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Sample records for hlw disposal system

  1. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  2. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

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    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  3. Conceptual design requirements for Korean Reference HLW disposal System

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    Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Son; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun; Lee, Yang

    2005-05-15

    This report outlined the requirements for the conceptual design of KRS(Korean Reference HLW disposal System). The site for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes has not yet been selected in Korea. Since the KRS should be designed under these circumstances, the necessary requirements which should be determined are studied in the report. The amounts of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants in the long-term national power development plan are projected. With this estimation the disposal rates of CANDU and PWR spent fuels are analyzed and determined. The national and international regulations regarding the disposal of HLW are summarized. The functions of the underground facilities are defined. The representative geological conditions are determined since no site is yet decided in Korea.

  4. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

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    Driscoll, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lester, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, B. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  5. Development of geological disposal system; localization of element cost data and cost evaluation on the HLW repository

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    Lee, Byung Sik; Kim, Kil Jung; Yang, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Chun [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    To estimate Total Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) for Korea HLW Repository through localization of element cost data, we review and re-organize each basic element cost data for reference repository system, localize various element cost and finally estimate TSLCC considering economic parameters. As results of the study, TSLCC is estimated as 17,167,689 million won, which includes costs for site preparation, surface facilities, underground facilities and management/integration. Since HLW repository Project is an early stage of pre-conceptual design at present, the information of design and project information are not enough to perform cost estimate and cost localization for the Project. However, project cost structure is re-organized based on the local condition and Total System Life Cycle Cost is estimated using the previous cost data gathered from construction experience of the local nuclear power plant. Project results can be used as basic reference data to assume total construction cost for the local HLW repository and should be revised to more reliable cost data with incorporating detail project design information into the cost estimate in a future. 20 refs. (Author)

  6. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

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    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    Acid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage ate the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal.

  7. Public Perspectives in the Japanese HLW Disposal Program

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    Inatsugu, Shigefumi; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Kato, Toshiaki [Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUNIO), Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    Following legislation entitled the 'Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established in October 2000 as the implementing organization for geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste (HLW). Implementation of NUMO's disposal project will be based on three principles: 1) respecting public initiative and opinion, 2) adopting a stepwise approach and 3) ensuring transparency in information disclosure. NUMO has decided to adopt an open solicitation approach to finding volunteer municipalities for Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs). The official announcement of the start of the open solicitation program was made in 2002. Although no official applications had been received from volunteer municipalities by the end of 2005, NUMO has been continuing to carry out various activities aimed specifically at public communication and encouraging dialogue about the deep geological disposal project This paper summarizes the results obtained and lessons learned so far and identifies the issues that NUMO must tackle immediately in the areas of communication and dialogue.

  8. Are We Serious in the US about the Disposal of HLW? - 13561

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    Neill, Robert H. [New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG), 9409 Thornton Ave., N.E., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Since all efforts to date to dispose of HLW in the US have been unsuccessful, the following specific actions need to be taken if we are serious about such disposal: - The requirement in the EPA environmental radiation protection standards to predict the behavior of these unwanted residuals for one million years is meaningless. The Standards must be revisited. - Characterize two sites. There are myriad ways a site can be found to be unacceptable. Additionally, the existing HLW inventory requires a second repository. - Congress should specify incentives to states under consideration for a site. Perhaps 5% of total cost would be appropriate. - An independent technical review group should be established in such states to evaluate a proposed repository similar to the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) for the WIPP Project because the state's interests are not necessarily the same as DOE's. - Acceptance or rejection of a proposed site should be based on technical issues, not social ones. Professionals in this field should present papers identifying the merits of HLW disposal in their own state. The scarcity of such research suggests Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY) syndrome. - Medical diagnostic ionizing radiation exposure to the US public is now 8,000 times greater than radiation exposure from nuclear energy. People accept this believing the benefits outweigh any risks. A major effort needs to focus on both benefits as well as risks of radioactive waste disposal. - DOE needs to announce preferences of host rock formations, incentives for states, and potential consequences should we fail to act. (author)

  9. Regional Geologic Evaluations for Disposal of HLW and SNF: The Pierre Shale of the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    The DOE Spent Fuel and Waste Technology (SWFT) R&D Campaign is supporting research on crystalline rock, shale (argillite) and salt as potential host rocks for disposal of HLW and SNF in a mined geologic repository. The distribution of these three potential repository host rocks is limited to specific regions of the US and to different geologic and hydrologic environments (Perry et al., 2014), many of which may be technically suitable as a site for mined geologic disposal. This report documents a regional geologic evaluation of the Pierre Shale, as an example of evaluating a potentially suitable shale for siting a geologic HLW repository. This report follows a similar report competed in 2016 on a regional evaluation of crystalline rock that focused on the Superior Province of the north-central US (Perry et al., 2016).

  10. Study on systematic integration technology of design and safety assessment for HLW geological disposal

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    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito, Takaya; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kuwayama, Yuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The present study was carried out relating to basic design of the Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' that will be systematized as knowledge base for analysis and assessment of geological disposal by integrating organically and hierarchically analysis and evaluation method in three study field. The key conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) The examination to construct the virtual geological disposal system which contained the geological environment on the computer was executed aiming at the development of integration and the analysis systems which became working common basic to execute the design and the performance assessment of the geological disposal system. (2) Technological information (I/O information) which became the base was associated with work (evaluation) item of 'Disposal technology (design)' and 'Performance assessment' in the Second Progress Report by JNC, and the evaluation flow by which a series of work concerning the design and the safety assessment of the geological disposal system was brought together was made. (3) The subject concerning the detailed model development in the R and D activity of the geological disposal system in the future was extracted aiming at the systematization of the performance and safety assessment, and was arranged as information to take these detailed models into the 'Geological Disposal Technology Integration System'. (author)

  11. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  12. FINAL REPORT TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-02R0100-2 REV 1 2/17/03

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    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BARDAKCI T; GONG W; D' ANGELO NA; SCHATZ TR; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from a series of nine tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1 [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plans. The nine tests reported here were preceded by an initial series of short-duration tests conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Reports. The DM1200 system was deployed for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. These tests include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The primary objective of the present series of tests was to determine the effects of a variety of parameters on the glass production rate in comparison to the RPP-WTP HL W design basis of 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d. Previous testing on the DMIOOO system [1] concluded that achievement of that rate with simulants of projected WTP melter feeds (AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102) was unlikely without the use of bubblers. As part of those tests, the same feed that was used during the cold-commissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) HLW vitrification system was run on the DM1000 system. The DM1000 tests reproduced the rates that were obtained at the

  13. Dose Calculations for the Co-Disposal WP-of HLW-Glass and the Triga SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulescu

    1999-08-02

    This calculation is prepared by the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Operations (WPO). The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of a codisposal waste package (WP) containing a centrally located Department of Energy (DOE) standardized 18-in. spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, loaded with the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) SNF. This canister is surrounded by five 3-m long canisters, loaded with Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) glass. The results are to support the WP design and radiological analyses.

  14. Summary of International Waste Management Programs (LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Harris R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blink, James A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-11

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. This Lessons Learned task is part of a multi-laboratory effort, with this LLNL report providing input to a Level 3 SNL milestone (System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW). The work package number is: FTLL11UF0328; the work package title is: Technical Bases / Lessons Learned; the milestone number is: M41UF032802; and the milestone title is: “LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW”. The system-wide integration effort will integrate all aspects of waste management and disposal, integrating the waste generators, interim storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal at a repository site. The review of international experience in these areas is required to support future studies that address all of these components in an integrated manner. Note that this report is a snapshot of nuclear power infrastructure and international waste management programs that is current as of August 2011, with one notable exception. No attempt has been made to discuss the currently evolving world-wide response to the tragic consequences of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan on March 11, 2011, leaving more than 15,000 people dead and more than 8,000 people missing, and severely damaging the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. Continuing efforts in FY 2012 will update the data, and summarize it in an Excel spreadsheet for easy comparison and assist in the knowledge management of the study cases.

  15. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

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    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  16. Geological disposal system development

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    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR SPENT FUELS AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEUI-JOO CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  18. FINAL REPORT START-UP AND COMMISSIONING TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-01R0100-2 REV 0 1/20/03

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    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BRANDYS M; WILSON CN; SCHATZ TR; GONG W; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from commissioning tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM 1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part BI [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plan. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Report. The DM1200 system will be used for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. This will include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The results presented in this report are from the initial series of short-duration tests that were conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system prior to conducting the main body of development tests that have been planned for this system. These tests were directed primarily at system 'debugging,' operator training, and procedure refinement. The AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing was selected for these tests.

  19. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

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    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  20. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  1. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fascitelli, D. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code. Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  2. Clay Generic Disposal System Model - Sensitivity Analysis for 32 PWR Assembly Canisters (+2 associated model files).

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    Morris, Edgar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), as part of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology program (FCT) is investigating the disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuela (SNF) in a variety of geologic media. The feasibility of disposing SNF and HLW in clay media has been investigated and has been shown to be promising [Ref. 1]. In addition the disposal of these wastes in clay media is being investigated in Belgium, France, and Switzerland. Thus, Argillaceous media is one of the environments being considered by UFDC. As identified by researchers at Sandia National Laboratory, potentially suitable formations that may exist in the U.S. include mudstone, clay, shale, and argillite formations [Ref. 1]. These formations encompass a broad range of material properties. In this report, reference to clay media is intended to cover the full range of material properties. This report presents the status of the development of a simulation model for evaluating the performance of generic clay media. The clay Generic Disposal System Model (GDSM) repository performance simulation tool has been developed with the flexibility to evaluate not only different properties, but different waste streams/forms and different repository designs and engineered barrier configurations/ materials that could be used to dispose of these wastes.

  3. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  4. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  5. DOE-Managed HLW and SNF Research: FY15 EBS and Thermal Analysis Work Package Status.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report examines the technical elements necessary to evaluate EBS concepts and perform thermal analysis of DOE-Managed SNF and HLW in the disposal settings of primary interest – argillite, crystalline, salt, and deep borehole. As the disposal design concept is composed of waste inventory, geologic setting, and engineered concept of operation, the engineered barrier system (EBS) falls into the last component of engineered concept of operation. The waste inventory for DOE-Managed HLW and SNF is closely examined, with specific attention to the number of waste packages, the size of waste packages, and the thermal output per package. As expected, the DOE-Managed HLW and SNF inventory has a much smaller volume, and hence smaller number of canisters, as well a lower thermal output, relative to a waste inventory that would include commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). A survey of available data and methods from previous studies of thermal analysis indicates that, in some cases, thermo-hydrologic modeling will be necessary to appropriately address the problem. This report also outlines scope for FY16 work -- a key challenge identified is developing a methodology to effectively and efficiently evaluate EBS performance in each disposal setting on the basis of thermal analyses results.

  6. Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Wavelet-Monte Carlo Hybrid System for HLW Nuclide Migration Modeling and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, Hesham; Neyama, Atsushi

    2003-02-26

    This paper presents results of an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for performance of the different barriers of high level radioactive waste repositories. SUA is a tool to perform the uncertainty and sensitivity on the output of Wavelet Integrated Repository System model (WIRS), which is developed to solve a system of nonlinear partial differential equations arising from the model formulation of radionuclide transport through repository. SUA performs sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) on a sample output from Monte Carlo simulation. The sample is generated by WIRS and contains the values of the output values of the maximum release rate in the form of time series and values of the input variables for a set of different simulations (runs), which are realized by varying the model input parameters. The Monte Carlo sample is generated with SUA as a pure random sample or using Latin Hypercube sampling technique. Tchebycheff and Kolmogrov confidence bounds are compute d on the maximum release rate for UA and effective non-parametric statistics to rank the influence of the model input parameters SA. Based on the results, we point out parameters that have primary influences on the performance of the engineered barrier system of a repository. The parameters found to be key contributor to the release rate are selenium and Cesium distribution coefficients in both geosphere and major water conducting fault (MWCF), the diffusion depth and water flow rate in the excavation-disturbed zone (EDZ).

  8. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  9. Plan System and Emergency Disposal of Videoconference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjie; Shao, Qi; Hao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The conception and compose of emergency plan system is introduced and the emergency disposal principle, measure and procedure of videoconference system is detailed stated. It will benefit the construction of emergency response plan system

  10. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  11. Status of Progress Made Toward Safety Analysis and Technical Site Evaluations for DOE Managed HLW and SNF.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gross, Michael B [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on generic deep geologic disposal systems (i.e., repositories). This report describes specific activities in FY 2016 associated with the development of a Defense Waste Repository (DWR)a for the permanent disposal of a portion of the HLW and SNF derived from national defense and research and development (R&D) activities of the DOE.

  12. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  13. FINAL REPORT DETERMINATION OF THE PROCESSING RATE OF RPP WTP HLW SIMULANTS USING A DURAMELTER J 1000 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-00R2590-2 REV 0 8/21/00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEREZ-CARDENAS F; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report provides data, analysis, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America (VSL) to determine the melter processing rates that are achievable with RPP-WTP HLW simulants. The principal findings were presented earlier in a summary report (VSL-00R2S90-l) but the present report provides additional details. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. As a consequence of the limited amount of relevant information, there exists, for good reasons, a significant disparity between design-base specific glass production rates for the RPP-WTP LAW and HLW conceptual designs (1.0 MT/m{sup 2}/d and 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d, respectively); furthermore, small-scale melter tests with HLW simulants that were conducted during Part A indicated typical processing rates with bubbling of around 2.0 MT/m{sup 2}/d. This range translates into more than a factor of five variation in the resultant surface area of the HLW melter, which is clearly not without significant consequence. It is clear that an undersized melter is undesirable in that it will not be able to support the required waste processing rates. It is less obvious that there are potential disadvantages associated with an oversized melter, over and above the increased capital costs. A melt surface that is consistently underutilized will have poor cold cap coverage, which will result in increased volatilization from the melt (which is generally undesirable) and

  14. A disposable bedpan system using an improved disposal unit and self-supporting bedpans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, G L

    1973-12-01

    A system using totally disposable self-supporting bedpans requiring no carrier was examined in use in two hospitals. The bedpans and their contents were disposed of by destruction and flushing to waste carried out in a modified Haigh Sluicemaster disposal unit. This incorporates a positively closing and locking lid with refinements to avoid the lid slamming and has effective safety devices. The new bedpans and the improved disposal units reduce the risk of transfer and dispersal of pathogenic organisms to an acceptable level in ward and sluice room.

  15. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  16. HLW Tank Space Management, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.S.; Abell, G.; Garrett, R.; d' Entremont, P.; Fowler, J.R.; Mahoney, M.; Poe, L.

    1999-09-20

    The HLW Tank Space Management Team (SM Team) was chartered to select and recommend an HLW Tank Space Management Strategy (Strategy) for the HLW Management Division of Westinghouse Savannah River Co. (WSRC) until an alternative salt disposition process is operational. Because the alternative salt disposition process will not be available to remove soluble radionuclides in HLW until 2009, the selected Strategy must assure that it safely receives and stores HLW at least until 2009 while continuing to supply sludge slurry to the DWPF vitrification process.

  17. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  18. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the nearfield around a HLW repository in argillaceous formations. Vol. I. Laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang; Czaikowski, Oliver; Rothfuchs, Tilmann; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2013-06-15

    All over the world, clay formations are being investigated as host medium for geologic disposal of radioactive waste because of their favourable properties, such as very low hydraulic conductivity against fluid transport, good sorption capacity for retardation of radionuclides, and high potential of self-sealing of fractures. The construction of a repository, the disposal of heat-emitting high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the backfilling and sealing of the remaining voids, however, will inevitably induce mechanical (M), hydraulic (H), thermal (T) and chemical (C) disturbances to the host formation and the engineered barrier system (EBS) over very long periods of time during the operation and post-closure phases of the repository. The responses and resulting property changes of the clay host rock and engineered barriers are to be well understood, characterized, and predicted for assessing the long-term performance and safety of the repository.

