food and water supply, and the construction of shetters. The last chapter is concerned with the problem of organising medical help. (MG) [de

  15. An Investigation of the Sub-Microsecond Features of Dynamic Crack Propagation in PMMA and the Rdx-Based Explosive PBX 9205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, P. D.; Hill, L. G.

    2007-12-01

    A dynamic crack propagating in a brittle material releases enough thermal energy to produce visible light. The dynamic fracture of even macroscopically amorphous materials becomes unsteady as the crack propagation velocity approaches the material wave-speeds. The heat generated at a crack-tip, especially as it jumps, may be a mechanism to initiate a self-sustaining reaction in an energetic material. Experiments were conducted in specimens to simulate an infinite plate for ˜10 μs. The initial specimens were 152 mm square by 6 mm thick acrylic sheets, and were fabricated to study non-steady near-wave-speed crack propagation. A variant of this specimen embedded a 25 mm×3 mm PBX 9205 pellet to explore the influence of dynamic Mode-I cracks in these materials. The crack was initiated by up to 0.24 g of Detasheet placed along a precursor 50 mm long notch, with a shield to contain the reaction products and prevent propagation along the fractured surfaces. The crack was studied by means of a streak camera and a Fourier-filter of the light reflecting off the newly minted surfaces. The sub-microsecond behavior of holes initiating, preceding and coalescing with the main crack were observed in the PMMA samples. The embedding and mechanical loading of explosives by this technique did not initiate a self-sustaining reaction in preliminary testing.

  16. An initial investigation of the sub-microsecond features of dynamic crack propagation in PMMA and the RDX-based explosive PBX 9205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Peter; Hill, Larry

    2007-06-01

    A dynamic crack propagating in a brittle material releases enough thermal energy to produce visible light. The dynamic fracture of even macroscopically amorphous materials becomes unsteady as the crack propagation velocity approaches the material wave-speeds. The heat generated at a crack-tip, especially as it jumps, may be a mechanism to initiate a self-sustaining reaction in an energetic material. Experiments were conducted in specimens to simulate an infinite plate for 20 μs. The initial specimens were 152 mm square by 6 mm thick acrylic sheets, and were fabricated to study non-steady near-wave-speed crack propagation. A variant of this specimen embedded a 25 mm x 3 mm PBX 9205 pellet to explore the influence of dynamic Mode-I cracks in these materials. The crack was initiated by up to 0.2 g of Detasheet placed along a precursor 50 mm long notch, with a shield to contain the reaction products and prevent propagation along the fractured surfaces. The crack was studied by means of a streak camera and a Fourier-filter of the light reflecting off the newly minted surfaces. The sub-microsecond behavior of holes initiating, preceding and coalescing with the main crack were observed in the PMMA samples. The embedding and mechanical loading of explosives by this technique did not initiate a self-sustaining reaction in preliminary testing.

  17. Atmospheric emission of NOx from mining explosives: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwoye, Ibukun; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Gore, Jeff; Oskierski, Hans C.; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2017-10-01

    High-energy materials such as emulsions, slurries and ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil (ANFO) explosives play crucial roles in mining, quarrying, tunnelling and many other infrastructure activities, because of their excellent transport and blasting properties. These explosives engender environmental concerns, due to atmospheric pollution caused by emission of dust and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from blasts, the latter characterised by the average emission factor of 5 kg (t AN explosive)-1. This first-of-its-kind review provides a concise literature account of the formation of NOx during blasting of AN-based explosives, employed in surface operations. We estimate the total NOx emission rate from AN-based explosives as 0.05 Tg (i.e., 5 × 104 t) N per annum, compared to the total global annual anthropogenic NOx emissions of 41.3 × 106 t N y-1. Although minor in the global sense, the large localised plumes from blasting exhibit high NOx concentration (500 ppm) exceeding up to 3000 times the international standards. This emission has profound consequences at mining sites and for adjacent atmospheric environment, necessitating expensive management of exclusion zones. The review describes different types of AN energetic materials for civilian applications, and summarises the essential properties and terminologies pertaining to their use. Furthermore, we recapitulate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the reactive nitrogen species in blasting of AN-based explosives, review their implications to atmospheric air pollution, and compare the mechanisms with those experienced in other thermal and combustion operations. We also examine the mitigation approaches, including guidelines and operational-control measures. The review discusses the abatement technologies such as the formulation of new explosive mixtures, comprising secondary fuels, spin traps and other additives, in light of their effectiveness and efficiency. We conclude the review with a summary of unresolved problems

  18. The numerical study the rising of the explosion clouds in the uniform atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoli; Zheng Yi; Chao Ying

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to study the rising of the explosion clouds in the uniform atmosphere, the numerical model is based on the assumption that effects the clouds are gravity and buoyancy. The model is testified by Rayleigh-Taylor unsteady problem. The evolution of the density and the velocity during the rising of the explosion clouds are provided, and the computational results are reasonable compared to the rising of the real nuclear explosion cloud. (authors)

  19. GRAPH MODELING OF THE GRAIN PROCESSING ENTERPRISE FOR SECONDARY EXPLOSION ESTIMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Popov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model for the possible development of the primary explosion at the grain processing enterprise is created. It is proved that only instability is possible for the combustion process. This model enables to estimate possibility of the secondary explosion at any object of the enterprise and forms the base for mathematical support of the decision support system for explosion-proof. Such decision support system can be included in the control system of the processing enterprise.

  20. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Ozmen; Bekir Yuktasir; Necmiye Un Yildirim; Birol Yalcin; Mark ET Willems

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs) were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES); control (CN)] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Fede...

  1. Proceedings of the seventh annual symposium on explosives and blasting research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this symposium dealt with the following topics: advanced primer designs, seismic effects of blasting, systems for velocity of detonation measurement and pressure measurement, toxic fumes from explosions, blast performance, blasting for rock fragmentation, computer-aided blast design, characteristics of liquid oxygen explosives, and correlations of performance of explosives with ground vibration, partitioning of energy, and firing time scatter effects. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  2. Small scale thermal violence experiments for combined insensitive high explosive and booster materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Clare L [AWE, UK; Stennett, C [DCMT SHRIVENHAM, UK; Flower, H M [AWE, UK

    2010-01-01

    A small scale cook-off experiment has been designed to provide a violence metric for both booster and IHE materials, singly and in combination. The experiment has a simple, axisymmetric geometry provided by a 10 mm internal diameter cylindrical steel confinement up to 80 mm in length. Heating is applied from one end of the sample length creating pseudo 1-D heating profile and a thermal gradient across the sample(s). At the opposite end of the confinement to the heating block, a machined groove provides a point of rupture that generates a cylindrical fragment. The displacement of the external face of the fragment is detected by Heterodyne Velocimetry. Proof of concept experiments are reported focusing on HMX and TATB formulations, and are described in relation to confinement, ullage and heating profile. The development of a violence metric, based upon fragment velocity records is discussed.

  3. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with Indonesia), a volcano that has been producing cycles of repeated explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range of conditions, for which the mass balance between magma flux and open-system gas escape repeatedly

  4. Nucleation Characteristics in Physical Experiments/explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.

    1976-01-01

    Large-scale vapor explosion experiments have shown that intimate contact between hot and cold liquids, and a temperature upon contact that is greater than the spontaneous nucleation temperature of the system, are two necessary conditions for the onset of large scale vapor explosions. A model, based on spontaneous nucleation of the homogeneous type, has been proposed to describe the relevant processes and the resulting energetics for explosive boiling systems. The model considers that spontaneous nucleation cannot occur either during the relief time for constant volume heating or until the thermal boundary layer is sufficiently thick to support a vapor cavity of the critical size. After nucleation, bubble growth does not occur until an acoustic wave establishes a pressure gradient in the cold liquid. These considerations lead to the prediction that, for a given temperature, drops greater than a critical size will remain in film boiling due to coalescence of vapor nuclei and drops smaller than this value will wet and be captured by the hot liquid surface. These results are compared to small drop data for well-wetted systems and excellent agreement is obtained between the observed behavior and the model predictions. In conclusion: A model, based on spontaneous nucleation, has been proposed to describe vaporization potential and behavior upon contact in a liquid/liquid system. This behavior is determined by the size of the liquid mass, single-phase pressurization and acoustic relief, nucleation frequency due to random density fluctuations, the initiation of unstable growth and acoustic relief, and the development of the thermal boundary layer in the cold liquid. The proposed model predicts that the stability of a given size drop upon intimate contact with another liquid is extremely dependent upon the interface temperature. For low interface temperatures, large masses will be captured by the hot liquid and the resulting vaporization rates will be extremely low because

  5. Research on the analytical method about influence of gas leakage and explosion on subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wendong; Yang, Ligong; Chen, Lin

    2018-05-01

    With the construction and development of city subway, the cross impact of underground rail transit and gas pipe network is becoming more and more serious, but there is no analytical method for the impact of gas explosions on the subway. According to this paper, the gas leakage is equivalent to the TNT explosion equivalent, based on which, the calculation of the explosive impact load is carried out. On the basis of the concrete manifestation of gas explosion, it is more convenient to carry out the subsequent calculation by equivalently treating the explosive impact load as a uniform load within a certain range. The overlying soil of the subway station has played a protective role for the subway, making the displacement of the subway structure in the explosion process significantly reduced. The analysis on the actual case shows that this method can be successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of such accidents.