  19. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  20. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  1. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200

  2. Development of a Theoretical Monitoring System Design for a HLW Repository Based on the 'MoDeRn Monitoring Workflow' (A Case Study) - 12044

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstrasse 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Schroeder, T.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); White, M. [Galson Sciences Limited, 5 Grosvenor House, Melton Road, Oakham, LE15 6AX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a generic German disposal concept in rock salt is used as an example to discuss the design of a repository monitoring system. The approach used is based on a generic structured approach to monitoring - the MoDeRn Monitoring Workflow - which is being developed and tested as part of an on-going European Commission Seventh Framework project. As a first step in the study, the requirements on the monitoring program were identified through consideration of the national context, including regulatory guidelines, host rock properties and waste to be disposed of. These are stated as general monitoring objectives. An analysis of the German safety concept for safe confinement of the radioactive waste allows these general objectives to be converted into specific sub-objectives, and for the sub-objectives to be related to specific monitoring processes and parameters. The safety concept identified the key safety components, each of them having specific associated safety functions. The safety functions can be related to the list of features, events and processes (FEPs) that contains all processes related to the future repository evolution. By screening the FEP list, all processes that potentially can affect the safety functions have been identified. In a next step the parameters that would be affected by the individual processes were determined, leading to a preliminary list of parameters to be monitored. By evaluating available techniques and monitoring equipment, this preliminary list was investigated with respect to its technical feasibility at the intended locations. Prior to final system selection, potential impacts of the monitoring system on safety or other measurements are evaluated. To avoid potential pathways for fluids that may compromise the integrity of a barrier, considerations on the application of wireless data transmission systems and techniques for autonomous, long-term power supply were given. (authors)

  3. Engineering for Operation of a Future Belgian Deep Geological Repository for ILW and HLW - 12379

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, B.; Biurrun, E.; Nieder-Westermann, G.H. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany); Van Humbeeck, H. [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Brussels (Belgium); Van Cotthem, Alain [Tractebel Engineering SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    In Belgium, an advanced conceptual design is being elaborated for deep geologic disposal of high level waste (HLW) and for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) not amenable for surface disposal. The concept is based on a shielded steel and concrete container for disposal of HLW, i.e., the Super-container. LILW will be disposed of in separately designed concrete caissons. The reference host rock is the Boom Clay, a poorly indurated clay formation in northeastern Belgium. Investigations into the potential host rock are conducted at the HADES underground research laboratory in Mol, Belgium. In 2009 the Belgian Agency for Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) initiated a four year research project aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository. The goal of the program is to demonstrate at a detailed conceptual level that the proposed geologic disposal system can be safely constructed, operated, and progressively closed. Part of the broader research efforts being conducted includes evaluations optimization of the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, ventilation system, and evaluation of backfilling and sealing concepts for the repository design. The potential for implementation of a waste retrieval strategy encompassing the first 100 years after emplacement is also considered. In the framework of a four year research program aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository in poorly indurated clay design studies have been underway to optimize the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, and ventilation system. Additionally backfilling and sealing concepts proposed for the potential repository have been reviewed in conjunction with impacts related to the potential future inclusion of a retrievability requirement in governing regulations. The main engineering challenges in the Belgian repository concept are

  4. Redox Control For Hanford HLW Feeds VSL-12R2530-1, REV 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing K. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-12-13

    The principal objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of processing simulated Hanford HLW at the estimated maximum concentrations of nitrates and oxalates and to identify strategies to mitigate any processing issues resulting from high concentrations of nitrates and oxalates. This report provides results for a series of tests that were performed on the DM10 melter system with simulated C-106/AY-102 HLW. The tests employed simulated HLW feeds containing variable amounts of nitrates and waste organic compounds corresponding to maximum concentrations proj ected for Hanford HLW streams in order to determine their effects on glass production rate, processing characteristics, glass redox conditions, melt pool foaming, and the tendency to form secondary phases. Such melter tests provide information on key process factors such as feed processing behavior, dynamic effects during processing, processing rates, off-gas amounts and compositions, foaming control, etc., that cannot be reliably obtained from crucible melts.

  5. The computational design of Geological Disposal Technology Integration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Neyama, Atsushi [Computer Software Development, Co. (Japan); Endo, Shuji; Shindo, Tomonori [Ryoyu System Technology Co. (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    In order to develop 'Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' that is intended to systematize as knowledge base for fundamental study, the computational design of an indispensable database and image processing function to 'Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' was done, the prototype was made for trial purposes, and the function was confirmed. (1) Database of Integration System which systematized necessary information and relating information as an examination of a whole of repository composition and managed were constructed, and the system function was constructed as a system composed of image processing, analytical information management, the repository component management, and the system security function. (2) The range of the data treated with this system and information was examined, the design examination of the database structure was done, and the design examination of the image processing function of the data preserved in an integrated database was done. (3) The prototype of the database concerning a basic function, the system operation interface, and the image processing function was manufactured to verify the feasibility of the 'Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' based on the result of the design examination and the function was confirmed. (author)

  6. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  7. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  8. A societal challenge for Japanese geological disposal program of HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboya, Takao [Radioactive Waste Mangement Funding and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The Japanese deep underground repository development program was entered into an implementation phase in 2000 when a legislative basis as well as a scientific and technical basis was developed. Since NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan), the implementer, commenced open solicitation for the first step for selection of a repository candidate site in 2002, the first application was filed and cancelled in 2007 by Toyo cho, a municipality, in Kochi Prefecture. As the result of lesson learned political difficulty on repository site selection, governmental committees compiled reports to promote Japanese repository development program to gain understanding nation wide public as well as people of local communities.

  9. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  10. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Description of the disposal system 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Description of the Disposal System sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective presenting the initial state of the disposal system for the safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Finland. Disposal system is an entity composed of a repository system and surface environment. The repository system includes the spent nuclear fuel, canister, buffer, backfill, and closure components as well as the host rock. The repository system components have assigned safety functions (except for the spent nuclear fuel) and are subject to requirements. The initial state is presented for each component, and references to the main supporting reports are given to guide the reader for more details. Conditions for each component vary in time and space, due to the time of emplacement and due to the tolerances set for the compositions, geometries and other properties depending on the component. The disposal operation is foreseen to commence {approx} 2020. At the beginning of the postclosure period, around 2120, all the engineered components have been installed and the operation is finalised. The system evolution during the operational phase is discussed in detail in Performance Assessment. The initial state for the host rock is defined to be essentially equal to the baseline conditions prior to starting the construction of the underground characterisation facility ONKALO. For the surface environment, the initial state is the present conditions prevailing. For any other component of the disposal system, the initial state is defined as the state it has when the direct control over that specific part of the system ceases and only limited information can be made available on the subsequent development of conditions in that part of the system or its near field. (orig.)

  11. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  12. FINAL REPORT MELTER TESTS WITH AZ-101 HLW SIMULANT USING A DURAMELTER 100 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-01R10N0-1 REV 1 2/25/02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report provides data, analyses, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic of America (VSL) to determine the processing rates that are achievable with AZ-101 HLW simulants and corresponding melter feeds on a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) vitrification system. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. Tests conducted during Part B1 (VSL-00R2590-2) on the DM1000 vitrification system installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America showed that, without the use of bubblers, glass production rates with AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 simulants were significantly lower than the Project design basis rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d. Conversely, three-fold increases over the design basis rate were demonstrated with the use of bubblers. Furthermore, an un-bubbled control test using a replica of the melter feed used in cold commissioning tests at West Valley reproduced the rates that were observed with that feed on the WVDP production melter. More recent tests conducted on the DM1200 system, which more closely represents the present RPP-WTP design, are in general agreement with these earlier results. Screening tests conducted on the DM10 system have provided good indications of the larger-scale processing rates with bubblers (for both HL W and LAW feeds) but significantly overestimated the DM1000 un-bubbled rate observed for C-106/AY-102 melter feeds. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of the role of

  13. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable

  14. Evaluation of long-term irradiation field in geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Neyama, A. [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Shinjyuku, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, M.; Ohi, T.; Ishihara, Y. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is subject to alpha, beta, gamma and neutron irradiation as a result of radionuclide-decay. Radiation can cause chemical and physical effects on HLW geological disposal system, in particular, engineered barrier system (EBS) which consists of vitrified waste, overpack container and surrounded buffer material. Alpha and beta radiation can be shielded completely by the overpack as long as it retains its containment function. Gamma and neutron radiation, on the other hand, will penetrate the overpack, and then enter the buffer material and the host rock. To assess radiation effects within the EBS for long time, it is essential to evaluate the evolution of irradiation field, quantitatively. Thus, radiation transport calculations were done to obtain dose rate, irradiation dose and absorbed dose in the irradiation field. In these calculations, vitrified waste, overpack, buffer and host rock were modeled with a same concentric cylinder. (author)

  15. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  16. Melter Throughput Enhancements for High-Iron HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Gan, Hoa [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Chaudhuri, Malabika [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-12-26

    This report describes work performed to develop and test new glass and feed formulations in order to increase glass melting rates in high waste loading glass formulations for HLW with high concentrations of iron. Testing was designed to identify glass and melter feed formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts to assess melt rate using a vertical gradient furnace system and to develop new formulations with enhanced melt rate. Testing evaluated the effects of waste loading on glass properties and the maximum waste loading that can be achieved. The results from crucible-scale testing supported subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass and feed formulations on waste processing rate and product quality. The DM100 was selected as the platform for these tests due to its extensive previous use in processing rate determination for various HLW streams and glass compositions.

  17. A portable, disposable system for negative-pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Tanya

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) imparts a number of clinical effects that promote a healing response and, as such, is a well-established means of treating a variety of wound types. Historically, the technique has been primarily used in the hospital setting; however, the introduction of more portable devices has led to an increase in the use of NPWT in the homecare setting, thereby facilitating early discharge of patients from hospital and continuity of care in the community. Portable NPWT devices also have the potential to impact positively on patients' quality of life, allowing increased mobility and freedom to undertake normal activities of daily living. Following the development of its standard Avance® NPWT system and associated dressing kits, Mölnlycke Health Care (Gothenburg, Sweden) has introduced a single-patient-use, disposable NPWT system; Avance Solo. This has been developed with a view to maximising patient freedom and mobility, providing a single-patient-use NPWT solution for multi-week treatment to allow quick and easy discharge of patients from hospital to home, and reducing some of the challenges of logistics and administration associated with the provision of NPWT for the caregiver. As with the standard NPWT system, the single-patient use system is supplied with a number of products incorporating Safetac® adhesive technology to minimise the risk of patients suffering unnecessary pain and trauma associated with dressing changes. This article presents a series of case studies describing procedures and outcomes following the application of the Avance Solo single-patient-use system.

  18. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Michihiro; Tsuruta, Takashi; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    Sewage works facilities consist of various assets groups. And there are many kinds of financial resources. In order to optimize the maintenance plan, and to secure the stability and sustainability of sewage works management, it is necessary to carry out financial simulation based on the life-cycle cost analysis. Furthermore, it is important to develop management accounting system that is interlinked with the financial accounting system, because many sewage administration bodies have their financial accounting systems as public enterprises. In this paper, a management accounting system, which is designed to provide basic information for asset management of sewage works facilities, is presented. Also the applicability of the management accounting system presented in this paper is examined through financial simulations.

  19. Final Report - Crystal Settling, Redox, and High Temperature Properties of ORP HLW and LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/18/09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Wang, C.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Kot, W.; Feng, Z.; Viragh, C.; McKeown, D. A.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Cecil, R.; Zhao, W.

    2013-11-13

    The radioactive tank waste treatment programs at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) have featured joule heated ceramic melter technology for the vitrification of high level waste (HLW). The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) employs this same basic technology not only for the vitrification of HLW streams but also for the vitrification of Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams. Because of the much greater throughput rates required of the WTP as compared to the vitrification facilities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) or the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the WTP employs advanced joule heated melters with forced mixing of the glass pool (bubblers) to improve heat and mass transport and increase melting rates. However, for both HLW and LAW treatment, the ability to increase waste loadings offers the potential to significantly reduce the amount of glass that must be produced and disposed and, therefore, the overall project costs. This report presents the results from a study to investigate several glass property issues related to WTP HLW and LAW vitrification: crystal formation and settling in selected HLW glasses; redox behavior of vanadium and chromium in selected LAW glasses; and key high temperature thermal properties of representative HLW and LAW glasses. The work was conducted according to Test Plans that were prepared for the HLW and LAW scope, respectively. One part of this work thus addresses some of the possible detrimental effects due to considerably higher crystal content in waste glass melts and, in particular, the impact of high crystal contents on the flow property of the glass melt and the settling rate of representative crystalline phases in an environment similar to that of an idling glass melter. Characterization of vanadium redox shifts in representative WTP LAW glasses is the second focal point of this work. The third part of this work focused on key high temperature thermal properties of

  20. INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

  1. COMSOL Multiphysics Model for HLW Canister Filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesterson, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. Wastes containing high concentrations of Al2O3 and Na2O can contribute to nepheline (generally NaAlSiO4) crystallization, which can sharply reduce the chemical durability of high level waste (HLW) glass. Nepheline crystallization can occur during slow cooling of the glass within the stainless steel canister. The purpose of this work was to develop a model that can be used to predict temperatures of the glass in a WTP HLW canister during filling and cooling. The intent of the model is to support scoping work in the laboratory. It is not intended to provide precise predictions of temperature profiles, but rather to provide a simplified representation of glass cooling profiles within a full scale, WTP HLW canister under various glass pouring rates. These data will be used to support laboratory studies for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of nepheline crystallization. The model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercially available software. The model results were compared to available experimental data, TRR-PLT-080, and were found to yield sufficient results for the scoping nature of the study. The simulated temperatures were within 60 ºC for the centerline, 0.0762m (3 inch) from centerline, and 0.2286m (9 inch) from centerline thermocouples once the thermocouples were covered with glass. The temperature difference between the experimental and simulated values reduced to 40 ºC, 4 hours after the thermocouple was covered, and down to 20 ºC, 6 hours after the thermocouple was covered

  2. Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for high-level waste disposal in crystalline rocks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M. (ed.) [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    intent to assist Russian engineers and scientists in their integration into the international scientific community concerned with radioactive waste disposal and to share advanced safety approaches. The corresponding joint R and D activities were pooled in the following three R and D BMWi-funded projects: - ASTER ''Requirements for Site Investigation for a HLW Repository in hard rock Formations'' (2002 - 05), to develop a well-justified methodological approach for site investigation and selection in the Nizhnekansk granitoid formation near Krasnoyarsk, exemplarily for the disposal of conditioned HLW sludge from formerly produced weapons-grade plutonium and vitrified HLW from reprocessing - WIBASTA ''Performance investigation of engineered and geologic barriers of a HLW repository in magmatic host rocks'' (2005 - 08): performance analysis of the system of geologic and engineered barriers based on safety functions, exemplarily for the proposed HLW disposal facility at the Yeniseysky site - URSEL ''Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for HLW disposal in crystalline rocks'' (2008 - 16) Main Objective: Investigation of the robustness of the safety and of the safety assessment of e repository in crystalline rocks. In the last decade of the 20th century, site investigation activities started in various preselected regions of the Nizhnekansky granitoid formation east of Krasnoyarsk. Starting in 2003, preference was given to the Yeniseysky site, which is located several kilometres south east of the underground former production facilities for weapons-grade plutonium of the Mining Chemical Combine (MCC) at Zheleznogorsk. In the beginning, these investigations were performed for the eventual disposal of conditioned HLW sludge from weapons-grade plutonium production and vitrified HLW from reprocessing of the planned reprocessing plant RT-2 at Zheleznogorsk. Recently, priority has been given to so-called class 1 waste

  3. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Domitrović; Helena Vučenović; Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2012-01-01

    Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite) because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due f...

  5. Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Gardner, William Payton; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Mariner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - scale detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the Generic Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).

  6. Manufacturing routes for disposable polymer blood diagnostic microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Griffiths, Christian; Azcarate, Sabino

    2008-01-01

    (Multi-Material Micro Manufacture) that are relevant to the technology for disposable polymer parts for Micro-Tele-BioChip (µTBC) medical platforms. Combining two separation mechanisms a novel micro channel design was developed. The separation unit is based on a micro channel bend structure where typical...... channel dimensions are 20 µm for the plasma channel width, and 50-75 µm for the cell channel. The height of all channels is 100 µm. The micro channel bend works simply on physical and hydrodynamic separation mechanisms without integrated actuators like pumps or valves. For the mass-fabrication of low-cost...

  7. MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

    2010-01-04

    This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form

  8. Modelling spent fuel and HLW behaviour in repository conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, A. M.; Esteban, J. A.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this report is to give the reader an overall insight of the different models, which are used to predict the long-term behaviour of the spent fuels and HLW disposed in a repository. The models must be established on basic data and robust kinetics describing the mechanisms controlling spent fuel alteration/dissolution in a repository. The UO2 matrix, or source term, contains embedded in it the , majority of radionuclides of the spent fuel (some are in the gap cladding). For this reason the SF radionuclides release models play a significant role in the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The differences existing between models published in the literature are due to the conceptual understanding of the processes and the degree of the conservatism used with the parameter values, and the boundary conditions. They mainly differ in their level of simplification and their final objective. Sometimes are focused the show compliance with regulatory requirements, other to support decision making, to increase the level of confidence of public and scientific community, could be empirical, semi-empirical or analytical. The models take into account the experimental results from radionuclides releases and their extrapolation to the very long term. Its necessary a great statistics for have a representative dissolution rate, due at the number of experimental results is not very high and many of them show a great scatter, independently of theirs different compositions by axial and radial variations, due to linear power or local burnup. On the other hand, it is difficult to predict the spent fuel behaviour over the long term, based in short term experiments. In this report is given a little description of the radionuclides distribution in the spent fuel and also in the cladding/pellet gap, grain boundary, cracks and rim zones (the matrix rim zone can be considered with an especial characteristics very different to the rest of the spent fuel), and structural

  9. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  10. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    2000-04-15

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  11. HLW Flexible jumper materials compatibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    H-Tank Farm Engineering tasked SRNL/Materials Science & Technology (MS&T) to evaluate the compatibility of Goodyear Viper® chemical transfer hose with HLW solutions. The hose is proposed as a flexible Safety Class jumper for up to six months service. SRNL/MS&T performed various tests to evaluate the effects of radiation, high pH chemistry and elevated temperature on the hose, particularly the inner liner. Test results suggest an upper dose limit of 50 Mrad for the hose. Room temperature burst pressure values at 50 Mrad are estimated at 600- 800 psi, providing a safety factor of 4.0-5.3X over the anticipated operating pressure of 150 psi and a safety factor of 3.0-4.0X over the working pressure of the hose (200 psi), independent of temperature effects. Radiation effects are minimal at doses less than 10 Mrad. Doses greater than 50 Mrad may be allowed, depending on operating conditions and required safety factors, but cannot be recommended at this time. At 250 Mrad, burst pressure values are reduced to the hose working pressure. At 300 Mrad, burst pressures are below 150 psi. At a bounding continuous dose rate of 57,870 rad/hr, the 50 Mrad dose limit is reached within 1.2 months. Actual dose rates may be lower, particularly during non-transfer periods. Refined dose calculations are therefore recommended to justify longer service. This report details the tests performed and interpretation of the results. Recommendations for shelf-life/storage, component quality verification, and post-service examination are provided.