  6. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, William E.; Day, Walter C.

    1970-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment

  7. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberg, William E; Day, Walter C [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment.

  8. Experimental approach to explosive nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, S.

    1991-07-01

    Recent development of experimental studies on explosive nucleosynthesis, especially the rapid proton process and the primordial nucleosynthesis were discussed with a stress on unstable nuclei. New development in the experimental methods for the nuclear astrophysics is also discussed which use unstable nuclear beams. (author)

  9. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  10. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and

  11. Nucleosynthesis in cold white dwarf explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, R.; Hernanz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Type I supernovae (SNI) are generally thought to be the main contributors to the galactic nucleosynthesis of iron-peak elements and their yields of intermediate-mass elements may also be important. We concentrate here upon a different class of models, based on the explosion of cold, massive, partially solid white dwarfs. We show that such white dwarfs must be relatively frequent among SNI progenitors and how their hydrodynamics upon ignition is very different from that of hotter, fluid white dwarfs. The implications for nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed and some preliminary results are presented

  12. Research on an improved explosive emission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guozhi; Sun Jun; Shao Hao; Chen Changhua; Zhang Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a physical description of the cathode plasma process of an explosive emission cathode (EEC) and experimental results on a type of oil-immersed graphite EEC. It is believed that the generation of a cathode plasma is mainly dependent on the state of the cathode surface, and that adsorbed gases and dielectrics on the cathode surface play a leading role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Based on these ideas, a type of oil-immersed graphite EEC is proposed and fabricated. The experiments indicate that the oil-immersed cathodes have improved emissive properties and longer lifetimes.

  13. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  14. The behavior limestone under explosive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. Yu; Orlova, Yu N.; Bogomolov, G. N.

    2016-11-01

    Limestone behavior under explosive loading was investigated. The behavior of the limestone by the action of the three types of explosives, including granular, ammonite and emulsion explosives was studied in detail. The shape and diameter of the explosion craters were obtained. The observed fragments after the blast have been classified as large, medium and small fragments. Three full-scale experiments were carried out. The research results can be used as a qualitative test for the approbation of numerical methods.

  15. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  16. A Study on intelligent measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Desheng; Wu Xiaohong

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere is an important subject for nuclear survey. Based on the relations between nuclear explosion equivalent and the minimum illuminance time of light radiation from nuclear explosion. The method of RC differential valley time detection and mean-time taking is presented the method, using a single-chip computer as a intelligent part, can realize intelligent measurement of minimum illuminance time with high reliability and low power consumption. This method provides a practical mean for quick, accurate and reliable measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere

  17. Behavior of explosion debris clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In the normal course of events the behavior of debris clouds created by explosions will be of little concern to the atomic energy industry. However, two situations, one of them actual and one postulated, exist where the rise and spread of explosion clouds can affect site operations. The actual occurrence would be the detonation of nuclear weapons and the resultant release and transport of radioactive debris across the various atomic energy installations. Although the activity of the diffusing cloud is not of biological concern, it may still be sufficiently above background to play havoc with the normal readings of sensitive monitoring instruments. If it were not known that these anomalous readings resulted from explosion debris, considerable time and expense might be required for on-site testing and tracing. Fortunately it is usually possible, with the use of meteorological data and forecasts, to predict when individual sites are affected by nuclear weapon debris effects. The formation rise, and diffusion of weapon clouds will be discussed. The explosion of an atomic reactor is the postulated situation. It is common practice in reactor hazard analysis to assume a combination of circumstances which might result in a nuclear incident with a release of material to the atmosphere. It is not within the scope of this report to examine the manifold plausibilities that might lead to an explosion or the possible methods of release of gaseous and/or particulates from such an occurrence. However, if the information of a cloud is assumed and some idea of its energy content is obtainable, estimates of the cloud behavior in the atmosphere can be made

  18. Ideas for peaceful nuclear explosions in USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Three papers prepared in USSR have been made available to the Agency for circulation among Member States. One examines radioactive contamination and methods for predicting it, of natural environments during underground explosions. Another deals with the mechanical effect of underground explosions. The third, which forms the basis of this article, reviews possible applications of peaceful nuclear explosions in the Soviet economy. (author)

  19. Gas explosion in domestic buildings. The vented gas explosion[sub][/sub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Chyży

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the basic information, related to the so-called vented gas explosion, has been presented. The vented explosion it is an explosion, during which the destruction of the weakest elements of the structure occurs. Through the resulting holes (decompressing surfaces can flow both combustion products and non-burned gas mixture. In consequence, reduction of the maximum explosion pressure[i] P[sub]red [/sub][/i] may be significant. Often, a gas explosion occurs inside residential buildings. In this case, natural vents are window and door openings.[b]Keywords[/b]: gas, explosion, combustion, explosion vents

  20. Bayesian Integration and Classification of Composition C-4 Plastic Explosives Based on Time-of-Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Christine M; Kelly, Ryan T; Alexander, Liz; Newburn, Matt; Bader, Sydney; Ewing, Robert G; Fahey, Albert J; Atkinson, David A; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2016-04-05

    Time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) were used for characterization and identification of unique signatures from a series of 18 Composition C-4 plastic explosives. The samples were obtained from various commercial and military sources around the country. Positive and negative ion TOF-SIMS data were acquired directly from the C-4 residue on Si surfaces, where the positive ion mass spectra obtained were consistent with the major composition of organic additives, and the negative ion mass spectra were more consistent with explosive content in the C-4 samples. Each series of mass spectra was subjected to partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), a multivariate statistical analysis approach which serves to first find the areas of maximum variance within different classes of C-4 and subsequently to classify unknown samples based on correlations between the unknown data set and the original data set (often referred to as a training data set). This method was able to successfully classify test samples of C-4, though with a limited degree of certainty. The classification accuracy of the method was further improved by integrating the positive and negative ion data using a Bayesian approach. The TOF-SIMS data was combined with a second analytical method, LA-ICPMS, which was used to analyze elemental signatures in the C-4. The integrated data were able to classify test samples with a high degree of certainty. Results indicate that this Bayesian integrated approach constitutes a robust classification method that should be employable even in dirty samples collected in the field.

  1. Detection of chemical explosives using multiple photon signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loschke, K.W.; Dunn, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A template-matching procedure to aid in rapid detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is being investigated. Multiple photon-scattered and photon-induced positron annihilation radiation responses are being used as part of a photon-neutron signature-based radiation scanning (SBRS) approach (see companion reference for description of the neutron component), in an attempt to detect chemical explosives at safe standoff distances. Many past and present photon interrogation methods are based on imaging. Imaging techniques seek to determine at high special resolution the internal structure of a target of interest. Our technique simply seeks to determine if an unknown target contains a detectable amount of chemical explosives by comparing multiple responses (signatures) that depend on both density and composition of portions of a target. In the photon component, beams of photons are used to create back-streaming signatures, which are dependent on the density and composition of part of the target being interrogated. These signatures are compared to templates, which are collections of the same signatures if the interrogated volume contained a significant amount of explosives. The signature analysis produces a figure-of-merit and a standard deviation of the figure-of-merit. These two metrics are used to filter safe from dangerous targets. Experiments have been conducted that show that explosive surrogates (fertilizers) can be distinguished from several inert materials using these photon signatures, demonstrating that these signatures can be used effectively to help IEDs

  2. Discrimination of nuclear-explosion and lightning electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Shufeng; Li Ximei; Han Shaoqing; Niu Chao; Feng Jun; Liu Daizhi

    2012-01-01

    The discrimination of nuclear-explosion and lightning electromagnetic pulses was studied using empirical mode decomposition and the fractal analytical method. The box dimensions of nuclear-explosion and lightning electromagnetic pulses' original signals were calculated, and the box dimensions of the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of nuclear-explosion and lightning electromagnetic pulses' original signals after empirical mode decomposition were also obtained. The discrimination of nuclear explosion and lightning was studied using the nearest neighbor classification. The experimental results show that, the discrimination rate of the box dimension based on the first and second IMF after the original signal empirical mode decomposition is higher than that based on the third and forth IMF; the discrimination rate of the box dimension based on the original signal is higher than that based on any IMF; and the discrimination rate based on two-dimensional and three-dimensional characters is higher and more stable than that based on one-dimensional character, besides, the discrimination rate based on three-dimensional character is over 90%. (authors)

  3. Reduction of radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessler, Richard M [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Four main sources contribute to the radioactivity produced by a nuclear explosive: 1. Fission products from the nuclear explosive, 2. Fusion products from the nuclear explosive, 3. Induced radioactivity in the nuclear explosive, 4. Induced radioactivity in the environment. This paper will summarize some of the work done at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore to reduce the radioactivity from these sources to levels acceptable for peaceful applications. Although it is theoretically possible to have no radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives, this goal has not been achieved.

  4. What factors control the superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoit; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style; lava domes result from intermittent, slow extrusion of viscous lava. Most dome-forming eruptions produce highly microcrystallized and highly- to almost totally-degassed magmas which have a low explosive potential. During lava dome growth, recurrent collapses of unstable parts are the main destructive process of the lava dome, generating concentrated pyroclastic density currents (C-PDC) channelized in valleys. These C-PDC have a high, but localized, damage potential that largely depends on the collapsed volume. Sometimes, a dilute ash cloud surge develops at the top of the concentrated flow with an increased destructive effect because it may overflow ridges and affect larger areas. In some cases, large lava dome collapses can induce a depressurization of the magma within the conduit, leading to vulcanian explosions. By contrast, violent, laterally directed, explosions may occur at the base of a growing lava dome: this activity generates dilute and turbulent, highly-destructive, pyroclastic density currents (D-PDC), with a high velocity and propagation poorly dependent on the topography. Numerous studies on lava dome behaviors exist, but the triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood. Here, seven dome-forming eruptions are investigated: in the Lesser Antilles arc: Montagne Pelée, Martinique (1902-1905, 1929-1932 and 650 y. BP eruptions), Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; in Guatemala, Santiaguito (1929 eruption); in La Chaîne des Puys, France (Puy de Dome and Puy Chopine eruptions). We propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by these key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite

  5. Carbon cluster formation during thermal decomposition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene high explosives from ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luzheng; Zybin, Sergey V; van Duin, Adri C T; Dasgupta, Siddharth; Goddard, William A; Kober, Edward M

    2009-10-08

    We report molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the first-principles-based ReaxFF reactive force field to study the thermal decomposition of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) at various densities and temperatures. TATB is known to produce a large amount (15-30%) of high-molecular-weight carbon clusters, whereas detonation of nitramines such as HMX and RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) generate predominantly low-molecular-weight products. In agreement with experimental observation, these simulations predict that TATB decomposition quickly (by 30 ps) initiates the formation of large carbonaceous clusters (more than 4000 amu, or approximately 15-30% of the total system mass), and HMX decomposition leads almost exclusively to small-molecule products. We find that HMX decomposes readily on this time scale at lower temperatures, for which the decomposition rate of TATB is about an order of magnitude slower. Analyzing the ReaxFF MD results leads to the detailed atomistic structure of this carbon-rich phase of TATB and allows characterization of the kinetics and chemistry related to this phase and their dependence on system density and temperature. The carbon-rich phase formed from TATB contains mainly polyaromatic rings with large oxygen content, leading to graphitic regions. We use these results to describe the initial reaction steps of thermal decomposition of HMX and TATB in terms of the rates for forming primary and secondary products, allowing comparison to experimentally derived models. These studies show that MD using the ReaxFF reactive force field provides detailed atomistic information that explains such macroscopic observations as the dramatic difference in carbon cluster formation between TATB and HMX. This shows that ReaxFF MD captures the fundamental differences in the mechanisms of such systems and illustrates how the ReaxFF may be applied to model complex chemical phenomena

  6. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  7. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Problems in the theory of point explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. P.

    The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

  9. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. 75 FR 60694 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Marine Mammals, by Harassment, Incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations... School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... authorization to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal...

  11. Sensitivity of numerical dispersion modeling to explosive source parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, R.L.; Cederwall, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The calculation of downwind concentrations from non-traditional sources, such as explosions, provides unique challenges to dispersion models. The US Department of Energy has assigned the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the task of estimating the impact of accidental radiological releases to the atmosphere anywhere in the world. Our experience includes responses to over 25 incidents in the past 16 years, and about 150 exercises a year. Examples of responses to explosive accidents include the 1980 Titan 2 missile fuel explosion near Damascus, Arkansas and the hydrogen gas explosion in the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Based on judgment and experience, we frequently estimate the source geometry and the amount of toxic material aerosolized as well as its particle size distribution. To expedite our real-time response, we developed some automated algorithms and default assumptions about several potential sources. It is useful to know how well these algorithms perform against real-world measurements and how sensitive our dispersion model is to the potential range of input values. In this paper we present the algorithms we use to simulate explosive events, compare these methods with limited field data measurements, and analyze their sensitivity to input parameters. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Modelling of vapour explosion in a stratified geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brayer, Claude

    1994-01-01

    A vapour explosion is the explosive vaporisation of a volatile liquid in contact with another hotter liquid. Such a violent vaporisation requires an intimate mixing and a fine fragmentation of both liquids. Based on a synthesis of published experimental results, the author of this research thesis reports the development of a new physical model which describes the explosion. In this model, the explosion propagation is due to the propagation of the pressure wave associated with this this explosion, all along the vapour film which initially separates both liquids. The author takes the presence of water in the liquid initially located over the film into account. This presence of vapour explains experimental propagation rates. Another consequence, when the pressure wave passes, is an acceleration of liquids at different rates below and above the film. The author considers that a mixture layer then forms from the point of disappearance of the film, between both liquids, and that fragmentation is due to the turbulence in this mixture layer. This fragmentation model is then introduced into an Euler thermodynamic, three-dimensional and multi-constituents code of calculation, MC3D, to study the influence of fragmentation on thermal exchanges between the various constituents on the volatile liquid vaporisation [fr

  13. Explosive nucleosynthesis in a neutrino-driven core collapse supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kotake, Kei; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a delayed neutrino-driven, supernova explosion aided by standing accretion shock instability (SASI), based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of a 15 M · star. We take into accounts neutrino heating and cooling as well as change in electron fraction due to weak interactions appropriately, in the two-dimensional simulations. We assume the isotropic emission of neutrinos from the neutrino spheres with given luminosities. and the Fermi-Dirac distribution of given temperatures. We find that the stalled shock revives due to the neutrino heating aided by SASI for cases with L νe ≥3.9x10 52 ergss -1 and the as-pherical shock passes through the outer layers of the star (≥10,000 km), with the explosion energies of ∼10 51 ergs.Next we examine abundances and masses of the supernova ejecta. We find that masses of the ejecta and 56 Ni correlate with the neutrino luminosity, and 56 Ni mass is comparable to that observed in SN 1987A. We also find that abundance pattern of the supernova ejecta is similar to that of the solar system, for cases with high explosion energies of >10 51 ergs. We emphasize that 64 Zn, which is underproduced in the spherical case, is abundantly produced in slightly neutron-rich ejecta.

  14. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  15. Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) Molecular Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Emissions of Thin Solid Explosive Powder Films Deposited on Aluminum Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Tripathi, Ashish; Samuels, Alan C

    2017-04-01

    Thin solid films made of high nitro (NO 2 )/nitrate (NO 3 ) content explosives were deposited on sand-blasted aluminum substrates and then studied using a mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared region (LWIR; ∼5.6-10 µm). Despite the similarities of their chemical compositions and structures, thin films of three commonly used explosives (RDX, HMX, and PETN) studied in this work can be rapidly identified in the ambient air by their molecular LIBS emission signatures in the LWIR region. A preliminary assessment of the detection limit for a thin film of RDX on aluminum appears to be much lower than 60 µg/cm 2 . This LWIR LIBS setup is capable of rapidly probing and charactering samples without the need for elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous ultraviolet visible and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  16. Performance evaluation of granular activated carbon system at Pantex: Rapid small-scale column tests to simulate removal of high explosives from contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, J.L.; Speitel, G.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-08-01

    A granular activated carbon (GAC) system is now in operation at Pantex to treat groundwater from the perched aquifer that is contaminated with high explosives. The main chemicals of concern are RDX and HMX. The system consists of two GAC columns in series. Each column is charged with 10,000 pounds of Northwestern LB-830 GAC. At the design flow rate of 325 gpm, the hydraulic loading is 6.47 gpm/ft{sup 2}, and the empty bed contact time is 8.2 minutes per column. Currently, the system is operating at less than 10% of its design flow rate, although flow rate increases are expected in the relatively near future. This study had several objectives: Estimate the service life of the GAC now in use at Pantex; Screen several GACs to provide a recommendation on the best GAC for use at Pantex when the current GAC is exhausted and is replaced; Determine the extent to which natural organic matter in the Pantex groundwater fouls GAC adsorption sites, thereby decreasing the adsorption capacity for high explosives; and Determine if computer simulation models could match the experimental results, thereby providing another tool to follow system performance.

  17. Performance evaluation of granular activated carbon system at Pantex: Rapid small-scale column tests to simulate removal of high explosives from contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, J.L.; Speitel, G.E.

    1998-08-01

    A granular activated carbon (GAC) system is now in operation at Pantex to treat groundwater from the perched aquifer that is contaminated with high explosives. The main chemicals of concern are RDX and HMX. The system consists of two GAC columns in series. Each column is charged with 10,000 pounds of Northwestern LB-830 GAC. At the design flow rate of 325 gpm, the hydraulic loading is 6.47 gpm/ft 2 , and the empty bed contact time is 8.2 minutes per column. Currently, the system is operating at less than 10% of its design flow rate, although flow rate increases are expected in the relatively near future. This study had several objectives: Estimate the service life of the GAC now in use at Pantex; Screen several GACs to provide a recommendation on the best GAC for use at Pantex when the current GAC is exhausted and is replaced; Determine the extent to which natural organic matter in the Pantex groundwater fouls GAC adsorption sites, thereby decreasing the adsorption capacity for high explosives; and Determine if computer simulation models could match the experimental results, thereby providing another tool to follow system performance

  18. Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae (very energetic supernovae) are presented. These models provide a favorable situation to explain some unexpected features in observations of hypernovae, e.g., high velocity matter dominated by Fe and low velocity matter dominated by O. The overall abundance of these models gives a good fit, at least qualitatively, to abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. We suggest hypernovae be driven by bipolar jets and contribute significantly to the early Galactic chemical evolution

  19. Mass extinctions and supernova explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Korschinek, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, o...