  12. Final Report - Testing of Optimized Bubbler Configuration for HLW Melter VSL-13R2950-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Callow, R. A.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of this work was to determine the glass production rate increase and ancillary effects of adding more bubbler outlets to the current WTP HLW melter baseline. This was accomplished through testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) at VSL. The DM1200 unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with several HLW waste streams including the four tank wastes proposed for initial processing at Hanford. This melter system was also used for the development and optimization of the present baseline WTP HLW bubbler configuration for the WTP HLW melter, as well as for MACT testing for both HLW and LAW. Specific objectives of these tests were to: Conduct DM1200 melter testing with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Conduct DM1200 melter testing to differentiate the effects of total bubbler air flow and bubbler distribution on glass production rate and cold cap formation. Collect melter operating data including processing rate, temperatures at a variety of locations within the melter plenum space, melt pool temperature, glass melt density, and melter pressure with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Collect melter exhaust samples to compare particulate carryover for different bubbler configurations. Analyze all collected data to determine the effects of adding more bubblers to the WTP HLW melter to inform decisions regarding future lid re-designs. The work used a high aluminum HLW stream composition defined by ORP, for which an appropriate simulant and high waste loading glass formulation were developed and have been previously processed on the DM1200.

  13. How you spend your pennies ... factors affecting the efficiency of human waste disposal systems (re-usable and disposable) and their cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnick, M

    1991-05-01

    Both re-usable and disposable systems have their merits and problems. The disposable system, being fully integrated, appears to be steadily gaining market share compared with the re-usable system. Since its introduction, the success of the re-usable system has been limited by the use of pans not designed for automatic processing. Where the 'perfection' pan has been superseded by 'open' shaped receptacles and those used in commode chairs, cleaning effectiveness can be improved by a factor of 10. For this and other reasons, nursing involvement in the re-usable system can be high while the 'perfection' pan is in use. A work study exercise to compare nursing involvement in re-usable and disposable systems is under way. When selecting a human waste disposal system for any site, it is vital that all disciplines discuss and decide objectives. The equipment usage, space, site conditions, availability and quality of supplies (eg water, electricity), the costs of maintenance, nursing time and other expenditure must be considered. The disposable system is capable of high process rates (more than double that of the fastest re-usable system). Its capital cost is currently about 1,000 pounds less than an average re-usable system, but in the busiest wards, revenue costs may be higher. In such wards the space for disposable receptacle storage can be as much as five to ten times machine volume. The design of macerators is generally simpler (having less components) than washer-disinfectors. Monitoring and maintenance involvement are likewise expected to be lower, particularly in hospitals with modern drainage systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.

    2001-07-24

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  15. HLW Melter Control Strategy Without Visual Feedback VSL-12R2500-1 Rev 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Callow, Richard A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Abramowitz, Howard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Brandys, Marek [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing K. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-11-13

    Plans for the treatment of high level waste (HL W) at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) are based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the pretreatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form [I]. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat and mass transfer and increase glass melting rates. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of ~ 1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HL W waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150°C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Activated Carbon-Based System for the Disposal of Psychoactive Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The misuse and improper disposal of psychoactive medications is a major safety and environmental concern. Hence, the proper disposal of these medications is critically important. A drug deactivation system which contains activated carbon offers a unique disposal method. In the present study, deactivation efficiency of this system was tested by using three model psychoactive drugs. HPLC validation was performed for each drug to ensure that the analytical method employed was suitable for its intended use. The method was found to be specific, accurate and precise for analyzing the drugs. The extent and rate of deactivation of the drugs was determined at several time points. After 28 days in the presence of activated carbon, the extent of leaching out of the drugs was evaluated. Deactivation started immediately after addition of the medications into the disposal pouches. Within 8 h, around 47%, 70% and 97% of diazepam, lorazepam and buprenorphine were adsorbed by the activated carbon, respectively. By the end of 28 days, over 99% of all drugs were deactivated. The desorption/leaching study showed that less than 1% of the active ingredients leached out from the activated carbon. Thus, this deactivation system can be successfully used for the disposal of psychoactive medications.

  18. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  19. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hun; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In the study, GSIS os developed for the maximizing effectiveness of the database system. For this purpose, the spatial relation of data from various fields that are constructed in the database which was developed for the site selection and management of repository for radioactive waste disposal. By constructing the integration system that can link attribute and spatial data, it is possible to evaluate the safety of repository effectively and economically. The suitability of integrating database and GSIS is examined by constructing the database in the test district where the site characteristics are similar to that of repository for radioactive waste disposal.

  20. Multi-pack Disposal Concepts for Spent Fuel (Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    At the initiation of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) R&D campaign, international geologic disposal programs and past work in the U.S. were surveyed to identify viable disposal concepts for crystalline, clay/shale, and salt host media (Hardin et al., 2012). Concepts for disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing are relatively advanced in countries such as Finland, France, and Sweden. The UFD work quickly showed that these international concepts are all “enclosed,” whereby waste packages are emplaced in direct or close contact with natural or engineered materials . Alternative “open” modes (emplacement tunnels are kept open after emplacement for extended ventilation) have been limited to the Yucca Mountain License Application Design (CRWMS M&O, 1999). Thermal analysis showed that, if “enclosed” concepts are constrained by peak package/buffer temperature, waste package capacity is limited to 4 PWR assemblies (or 9-BWR) in all media except salt. This information motivated separate studies: 1) extend the peak temperature tolerance of backfill materials, which is ongoing; and 2) develop small canisters (up to 4-PWR size) that can be grouped in larger multi-pack units for convenience of storage, transportation, and possibly disposal (should the disposal concept permit larger packages). A recent result from the second line of investigation is the Task Order 18 report: Generic Design for Small Standardized Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister Systems (EnergySolution, 2015). This report identifies disposal concepts for the small canisters (4-PWR size) drawing heavily on previous work, and for the multi-pack (16-PWR or 36-BWR).

  1. Multi-Pack Disposal Concepts for Spent Fuel (Revision 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    At the initiation of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) R&D campaign, international geologic disposal programs and past work in the U.S. were surveyed to identify viable disposal concepts for crystalline, clay/shale, and salt host media. Concepts for disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing are relatively advanced in countries such as Finland, France, and Sweden. The UFD work quickly showed that these international concepts are all “enclosed,” whereby waste packages are emplaced in direct or close contact with natural or engineered materials . Alternative “open” modes (emplacement tunnels are kept open after emplacement for extended ventilation) have been limited to the Yucca Mountain License Application Design. Thermal analysis showed that if “enclosed” concepts are constrained by peak package/buffer temperature, that waste package capacity is limited to 4 PWR assemblies (or 9 BWR) in all media except salt. This information motivated separate studies: 1) extend the peak temperature tolerance of backfill materials, which is ongoing; and 2) develop small canisters (up to 4-PWR size) that can be grouped in larger multi-pack units for convenience of storage, transportation, and possibly disposal (should the disposal concept permit larger packages). A recent result from the second line of investigation is the Task Order 18 report: Generic Design for Small Standardized Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister Systems. This report identifies disposal concepts for the small canisters (4-PWR size) drawing heavily on previous work, and for the multi-pack (16-PWR or 36-BWR).

  2. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulations Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Kovach, L.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW.

  3. Final Report - Melt Rate Enhancement for High Aluminum HLW Glass Formulation, VSL-08R1360-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/19/08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.; Bardakci, T.; Kot, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work reported here was to develop and identify HLW glass compositions that maximize waste processing rates for the aluminum limted waste composition specified by ORP while maintaining high waste loadings and acceptable glass properties. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system, and demonstration at pilot scale (DM1200). The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with the HLW waste streams evaluated in this study, was used for tests on HLW glass compositions to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter, conduct tests to determine the effect of various glass properties (viscosity and conductivity) and oxide concentrations on glass production rates with HLW feed streams, and to assess the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition. The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. These tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Once DM100 tests were completed, one of the compositions was selected for further testing on the DM1200; the DM1200 system has been used for processing a variety of simulated Hanford waste streams. Tests on the larger melter provide processing data at one third of the scale of the actual WTP HLW melter and, therefore, provide a more accurate and reliable assessment of production rates and potential processing issues. The work focused on maximizing waste processing rates for high aluminum HLW compositions. In view of the diversity of forms of aluminum in the Hanford tanks, tests were also conducted on the DM100 to determine the effect of changes in the form of aluminum on feed properties and production rate. In addition, the work evaluated the effect on production rate of modest increases

  4. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Ham, Sang Won; Moon, Sang Kee [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In this study, contents and survey and supervision items in each part are selected to avoid overlap between different parts referring national lows, criterion, and guidance related to atomic energy. The items consist of climatology, hydrology, geology, seismology, engineering geology, geochemistry, and civil and social parts. Based on these items, general study and systematic control related to the stability of disposal sites os established and as specific region required with the properties that is similar to properties of radioactive waste disposal sites, Ulsan region equipped with LPG underground storage facility was selected and its datum were surveyed and inputted. So propriety of established database system was proved.

  5. Integrated radwaste treatment system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1997-10-01

    In May 1988, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) began pretreating liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This HLW was produced during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972. Original reprocessing operations used plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) processes to recover usable isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The PUREX process produced a nitric acid-based waste stream, which was neutralized by adding sodium hydroxide to it. About two million liters of alkaline liquid HLW produced from PUREX neutralization were stored in an underground carbon steel tank identified as Tank 8D-2. The THOREX process, which was used to reprocess one core of mixed uranium-thorium fuel, resulted in about 31,000 liters of acidic waste. This acidic HLW was stored in an underground stainless steel tank identified as Tank 8D-4. Pretreatment of the HLW was carried out using the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), from May 1988 until May 1995. This system was designed to decontaminate the liquid HLW, remove salts from it, and encapsulate the resulting waste into a cement waste form that achieved US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for low-level waste (LLW) storage and disposal. A thorough discussion of IRTS operations, including all systems, subsystems, and components, is presented in US Department of Energy (DOE) Topical Report (DOE/NE/44139-68), Integrated Radwaste Treatment System Lessons Learned from 2 1/2 Years of Operation. This document also presents a detailed discussion of lessons learned during the first 2 1/2 years of IRTS operation. This report provides a general discussion of all phases of IRTS operation, and presents additional lessons learned during seven years of IRTS operation.

  6. Optimal routes scheduling for municipal waste disposal garbage trucks using evolutionary algorithm and artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of an evolutionary algorithm and an artificial immune systems to solve a problem of scheduling an optimal route for waste disposal garbage trucks in its daily operation. Problem of an optimisation is formulated and solved using both methods. The results are presented for an area in one of the Polish cities.

  7. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

    2013-12-12

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed.

  8. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.

    2010-03-18

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

  10. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  11. Research on information security system of waste terminal disposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Ziying; Guo, Jing; Guo, Yajuan; Huang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Informatization has penetrated the whole process of production and operation of electric power enterprises. It not only improves the level of lean management and quality service, but also faces severe security risks. The internal network terminal is the outermost layer and the most vulnerable node of the inner network boundary. It has the characteristics of wide distribution, long depth and large quantity. The user and operation and maintenance personnel technical level and security awareness is uneven, which led to the internal network terminal is the weakest link in information security. Through the implementation of security of management, technology and physics, we should establish an internal network terminal security protection system, so as to fully protect the internal network terminal information security.

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ASSESSMENT METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF WATER SUPPLY AND WATER DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kapansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods for assessing the energy efficiency of technological systems of water supply and water disposal are examined. The main tool of the existing methods is a settlement-and-analytical method, and, in accordance with the mentioned one, the determining of general and specific electric power consumption is based on actual consumption evaluation, evaluation of pressure and efficiency of the pump unit. However, in practical terms a lot of factors influence on those characteristics therefore affecting the resulting magnitude of energy efficiency and leading to errors in the calculation. These factors include the technical condition of the equipment and piping systems, alterations in the modes of operation of pumping units over time, a significant impact of the ambient temperature on the power consumption, amount of precipitation and the chemical composition of the effluent. As an object of management water supply and water disposal systems are considered as a totality; therefore the assessment of the energy efficiency of pipeline enterprises ought to be based on a systematic approach, whereas the existing methods are mainly based on an analysis of operating modes of individual electrical equipment, not on the whole technological system. The article describes the management system of energy efficiency of pipeline water supply and water disposal systems. The management system is based on information base of statistic data of power, hydraulic and industrial indexes of wastewater management. The original basic mathematical models of common costs and unit costs of electrical power in the water supply and water disposal systems, which are the basis for the solution of the problems of forecasting and the current state assessment of energy efficiency of enterprises, the selection of priority areas of energy efficiency and finding the ways to save energy resources, are presented.

  13. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  14. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  15. Design and integration of a generic disposable array-compatible sensor housing into an integrated disposable indirect microfluidic flow injection analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Bastian E; Schickling, Benjamin; Prokop, Jürgen; Piotter, Volker; Rapp, Michael; Länge, Kerstin

    2011-10-01

    We describe an integration strategy for arbitrary sensors intended to be used as biosensors in biomedical or bioanalytical applications. For such devices ease of handling (by a potential end user) as well as strict disposable usage are of importance. Firstly we describe a generic array compatible polymer sensor housing with an effective sample volume of 1.55 μl. This housing leaves the sensitive surface of the sensor accessible for the application of biosensing layers even after the embedding. In a second step we show how this sensor housing can be used in combination with a passive disposable microfluidic chip to set up arbitrary 8-fold sensor arrays and how such a system can be complemented with an indirect microfluidic flow injection analysis (FIA) system. This system is designed in a way that it strictly separates between disposable and reusable components- by introducing tetradecane as an intermediate liquid. This results in a sensor system compatible with the demands of most biomedical applications. Comparative measurements between a classical macroscopic FIA system and this integrated indirect microfluidic system are presented. We use a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor as an exemplary detector in this work.

  16. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  17. Initiating the Validation of CCIM Processability for Multi-phase all Ceramic (SYNROC) HLW Form: Plan for Test BFY14CCIM-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Vince [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This plan covers test BFY14CCIM-C which will be a first–of–its-kind demonstration for the complete non-radioactive surrogate production of multi-phase ceramic (SYNROC) High Level Waste Forms (HLW) using Cold Crucible Induction Melting (CCIM) Technology. The test will occur in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) CCIM Pilot Plant and is tentatively scheduled for the week of September 15, 2014. The purpose of the test is to begin collecting qualitative data for validating the ceramic HLW form processability advantages using CCIM technology- as opposed to existing ceramic–lined Joule Heated Melters (JHM) currently producing BSG HLW forms. The major objectives of BFY14CCIM-C are to complete crystalline melt initiation with a new joule-heated resistive starter ring, sustain inductive melting at temperatures between 1600 to 1700°C for two different relatively high conductive materials representative of the SYNROC ceramic formation inclusive of a HLW surrogate, complete melter tapping and pouring of molten ceramic material in to a preheated 4 inch graphite canister and a similar canister at room temperature. Other goals include assessing the performance of a new crucible specially designed to accommodate the tapping and pouring of pure crystalline forms in contrast to less recalcitrant amorphous glass, assessing the overall operational effectiveness of melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a dedicated power source, and observing the tapped molten flow and subsequent relatively quick crystallization behavior in pans with areas identical to standard HLW disposal canisters. Surrogate waste compositions with ceramic SYNROC forming additives and their measured properties for inductive melting, testing parameters, pre-test conditions and modifications, data collection requirements, and sampling/post-demonstration analysis requirements for the produced forms are provided and defined.

  18. Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) Version 1.0 - Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blink, James A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greenberg, Harris R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, Thomas J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-03

    The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to formalize the development and documentation of repository conceptual design options for each waste form and environment combination. This report summarizes current status and plans for the remainder of FY11 and for FY12. This progress report defines the architecture and interface parameters of the DSEF Excel workbook, which contains worksheets that link to each other to provide input and document output from external codes such that concise comparisons between fuel cycles, disposal environments, repository designs and engineered barrier system materials can be performed. Collaborations between other Used Fuel Disposition Campaign work packages and US Department of Energy / Nuclear Energy campaigns are clearly identified. File naming and configuration management is recommended to allow automated abstraction of data from multiple DSEF runs.

  19. FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

  20. Site selection process for a HLW geological repository in France. A convergence approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solente, N.; Ouzounian, G.; Miguez, R.; Tison, J-L. [ANDRA Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2011-07-01

    On December 1991, the French National Assembly passed the French Waste Management Research Act, authorizing and initiating a 15 year research program along three options for HLW long term solution: separation and/or transmutation, long-term storage, and geologic disposal. On June 2006, the 'Planning Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste' sets a new framework and new aims to the above mentioned options. This paper deals only with the geologic disposal research program. In a step by step approach, this program has been broken down into three phases, each having intermediate objectives: site selection for an Underground research Laboratory (URL), disposal feasibility demonstration, reversible disposal design. The first step of the research program aimed at URL site selection. From 1994 to 1996, Andra carried out geological characterization surveys in four French districts, leading to the Request for Licensing and Operation of laboratory facilities on three sites. During this phase, boreholes, 2D seismic campaigns and outcrops geologic studies were the main sources of data. The result was the selection of Bure area, the most suitable site for the implementation of an underground laboratory. Main results on Bure URL will be presented in the paper. In the second phase the research program targeted the safety and technical feasibility of a reversible disposal site, located in Meuse or Haute Marne districts, as selected by the government in 1998. Andra conducted geologic survey during the URL shaft sinking and experiments in drifts at depths of 445 and 490 m. This program allowed consolidating the knowledge already acquired: geological environment, stability of the rock and the regional geology, and containment properties. The 2005 Progress Report presents the results of this phase. The main conclusion is that a potential disposal facility may be safely constructed over a zone with geological characteristics similar to those

  1. Reference spent fuel and its characteristics for the concept development of a deep geological disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C. H.; Choi, J. W.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-09-01

    The total amount of spent fuel arisen from the nuclear power plant to be planned by 2010 at the basis of the long-term power development plan announced by MOTIE (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy Resource) in 1995 is estimated to derive the disposal capacity of a deep geological repository is derived. The reference spent fuel whose characteristics could be planned is selected by analysing the characteristic data such as initial enrichment, discharge burnup, geometry, dimension, gross weight, etc. Also isotopic concentration, radioactivity, decay heat, hazard index and radiation intensity of a reference spent fuel are quantitatively identified and summarized in order to apply in the concept developing works of a deep geological disposal system. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 14 figs.

  2. Development of Wireless Data Transmission System for the Monitoring in Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12063

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kei; Eto, Jiro; Tanabe, Hiromi [Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center - RWMC, Tokyo (Japan); Esaki, Taichi; Takamura, Hisashi; Suyama, Yasuhiro [Kajima Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The authors have been developing a wireless data transmission system to monitor the performance of a geological disposal system for radioactive waste. The system's concepts, advantages, and a recent development focused on reducing transmitter size to suit narrow spaces such as bentonite buffers and boreholes. A wireless transmitter with a built-in temperature sensor and a connector for external sensors has been developed, measuring 130 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter. The capability of the transmitter was confirmed by transmission tests on the ground and in a bentonite block. (authors)

  3. Dual linear accelerator system for use in sterilization of medical disposable supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Theo

    1991-05-01

    Accelerators can be used for sterilization or decontamination (medical disposables, food, plastics, hospital waste, etc.). Most of these accelerators are located in an industrial environment and must have a high availability. A dual accelerator system (composed of two accelerators) offers optimal flexibility and reliability. The main advantage of this system is "all-in all-out" because it does not need a turnover of products. Such a dual system, composed of two 10 MeV 20 kW linear accelerators (instead of one 40 kW linac), has been chosen by a Swedish company (Mölnlycke).

  4. Willingness to Pay for Improving the Residential Waste Disposal System in Korea: A Choice Experiment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Se-Ju; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun

    2009-08-01

    This study attempts to apply choice experiments with regard to the residential waste disposal system (RWDS) in Korea by considering various attributes that are related to RWDS. Using data from a survey conducted on 492 households, the empirical analysis yields estimates of the willingness to pay for a clean food-waste collection facility, the collection of small items (such as obsolete mobile phones and add-ons for personal computers), and a more convenient large waste disposal system. The estimation results of multinomial logit models are quite similar to those of nested logit models. The results reveal that residents have preferences for the cleanliness of facilities and the collection of small items. In Korea, residents are required to purchase and attach stickers for the disposal of large items; they want to be able to obtain stickers at not only village offices but also supermarkets. On the other hand, the frequency of waste collection is not a significant factor in the choice of the improved waste management program.

  5. Cloned foal derived from in vivo matured horse oocytes aspirated by the short disposable needle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lee, Inhyung; Shin, Hyungdo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Yeon, Seongchan; Jang, Goo

    2015-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration is one method of obtaining recipient oocytes for equine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was conducted: (1) to evaluate the possibility of oocyte aspiration from pre-ovulatory follicles using a short disposable needle system (14-G) by comparing the oocyte recovery rate with that of a long double lumen needle (12-G); (2) to investigate the developmental competence of recovered oocytes after SCNT and embryo transfer. The recovery rates with the short disposable needle vs. the long needle were not significantly different (47.5% and 35.0%, respectively). Twenty-six SCNT embryos were transferred to 13 mares, and one mare delivered a live offspring at Day 342. There was a perfect identity match between the cloned foal and the cell donor after analysis of microsatellite DNA, and the mitochondrial DNA of the cloned foal was identical with that of the oocyte donor. These results demonstrated that the short disposable needle system can be used to recover oocytes to use as cytoplasts for SCNT, in the production of cloned foals and for other applications in equine embryology.

  6. Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

  7. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-09

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  8. Choice of method - evaluation of strategies and systems for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and Utvecklingen av KBS-3- metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the method has been further developed and

  9. Validation of the Performance of High-level Waste Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Park, J. H.; Lee, J. O. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The experimental researches to validate the integrity and safety of high-level waste disposal system were carried out. The studies on the construction of KURT, and the site rock characteristics were conducted. Thermal-hydro-mechanical behavior of engineered barrier system was investigated using the engineering-scale test facility. The migration and retardation of radionuclide through the rock fracture under anaerobic and reducing condition were studied. The distribution coefficients of radionuclides onto granite, the rock matrix diffusion coefficients, and the gap and grain boundary inventories of spent fuel were measured.

  10. Need for USA high level waste (HLW) alternate geological repository (AGR) and for a different methodology to enhance its acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Salomon, E-mail: slevy112@aol.co [3425 South Bascom Avenue, Suite 225, Campbell, CA 95008 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    In early February 2010, the administration stopped work and withdrew the Department of Energy (DOE) application for a construction permit for the Yucca Mountain geological repository from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Also, a 'blue ribbon' Commission was appointed to explore alternatives for storage, processing, and disposal, including evaluation of advanced fuel cycles and to provide a final report in 24 months. That decision, however, failed to recognize that: (1) the U.S. will need an early alternate geological repository (AGR) for its HLW irrespective of the findings of the 'blue ribbon' Commission; (2) the once-through spent fuel inventory from commercial nuclear power reactors will continue to rise and so will the damages against the government for its failure to remove spent fuel from reactors sites, as specified in contracts; (3) there are prepackaged DOE and nuclear weapons HLW ready for shipment to a repository which must be taken into account because of government penalties for failure to do so; (4) the current Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) needs to be modified to allow the early search and approval of Alternate Geological Repository (AGR) and for an interim centralized HLW storage facility to reduce government liabilities; and (5) the methodology used to license Yucca Mountain needs to undergo serious modifications, including a different non-politicized management and siting credo. This paper reviews and discusses all the preceding shortcomings and proposes significant changes to pursue AGR as soon as possible and to get site approval by the NRC first under a formal, stepwise, well-structured risk-informed decision approach as recommended.

  11. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  12. Final Report - Management of High Sulfur HLW, VSL-13R2920-1, Rev. 0, dated 10/31/2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Feng, Z.; Gan, H; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The present report describes results from a series of small-scale crucible tests to determine the extent of corrosion associated with sulfur containing HLW glasses and to develop a glass composition for a sulfur-rich HLW waste stream, which was then subjected to small-scale melter testing to determine the maximum acceptable sulfate loadings. In the present work, a new glass formulation was developed and tested for a projected Hanford HLW composition with sulfate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading. Testing was then performed on the DM10 melter system at successively higher waste loadings to determine the maximum waste loading without the formation of a separate sulfate salt phase. Small scale corrosion testing was also conducted using the glass developed in the present work, the glass developed in the initial phase of this work [26], and a high iron composition, all at maximum sulfur concentrations determined from melter testing, in order to assess the extent of Inconel 690 and MA758 corrosion at elevated sulfate contents.

  13. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of

  14. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. An automatic urine disposal system for urinary incontinence: A pilot study with long-term users for effectiveness and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Choi, Hyung Woo; Jung, Hyeyoung; Kim, Kyeong Hun; Park, Sangsoo

    2016-09-14

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among the elderly and patients with neurologic disability. The conventional urinary incontinence aids, such as urine-absorbing diapers, pads, and indwelling catheters, frequently cause hygienic problems. To study the safety and efficacy of a new automatic urine disposal system that can suction and store the urine in a separate container for future disposal. An electromechanical urine disposal system that can collect and transport the urine and cleanse and air-dry the external genitalia was developed. The hygienic effects of using this system were studied in 8 participants after 3 months of use. The caregivers of all 8 patients reported improved hygiene of their patients. None of the patients suffered from decubitus ulcers, and skin erythema was absent in 4 patients, while markedly decreased in the other 4 patients when compared with the use of urine-absorbing diapers. Four patients experienced minor urine leakage that was manageable with concurrent use of either diapers or bed pads. The use of an electromechanical urine disposal system relieves the caregiver from night care, as the urine is automatically collected and stored for disposal the next day. The system improves the hygiene of the patient, as the urine is immediately suctioned and the external genitalia is cleansed and dried after urination.

  16. Inventory model optimization for supplier-manufacturer-retailer system with rework and waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwicahyani, A. R.; Kholisoh, E.; Jauhari, W. A.; Rosyidi, C. N.; Laksono, P. W.

    2017-11-01

    This study developed a model for a CLSC inventory system which consisted of a supplier, a manufacturer and a retailer. We applied single remanufacturing cycle and multiple manufacturing cycle, (1,P), policy and performed a comparison to the previous study. We conducted an investigation of an imperfect manufacturing process whose defective items were being reworked. Other considerations were quality dependent return rate and waste disposal activity, for any returned items that did not exceed the acceptable quality level. Some parameters including demand, proportion of defect, waste and refurbished item were assumed deterministic and constant. We proposed a solution procedure and presented a numerical example to illustrate the application of the model. The results showed that (1,P) policy allowed higher profit for the system than (R,1) policy presented in the previous study.

  17. Development of an Insight Model for Post-closure Radiological Risks from the Disposal of High-level Waste and Spent Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M.; Carter, A.; Bailey, L.; Wellstead, M.

    2012-04-01

    solving the governing equations for release and transport of radionuclides. A number of mathematical theorems enable the moments of outputs for coupled systems to be expressed in terms of the moments of individual subcomponents. Use of this model demonstrates that approximations to peak risk and other intermediate quantities can be derived that bring out clearly the relative importance of the underlying physical and chemical processes. In this way the key processes can be identified for each radionuclide, and hence the key governing parameters can be identified. This is achieved without the need to develop or execute detailed numerical models of radionuclide release and transport. The model has been implemented in a spreadsheet, and has been tested against the results of detailed assessments undertaken by NDA-RWMD for scenarios involving disposal of HLW and SF using the Swedish (KBS-3) concept. Although such a simplified model will not replace detailed numerical models as the main tools for assessing risk, the model provides ready insight to the key controlling features of the system which can be difficult to achieve using only detailed numerical models.

  18. Evaluation of an activated carbon-based deactivation system for the disposal of highly abused opioid medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyi; Bakshi, Pooja; Sunkara Ganti, Sindhu; Manian, Mahima; Korey, Andrew; Fowler, William; Banga, Ajay K

    2018-01-01

    The improper disposal of unused prescription opioids has a potential for abuse as well as environmental contamination. Consequently, there is an imperative need for an environmentally safe, convenient, and effective drug disposal system. The objective of this study is to analyze the deactivation efficiency of the disposal system employing four model opioid drugs of high abuse potential. The deactivation system used in this investigation is an activated granular carbon based disposal system in the form of a pouch, which can be used to safely and effectively deactivate unused or expired medications. HPLC method validation for each drug was performed prior to analyzing drug content in the deactivation study. Opioid drugs in different dosage forms were added to individual pouches in the presence of warm water. Pouches were shaken and sealed, then stored at room temperature. The deactivation efficiency of the system was tested by collecting samples at different time points up to 28 d. An average of 98.72% of medications were adsorbed by activated carbon within 8 h and continued to do so over time. At the end of the 28-d study, more than 99.99% of all drugs were deactivated. In the desorption study, almost no drug leached out from the activated carbon in larger volume of water and less than 1.3% leached out on extraction with ethanol. This unique drug disposal system successfully adsorbed and deactivated the model opioid medications by the end of 28 d, offering a safe and convenient route of disposal of unused or residual opioid drugs.

  19. Effect of composition on peraluminous glass properties: An application to HLW containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, V.; Bardez-Giboire, I.; Perret, D.; Montouillout, V.; Pellerin, N.

    2017-01-01

    Part of the Research and Development program concerning high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses aims to assess new glass formulations able to incorporate a high waste content with enhanced properties in terms of thermal stability, chemical durability, and process ability. This study focuses on peraluminous glasses of the SiO2 - Al2O3 - B2O3 - Na2O - Li2O - CaO - La2O3 system, defined by an excess of aluminum ions Al3+ in comparison with modifier elements such as Na+, Li+ or Ca2+. To understand the effect of composition on physical properties of glasses (viscosity, density, Tg), a Design Of Experiments (DOE) approach was applied to investigate the peraluminous glass domain. The influence of each oxide was quantified to build predictive models for each property. Lanthanum and lithium oxides appear to be the most influential factors on peraluminous glass properties.

  20. Demonstration of pyrometallurgical processing for metal fuel and HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadafumi, Koyama; Kensuke, Kinoshita; Takatoshi, Hizikata; Tadashi, Inoue [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan); Ougier, M.; Rikard, Malmbeck; Glatz, J.P.; Lothar, Koch [European Commission JRC, Institute fuer Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    CRIEPI and JRC-ITU have started a joint study on pyrometallurgical processing to demonstrate the capability of this type of process for separating actinide elements from spent fuel and HLW. The equipment dedicated for this experiments has been developed and installed in JRC-ITU. The stainless steel box equipped with tele-manipulators is operated under pure Ar atmosphere, and prepared for later installation in a hot cell. Experiments on pyro-processing of un-irradiated U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel by molten salt electrorefining has been carried out. Recovery of U and Pu from this type alloy fuel was first demonstrated with using solid iron cathode and liquid Cd cathode, respectively. (author)

  1. Analysis of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste disposal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Bradford, Scott A

    2008-01-15

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause an adverse effect on aquatic species. To better assess the potential risks of hormone contamination resulting from land application of dairy wastes, various steroid hormones were determined in a typical dairy waste disposal system. Quantitative methods using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were developed to monitor low levels of steroid hormones in complex solid and liquid samples contaminated with dairy manure. The preparation method for wastewater analysis consisted of solid-phase extraction and purification steps, which minimized interference from the sample matrices and achieved low detection limits for the studied hormones. In the dairy wastewater and lagoon water, three endogenous hormones-17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, and estrone-were detected. The concentration of 17alpha-estradiol in fresh milk parlor effluent rapidly decreased along the wastewater disposal route, whereas the concentration of estrone increased along this same pathway. This suggests that 17alpha-estradiol was readily oxidized to the metabolite estrone. Levels of total steroid hormones in the sequencing lagoon water were approximately 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than those in the fresh dairy wastewaters, indicating significant removal of these hormones during the transport of dairy wastewater from source to field. In solid dairy waste samples, four steroid hormones were identified and quantified. Increasing the piling time of solid wastes and increasing the residence time of wastewater in sequencing lagoons are suggested to be economical and efficient agriculture practices to extend the degradation time of hormone contaminants and thereby reduce the hormone load to the environment.

  2. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Blowes, D.W. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]|[Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research, Ontario (Canada); Placek, C.J. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)]|[Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO{sub 4}-P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified.

  3. Research on Geo-information Data Model for Preselected Areas of Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Huang, S. T.; Wang, P.; Zhao, Y. A.; Wang, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    The geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (hereinafter referred to "geological disposal") is a long-term, complex, and systematic scientific project, whose data and information resources in the research and development ((hereinafter referred to ”R&D”) process provide the significant support for R&D of geological disposal system, and lay a foundation for the long-term stability and safety assessment of repository site. However, the data related to the research and engineering in the sitting of the geological disposal repositories is more complicated (including multi-source, multi-dimension and changeable), the requirements for the data accuracy and comprehensive application has become much higher than before, which lead to the fact that the data model design of geo-information database for the disposal repository are facing more serious challenges. In the essay, data resources of the pre-selected areas of the repository has been comprehensive controlled and systematic analyzed. According to deeply understanding of the application requirements, the research work has made a solution for the key technical problems including reasonable classification system of multi-source data entity, complex logic relations and effective physical storage structures. The new solution has broken through data classification and conventional spatial data the organization model applied in the traditional industry, realized the data organization and integration with the unit of data entities and spatial relationship, which were independent, holonomic and with application significant features in HLW geological disposal. The reasonable, feasible and flexible data conceptual models, logical models and physical models have been established so as to ensure the effective integration and facilitate application development of multi-source data in pre-selected areas for geological disposal.