  20. Performance properties of commercial explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Mader, C.L.; Goldstein, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aquarium test is a proven means of obtaining nonidial performance property data for commercial blasting agents. Optical data on the detonation velocity, shock wave in water, and expansion rate of the pipe enclosing the detonation products (in combination with the equilibrium thermodynamic chemistry code BKW) give the C-J state and degree of chemical reaction at the detonation front, as well as information on additional chemical reaction that occurs as the detonation products expand. Specific explosive systems that are studied are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixture (ANFO), aluminized ANFO, flaked trinitrotoluene (TNT), and several other commercial products in 10-cm diam and 20-cm-diam pipes of Plexiglas and clay. Experimental shock-pressure data are obtained with lithium niobate transducers placed in the water surrounding the explosive charge. These data show that the addition of approx.100-..mu..m aluminum particles to ANFO significantly increases the initial peak shock pressure delivered to the surrounding medium. Peak shock pressures in the water, calculated from the shock-wave orientation, are also useful in comparing performance properties of various commercial explosives. 20 references, 17 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Nils-Olov; Ferm, Ragnhild

    2000-07-01

    The main part of this report is a list of nuclear explosions conducted by the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan in 1945-98. The list includes all known nuclear test explosions and is compiled from a variety of sources including officially published information from the USA, Russia and France. The details given for each explosion (date, origin time, location, yield, type, etc.) are often compiled from more than one source because the individual sources do not give complete information. The report includes a short background to nuclear testing and provides brief information on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the verification regime now being established to verify compliance with the treaty. It also summarizes nuclear testing country by country. The list should be used with some caution because its compilation from a variety of sources means that some of the data could be incorrect. This report is the result of cooperation between the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  2. A model of vulcanian explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    We present a model of the initial stages of the explosive eruption of magma from a volcanic conduit as occurs in Vulcanian style eruptions. We assume there is a volatile rich (1-10 wt%) mixture of magma, vaporised groundwater and exsolved volatiles, trapped at high pressure (1-100 atm) just below a plug in a volcanic conduit. If the plug disrupts, there is an explosive eruption in which a rarefaction wave propagates into the conduit allowing the volatile rich mixture to expand and discharge into the atmosphere ahead of the vent. Typically, the explosions are so rapid that coarse grained ejecta (>0.5 mm) do not remain in thermal equilibrium with the gas, and this leads to significantly lower velocities and temperatures than predicted by an equilibrium model. Material may erupt from the vent at speeds of 100-400 m s -1 with an initial mass flux of order 10 7 -10 9 kg s -1 , consistent with video observations of eruptions and measurements of the ballistic dispersal of large clasts. (orig.)

  3. NQR: From imaging to explosives and drugs detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osan, Tristan M.; Cerioni, Lucas M.C.; Forguez, Jose; Olle, Juan M.; Pusiol, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to present an overview of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy capabilities for solid state imaging and detection of illegal substances, such as explosives and drugs. We briefly discuss the evolution of different NQR imaging techniques, in particular those involving spatial encoding which permit conservation of spectroscopic information. It has been shown that plastic explosives and other forbidden substances cannot be easily detected by means of conventional inspection techniques, such as those based on conventional X-ray technology. For this kind of applications, the experimental results show that the information inferred from NQR spectroscopy provides excellent means to perform volumetric and surface detection of dangerous explosive and drug compounds

  4. A review of conventional explosives detection using active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, Z.D.; Kearfott, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional explosives are relatively easy to obtain and may cause massive harm to people and property. There are several tools employed by law enforcement to detect explosives, but these can be subverted. Active neutron interrogation is a viable alternative to those techniques, and includes: fast neutron analysis, thermal neutron analysis, pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis, neutron elastic scatter, and fast neutron radiography. These methods vary based on neutron energy and radiation detected. A thorough review of the principles behind, advantages, and disadvantages of the different types of active neutron interrogation is presented. (author)

  5. Comparing CTH simulations and experiments on explosively loaded rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Aydelotte, Brady; Collins, Adam; Thadhani, Naresh; Williamson, David Martin

    2012-03-01

    A series of experiments were conducted on explosively loaded metallic rings for the purpose of studying fragmentation. In addition to the collection of fragments for analysis, the radial velocity of the expanding ring was measured with photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and the arrangement was imaged using high speed photography. Both the ring material and the material used as the explosive container were altered and the results compared with simulations performed in CTH. Good agreement was found between the simulations and the experiments. The maximum radial velocity attained was approximately 380 m/s, which was achieved through loading with a 5g PETN based charge.

  6. Thermal-mechanical-chemical responses of polymer-bonded explosives using a mesoscopic reactive model under impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XinJie; Wu, YanQing; Huang, FengLei

    2017-01-05

    A mesoscopic framework is developed to quantify the thermal-mechanical-chemical responses of polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) samples under impact loading. A mesoscopic reactive model is developed for the cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) crystal, which incorporates nonlinear elasticity, crystal plasticity, and temperature-dependent chemical reaction. The proposed model was implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS by the user subroutine VUMAT. A series of three-dimensional mesoscale models were constructed and calculated under low-strength impact loading scenarios from 100m/s to 600m/s where only the first wave transit is studied. Crystal anisotropy and microstructural heterogeneity are responsible for the nonuniform stress field and fluctuations of the stress wave front. At a critical impact velocity (≥300m/s), a chemical reaction is triggered because the temperature contributed by the volumetric and plastic works is sufficiently high. Physical quantities, including stress, temperature, and extent of reaction, are homogenized from those across the microstructure at the mesoscale to compare with macroscale measurements, which will advance the continuum-level models. The framework presented in this study has important implications in understanding hot spot ignition processes and improving predictive capabilities in energetic materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of 14C-Labelled Octahydor-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (HMx0 and 15N-Isotopic Hexahyrro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) for use in Microcosm Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ampleman, G

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of an R & D project on bioremediation of soils contaminated with energetic compounds, the biodegradation of energetic nitramine products such as octogen (HMX) and hexogen (RDX) is under study...

  8. Luck Reveals Stellar Explosion's First Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    -rays came from one of the galaxy's spiral arms. Soderberg led a 38-person international scientific team that quickly began an intensive effort to study the new object using both orbiting and ground-based telescopes. In order to conclude that they had, in fact, seen the predicted early burst of X-rays from a supernova, they needed to eliminate alternative explanations, such as a gamma-ray burst, and then to show that, as time went on, the object behaved like a normal supernova. The scientists scrutinized the object with Swift's gamma-ray instrument, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope. On the ground, they used the Gemini North telescope and the Keck I telescope in Hawaii, the 200-inch and 60-inch telescopes at Palomar Observatory in California, the 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, and the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescopes. The VLA and VLBA provided key information that showed the object evolving in a pattern similar to other supernovae. "The data from all these telescopes confirmed that what we were seeing is indeed a supernova and not some new type of object. That initial X-ray burst thus is the earliest observation ever of an exploding star," Soderberg said. The scientists are excited at the prospects of learning vital new details that will help them settle longstanding controversies about the mechanisms of supernova explosions. Stars much more massive than our Sun end their lives in supernova explosions, as they run out of fuel for the thermonuclear reactions that power them. With no more energy being released at the star's core, the core collapses. Further collapse of the star is thought to cause a violent rebound that blasts most of the stars's material into space. What remains is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. The details of this scenario, however, are not well understood, and astronomers differ over the exact mechanisms. Much of

  9. Emergent explosive synchronization in adaptive complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Gaytán, Vanesa; Almendral, Juan A.; Leyva, I.; Battiston, F.; Nicosia, V.; Latora, V.; Boccaletti, S.

    2018-04-01

    Adaptation plays a fundamental role in shaping the structure of a complex network and improving its functional fitting. Even when increasing the level of synchronization in a biological system is considered as the main driving force for adaptation, there is evidence of negative effects induced by excessive synchronization. This indicates that coherence alone cannot be enough to explain all the structural features observed in many real-world networks. In this work, we propose an adaptive network model where the dynamical evolution of the node states toward synchronization is coupled with an evolution of the link weights based on an anti-Hebbian adaptive rule, which accounts for the presence of inhibitory effects in the system. We found that the emergent networks spontaneously develop the structural conditions to sustain explosive synchronization. Our results can enlighten the shaping mechanisms at the heart of the structural and dynamical organization of some relevant biological systems, namely, brain networks, for which the emergence of explosive synchronization has been observed.