  4. Bioprocess Control in Microscale: Scalable Fermentations in Disposable and User-Friendly Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Carsten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficiency of biotechnological production processes depends on selecting the best performing microbial strain and the optimal cultivation conditions. Thus, many experiments have to be conducted, which conflicts with the demand to speed up drug development processes. Consequently, there is a great need for high-throughput devices that allow rapid and reliable bioprocess development. This need is addressed, for example, by the fiber-optic online-monitoring system BioLector which utilizes the wells of shaken microtiter plates (MTPs as small-scale fermenters. To further improve the application of MTPs as microbioreactors, in this paper, the BioLector technology is combined with microfluidic bioprocess control in MTPs. To realize a user-friendly system for routine laboratory work, disposable microfluidic MTPs are utilized which are actuated by a user-friendly pneumatic hardware. Results This novel microfermentation system was tested in pH-controlled batch as well as in fed-batch fermentations of Escherichia coli. The pH-value in the culture broth could be kept in a narrow dead band of 0.03 around the pH-setpoint, by pneumatically dosing ammonia solution and phosphoric acid to each culture well. Furthermore, fed-batch cultivations with linear and exponential feeding of 500 g/L glucose solution were conducted. Finally, the scale-up potential of the microscale fermentations was evaluated by comparing the obtained results to that of fully controlled fermentations in a 2 L laboratory-scale fermenter (working volume of 1 L. The scale-up was realized by keeping the volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa constant at a value of 460 1/h. The same growth behavior of the E. coli cultures could be observed on both scales. Conclusion In microfluidic MTPs, pH-controlled batch as well as fed-batch fermentations were successfully performed. The liquid dosing as well as the biomass growth kinetics of the process-controlled fermentations

  5. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  6. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of Proposed Code Changes Regarding Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems in Suffolk County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of proposed code changes regarding residential onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDS) in Suffolk County, New York. Of the approximately 569,000 housing units in Suffolk County, 365,000 are no...

  7. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  8. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Douglas Alan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas & Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States` utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste.

  9. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000’s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose

  10. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  11. Predicting Nitrogen Transport From Individual Sewage Disposal Systems for a Proposed Development in Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, K. K.; McCray, J.; Lowe, K.

    2005-12-01

    Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS) have demonstrated the capability to be an effective method of treatment for domestic wastewater. They also are advantageous from a water resources standpoint because there is little water leaving the local hydrologic system. However, if unfavorable settings exist, ISDS can have a detrimental effect on local water-quality. This presentation will focus on assessing the potential impacts of a large housing development to area water quality. The residential development plans to utilize ISDS to accommodate all domestic wastewater generated within the development. The area of interest is located just west of Brighton, Colorado, on the northwestern margin of the Denver Basin. Efforts of this research will focus on impacts of ISDS to local groundwater and surface water systems. The Arapahoe Aquifer, which exists at relatively shallow depths in the area of proposed development, is suspected to be vulnerable to contamination from ISDS. Additionally, the local water quality of the Arapahoe Aquifer was not well known at the start of the study. As a result, nitrate was selected as a fo-cus water quality parameter because it is easily produced through nitrification of septic tank effluent and because of the previous agricultural practices that could be another potential source of nitrate. Several different predictive tools were used to attempt to predict the potential impacts of ISDS to water quality in the Arapahoe Aquifer. The objectives of these tools were to 1) assess the vulnerability of the Arapahoe Aquifer to ni-trate contamination, 2) predict the nitrate load to the aquifer, and 3) determine the sensitivity of different parameter inputs and the overall prediction uncertainty. These predictive tools began with very simple mass-loading calcula-tions and progressed to more complex, vadose-zone numerical contaminant transport modeling.

  12. Educating surgeons on intraoperative disposable supply costs during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a regional health system's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelis, Matthew; Vigneswaran, Yalini; Ujiki, Michael B; Denham, Woody; Talamonti, Mark; Muldoon, Joseph P; Linn, John G

    2015-03-01

    Surgeons play a crucial role in the cost efficiency of the operating room through total operative time, use of supplies, and patient outcomes. This study aimed to examine the effect of surgeon education on disposable supply usage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgeons were educated about the cost of disposable equipments without incentives for achieved cost reductions. Surgical supply costs for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in fiscal year (FY) 2013 were compared with FY 2014. The average disposable supply cost per laparoscopic cholecystectomy was reduced from $589 (n = 586) in FY 2013 to $531 (n = 428) in FY 2014, representing a 10% reduction in supply costs (P cost for laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be reduced by surgeon education. These techniques can likely be used to reduce costs in an array of specialties and procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lifecycle assessment of a system for food waste disposers to tank - A full-scale system evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad Saraiva, A; Davidsson, Å; Bissmont, M

    2016-08-01

    An increased interest for separate collection of household food waste in Sweden has led to development of a number of different collection-systems - each with their particular benefits and drawbacks. In the present study, two systems for collection of food waste in households were compared; (a) use of food waste disposers (FWD) in kitchen sinks and (b) collection of food waste in paper bags for further treatment. The comparison was made in relation to greenhouse gas emissions as well as primary energy utilization. In both cases, collected food waste was treated through anaerobic digestion and digestate was used as fertilizer on farmland. Systems emissions of greenhouse gases from collection and treatment of 1ton of food waste (dry matter), are according to the performed assessment lower from the FWD-system compared to the reference system (-990 and -770kgCO2-eq./ton food waste dry matter respectively). The main reasons are a higher substitution of mineral nitrogen fertilizer followed by a higher substitution of diesel. Performed uncertainty analyses state that results are robust, but that decreasing losses of organic matter in pre-treatment of food waste collected in paper bags, as well as increased losses of organic matter and nutrients from the FWD-system could change the hierarchy in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. Owing to a higher use of electricity in the FWD-system, the paper bag collection system was preferable in relation to primary energy utilization. Due to the many questions still remaining regarding the impacts of an increased amount of nutrients and organic matter to the sewage system through an increased use of FWD, the later treatment of effluent from the FWD-system, as well as treatment of wastewater from kitchen sinks in the reference system, was not included in the assessment. In future work, these aspects would be of relevance to monitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deep geological disposal system development; mechanical structural stability analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under the internal/external pressure variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwen, Y. J.; Kang, S. W.; Ha, Z. Y. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This work constitutes a summary of the research and development work made for the design and dimensioning of the canister for nuclear fuel disposal. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for spent fuel disposal should be securred. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. The canister construction type introduced here is a solid structure with a cast iron insert and a corrosion resistant overpack, which is designed for spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock, which entails an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from undergroundwater and high pressure from swelling of bentonite buffer. Hence, the canister must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. Many design variables may affect the structural strength of the canister. In this study, among those variables array type of inner baskets and thicknesses of outer shell and lid and bottom are tried to be determined through the mechanical linear structural analysis, thicknesses of outer shell is determined through the nonlinear structural analysis, and the bentonite buffer analysis for the rock movement is conducted through the of nonlinear structural analysis Also the thermal stress effect is computed for the cast iron insert. The canister types studied here are one for PWR fuel and another for CANDU fuel. 23 refs., 60 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  15. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disposable plastic rodent feeders for use in an automated filling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toler, James; Gleason, David; Clare, Lisa; Buckham, Susan; DeWit, Robert

    2008-09-01

    Rodent feeder devices are often made of reusable, sanitizable materials such as glass and stainless steel. As part of an initiative at the authors' facility to automate the feeder filling process, disposable plastic feeding cups were proposed as a preferable alternative to standard feeders for use in a filling machine. The authors tested and validated designs for rodent meal-type feeder assemblies that incorporated plastic cups. Assemblies included stainless steel shields that prevented rats and mice from chewing on the plastic cups while allowing them full access to food. The use of disposable feeder cups that are filled and sealed automatically reduces labor associated with sanitation, enables staff to prepare feeders for several weeks in advance and limits personnel contact with feed that may contain harmful chemicals.

  17. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides.

  18. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.N.

    1998-01-09

    This memorandum provides a summary of PHMC (Project Hanford Management Contract) team work scope for the Phase 1 TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission, a declaration of readiness-to proceed, a summary of the PHMC readiness evaluation process, summary results of a structured independent appraisal and financial analysis including information associated with assumptions, risks, and recommendations and, a summary of program plans for the PHMC team`s component of the Phase 1 Mission.

  19. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2001-09-17

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

  20. Support for HLW Direct Feed - Phase 2, VSL-15R3440-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlack, K. S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, I. [EnergySolutions, Columbia, MD (United States); Kot, W. K. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-20

    This report describes work performed to develop and test new glass and feed formulations originating from a potential flow-sheet for the direct vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) with minimal or no pretreatment. In the HLW direct feed option that is under consideration for early operations at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the pretreatment facility would be bypassed in order to support an earlier start-up of the vitrification facility. For HLW, this would mean that the ultrafiltration and caustic leaching operations that would otherwise have been performed in the pretreatment facility would either not be performed or would be replaced by an interim pretreatment function (in-tank leaching and settling, for example). These changes would likely affect glass formulations and waste loadings and have impacts on the downstream vitrification operations. Modification of the pretreatment process may result in: (i) Higher aluminum contents if caustic leaching is not performed; (ii) Higher chromium contents if oxidative leaching is not performed; (iii) A higher fraction of supernate in the HLW feed resulting from the lower efficiency of in-tank washing; and (iv) A higher water content due to the likely lower effectiveness of in-tank settling compared to ultrafiltration. The HLW direct feed option has also been proposed as a potential route for treating HLW streams that contain the highest concentrations of fast-settling plutoniumcontaining particles, thereby avoiding some of the potential issues associated with such particles in the WTP Pretreatment facility [1]. In response, the work presented herein focuses on the impacts of increased supernate and water content on wastes from one of the candidate source tanks for the direct feed option that is high in plutonium.

  1. Comparison of radiation hazard of HLW in several spent nuclear fuel reprocessing scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladilov D.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiation hazard of radionuclide has been calculated as a product of Aε where A is an activity of radionuclide and ε is a dose coefficient through ingestion. The values Aε of 18 radionuclide in spent fuel of WWER-440 are calculated. Because the full division of americium and curium from HLW is very complicated a separation americium from curium is considered. It is shown that a separation of americium in a special fraction allows decreasing the radiation hazard of HLW by 97.6% after 1000 years.

  2. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  3. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  4. TESTS WITH HIGH-BISMUTH HLW GLASSES FINAL REPORT VSL-10R1780-1 REV 0 12/13/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MATLACK KS; KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; CHAUDHURI M; MOHR RK; MCKEOWN DA; BARDAKEI T; GONG W; BUECCHELE AC; PEGG IL

    2011-01-05

    This Final Report describes the testing of glass formulations developed for Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) containing high concentrations of bismuth. In previous work on high-bismuth HLW streams specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP), fully compliant, high waste loading compositions were developed and subjected to melter testing on the DM100 vitrification system. However, during heat treatment according to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW canister centerline cooling (CCC) curves, crucible melts of the high-bismuth glasses were observed to foam. Clearly, such an occurrence during cooling of actual HLW canisters would be highly undesirable. Accordingly, the present work involves larger-scale testing to determine whether this effect occurs under more prototypical conditions, as well as crucible-scale tests to determine the causes and potentially remediate the observed foaming behavior. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts designed to determine the underlying causes of the foaming behavior as well as to assess potential mitigation strategies. Testing was also conducted on the DM1200 HLW Pilot melter with a composition previously tested on the DM100 and shown to foam during crucible-scale CCC heat treatment. The DM1200 tests evaluated foaming of glasses over a range of bismuth concentrations poured into temperature-controlled, 55-gallon drums which have a diameter that is close to that of the full-scale WTP HLW canisters. In addition, the DM1200 tests provided the first large-scale melter test data on high-bismuth WTP HLW compositions, including information on processing rates, cold cap behavior and off-gas characteristics, and data from this waste composition on the prototypical DM1200 off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for ORP on the same waste composition. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was

  5. High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-08-18

    The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were

  6. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  7. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  8. JNC thermodynamic database for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Mikazu; Azuma, Jiro; Shibata, Masahiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This report is a summary of status, frozen datasets, and future tasks of the JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB) for assessing performance of high-level radioactive waste in geological environments. The JNC-TDB development was carried out after the first progress report on geological disposal research in Japan (H-3). In the development, thermodynamic data (equilibrium constants at 25degC, I=0) for important radioactive elements were selected/determined based on original experimental data using different models (e.g., SIT, Pitzer). As a result, the reliability and traceability of the data for most of the important elements were improved over those of the PNC-TDB used in H-3 report. For detailed information of data analysis and selections for each element, see the JNC technical reports listed in this document. (author)

  9. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  10. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  11. Policies, strategies and systems for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In this report an up-to-date account is made of the status of different principles, strategies and systems for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As large scale use of nuclear power for the production of electricity began in the 1960s and 1970s, studies of various principles and strategies for the management of the spent nuclear fuel were initialised. In particular in the USA, comprehensive studies were conducted of all strategies described in this report

  12. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  13. A preliminary evaluation on criticality safety for spent fuel disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, D. K.; Choi, J. W.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Han, P. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Criticality analysis was performed under assumption that spent fuel assemblies were placed in boreholes of underground repository. The PWR fuel assemblies studied were assumed to have discharged burnup of 45,000MWD/MTU and 55,000MWD/MTU in response to initial fuel enrichment of 4.0wt% and 4.5wt% {sup 235}U, respectively. The discharged burnup of CANDU reactor fuel was assumed to be 7,500MWD/MTU with initial enrichment of 0.711wt% {sup 235}U. HELIOS and MCNP codes were used for burnup calculation and criticality analysis, respectively. In case the canister void space was filled with water for PWR reference spent fuel, infinitive multiplication factor was maintained below {approx}0.78 after operation of repository. For the repository with CANDU fuel assemblies, criticality was assured within 0.5 in the water-flooded condition, although fresh fuel was placed in a disposal canister. Therefore, if the fuel assemblies are intact and fissile nuclide is confined in a fuel rod, the criticality in a repository is impossible under current design.

  14. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  15. A disposable bacterial lysis cartridge (BLC) suitable for an in situ water-borne pathogen detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Son, Ahjeong; Chua, Beelee

    2015-11-21

    We constructed a disposable bacterial lysis cartridge (BLC) suitable for an in situ pathogen detection system. It had an in-built micro corona discharge based ozone generator that provided ozone for cell lysis. Using a custom sample handling platform, its performance was evaluated with a Gram-positive bacterium of Bacillus subtilis. It was capable of achieving a similar degree of lysis as a commercial ultrasonic dismembrator with a P-1 microprobe in 10 min at an air pump flow rate of 29.4 ml min(-1) and an ozone generator operating voltage of 1600 V. The lysing duration could be significantly reduced to 5 min by increasing the air pump flow rate and the ozone generator operating voltage as well as by the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS).

  16. Technical evaluation of a tank-connected food waste disposer system for biogas production and nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Å; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Magnusson, N; Bissmont, M

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a tank-connected food waste disposer system with the objective to optimise biogas production and nutrient recovery from food waste in Malmö was evaluated. The project investigated the source-separation ratio of food waste through waste composition analyses, determined the potential biogas production in ground food waste, analysed the organic matter content and the limiting components in ground food waste and analysed outlet samples to calculate food waste losses from the separation tank. It can be concluded that the tank-connected food waste disposer system in Malmö can be used for energy recovery and optimisation of biogas production. The organic content of the collected waste is very high and contains a lot of energy rich fat and protein, and the methane potential is high. The results showed that approximately 38% of the food waste dry matter is collected in the tank. The remaining food waste is either found in residual waste (34% of the dry matter) or passes the tank and goes through the outlet to the sewer (28%). The relatively high dry matter content in the collected fraction (3-5% DM) indicates that the separation tank can thicken the waste substantially. The potential for nutrient recovery is rather limited considering the tank content. Only small fractions of the phosphorus (15%) and nitrogen (21%) are recyclable by the collected waste in the tank. The quality of the outlet indicates a satisfactory separation of particulate organic matter and fat. The organic content and nutrients, which are in dissolved form, cannot be retained in the tank and are rather led to the sewage via the outlet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Simulated HLW Glass in the Presence of Magnesium Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikatsu Maeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Static leach tests were conducted for simulated HLW glass in MgCl2 solution for up to 92 days to investigate the dissolution mechanism of HLW glass under coastal repository condition. Under the condition that magnesium ion exists in leachate, the dissolution rate of the glass did not decrease with time during leaching, while the rate decreased when the magnesium ion depleted in the leachate. In addition, altered layer including magnesium and silica was observed at the surface of the glass after the leach tests. The present results imply that dissolution of the glass is accompanied with formation of magnesium silicate consuming silica, a glass network former. As a consequence, the glass dissolved with an initial high dissolution rate.

  18. Complex geological investigations to select a site for high-level waste disposal in the Krasnoyarsk region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.B.; Savonenkov, V.G.; Shabalev, S.I.; Rogozin, Yu.M. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lyubtseva, E.F. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Revenko, Yu.A.; Sabaev, Yu.I.; Nosukhin, A.V. [Chemical Mining Company, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Milovidov, V.L. [VNIPI Promtechnologii, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lukina, N.V. [GIN RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lopatin, A.P. [State Centre ' Priroda' , Krasnoyarsk branch, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Datsenko, V.M. [KNIIGiMS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kryzhanovsky, V.A. [' Krasnoyarskgeolsyomka' , Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in deep geological formations is now considered by the international community as the ultimate stage in the optimum solution to the general problem of radioactive waste management, although other, more hypothetical, possibilities, (e.g. transmutation, space disposal) have been considered. lt is no exaggeration to state that the creation of an underground HLW repository in the Krasnoyarsk region is the greatest of the key environmental and economic problems governing the very existence of the large nuclear company, the Mining and Chemical Company (MCC), which generates considerable quantities of radioactive wastes, including HLW. On the other hand, radioactive waste disposal is not merely a problem for the Krasnoyarsk region, but is one of the key problems determining the future development of the Russian nuclear power industry in general, particularly if the nuclear fuel cycle includes the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel which is planned for the RT-2 plant currently under construction in the Krasnoyarsk region. lt is no accident, therefore, that the Russian Federal programme on radioactive waste management includes a special topic devoted to characterisation work in the Krasnoyarsk region with a view to selecting a site for the construction of a repository. The results of a number of international scientific research programmes have demonstrated that in the case of long-term storage of HLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW) in the earth's surface, the risk to the population and to the biosphere in general is too great and, consequently, unacceptable. Thus, the concept of an underground radioactive waste repository has wide support among the leading nuclear countries, including the U.K., France, U.S.A., Sweden, Finland and Germany. In these countries, projects to construct repositories for the geological disposal of radioactive waste are either underway or are planned. 1 ref.