  10. Explosive-emission cathode fabricated using track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akap'ev, G.N.; Korenev, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication technique for large area multipoint cathodes is described. The technique is based on channels filling with metal in the ion-irradiated dielectric film producted after channel etching. It is shown, that cathode may be used under explosive emission conditions. Characteristics of diode with the mentioned type cathodes are measured

  11. A TNA explosives-detection system in airline baggage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, P.; Gozani, T. (Science Applications International Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Bozorgmanesh, H. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA))

    1990-12-20

    Existing technologies that are applied to explosives-detection in passenger baggage are briefly discussed. A system based on thermal-neutron analysis (TNA) is described. The actual performance of the system in the field on passenger bags is given. The application of the TNA in an integrated airport security system is discussed in view of the intense public debate on this issue. (orig.).

  12. Treatment of Explosives Residues From Range Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    total of 1200 lbs of crude soybean oil was purchased from Grain States Soya , Inc. (West Point, NE, USA) and shipped to the site in three 55 gal plastic...1.0E-08 1.0E-07 1.0E-06 1.0E-05 1.0E-04 1.0E-03 1.0E-02 1.0E-01 1.0E+00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Elapsed Time (years) Re la tiv e M as s Fl ux TNT RDX HMX...www.waupacasoilblenders.com Crude soybean oil suppliers Grain States Soya Inc. 400 Johnson Road West Point, NE 68788 Phone: 402-372-2429 Fax: 402-372-3305

  13. Steam explosion pretreatment of softwood: the effect of the explosive decompression on enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielhop, Thomas; Amgarten, Janick; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Studer, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Steam explosion pretreatment has been examined in many studies for enhancing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and is currently the most common pretreatment method in commercial biorefineries. The information available about the effect of the explosive decompression on the biochemical conversion is, however, very limited, and no studies prove that the latter is actually enhanced by the explosion. Hence, it is of great value to discern between the effect of the explosion on the one hand and the steaming on the other hand, to identify their particular influences on enzymatic digestibility. The effect of the explosive decompression in the steam explosion pretreatment of spruce wood chips on their enzymatic cellulose digestibility was studied systematically. The explosion had a high influence on digestibility, improving it by up to 90 % compared to a steam pretreatment without explosion. Two factors were identified to be essentially responsible for the effect of the explosion on enzymatic digestibility: pretreatment severity and pressure difference of the explosion. A higher pretreatment severity can soften up and weaken the lignocellulose structure more, so that the explosion can better break up the biomass and decrease its particle size, which enhances its digestibility. In particular, increasing the pressure difference of the explosion leads to more defibration, a smaller particle size and a better digestibility. Though differences were found in the micro- and nanostructure of exploded and non-exploded biomass, the only influence of the explosion on digestibility was found to be the macroscopic particle size reduction. Steam explosion treatments with a high severity and a high pressure difference of the explosion lead to a comparatively high cellulose digestibility of the-typically very recalcitrant-softwood biomass. This is the first study to show that explosion can enhance the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. If the

  14. Future Research Needed to Study the Response of an Explosive Assembly to Mechanical Insults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-28

    HE ignition caused by shear localization is the principal concern for safety analyses of postulated mechanical insults to explosive assemblies. Although prompt detonation from shock is certainly a concern, insults that lead to prompt detonation are associated with high velocity, and correspondingly rare. For high-density HMX assemblies, an impact speed (by a steel object) of 400 m/s is needed to develop a detonation in a run distance less than 30 mm. To achieve a steady plane shock, which results in the shortest run distance to detonation for a given peak pressure, the impactor diameter must exceed 60 mm, and thickness approach 20 mm. Thinner plates and/or smaller diameter ones require even higher impact velocity. Ignitions from shear localization, however, have been observed from impacts less than 50 m/s in Steven tests, less than 30 m/s from spigot impact tests, and less than 10 m/s from various drop tests. This lower velocity range is much frequent in postulated mechanical insults. Preliminary computer simulations and analyses of a variety of such tests have suggested that although each is accompanied by shear localization, there are differing detailed mechanisms at work that cause the ignitions. We identify those mechanisms that may be at work in a variety of such tests, and suggest how models of shear ignition, such as HERMES, may be revised and calibrated to conform to experiment. We suggest combining additional experiments with computer simulations and model development to begin confirm or uncover mechanisms that may be at work in a specific postulated event.

  15. Study on explosives and their quality performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabiullah, M.; Pingua, B.M.P.; Jagdish Khan, M.; Emranuzzaman [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    2005-07-01

    There are about forty suppliers of explosive and blasting accessories in India manufacturing site mixed emulsion, site mixed slurry, ANFO, HANFO, packed products, and blasting accessories of use in surface and underground mines. A field laboratory was set up to measure explosive properties of explosive samples, cast booster, detonating fuse, detonators, cord relay, MS connector, and shock tubes. Density, velocity of detonation, water percentage, water resistance, and energy output were considered as the important properties of explosives. A rating system was designed for selection of good explosive products. The delay interval and delay scattering in cord relay and shock tube was studied to improve blast performance. This paper describes in detail the method of measurement and vender rating system for explosive products as per marking system accepted by Coal India. 12 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Use of explosives in pipeline construction work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, M J

    1976-08-01

    Explosives are an essential tool in Great Britain's pipeline-construction industry, with applications on dry land and under water, in trench blasting and tunneling for road and service crossings, demolition of unwanted sections, and removal of coatings. Nobels Explosive Co. Ltd. describes basic explosives operations as pertaining to the requirements of rock trenching, submarine operations, thrust-bore and tunneling operations, demolitions, and precision blasting.

  17. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Charles R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  18. Safety problems with abandoned explosive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtright, W.C.

    1969-01-01

    Procedures were developed for the safe removal of explosive and radioactive contaminated materials structures and drains from abandoned sites, including explosives processing and service buildings with a goal to return the entire area to its natural state and to permit public access. The safety problems encountered in the cleanup and their solutions are applicable to modification and maintenance work in operating explosive facilities. (U.S.)

  19. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  20. Health Consequences and Management of Explosive Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ostadtaghizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Because of the wide range and adverse impacts of explosions, healthcare authorities and staff should have a good grasp of preventive principles, as well as protection and management of explosion sites. Besides they have to be familiar with treating the injured. It is recommended that training courses and simulated explosive events be designed and run by the healthcare sector.

  1. Explosions on a gas-vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.; Klein, L.; Ratcliffe, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A finite-difference computer code is used to calculate the time development of an explosion on a gas-vacuum interface. An analytic theory of the shape of the shock wave produced in the explosion is compared with the results of the computer simulation. The assumptions used in obtaining this analytic solution are verified, and the degree to which the variables describing the explosion are self-similar is examined. Finally, certain consistency relations among the similarity exponents are tested

  2. Explosive hydrogen burning in novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiescher, M.; Goerres, J.; Thielemann, F.K.; Ritter, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations (nova CrA 81 and Aql 82) reported large enhancements of element abundances beyond CNO nuclei in nova ejecta, which still wait for a clear theoretical explanation. Attempts to interprete these findings include scenarios like nova events on a O-Ne-Mg white dwarf or nuclear processing which enables the transfer of CNO material to heavier nuclei. In the present study we included all available nuclear information on proton-rich unstable nuclei, to update thermo-nuclear reaction rates in explosive hydrogen burning. They are applied in a systematic analysis of explosive hydrogen burning for a variety of temperature conditions, appropriate to nova explosions. We find that (a) for temperatures T>2 10 8 K, pre-existing material in Ne, Al, or Mg can be transferred to heavier nuclei following the flow pattern of a r(apid) p(roton-capture) process (b) for T> or approx.3.5 10 8 K CNO matter can be processed to heavier nuclei (in accordance with previous findings). On the basis of these results it seems unlikely that nova Aql 82 (which shows strong carbon and oxygen enrichment together with heavier elements) can be explained by a nova event on a bare O-Ne-Mg white dwarf but is rather a result of burning with T> or approx.3.5 10 8 K. An application to existing nova models shows a reduced 26 Al production, when compared to earlier predictions. Both conclusions, however, have to be verified by complete nova calculations which include the improved nuclear physics input, presented here. (orig.)

  3. Peaceful nuclear explosions and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Some theoretical advances in the thermodynamics of very high pressures are reviewed. A universal (system-independent) formulation of the thermodynamics is sketched, and some of the equations more frequently used are written in system-independent form. Among these equations are: Hugoniot pressure and temperature as functions of volume; the Mie-Gruneisen equation; and an explicit form for the equation of state. It is also shown that this formalism can be used to interpret and predict results from peaceful nuclear explosions. (author)

  4. The experimental investigation of explosive opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiande; Zhong Huihuang; Li Chuanlu; Liu Yonggui; Cheng Dongqun; Peng Xianyang

    1996-01-01

    The explosive opening switch (EOS) used in explosive-driven magnetic-flux compression generator (EMCG) circuits was investigated. It is shown that (1) under certain conditions, the EOS voltage is hardly dependent on the size of the explosive and aluminium foil used in EOS; (2) with the explosive coated by an insulator pipe, the opening effect of EOS is better; (3) by use of EOS, a pulse with 5 kA current, 100 kV voltage and 250 ns risetime has been transferred into a resistance load. (author). 12 figs., 5 refs

  5. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  6. The experimental investigation of explosive opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiande, Zhang; Huihuang, Zhong; Chuanlu, Li; Yonggui, Liu; Dongqun, Cheng; Xianyang, Peng [National Univ. of Defense Technology, Changsha (China). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    The explosive opening switch (EOS) used in explosive-driven magnetic-flux compression generator (EMCG) circuits was investigated. It is shown that (1) under certain conditions, the EOS voltage is hardly dependent on the size of the explosive and aluminium foil used in EOS; (2) with the explosive coated by an insulator pipe, the opening effect of EOS is better; (3) by use of EOS, a pulse with 5 kA current, 100 kV voltage and 250 ns risetime has been transferred into a resistance load. (author). 12 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Risk of dust explosions of combustible nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Ritsu

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials have several valuable properties and are widely used for various practical applications. However, safety matters are suspected such as the influence on health and environment, and fire and explosion hazards. To minimize the risk of nanomaterials, appropriate understanding of these hazards is indispensable. Nanoparticles of combustible materials have potential hazard of dust explosion accidents. However, the explosion risk of nanomaterials has not yet been understood adequately because of the lack of data for nanomaterials. In this presentation, the risk of dust explosions of nanomaterials is discussed.

  8. M55 Rocket Fire/Explosion Concerns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...: chemical and petrochemical process hazards and investigations, propellant and explosives manufacturing and testing, risk evaluation and incident investigation, mechanical processing and environmental...

  9. Study of film boiling collapse behavior during vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Yamano, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Jun; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi.

    1996-06-01

    Possible large scale vapor explosions are safety concern in nuclear power plants during severe accident. In order to identify the occurrence of the vapor explosion and to estimate the magnitude of the induced pressure pulse, it is necessary to investigate the triggering condition for the vapor explosion. As a first step of this study, scooping analysis was conducted with a simulation code based on thermal detonation model. It was found that the pressure at the collapse of film boiling much affects the trigger condition of vapor explosion. Based on this analytical results, basic experiments were conducted to clarify the collapse conditions of film boiling on a high temperature solid ball surface. Film boiling condition was established by flooding water onto a high temperature stainless steel ball heated by a high frequency induction heater. After the film boiling was established, the pressure pulse generated by a shock tube was applied to collapse the steam film on the ball surface. As the experimental boundary conditions, materials and size of the balls, magnitude of pressure pulse and initial temperature of the carbon and stainless steel balls were varied. The transients of pressure and surface temperature were measured. It was found that the surface temperature on the balls sharply decreased when the pressure wave passed through the film on balls. Based on the surface temperature behavior, the film boiling collapse pattern was found to be categorized into several types. Especially, the pattern for stainless steel ball was categorized into three types; no collapse, collapse and reestablishment after collapse. It was thus clarified that the film boiling collapse behavior was identified by initial conditions and that the pressure required to collapse film boiling strongly depended on the initial surface temperature. The present results will provide a useful information for the analysis of vapor explosions based on the thermal detonation model. (J.P.N.)

  10. Understanding the shock and detonation response of high explosives at the continuum and meso scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, C. A.; Lambourn, B. D.; Whitworth, N. J.; James, H. R.; Belfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The shock and detonation response of high explosives has been an active research topic for more than a century. In recent years, high quality data from experiments using embedded gauges and other diagnostic techniques have inspired the development of a range of new high-fidelity computer models for explosives. The experiments and models have led to new insights, both at the continuum scale applicable to most shock and detonation experiments, and at the mesoscale relevant to hotspots and burning within explosive microstructures. This article reviews the continuum and mesoscale models, and their application to explosive phenomena, gaining insights to aid future model development and improved understanding of the physics of shock initiation and detonation propagation. In particular, it is argued that "desensitization" and the effect of porosity on high explosives can both be explained by the combined effect of thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, rather than the traditional hotspot-based explanations linked to pressure-dependent reaction rates.

  11. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul [Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions.

  12. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions

  13. An Analysis of the Initiation Process of Electro-Explosive Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar de Carvalho Faria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electro-explosive devices (an electric resistance encapsulated by a primary explosive fundamentally convert electrical energy into thermal energy, to start off an explosive chemical reaction. Obviously, the activation of those devices shall not happen by accident or, even worse, by intentional exogenous influence. From an ordinary differential equation, which describes the electro-explosive thermal behavior, a remarkable, but certainly not intuitive, dependence of the temperature response on the time constant of the heat transfer process is verified: the temperature profile dramatically changes as the time constant spans a wide range of values, from much lesser than the pulse width to much greater than the pulse period. Based on this dependence, important recommendations, concerning the efficient and safety operation of electro-explosive devices, are proposed.

  14. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S; Supiot, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  15. Establishment of the effective modes of the slowdown explosion by rocks destruction at quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.О. Frolov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing for today theoretical modeling tools of the mass explosion do not fully consider the sequence and intensity of destruction of the rock mass. This leads to significant energy losses in the explosion. Therefore, the control of the sequence and modes of micro- and millisecond delayed blasting of systems of borehole charges of explosives in quarries will allow achieving better mass explosion indices. Interaction of the stress waves generated by the individual charges explosion is considered in this work as a way to control the effect of an explosion in a rock mass. It is established that the maximum value of the amount of rocks destruction in the presence of a single plane of exposure depends on the interval of delay between the explosion of the adjacent borehole charges in a group, which, in turn, is determined by the ratio of the distance between charges to the velocity of propagation of longitudinal stress waves in the rock mass. A formula for determining the rational delay interval between bursts of charge groups, which takes into account both the physical and mechanical properties of the rock mass and the main technological parameters of the explosion is proposed. Based on the results of research, the blasting scheme is recommended to be formed taking into account the deceleration intervals between the groups of borehole charges and for adjacent charges placed in one group.

  16. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United States...

  17. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations..., explosives, (b) Permits for users who buy or transport explosives in interstate or foreign commerce, (c...

  18. Explosive double salts and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

  19. Vapor Explosions with Subcooled Freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.; McUmber, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive vapor formation accompanied by destructive shock waves, can be produced when two liquids, at much different temperatures, are brought into intimate contact. A proposed analytical model states that the interface temperature upon contact between the two liquid systems, gust be greater than or equal to the spontaneous nucleation temperature of that liquid-liquid system and that the thermal boundary layer must be sufficiently developed to support a critical size cavity. For time scales greater than 10-12 sec, the interface temperature upon contact of two semi-infinite masses, with constant thermal properties, can be related to the initial liquid temperatures. The spontaneous nucleation behavior at the interface can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous in nature. In either case, the critical size cavities, which initiate the vaporization process, are produced by local density fluctuations within the cold liquid. For homogeneous conditions, the two liquids present a well-wetted system and the vapor embryos are produced entirely within the cold liquid. For heterogeneous conditions, which result from poor, or imperfect wetting, at the liquid-liquid interface, the critical sized cavities are created at the interface at somewhat lower temperatures. A sequence of experiments, using Freon-22 and water, Freon-22 and mineral oil, and Freon-12 and mineral oil have been performed to test this spontaneous nucleation premise. For Freon-22 at its normal boiling point, the interface temperature of the water must be at least 77 deg. C before the interface temperature equals or exceeds the minimum homogeneous nucleation value of 54 deg. C and 84 deg. C before the interface temperature equals 60 deg. C where the homogeneous nucleation rate becomes truly explosive. The Freon-water test demonstrated explosive interactions for water temperatures considerably lower than this value and this was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation characteristics of that particular system

  20. Dynamics of explosively imploded pressurized tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirti, Daniel; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-04-01

    The detonation of an explosive layer surrounding a pressurized thin-walled tube causes the formation of a virtual piston that drives a precursor shock wave ahead of the detonation, generating very high temperatures and pressures in the gas contained within the tube. Such a device can be used as the driver for a high energy density shock tube or hypervelocity gas gun. The dynamics of the precursor shock wave were investigated for different tube sizes and initial fill pressures. Shock velocity and standoff distance were found to decrease with increasing fill pressure, mainly due to radial expansion of the tube. Adding a tamper can reduce this effect, but may increase jetting. A simple analytical model based on acoustic wave interactions was developed to calculate pump tube expansion and the resulting effect on the shock velocity and standoff distance. Results from this model agree quite well with experimental data.

  1. Individual heterogeneity generating explosive system network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F

    2018-03-01

    Individual heterogeneity is a key characteristic of many real-world systems, from organisms to humans. However, its role in determining the system's collective dynamics is not well understood. Here we study how individual heterogeneity impacts the system network dynamics by comparing linking mechanisms that favor similar or dissimilar individuals. We find that this heterogeneity-based evolution drives an unconventional form of explosive network behavior, and it dictates how a polarized population moves toward consensus. Our model shows good agreement with data from both biological and social science domains. We conclude that individual heterogeneity likely plays a key role in the collective development of real-world networks and communities, and it cannot be ignored.