  19. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  20. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  1. A microfluidic control system with re-usable micropump/valve actuator and injection moulded disposable polymer lab-on-a-slide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Yi, Sun

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic control system consisting of micropump/valves with a re-usable pneumatic actuator and a disposable polymer lab-on-a-slide is presented. The lab-on-a-slide was fabricated using low cost methods, such as injection moulding of TOPAS® cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) slide, lamination...... of different layers of polymer, and ultrasonic welding of TOPAS® lid to the slide. The re-usable pneumatic actuator not only simplifies the design of the lab-on-a-slide and reduces the fabrication cost, but also reduces the possibility of cross contamination during replacement of the disposable lab...

  2. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some of the conclusions reached as a result of this study are summarized. Waste form parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. The billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit the packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume. The effect of this packing inefficiency in reducing the net waste form per waste payload can be seen graphically. The cermet waste form mass per unit mass of waste payload is lower than that of the iodine waste form even though the cermet has a higher density (6.5 versus 5.5). This is because the lead iodide is cast achieving almost 100% efficiency in packing. This inefficiency in the packing of the cermet results in a 20% increase in number of flights which increases both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low flight rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A comprehensive trade study would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This study was not conducted as part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. Several candidates look attractive for both single- and dual-launch systems (see sec. 4.4), but due to the relatively small number of missions, a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs including DDT and E would be required to select the best system. The reference system described in sections 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development efforts for disposal of the reference cermet waste form.

  3. Application of the Integrated Site and Environment Data Management System for LILW Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Yong; Kim, Chang Lak [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    During the last five years, Site Information and Total Environmental data management System(SITES) has been developed. SITES is an integrated program for overall data acquisition, environmental monitoring, and safety analysis. SITES is composed of three main modules, such as site database system (SECURE), safety assessment system (SAINT) and environmental monitoring system (SUDAL). In general, for the safe management of radioactive waste repository, the information of site environment should be collected and managed systematically from the initial site survey. For this, SECURE module manages its data for the site characterization, environmental information, and radioactive environmental information etc. The purpose of SAINT module is to apply and analyze the data from SECURE. SUDAL is developed for environmental monitoring of the radioactive waste repository. Separately, it is ready to open to the public for offering partial information.

  4. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of

  5. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-15

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  6. Disposable Miniaturized Screen‐Printed pH and Reference Electrodes for Potentiometric Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musa, Arnaud Emmanuel; del Campo, Francisco Javier; Abramova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the development of a miniaturized potentiometric system comprising a miniaturized quasi‐reference electrode (QRE) coupled to a solid‐state ion‐selective electrode (ISE) for the monitoring of pH. We describe the optimization of materials and fabrication processes including scre...

  7. Development of miniaturized disposable electrochemical systems intended for point of care blood analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musa, Arnaud Emmanuel

    for further electrochemical investigations in this thesis. Based on these electrochemical systems, the fabrication of potentiometric pH-sensors featuring a photo-curable polyurethane membrane as ion-selective-membrane (ISM) was then studied. The choice of the membrane was motivated by the fact...

  8. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  9. Analysis of social recognition and disposal time for the long-term management scenario of high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Myong; Jeong, Jin Yeop; Ha, Gyu Man [Korea Energy Technology and Emergency Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Recently, the need of high-level radioactive waste policy including spent fuel management becomes serious due to the rapid increase in oil price, the nationalism of natural resources, and the environmental issues such as Tokyo protocol. Also, the policy should be established urgently to prepare the saturation of on-site storage capacity of spent fuel, the revision of 'Agreement for Cooperation-Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy' between Korea and US, the anxiety for nuclear weapon proliferation, and R and D to reduce the amount of waste to be disposed. In this study, we performed case study of US, Japan, Canada and Finland, which have special laws and plans/roadmaps for high-level waste management, to draw the policy requirements to be considered in HLW management. Also, we reviewed social conflict issues experienced in our society, and summarized the factors affecting the political and social environment. These policy requirements and factors summarized in this study should be considered seriously in the process for public consensus and the policy making regarding HLW management. Finally, the following 4 action items were drawn to manage HLW successfully : - Continuous and systematic R and D activities to obtain reliable management technology - Promoting companies having specialty in HLW management - Nurturing experts and workforce - Drive the public consensus process

  10. Artificial Intelligence-Explosive Ordnance Disposal Information Search, Retrieval, and Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Marine .05034 -_37940* .20248 . 11290 -.03563 52 Navy -.17222 .10660 -.27288* -.28905* .33503* 87 a11 tests successfully completed with A-EOD...megabytes greater than required to store the operating system and X-Windows. * CD-ROM Player. Standard CD-ROM player using ISO 9660 file format...07707 -.00880 .82428 99.99999 TIASTECH -.05690 -.01493 99.99999 .33683 -.07431 -.00996 .82272 99.99999 CURWKING .05034 -.37940 99.99999 .20248 . 11290

  11. A systems approach to the design of personal armour for explosive ordnance disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Couldrick, C A

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative description of the personal armour design system is elicited by comparing armour throughout the ages. Inputs that 'shape' designs are the materials technology, threat, wearer, task and environment. The emergent properties of protection, ergonomic effectiveness and financial cost form the basis of trade-offs to select final solutions. Work on the protection subsystem refines the key positive emergent property of personal armour. Existing quantifications of protection effective...

  12. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  13. Disposable and removable nucleic acid extraction and purification cartridges for automated flow-through systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick

    2014-09-09

    Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.

  14. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2010-01-04

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

  15. A feasibility assessment of installation, operation and disposal options for nuclear reactor power system concepts for a NASA growth space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.; Heller, Jack A.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational disposition, and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide the feasibility of each combination.

  16. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been

  18. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  19. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  20. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF REDOX EFFECTS USING HLW AZ-101 AND C-106/AY-102 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-1 REV 0 5/6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; BIZOT PM; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of three tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the remaining tests will be reported separately. Three nine day tests, one with AZ-101 and two with C-106/AY-102 feeds were conducted with variable amounts of added sugar to address the effects of redox. The test with AZ-101 included ruthenium spikes to also address the effects of redox on ruthenium volatility. One of tests addressed the effects of increased flow-sheet nitrate levels using C-106/AY-102 feeds. With high nitrate/nitrite feeds (such as WTP LAW feeds), reductants are required to prevent melt foaming and deleterious effects on glass production rates. Sugar is the baseline WTP reductant for this purpose. WTP HLW feeds typically have relatively low nitrate/nitrite content in comparison to the organic carbon content and, therefore, have typically not required sugar additions. However, HLW feed variability, particularly with respect to nitrate levels, may necessitate the use of sugar in some instances. The tests reported here investigate the effects of variable sugar additions to the melter feed as well as elevated nitrate levels in the waste. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, bubbling rate, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW feeds with variable amounts of added sugar and increased nitrate levels; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and

  1. System dynamics-based evaluation of interventions to promote appropriate waste disposal behaviors in low-income urban areas: A Baltimore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaqing; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Lasater, Molly E; Parker, Cindy L; Winch, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Inappropriate waste disposal is a serious issue in many urban neighborhoods, exacerbating environmental, rodent, and public health problems. Governments all over the world have been developing interventions to reduce inappropriate waste disposal. A system dynamics model is proposed to quantify the impacts of interventions on residential waste related behavior. In contrast to other models of municipal solid waste management, the structure of our model is based on sociological and economic studies on how incentives and social norms interactively affect waste disposal behavior, and its parameterization is informed by field work. A case study of low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD, USA is presented. The simulation results show the effects of individual interventions, and also identify positive interactions among some potential interventions, especially information and incentive-based policies, as well as their limitations. The model can help policy analysts identify the most promising intervention packages, and then field test those few, rather than having to pilot test all combinations. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate large uncertainties about behavioral responses to some interventions, showing where information from survey research and social experiments would improve policy making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Crystallization in high level waste (HLW) glass melters: Savannah River Site operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peeler, David K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    This paper provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed for design input to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with prototype melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. A review of the crystallization observed with the prototype melters and the full-scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2) is included. Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for a waste treatment and immobilization plant.

  3. Drop Calculations of HLW Canister and Pu Can-in-Canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreten Mastilovic

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the standard high-level waste (HLW) canister and the canister containing the cans of immobilized plutonium (Pu) (''can-in-canister'' [CIC] throughout this document) subjected to drop DBEs (design basis events) during the handling operation. The evaluated DBE in the former case is 7-m (23-ft) vertical (flat-bottom) drop. In the latter case, two 2-ft (0.61-m) corner (oblique) drops are evaluated in addition to the 7-m vertical drop. These Pu CIC calculations are performed at three different temperatures: room temperature (RT) (20 C ), T = 200 F = 93.3 C , and T = 400 F = 204 C ; in addition to these the calculation characterized by the highest maximum stress intensity is performed at T = 750 F = 399 C as well. The scope of the HLW canister calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of: stress intensity and effective plastic strain in the canister, directional residual strains at the canister outer surface, and change of canister dimensions. The scope of Pu CIC calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensity, and effective plastic strain in the canister. The information provided by the sketches from Reference 26 (Attachments 5.3,5.5,5.8, and 5.9) is that of the potential CIC design considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for this design only. This calculation is associated with the Plutonium Immobilization Project and is performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with Reference 24. It should be noted that the 9-m vertical drop DBE, included in Reference 24, is not included in the objective of this calculation since it did not become a waste acceptance requirement. AP-3.124, ''Calculations'', is used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

  4. The Role of the Two-Component System BaeSR in Disposing Chemicals through Regulating Transporter Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Feng Lin

    Full Text Available Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs facilitate changes in gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. TCS BaeR regulons influence tigecycline susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii through positively regulating the pump genes adeA and adeB. In this study, we demonstrate that an additional two transport systems, AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC, are also regulated by BaeSR. In the wild type and clinical tigecycline-resistant A. baumannii strains, gene expression of AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC increased after tigecycline induction, implicating their importance to tigecycline resistance in addition to AdeABC. Phenotypic microarray results showed that A. baumannii is vulnerable to certain chemicals, especially tannic acid, after deleting baeR, which was confirmed using the spot assay. The wild-type strain of A. baumannii also exhibited 1.6-fold and 4.4-fold increase in gene expression of adeJ and macB in the medium with 100 μg/mL tannic acid, but the increase was fully inhibited by baeR deletion. An electrophoretic motility shift assay based on an interaction between His-BaeR and the adeA, adeI and macA promoter regions did not demonstrate direct binding. In conclusion, A. baumannii can use the TCS BaeSR in disposing chemicals, such as tannic acid and tigecycline, through regulating the efflux pumps.

  5. DETERMINATION OF HLW GLASS MELT RATE USING X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.; Miller, D.; Immel, D.

    2011-10-06

    The purpose of the high-level waste (HLW) glass melt rate study is two-fold: (1) to gain a better understanding of the impact of feed chemistry on melt rate through bench-scale testing, and (2) to develop a predictive tool for melt rate in support of the on-going frit development efforts for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). In particular, the focus is on predicting relative melt rates, not the absolute melt rates, of various HLW glass formulations solely based on feed chemistry, i.e., the chemistry of both waste and glass-forming frit for DWPF. Critical to the successful melt rate modeling is the accurate determination of the melting rates of various HLW glass formulations. The baseline procedure being used at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is to; (1) heat a 4 inch-diameter stainless steel beaker containing a mixture of dried sludge and frit in a furnace for a preset period of time, (2) section the cooled beaker along its diameter, and (3) measure the average glass height across the sectioned face using a ruler. As illustrated in Figure 1-1, the glass height is measured for each of the 16 horizontal segments up to the red lines where relatively large-sized bubbles begin to appear. The linear melt rate (LMR) is determined as the average of all 16 glass height readings divided by the time during which the sample was kept in the furnace. This 'visual' method has proved useful in identifying melting accelerants such as alkalis and sulfate and further ranking the relative melt rates of candidate frits for a given sludge batch. However, one of the inherent technical difficulties of this method is to determine the glass height in the presence of numerous gas bubbles of varying sizes, which is prevalent especially for the higher-waste-loading glasses. That is, how the red lines are drawn in Figure 1-1 can be subjective and, therefore, may influence the resulting melt rates significantly. For example, if the red lines are drawn too low

  6. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Aujeszky's disease virus, baby hamster kidney cells, cell culture, disposable bioreactor, virus titre. Abstract. A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) production. Growth ...

  7. 48 CFR 45.606 - Disposal of scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of scrap. 45.606 Section 45.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Disposal of scrap. ...

  8. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BP McGrail, WL Ebert, DH Bacon, DM Strachan

    1998-02-18

    Privatized services are being procured to vitrify low-activity tank wastes for eventual disposal in a shallow subsurface facility at the Hanford Site. Over 500,000 metric tons of low-activity waste glass will be generated, which is among the largest volumes of waste within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and is one of the largest inventories of long-lived radionuclides planned for disposal in a low-level waste facility. Before immobilized waste can be disposed, DOE must approve a "performance assessment," which is a document that describes the impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. Because the release rate of radionuclides from the glass waste form is a key factor determining these impacts, a sound scientific basis for determining their long-term release rates must be developed if this disposal action is to be accepted by regulatory agencies, stakeholders, and the public. In part, the scientific basis is determined from a sound testing strategy. The foundation of the proposed testing strategy is a well accepted mechanistic model that is being used to calculate the glass corrosion behavior over the geologic time scales required for performance assessment. This model requires that six parameters be determined, and the testing program is defined by an appropriate set of laboratory experiments to determine these parameters, and is combined with a set of field experiments to validate the model as a whole. Three general classes of laboratory tests are proposed in this strategy: 1) characterization, 2) accelerated, and 3) service condition. Characterization tests isolate and provide specific information about processes or parameters in theoretical models. Accelerated tests investigate corrosion behavior that will be important over the regulated service life of a disposal system within a laboratory time frame of a few years or less. Service condition tests verify that the techniques used in accelerated tests do not change

  9. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  10. Geomechanical Studies on Granite Intrusions in Alxa Area for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa area of China. Surface investigation in the field and RQD analyses on the drill cores are carried out to evaluate the rock mass quality. Laboratory uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests on the samples prepared from the drill cores are conducted to estimate the strength properties of the host rock. It is found that the NRG sub-area has massive granite intrusions, and NRG01 cored granite samples show the best rock quality and higher peak strength under various confinements (0–30 MPa. NRG01 granite samples are applied for more detailed laboratory studies considering the effects of strain rate and temperature. It is observed that the increasing strain rate from 1.0 × 10−5–0.6 × 10−2·s−1 can lead to a limited increase on peak strength, but a much more violent failure under uniaxial compressive tests on the NRG01 granite samples, and the temperature increasing from 20 °C–200 °C may result in a slight increase of UCS, as well as more ductile post-peak behavior in the triaxial compressive tests.

  11. Main outcomes from in situ thermo-hydro-mechanical experiments programme to demonstrate feasibility of radioactive high-level waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Armand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of radioactive waste disposal, an underground research laboratory (URL is a facility in which experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a radioactive waste disposal facility within a geological formation. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is a site-specific facility planned to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx claystone. The thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM behaviour of the host rock is significant for the design of the underground nuclear waste disposal facility and for its long-term safety. The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra has begun a research programme aiming to demonstrate the relevancy of the French high-level waste (HLW concept. This paper presents the programme implemented from small-scale (small diameter boreholes to full-scale demonstration experiments to study the THM effects of the thermal transient on the COx claystone and the strategy implemented in this new programme to demonstrate and optimise current disposal facility components for HLW. It shows that the French high-level waste concept is feasible and working in the COx claystone. It also exhibits that, as for other plastic clay or claystone, heating-induced pore pressure increases and that the THM behaviour is anisotropic.

  12. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  13. The injured liver induces hyperimmunoglobulinemia by failing to dispose of antigens and endotoxins in the portal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Ting; Jing, Ying Ying; Han, Zhi Peng; Li, Xiao Ning; Liu, Yan; Lai, Fo Bao; Li, Rong; Zhao, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Meng-Chao; Wei, Li-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Hyperimmunoglobulinemia is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver diseases. However, the exact mechanism underlying the high level of antibody formation is not fully understood. In our study, we provide evidence for the functional role of the liver and the stimulation of plasma cell proliferation in hyperimmunoglobulinemia. We collected sera from patients with chronic liver diseases, and the level of serum immunoglobulins in patients was examined; this was also investigated in animal models of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. An end-to-side microsurgical portacaval shunt was used to mimic liver dysfunction in rats. We used portal vein serum and inferior vena cava serum to immunize healthy rats and mice in order to confirm the function of the healthy liver in disposing of antigens and endotoxins from the gut. For the analysis of the state of plasma cell activation, plasma cells from mice were stained with PE-conjugated anti-CD138 and FITC-conjugated anti-BrdU for flow cytometry analysis. Hyperimmunoglobulinemia was observed both in patients with chronic liver diseases and in related animal models, and high plasma LPS levels were also observed. There was a significant increase in the activation and proliferation of plasma cell in mice immunized with antigens or LPS-positive serum compared with controls that were immunized with antigens and LPS-negative serum. We confirmed that the healthy liver plays an important role in disposing of antigens and endotoxins derived from the gut. Hyperimmunoglobulinemia in chronic liver diseases mainly arises due to the collateral circulation secondary to portal hypertension, gut antigens and endotoxins that bypass the liver and reach the antibody-producing cells.