  2. Individual heterogeneity generating explosive system network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2018-03-01

    Individual heterogeneity is a key characteristic of many real-world systems, from organisms to humans. However, its role in determining the system's collective dynamics is not well understood. Here we study how individual heterogeneity impacts the system network dynamics by comparing linking mechanisms that favor similar or dissimilar individuals. We find that this heterogeneity-based evolution drives an unconventional form of explosive network behavior, and it dictates how a polarized population moves toward consensus. Our model shows good agreement with data from both biological and social science domains. We conclude that individual heterogeneity likely plays a key role in the collective development of real-world networks and communities, and it cannot be ignored.

  3. Close-in airblast from underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vortman, L J [Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Air overpressures as a function of time have been measured from surface zero to about 170 ft/lb{sup 1/3} along the ground from nuclear and chemical explosions. Charge depths varied from the surface to depths below which explosion gases are contained. A ground-shock-induced air pressure pulse is clearly distinguishable from the pulse caused by venting gases. Measured peak overpressures show reasonable agreement with the theoretical treatment by Monta. In a given medium the suppression of blast with explosion burial depth is a function of the relative distance at which the blast is observed. Rates of suppression of peak overpressure with charge burial are different for the two pulses. Rates are determined for each pulse over the range of distances at which measurements have been made of air overpressure from chemical explosions in several media. Nuclear data are available from too few shots for similar dependence on burial depth and distance to be developed, but it is clear that the gas venting peak overpressure from nuclear explosions is much more dependent on medium than that from chemical explosions. For above-ground explosions, experiment has shown that airblast from a I-kiloton nuclear explosion is equal to that from a 0.5-kiloton TNT explosion. Data on ground-shock-induced airblast is now sufficient to show that a similar relationship may exist for buried explosions. Because of medium dependence of the gas venting pulse from nuclear explosions, data from additional nuclear events will be required before a chemical/nuclear airblast equivalence can be determined for the gas-venting pulse. (author)

  4. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same

  5. A dense plasma focus-based neutron source for a single-shot detection of illicit materials and explosives by a nanosecond neutron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V A; Latyshev, S V; Miklaszewski, R A; Chernyshova, M; Drozdowicz, K; Wiacek, U; Tomaszewski, K; Lemeshko, B D

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in a single-pulse Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects by means of measuring elastically scattered neutrons is presented in this paper. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having duration of the order of 10 ns only, which are generated by dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with pure deuterium or DT mixture as a working gas. The small size occupied by the neutron bunch in space, number of neutrons per pulse and mono-chromaticity (ΔE/E∼1%) of the neutron spectrum provides the opportunity to use a time-of-flight (TOF) technique with flying bases of about a few metres. In our researches we used DPF devices having bank energy in the range 2-7 kJ. The devices generate a neutron yield of the level of 10 8 -10 9 2.45 MeV and 10 10 -10 11 14 MeV neutrons per pulse with pulse duration ∼10-20 ns. TOF base in the tests was 2.2-18.5 m. We have demonstrated the possibility of registering of neutrons scattered by the substances under investigation-1 litre bottles with methanol (CH 3 OH), phosphoric (H 2 PO 4 ) and nitric (HNO 3 ) acids as well as a long object-a 1 m gas tank filled with deuterium at high pressure. It is shown that the above mentioned short TOF bases and relatively low neutron yields are enough to distinguish different elements' nuclei composing the substance under interrogation and to characterize the geometry of lengthy objects in some cases. The wavelet technique was employed to 'clean' the experimental data registered. The advantages and restrictions of the proposed and tested NINIS technique in comparison with other methods are discussed.

  6. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Formation of High Concentration of H2 Generated by Gas Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Baiwei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating high concentration of H2.Therefore, this paper uses the chemical kinetic calculation software, ChemKin, and the 20L spherical explosion experimental device to simulate the generating process and formation conditions of H2 in gas explosion. The experimental results show that: the decomposition of water vapor is the main base element reaction (R84 which leads to the generation of H2.The free radical H is the key factor to influence the formation of H2 generated from gas explosion. With the gradual increase of gas explosion concentration, the explosive reaction becomes more incomplete, and then the generating quantity of H2 increases gradually. Experimental results of 20L spherical explosion are consistent with the change trend about simulation results, which verifies the accuracy of simulation analysis. The results of explosion experiments show that when gas concentration is higher than 9%, the incomplete reaction of methane explosion increases which leads to the gradual increase of H2 formation.

  7. Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R.D.; Blacic, J.D.; Pettitt, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques

  8. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  9. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor

  10. Simulation of explosive welding with ANFO mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, A.A. Akbari; Burley, Stephen J.; Al-Hassani, S.T.S. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Manufacturing Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Byers Brown, W. [Mass Action Research Consultancy, Devonshire House, 14 Corbar Road, Buxton, SK17 6RQ (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    The work described here arose from a study into explosive welding. As part of that study, the impact velocity of stainless steel and titanium plates to grazing detonation of ANFO/perlite, the velocity of detonation were measured. Computer simulation required a new model which copes with an equation of state of low explosives. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. ► The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. ► The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. ► Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. ► The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  12. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: robert.matyas@upce.cz [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  13. 77 FR 55108 - Explosive Siting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... energy, or a chemical explosion requiring a chemical reaction. Furthermore, an accident may happen... for energetic liquids. \\4\\ Crowl, D.A., Understanding Explosions, AIAA Center for Chemical Process... chemical hazards of energetic liquids used at commercial launch sites. Finally, a site map must now be at a...

  14. Energy and impacts of pressure vessel explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurttila, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the explosion energy is considered to be same as the energy of pressure vessel discharge. This is the maximum energy which can be obtained from the process. The energy can be used or it can cause the violence of an explosion accident. (orig.)

  15. Containment analysis for the simultaneous detonation of two nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Glenn, H.D.; Burton, D.E.; Rambo, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The explosive phenomenology associated with the simultaneous detonation of two 2.2-kt nuclear explosives is examined. A comprehensive spatial-time pictorial of the resultant shock-wave phenomenology is given. The explosives were buried at depths of 200 m and 280 m, corresponding to a separation of approximately 4 final cavity radii. Constitutive relations for the surrounding medium were derived from the geophysical logs and core samples taken from an actual emplacement configuration at the Nevada Test Site. Past calculational studies indicate that successful containment may depend upon the development of a strong tangential-stress field (or ''containment cage'') surrounding the cavity at late times. A series of conditions that must be met to insure formation of this cage are presented. Calculational results, based on one- and two-dimensional finite-difference codes of continuum mechanics, describe how each condition has been fulfilled and illustrate the dynamic sequence of events important to the formation of the containment cage. They also indicate, at least for the geological site chosen, that two nuclear explosives do not combine to threaten containment

  16. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; de Ruiter, C. J.; Ehlerding, Anneli; McFee, John E.; Svinsås, Eirik; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and counter-IED operations during route or area clearance; and static roles such as hasty or deliberate checkpoints, critical infrastructure protection and support to public security. The detection of hidden explosive hazards is an extremely challenging problem, as evidenced by the fact that related research has been ongoing in many countries for at least seven decades and no general purpose solution has yet been found. Technologies investigated have spanned all major scientific fields, with emphasis on the physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, robotics, computer technology and mathematics. This paper will present a limited, operationally-focused overview of the current status of detection technologies. Emphasis will be on those technologies that directly detect the explosive hazard, as opposed to those that detect secondary properties of the threat, such as the casing, associated wires or electronics. Technologies that detect explosives include those based on nuclear radiation and terahertz radiation, as well as trace and biological detection techniques. Current research areas of the authors will be used to illustrate the practical applications.

  17. Environmental control for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, A W; Wells, W H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Peaceful applications introduce some new environmental considerations into the design of nuclear explosives. Much of the experience gained in weapon work can be applied, but the requirement of survival in a very deep hole is not found in any military system. We will briefly mention the overall environment and make a few comparisons with some general characteristics of the weapon environment. The major portion of this paper is devoted to the special problems of pressure and temperature found in the emplacement environment. Potential users should know where we stand with regard to survival in hostile environments in terms of feasibility and possible effects on field operations. In all applications there are several things competing for the available diameter. Given that explosives can be made to work over a range of diameters and that necessary environmental control is feasible, all further discussions can be related to the cost of providing a hole big enough to accomplish the task. The items competing for diameter are: 1) bare nuclear assembly 2) insulation and cooling system if needed 3) pressure canister 4) shielding material 5) emplacement clearance All of these must be considered with the cost of the hole in optimizing an overall design. Conditions in a particular location will affect the shielding requirements and the emplacement clearance. The nuclear assembly can vary in size, but the long development time requires that decisions be made quite early, perhaps in ignorance of the economic details of a particular application. The pressure canister is a relatively straightforward design problem that can be resolved by giving appropriate consideration to all of the design requirements. In particular for 20,000 psi pressure in the emplacement hole, a canister of heat-treated alloy steel having a yield strength of 200,000 psi and a wall thickness which is about .07 times the outside diameter is adequate and straight- forward to fabricate. The insulation and cooling

  18. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Fu, Xiao-Qi, E-mail: xzx19820708@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • An exothermic reaction occurs at about 200 °C between pyrite and ammonium nitrate (emulsion explosives). • The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. • The excellent thermal stability of emulsion explosives does not mean it was also showed when pyrite was added. • A new overall reaction has been proposed as: • 14FeS{sub 2}(s) + 91NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}(s) → 52NO(g) + 26SO{sub 2}(g) + 6Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) + 78NH{sub 3}(g) + 26N{sub 2}O(g) + 2FeSO{sub 4}(s) + 65H{sub 2}O(g). - Abstract: The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG–DSC–MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10 K/min from room temperature to 350 °C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200 °C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  19. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Fu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An exothermic reaction occurs at about 200 °C between pyrite and ammonium nitrate (emulsion explosives). • The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. • The excellent thermal stability of emulsion explosives does not mean it was also showed when pyrite was added. • A new overall reaction has been proposed as: • 14FeS_2(s) + 91NH_4NO_3(s) → 52NO(g) + 26SO_2(g) + 6Fe_2O_3(s) + 78NH_3(g) + 26N_2O(g) + 2FeSO_4(s) + 65H_2O(g). - Abstract: The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG–DSC–MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10 K/min from room temperature to 350 °C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200 °C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO_2, NH_3, SO_2 and N_2O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  20. Steam explosions in sodium cooled breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundell, B.