  14. HLW Feed Delivery AZ101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements [Initial Release at Rev 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-02-28

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC.

  15. Final Report - Sulfate Solubility in RPP-WTP HLW Glasses, VSL-06R6780-1, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Feng, A.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-12-03

    This report describes the results of work and testing specified by Test Specifications 24590-HLW-TSP-RT-01-006 Rev 1, Test Plans VSL-02T7800-1 Rev 1 and Test Exceptions 24590-HLW-TEF-RT-05-00007. The work and any associated testing followed established quality assurance requirements and were conducted as authorized. The descriptions provided in this report are an accurate account of both the conduct of the work and the data collected. Results required by the Test Plans are reported. Also reported are any unusual or anomalous occurrences that are different from the starting hypotheses. The test results and this report have been reviewed and verified.

  16. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  17. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides water... additional priority points to the colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal systems and face...

  18. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  19. Development Of High Waste-Loading HLW Glasses For High Bismuth Phosphate Wastes, VSL-12R2550-1, Rev 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing K. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-12-13

    This report presents results from tests with new glass formulations that have been developed for several high Bi-P HLW compositions that are expected to be processed at the WTP that have not been tested previously. WTP HLW feed compositions were reviewed to select waste batches that are high in Bi-P and that are reasonably distinct from the Bi-limited waste that has been tested previously. Three such high Bi-P HLW compositions were selected for this work. The focus of the present work was to determine whether the same type of issues as seen in previous work with high-Bi HLW will be seen in HLW with different concentrations of Bi, P and Cr and also whether similar glass formulation development approaches would be successful in mitigating these issues. New glass compositions were developed for each of the three representative Bi-P HLW wastes and characterized with respect to key processing and product quality properties and, in particular, those relating to crystallization and foaming tendency.

  20. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  1. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, C. A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Owen, A. T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Jansik, D. P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Lang, J. B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-12

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ~185+-155 {mu}m, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers.

  3. IMPACT OF PARTICLE AGGLOMERATION ON ACCUMULATION RATES IN THE GLASS DISCHARGE RISER OF HLW MELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Josef; Jansik, Danielle P.; Owen, Antionette T.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-08-05

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with X-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ~185±155 µm, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 °C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers.

  4. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.

    2006-03-21

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  5. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  6. The impact of onsite wastewater disposal systems on groundwater in areas inundated by Hurricane Sandy in New York and New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Irene; Phillips, Patrick; Colella, Kaitlyn; Fisher, Shawn C.; Tagliaferri, Tristen N.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) were inundated by Hurricane Sandy's storm tide. This study compares the shallow groundwater quality (nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) downgradient of OWDS before and after Hurricane Sandy, where available, and establishes a baseline for wastewater influence on groundwater in coastal communities inundated by Hurricane Sandy. Nutrients and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were detected in shallow groundwater downgradient of OWDS in two settings along the New Jersey and New York coastlines: 1) a single, centralized OWDS in a park; and 2) multiple OWDS (cesspools) in low-density residential and mixed-use/medium density residential areas. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were lidocaine (40%), carbamazepine (36%), and fexofenadine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine, meprobamate, and tramadol (24–32%). Increases in the number and total concentration of pharmaceuticals after Hurricane Sandy may reflect other factors (seasonality, usage) besides inundation, and demonstrate the importance of analyzing for a wide variety of CECs in regional studies.

  7. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions -- FY 1995 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-04-26

    At the Hanford Site organic compounds were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY 1995. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, and caproate salts; iron and aluminum and butylphosphate salts; and aluminum oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degree}C, 30 {degree}C, 40 {degree}C, and 50 {degree}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, and butylphosphate in HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (YOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is so even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank and supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble compounds (an unlikely situation). Metal ion complexes of and butylphosphate and oxalate in supernate solutions were not stable in the presence of the hydroxide concentrations expected in most tanks. Iron and aluminum dibutylphosphate compounds reacted with hydroxide to form soluble sodium dibutylphosphate and precipitated iron and aluminum hydroxides. Aluminum oxalate complexes were also not stable in the basic simulated supernate solutions. Solubilities of all the organic salts decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Increasing temperatures raised the solubilities of the organic

  8. Laboratory Testing of a MEMS Sensor System for In-Situ Monitoring of the Engineered Barrier in a Geological Disposal Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste pose significant challenges for robust monitoring of environmental conditions within the engineered barriers that surround the waste canister. Temperatures are elevated, due to the presence of heat generating waste, relative humidity varies from 20% to 100%, and swelling pressures within the bentonite barrier can typically be 2–10 MPa. Here, we test the robustness of a bespoke design MEMS sensor-based monitoring system, which we encapsulate in polyurethane resin. We place the sensor within an oedometer cell and show that despite a rise in swelling pressure to 2 MPa, our relative humidity (RH measurements are unaffected. We then test the sensing system against a traditional RH sensor, using saturated bentonite with a range of RH values between 50% and 100%. Measurements differ, on average, by 2.87% RH, and are particularly far apart for values of RH greater than 98%. However, bespoke calibration of the MEMS sensing system using saturated solutions of known RH, reduces the measurement difference to an average of 1.97% RH, greatly increasing the accuracy for RH values close to 100%.

  9. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  10. Fully Automated On-Chip Imaging Flow Cytometry System with Disposable Contamination-Free Plastic Re-Cultivation Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kaneko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel imaging cytometry system using a poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA based microfluidic chip. The system was contamination-free, because sample suspensions contacted only with a flammable PMMA chip and no other component of the system. The transparency and low-fluorescence of PMMA was suitable for microscopic imaging of cells flowing through microchannels on the chip. Sample particles flowing through microchannels on the chip were discriminated by an image-recognition unit with a high-speed camera in real time at the rate of 200 event/s, e.g., microparticles 2.5 μm and 3.0 μm in diameter were differentiated with an error rate of less than 2%. Desired cells were separated automatically from other cells by electrophoretic or dielectrophoretic force one by one with a separation efficiency of 90%. Cells in suspension with fluorescent dye were separated using the same kind of microfluidic chip. Sample of 5 μL with 1 × 106 particle/mL was processed within 40 min. Separated cells could be cultured on the microfluidic chip without contamination. The whole operation of sample handling was automated using 3D micropipetting system. These results showed that the novel imaging flow cytometry system is practically applicable for biological research and clinical diagnostics.

  11. Solubilities of significant compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions - FY 1996 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-09-30

    The solubilities of two sodium salts of organic acids that are thought to exist in high-level waste at the Hanford Site were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY1996 This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degrees}C, 30 {degrees}C, 40 {degrees}C, and 50 {degrees}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. Two types of tank supernate simulants were used - a 4.O M sodium nitrate - 0.97 M sodium nitrite solution with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from O.00003 M to 2.O M and a 2.O M sodium nitrite solution saturated with crystalline sodium nitrate with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.1 M to 2. 0 M. The solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene- diaminetriacetate in both types of HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. The solubilities of these compounds are similar (in terms of total organic carbon) to sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, dibutylphosphate, citrate, formate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and nitrilotriacetate which were measured previously. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (TOC) of actual tank supernates are generaly much lower than the TOC ranges for the simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is true even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble

  12. Development of a geographic information system-based decision support toolset to assess the feasibility of on-site wastewater treatment and disposal options in low permeability subsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubber, Donata; Pilla, Francesco; Smyth, David; Qazi, Nadeem; McCarthy, Tim; Gill, Laurence W

    2014-01-01

    Traditional on-site wastewater treatment systems have proven to be unsuitable in areas of low permeability subsoils, representing a risk to human health and the environment. With large areas being covered by low permeability tills, Ireland needs to consider alternative treatment and disposal options to be able to allow further development in these areas and to deal with polluting legacy sites. The paper describes the development and structure of a geographic information system (GIS)-based decision support toolset to evaluate possible alternative strategies for these sites. The programme takes as its initial input the location of an existing house located in an area of low permeability subsoils. Through a series of interconnected GIS geoprocesses the model outputs appropriate solutions for a site, ranking them in terms of environmental sustainability and cost. However, the final decisions are still dependent on on-site constraints so that each solution is accompanied by an alert message that provides additional information for the user to refine the output list according to the available local site-specific information.

  13. The Tat system proofreads FeS protein substrates and directly initiates the disposal of rejected molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Cristina F.R.O.; Robinson, Colin; Di Cola, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the bacterial plasma membrane, including FeS proteins that receive their cofactors in the cytoplasm. We have studied two Escherichia coli Tat substrates, NrfC and NapG, to examine how, or whether, the system exports only correctly folded and assembled FeS proteins. With NrfC, substitutions in even one of four predicted FeS centres completely block export, indicating an effective proofreading activity. The FeS mutan...

  14. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  15. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  17. Pond systems for the purification and disposal of domestic wastewater from small communities: use, design, operation and maintenance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Drews, RJLC

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available into disrepute. In recognizing the numerous merits of pond systems, the NIWR is attempting to re-instate them as much needed wastewater purification processes in the South African context. To this end, the guide has been revised in the form of the present manual...

  18. High-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy eenvironmental management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S.M.; Conzelmann, G.; Gillette, J.L.; Kier, P.H.; Poch, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides data and information needed to support the risk and impact assessments of high-level waste (HLW) management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available data on the physical form, chemical and isotopic composition, storage locations, and other waste characteristics of interest are presented. High-level waste management follows six implementation phases: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, interim canister storage, and geologic repository disposal; pretreatment, treatment, and repository disposal are outside the scope of the WM PEIS. Brief descriptions of current and planned HLW management facilities are provided, including information on the type of waste managed in the facility, costs, product form, resource requirements, emissions, and current and future status. Data sources and technical and regulatory assumptions are identified. The range of HLW management alternatives (including decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches) is described. The required waste management facilities include expanded interim storage facilities under the various alternatives. Resource requirements for construction (e.g., land and materials) and operation (e.g., energy and process chemicals), work force, costs, effluents, design capacities, and emissions are presented for each alternative.

  19. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ``fair to good`` using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the nearfield around a HLW repository in argillaceous formations. Vol. II. In-situ-investigations and interpretative modelling. May 2007 to May 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang; Czaikowski, Oliver; Komischke, Michael; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2014-06-15

    Deep disposal of heat-emitting high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in clay formations will inevitably induce thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical disturbances to the host rock and engineered barriers over very long periods of time. The responses and resulting property changes of the natural and engineered barriers are to be well understood, characterized, and predicted for assessing the long-term performance and safety of the repositories. In accordance with the R and D programme defined by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), GRS has intensively performed site-independent research work on argillaceous rocks during the last decade. Most of the investigations have been carried out on the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and the Opalinus clay by par-ticipation in international research projects conducted at the underground research laboratories at Bure in France (MHM-URL) and Mont-Terri in Switzerland (MT-URL). The THM-TON project, which was funded by BMWi under contract number 02E10377, in-vestigated the THM behaviours of the clay host rock and clay-based backfill/sealing materials with laboratory tests, in situ experiments and numerical modelling.

  1. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  2. A closed-loop supply chain inventory model for manufacturer - Collector system with inspection, waste disposal and price-quality dependent return rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Anissa Rianda; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies a closed-loop supply chain inventory model, where the primary market demand is fulfilled by newly produced products and remanufactured products. We intend to integrate a manufacturer and a collector as a supply chain system. Used items are collected and will be inspected and sorted by the collector, and the return rate of used items is depended upon price and quality factor. Used items that aren't pass this process, will be considered as waste and undergone waste disposal process. Recoverable used items will be sent to the manufacturer for recovery process. This paper applies two types of the recovery process for used products, i.e. remanufacture and refurbish. The refurbished items are sold to a secondary market with lower price than primary market price. Further, the amount of recoverable items depend upon the acceptance level of the returned items. This proposed model gives an optimal solution by maximizing the joint total profit. Moreover, a numerical example is presented to describe the application of the model.

  3. Preliminary disposal limits, plume interaction factors, and final disposal limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    In the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), each final disposal limit was constructed as the product of a preliminary disposal limit and a plume interaction factor. The following mathematical development demonstrates that performance objectives are generally expected to be satisfied with high confidence under practical PA scenarios using this method. However, radionuclides that experience significant decay between a disposal unit and the 100-meter boundary, such as H-3 and Sr-90, can challenge performance objectives, depending on the disposed-of waste composition, facility geometry, and the significance of the plume interaction factor. Pros and cons of analyzing single disposal units or multiple disposal units as a group in the preliminary disposal limits analysis are also identified.

  4. BENEFITS OF VIBRATION ANALYSIS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EQUIPMENT IN HLW TANKS - 12341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Herbert, J.

    2012-01-10

    Vibration analyses of equipment intended for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive liquid waste storage tanks are performed during pre-deployment testing and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the life-cycle costs of the equipment. Benefits of using vibration analysis to identify rotating machinery problems prior to deployment in radioactive service will be presented in this paper. Problems encountered at SRS and actions to correct or lessen the severity of the problem are discussed. In short, multi-million dollar cost saving have been realized at SRS as a direct result of vibration analysis on existing equipment. Vibration analysis of equipment prior to installation can potentially reduce inservice failures, and increases reliability. High-level radioactive waste is currently stored in underground carbon steel waste tanks at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site and at the Hanford Site, WA. Various types of rotating machinery (pumps and separations equipment) are used to manage and retrieve the tank contents. Installation, maintenance, and repair of these pumps and other equipment are expensive. In fact, costs to remove and replace a single pump can be as high as a half million dollars due to requirements for radioactive containment. Problems that lead to in-service maintenance and/or equipment replacement can quickly exceed the initial investment, increase radiological exposure, generate additional waste, and risk contamination of personnel and the work environment. Several different types of equipment are considered in this paper, but pumps provide an initial example for the use of vibration analysis. Long-shaft (45 foot long) and short-shaft (5-10 feet long) equipment arrangements are used for 25-350 horsepower slurry mixing and transfer pumps in the SRS HLW tanks. Each pump has a unique design, operating characteristics and associated costs, sometimes exceeding a million dollars. Vibration data are routinely

  5. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  6. GIOVE-A's Fregat Disposal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Reyes, D.; Zandbergen, R.; Escobar, D.

    2009-03-01

    Galileo will be Europe's own global navigation satellite system, providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control. Following the approval of Galileo in 1999, a demonstration element was added - the Galileo System Test Bed (GSTB) with the GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B satellites - to allow early experimentation with the navigation signals and services before committing to the final constellation design. GIOVE-A (launched on 28 Dec 2005) and GIOVE-B (launched on 26 April 2008) were injected in the Galileo operational orbit (semi-major axis 29600 km, circular orbit, inclination 56 degrees) by direct injection with Soyuz/FREGAT launch vehicle.In order to mitigate future collision risks at Galileo altitudes, it was decided that all injected objects (FREGAT, and GIOVE/Galileo satellites at end-of-life) would be placed in higher-altitude disposal orbits. After separation from the GIOVE satellites, in both cases, FREGAT performed manoeuvres to move to a disposal orbit with a higher altitude. The disposal orbit was targeted as to minimize eccentricity growth and therefore maximize time for FREGAT to cross the operational orbit altitude. The objectives of this paper are: • To present an assessment of the FREGAT graveyarding actual manoeuvres with respect the target disposal orbit.• To present an assessment of the FREGAT actual disposal orbit evolution based on long-arc TLE fitting, taking into account accuracy of the fitting and of very long-term predictions.