    1982-01-01

    Steam explosion is considered a physical process which transport heat from molten fuel to liquid coolant so fast that the coolant starts boiling in an explosion-like manner. The arising pressure waves transform part of the thermal energy to mechanical energy. This can stress the reactor tank and threaten its hightness. The course of the explosion has not been theoretical explained. Experimental results indicate that the probability of steam explosions in a breeder reactor is small. The efficiency of the transformation of the heat of fusion into mechanical energy in substantially lower than the theoretical maximum value. The mechanical stress from the steam explosion on the reactor tank does not seem to jeopardize its tightness. (G.B.)

  1. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  2. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K

    2005-01-01

    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  3. Gas induced fire and explosion frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The use and handling of flammable gases poses a fire and explosion hazard to many DOE nuclear facilities. This hazard is not unique to DOE facilities. Each year over 2,900 non-residential structural fires occur in the U.S. where a gas is the first item ignited. Details from these events are collected by the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) through an extensive reporting network. This extensive data set (800,000 fires in non-residential structures over a 5-year period) is an underutilized resource within the DOE community. Explosions in nuclear facilities can have very severe consequences. The explosion can both damage the facility containment and provide a mechanism for significant radiological dispersion. In addition, an explosion can have significant worker safety implications. Because of this a quantitative frequency estimate for explosions in an SRS laboratory facility has been prepared using the NFIRS data. 6 refs., 1 tab

  4. Review of Soviet studies related to peaceful underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of contained and crater-forming underground nuclear explosions by USSR investigators are reviewed and summarized. Published data on U.S., USSR, and French cavity-forming nuclear explosions are compared with those predicted by the formula. Empirical studies on U.S. and USSR cratering explosions, both high explosions, both high explosive and nuclear are summarized. The parameters governing an excavation explosion are reviewed

  5. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  6. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhardt, A.

    1956-01-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [fr

  7. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  8. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991, small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) a Department of Energy facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The custom processing facility is a limited production area designed to recover unirradiated uranium fuel. A small amount of the nuclear material received and stored at the ICPP is unique and incompatible with the major head end dissolution processes. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility for processing these materials in an economical fashion in the CPP-627 hot chemistry laboratory. Two glass dissolvers were contained in a large walk in hood area. Utilities for dissolution and connections to the major ICPP uranium separation facility were provided. The fuel processing operations during this campaign involved dissolving uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid

  9. A mesoscopic reaction rate model for shock initiation of multi-component PBX explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y R; Duan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Ou, Z C; Huang, F L

    2016-11-05

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a three-term mesoscopic reaction rate model that consists of a hot-spot ignition, a low-pressure slow burning and a high-pressure fast reaction terms for shock initiation of multi-component Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX). Thereinto, based on the DZK hot-spot model for a single-component PBX explosive, the hot-spot ignition term as well as its reaction rate is obtained through a "mixing rule" of the explosive components; new expressions for both the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term are also obtained by establishing the relationships between the reaction rate of the multi-component PBX explosive and that of its explosive components, based on the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term of a mesoscopic reaction rate model. Furthermore, for verification, the new reaction rate model is incorporated into the DYNA2D code to simulate numerically the shock initiation process of the PBXC03 and the PBXC10 multi-component PBX explosives, and the numerical results of the pressure histories at different Lagrange locations in explosive are found to be in good agreements with previous experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Yield Estimation for Semipalatinsk Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Seismic Surface-wave Observations at Near-regional Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    - A statistical procedure is described for estimating the yields of underground nuclear tests at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site using the peak amplitudes of short-period surface waves observed at near-regional distances (Δ Semipalatinsk explosions, including the Soviet JVE explosion of September 14, 1988, and it is demonstrated that it provides seismic estimates of explosion yield which are typically within 20% of the yields determined for these same explosions using more accurate, non-seismic techniques based on near-source observations.

  11. Numerical modelling of the effect of using multi-explosives on the explosive forming of steel cones

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuyst, T; Kong, K; Djordjevic, N; Vignjevic, R; Campbell, JC; Hughes, K

    2016-01-01

    Modelling and analysis of underwater explosive forming process by using FEM and SPH formulation is presented in this work. The explosive forming of a steel cone is studied. The model setup includes a low carbon steel plate, plate holder, forming die as well as water and C4 explosive. The effect of multiple explosives on rate of targets deformation has been studied. Four different multi-explosives models have been developed and compared to the single explosive model. The formability of the ste...

  12. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO2 and/or H2S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  13. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO 2 and/or H 2 S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  14. Explosive Yield Estimation using Fourier Amplitude Spectra of Velocity Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedman, D. W.; Bradley, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is a series of explosive shots of various size detonated at varying depths in a borehole in jointed granite. The testbed includes an extensive array of accelerometers for measuring the shock environment close-in to the explosive source. One goal of SPE is to develop greater understanding of the explosion phenomenology in all regimes: from near-source, non-linear response to the far-field linear elastic region, and connecting the analyses from the respective regimes. For example, near-field analysis typically involves review of kinematic response (i.e., acceleration, velocity and displacement) in the time domain and looks at various indicators (e.g., peaks, pulse duration) to facilitate comparison among events. Review of far-field data more often is based on study of response in the frequency domain to facilitate comparison of event magnitudes. To try to "bridge the gap" between approaches, we have developed a scaling law for Fourier amplitude spectra of near-field velocity histories that successfully collapses data from a wide range of yields (100 kg to 5000 kg) and range to sensors in jointed granite. Moreover, we show that we can apply this scaling law to data from a new event to accurately estimate the explosive yield of that event. This approach presents a new way of working with near-field data that will be more compatible with traditional methods of analysis of seismic data and should serve to facilitate end-to-end event analysis. The goal is that this new approach to data analysis will eventually result in improved methods for discrimination of event type (i.e., nuclear or chemical explosion, or earthquake) and magnitude.

  15. Bayesian Integration and Characterization of Composition C-4 Plastic Explosives Based on Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Christine M.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Alexander, M. L.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Bader, Sydney P.; Ewing, Robert G.; Fahey, Albert J.; Atkinson, David A.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2016-02-25

    Key elements regarding the use of non-radioactive ionization sources will be presented as related to explosives detection by mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. Various non-radioactive ionization sources will be discussed along with associated ionization mechanisms pertaining to specific sample types.

  16. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected

  17. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Frederick J.; Caldwell, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  18. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova explosion of a massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Ono, M.; Kotake, K.; Ohnishi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We examine explosive nucleosynthesis of p-nuclei during a delayed neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova explosion aided by standing accretion shock instability, based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of a 15M · star. We find that p-nuclei are mainly produced through γ-processes, and that the nuclei lighter than 92 Mo are abundantly synthesized in slightly neutron-rich bubbles with electron fractions of Y e ≤0.48. 94 Mo, 96 Ru, and 98 Ru, are underproduced compared with the solar system, as in the spherical model.

  19. Explosions of Thorne-Żytkow objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2018-03-01

    We propose that massive Thorne-Żytkow objects can explode. A Thorne-Żytkow object is a theoretically predicted star that has a neutron core. When nuclear reactions supporting a massive Thorne-Żytkow object terminate, a strong accretion occurs towards the central neutron core. The accretion rate is large enough to sustain a super-Eddington accretion towards the neutron core. The neutron core may collapse to a black hole after a while. A strong large-scale outflow or a jet can be launched from the super-Eddington accretion disc and the collapsing Thorne-Żytkow object can be turned into an explosion. The ejecta have about 10 M⊙ but the explosion energy depends on when the accretion is suppressed. We presume that the explosion energy could be as low as ˜1047 erg and such a low-energy explosion could be observed like a failed supernova. The maximum possible explosion energy is ˜1052 erg and such a high-energy explosion could be observed as an energetic Type II supernova or a superluminous supernova. Explosions of Thorne-Żytkow objects may provide a new path to spread lithium and other heavy elements produced through the irp process such as molybdenum in the Universe.

  20. Risk-Based Explosive Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER P0D9 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Air...U.S. Government is joint author of the work and has the right to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose the work . PA...weaknesses of this methodology are that its criteria are inflexible to site-specific operations and require obtaining waivers or exemptions for