  7. Identification and applicability of analogues for a safety case for a HLW repository in evaporites: results from a NEA workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, U.; Wolf, J. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Brunswick (Germany); Steininger, W. [Project Management Agency Karslruhe Water Technology and Waste Management, PTKA-WTE, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Miller, B. [AMEC, The Renaissance Center, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    A workshop was held in September 2012 in Braunschweig, Germany, to discuss the potential for natural and anthropogenic analogue studies to contribute to safety cases for radioactive waste repositories constructed in salt formations. Presentations were given on many analogue sites and systems from different countries. Discussions at the workshop then addressed the following aspects that are particularly relevant to the safety concept for radioactive waste disposal in salt: (1) the long-term integrity of rock salt formations, (2) the integrity of technical barriers, and (3) microbial, chemical and transport processes. A diverse range of natural systems were discussed as potential analogues for the integrity of rock salt. These included the deformation of anhydrite layers in rock salt; the response of rock salt to mechanical and thermal loads; and the isotopic signatures of syngenetic waters contained in fluid inclusions. Some anthropogenic examples drawn from the oil and gas industries, and from hazardous waste disposal, were proposed as analogues for the integrity of (geo)technical barriers. A broad range of studies on natural and anthropogenic salt-brine systems were identified as potential analogues for the radionuclide sorption and (co)precipitation process that may take place in the repository near and far fields, as well as for understanding the significance of hydrocarbons and microbial processes. It was evident from discussions at the workshop that there are some specific technical issues that may benefit from further analogue study, particularly the compaction of crushed salt backfill, the viability of microbes in the near-field, the stability of plugs and seals, the deformation of anhydrite, and isotope signatures in fluid inclusions. (authors)

  8. Public practice regarding disposal of unused medicines in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Akke; Cormican, Sarah; Driscoll, Jacqueline; Furey, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Mai; Cormican, Martin

    2014-04-15

    Over recent years, a global increase in the use of pharmaceutical products has been observed. EU directives state that "Member states shall ensure that appropriate collection systems are in place for medicinal products that are unused or have expired" (Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2004/27/EC). There is no published data on how people in Ireland dispose of unused medicines; therefore the purpose of this study is to establish baseline information on storage and disposal of medicines. Data was collected over two 2-week periods a year apart. People in the streets of Galway and Cork were approached randomly and invited to participate by filling out a questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 398 individuals (207 in Galway and 191 in Cork). Unused medicines were kept in the home by 88% of the respondents. The most cited reason for keeping unused medicines was "in case they are needed later" (68%). Of the respondents who had disposed of medicine in the past, 72% had done so inappropriately. Environmentally inappropriate disposal methods were through general waste disposal and via the sewage system. Interestingly, of the people who had received advice on disposal practices from a healthcare professional, 75% disposed of their medicine appropriately. There is little awareness among members of the public regarding appropriate ways to dispose of unused medicines. Our findings suggest that effective communication and established protocols will promote appropriate disposal practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of sodium zirconium phosphate-structured HLW forms and synroc for high-level nuclear waste immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyryanov, V.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Vance, E.R. [ANSTO, Menai (Australia). Materials Division

    1996-12-31

    The incorporation of (a) Cs/Sr as simulated heat-generating isotopes contained in Purex reprocessing waste, (b) simulated actinides, and (c) simulated Purex waste in sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) has been studied. The samples were prepared by sintering, by hot pressing and by hot isostatic pressing in metal bellows containers. The short-term chemical durability of the phosphate-based material containing Purex waste was within an order of magnitude of that for Synroc-C, as measured by 7-day MCC-1 tests at 90{degrees}C. The dissolution behavior showed evidence of re-precipitation phenomena, even after times as short as 28 days. Potential for improvement of NZP-based ceramics for HLW management is discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Retrievability in the Deep Geological Disposal motivation and implications; La recuperabiliidad de los residuos en el almacenamiento geologico profundo: motivacion y repercusiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Polo, J. J.; Aneiros, J. M. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I. E. Madrid (Spain); Alonso, J. [ENRESA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The final disposal of High Level Wastes (HLW) in a repository without the intention of retrieval has been the conceptual basis used by most countries to define their deep geological disposal concepts. As a result, current disposal concepts allow, but do not facilitate, the retrieval of the waste. The concept of retrievability has been introduced in the stepwise development process of the deep geological disposal for a series of ethical, socio-political, and technological reasons, which have structured a great deal of attention in the international community. At present, although no clear definition has been given to the term retrievability there seems to be a general consensus in respect of its interpretation as the capacity to retrieve waste from the underground facilities of the repository up to several years after its closure. The retrieval of the HLW packages from the disposal cells entails tackling a series of technological and operational constraints stemming, on the one hand, from the configuration and state of the repository at the time of retrieval and, on the other, from the environmental conditions of temperature and radiation in which such operations have to be carried out. Most countries, Spain included, are assessing the technical feasibility of retrieving waste during the different stages of the repository lifetime, exploring at the same time the possibility of implementing some changes in the repository's design, construction and operation without affecting its long-term safety. The purpose of this paper is three-fold (1) to identify the motivations that have led the international community to consider retrievability in the repository's stepwise development process, (2) to analyse, qualitatively, the different implications this has on current repository concepts, and (3) to state the current Spanish position. (Author)

  11. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  12. Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Alumimum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-01-16

    The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP?s overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur

  13. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  14. ''Substantial Margin of Safety'': A New Approach to HLW Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M. S.

    2002-02-28

    In the Spring of 2001, the National Research Council published ''Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Continuing Societal and Technical Challenges.'' (1) While finding the technical case for deep geologic disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel robust, the report focused new attention on societal issues and decision-making. The report appeared against a backdrop of heightened controversy about the development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper identifies three principal reasons for the National Research Council committee's finding that ''Difficulties in achieving public support have been seriously underestimated in the past, and opportunities to gain public trust have been missed.''

  15. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a... manager, or the draining or dumping of oil, acids, pesticide wastes, poisons, or any other types of...

  16. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.

    1997-05-01

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

  17. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and Testing for DWPF High AI2O3 HLW Sludges, VSL-10R1670-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/20/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to develop and identify glass frit compositions for a specified DWPF high-aluminum based sludge waste stream that maximizes waste loading while maintaining high production rate for the waste composition provided by ORP/SRS. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale, vertical gradient furnace, and confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system. The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests. The DM100-BL was used for previous tests on HLW glass compositions that were used to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter. It was also used to process compositions with waste loadings limited by aluminum, bismuth, and chromium, to investigate the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition, to process glass formulations at compositional and property extremes, and to investigate crystal settling on a composition that exhibited one percent crystals at 963{degrees}C (i.e., close to the WTP limit). The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. The tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Specific objectives for the melter tests are as follows: Determine maximum glass production rates without bubbling for a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 19 (SB19). Demonstrate a feed rate equivalent to 1125 kg/m{sup 2}/day glass production using melt pool bubbling. Process a high waste loading glass composition with the simulated SRS SB19 waste and measure the quality of the glass product. Determine the effect of argon as a bubbling gas on waste processing and the glass product including feed processing rate, glass redox, melter emissions, etc.. Determine differences in feed processing and glass characteristics for SRS SB19 waste simulated by the co-precipitated and direct

  18. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  19. Lakeview, Oregon, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    9.1 Compliance Summary The Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I Disposal Site was inspected September 16 and 17, 2015. Other than some ongoing concern with erosion-control rock riprap degradation, the disposal cell was in good condition. Some minor fence repairs and vegetation removal, and minor erosion repair work along the west site fence is planned. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up or contingency inspection. Disposal cell riprap is evaluated annually to ensure continued long-term protection of the cell from erosion during a severe precipitation event. Degradation of the rock riprap was first observed at the site in the mid-1990s. Rock gradation monitoring of the riprap on the west side slope has been performed as part of the annual inspection since 1997 to determine the mean diameter (D50) value. As prescribed by the monitoring procedure, the rock monitoring is routinely conducted at random locations. However, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) request, the 2015 rock monitoring approach deviated from the normal procedure by using a pre-established monitoring grid in a subset area of the west side slope. This changed the monitoring approach from random sampling to biased sampling. The D50 value measured during the 2015 gradation monitoring is 2.39 inches, which falls below the original D50 design size range of 2.7–3.9 inches for the Type B size side slope riprap. At NRC’s request, rock durability monitoring was added to the gradation monitoring in 2009 to monitor durability by rock type. Results of the 2015 durability monitoring showed that74 percent of the total rock sampled is durability class code A rock with an assigned durability class of “highly durable” or durability class code B “durable” rock, and that over 90 percent of the 3-inch or larger rock is durability class code A or B. The rock durability

  20. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  1. Disposal practices for unused medications in New Zealand community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Alfred Y C; Peake, Barrie M; Braund, Rhiannon

    2011-09-01

    One of the recommended methods for households to dispose of unused medications in many countries is to return them to community pharmacies. However, such a practice will only reduce the environmental levels of pharmaceuticals if the medications are also disposed of and destroyed properly by the pharmacies. This study reports the results of a questionnaire sent to New Zealand community pharmacists regarding disposal practices for unused or expired medications in their workplaces. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to 500 randomly selected community pharmacies from all areas of New Zealand. The participants were asked how they disposed of a variety of medications. In addition, participants were also asked about whether they knew how unused medications were destroyed if their pharmacy used a third-party contractor or distributor to dispose of them. Of the 265 respondents, 80.4% and 61.1% respectively reported that solid and semi-solid medications were removed by contractors. However liquid and Class B controlled drugs were predominantly disposed of down the pharmacy sink. Over 60% of the participating pharmacists indicated that they believed the contractors incinerated the collected pharmaceutical waste, and over 90% of the participating pharmacists indicated their wish for a state-run disposal and destruction system. Liquid medications and Class B controlled drugs, which were commonly reported to be disposed of down the sewage system, may increase the potential for environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals in New Zealand. There is a need for increased environmental awareness amongst community pharmacists in New Zealand.

  2. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-08-04

    The federal facilities located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been used extensively by the U.S. government to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. strategic defense arsenal. Currently, the Hanford Site is under the stewardship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials has accumulated, mainly in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks located in the central plateau of the Hanford Site (Mann et al., 2001). The DOE-EM Office of River Protection (ORP) is proceeding with plans to immobilize and permanently dispose of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction onsite in a shallow subsurface disposal facility (the Integrated Disposal Facility [IDF]). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the IDF (the source term) as part of an immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass testing program to support future IDF performance assessments (PAs).

  3. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  4. Characterization of hazardous constituents in HLW supernate and implications for solid LLW generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeton, G.K.

    1994-06-22

    High Level Waste supernates are hazardous due to the presence of small quantities of mercury, chromium, lead, silver and barium. The fate of these components based on process knowledge was evaluated. The supernates were grouped into Traditional (normal storage and evaporation), Dilute (stored in Type IV tanks), and Sludge Processing categories, and a review of the limited quantity of available sample data for each type of supernate was performed. The maximum concentration of each hazardous constituent was determined. The most restrictive hazardous constituent in Traditional and Sludge Processing supernates was determined to be mercury, and the most restrictive component in Dilute supernate was chromium. Containers of solid waste contaminated with these supernates must be manifested as nonhazardous before disposal as Low Level Waste in the engineered vaults in the EAV. A method was developed to screen waste containers in order to identify those containers that are nonhazardous. A criterion for {sup 137}Cs content was arbitrarily set to 0.1 Ci, and the volume of supernate required to deposit 0.1 Ci was calculated. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of {sup 137}Cs and over 85 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from normal storage and evaporation operations are nonhazardous. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of {sup 137}Cs and over 170 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from sludge processing operations are nonhazardous. All containers of waste contaminated with supernate from Type IV tanks were evaluated as being nonhazardous. The screening method is readily applicable in the field - if the {sup 137}Cs content of a container is below 0.1 Ci and the weight of the waste is greater than 85 or 170 lb (depending on waste type), the waste container is nonhazardous. Containers not satisfying both criteria will be segregated for additional evaluation.

  5. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  6. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  7. Disposal options for burner ash from spent graphite fuel. Final study report November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A.P.

    1994-08-01

    Three major disposal alternatives are being considered for Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSVR) and Peach Bottom Reactor (PBR) spent fuels: direct disposal of packaged, intact spent fuel elements; (2) removal of compacts to separate fuel into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW); and (3) physical/chemical processing to reduce waste volumes and produce stable waste forms. For the third alternative, combustion of fuel matrix graphite and fuel particle carbon coatings is a preferred technique for head-end processing as well as for volume reduction and chemical pretreatment prior to final fixation, packaging, and disposal of radioactive residuals (fissile and fertile materials together with fission and activation products) in a final repository. This report presents the results of a scoping study of alternate means for processing and/or disposal of fissile-bearing particles and ash remaining after combustion of FSVR and PBR spent graphite fuels. Candidate spent fuel ash (SFA) waste forms in decreasing order of estimated technical feasibility include glass-ceramics (GCs), polycrystalline ceramic assemblages (PCAs), and homogeneous amorphous glass. Candidate SFA waste form production processes in increasing order of estimated effort and cost for implementation are: low-density GCs via fuel grinding and simultaneous combustion and waste form production in a slagging cyclone combustor (SCC); glass or low-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by conventional melting of SFA and frit; PCAs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of SFA/frit mixtures; and high-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by HIPing of Calcine/Frit/SFA mixtures.

  8. Disposable Multi-Sensor Unattended Ground Sensor Systems for Detecting Personnel (Systemes de detection multi-capteurs terrestres autonome destines a detecter du personnel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    the set of DCT coefficients for all the training data corresponding to the people. Then, the matrix ][ pX can be written as: ][][][ −+ −= ppp XXX ...deployed on two types of ground conditions. This included ARL multi-modal sensors, video and acoustic sensors from the Universities of Memphis and...Mississippi, SASNet from Canada, video from Night Vision Laboratory and Pearls of Wisdom system from Israel operated in conjunction with ARL personnel. This

  9. APPLICATION OF MECHANICAL ACTIVATION TO PRODUCTION OF PYROCHLORE CERAMIC CONTAINING SIMULATED RARE-EARTH ACTINIDE FRACTION OF HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, S.V.; Kirjanova, O.I.; Chizhevskaya, S.V.; Yudintsev, S.V.; Nikonov, B.S.

    2003-02-27

    Samples of zirconate pyrochlore ceramic (REE)2(Zr,U)2O7 (REE = La-Gd) containing simulated REE-An fraction of HLW were synthesized by two routes: (1) conventional cold compaction of oxide mixtures in pellets under pressure of 200 MPa and sintering of the pellets at 1550 C for 24 hours; and (2) using preliminary mechanical activation of oxide powders in a linear inductive rotator (LIV-0.5E) and a planetary mill - activator with hydrostatic yokes (AGO-2U) for 5 or 10 min. All the samples sintered at 1550 C were monolithic and dense with high mechanical integrity. As follows from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, the ceramic sample produced without mechanical activation is composed of pyrochlore as major phase but contains also minor unreacted oxides. The samples prepared from pre-activated mixtures are composed of the pyrochlore structure phase only. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data also show higher structural and compositional homogeneity of the samples prepared from mechanically activated batches. The samples produced from oxide mixtures mechanically activated in the LIV for 10 min were slightly contaminated with iron resulting in formation of minor perovskite structure phase not detected by XRD but seen on SEM-images of the samples. Comparison of the samples prepared from non-activated and activated batches showed higher density, lower open porosity, water uptake, and elemental leaching for the samples fabricated from mechanically activated oxide mixtures.

  10. Disposal practices for unused medications around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Alfred Y C; Peake, Barrie M; Braund, Rhiannon

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been detected throughout the environment where at least in some cases, they have been shown to have a detrimental effect. Many result from improper patient disposal of unused pharmaceuticals via environmentally-unfriendly routes, such as the sink, toilet or rubbish bin. This review surveys the current peer-reviewed literature on attitudes and practices to medicine disposal methods as reported by patients and the various medication disposal and destruction systems around the world. A literature search was carried out using the keywords 'medicines disposal', 'unused medicines', 'medicines wastage', and 'medication disposal' in the PubMed TM, ISI Web of Knowledge TM, Google Scholar TM, Medline TM, Scopus TM and International Pharmaceuticals Abstracts TM up to the end of May 2010. Twelve peer-reviewed articles with specified sample sizes were selected. The most popular methods for medication disposal were in the garbage, toilet or sink. Liquid medications were more likely to be rinsed down the sink, as opposed to solid tablets and capsules which were more likely deposited in the rubbish bin. Much confusion exists about the 'proper' way of medication disposal as many countries do not have standard medication disposal protocols. Furthermore, some pharmacies around the world refused to accept unused medications or discouraged the practice. Patients with knowledge about the impact of pharmaceuticals in the environment were more likely to return medications for proper disposal and destruction. It is concluded that it is of paramount importance that a formalized protocol for patient disposal and destruction of pharmaceuticals be implemented around the world. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recycling and Disposal of CFLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers can help prevent the release of mercury into the environment by taking advantage of available local options for recycling CFLs and other household hazardous wastes, rather than disposing of them in regular household trash.

  12. International Collaboration Activities on Engineered Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program has been engaging in international collaborations between repository R&D programs for high-level waste (HLW) disposal to leverage on gathered knowledge and laboratory/field data of near- and far-field processes from experiments at underground research laboratories (URL). Heater test experiments at URLs provide a unique opportunity to mimetically study the thermal effects of heat-generating nuclear waste in subsurface repository environments. Various configurations of these experiments have been carried out at various URLs according to the disposal design concepts of the hosting country repository program. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier Experiment in Crystalline Host Rock) project is a large-scale heater test experiment originated by the Spanish radioactive waste management agency (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. – ENRESA) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) URL in Switzerland. The project was subsequently managed by CIEMAT. FEBEX-DP is a concerted effort of various international partners working on the evaluation of sensor data and characterization of samples obtained during the course of this field test and subsequent dismantling. The main purpose of these field-scale experiments is to evaluate feasibility for creation of an engineered barrier system (EBS) with a horizontal configuration according to the Spanish concept of deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. Another key aspect of this project is to improve the knowledge of coupled processes such as thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermal-hydro-chemical (THC) operating in the near-field environment. The focus of these is on model development and validation of predictions through model implementation in computational tools to simulate coupled THM and THC processes.

  13. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    DELAGE, Pierre; CUI, Yu-Jun; TANG, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  14. Direct landfill disposal versus Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhawik Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of a new waste management system, in which recycling is the most dominating process, landfill disposal still appears to be the most popular method of waste management in Poland, in which waste undergoes gradual decomposition and the influence of climate conditions, for example, air and atmospheric fallout, leads to the production of leachate and biogas emissions, which contribute to continual threats to the natural environment and humans. The above-mentioned threats can be limited by applying suitable techniques of waste treatment before its disposal. A technology that is oriented to these aims is a mechanical biological treatment (MBT before disposal.

  15. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Experimental Programs and Software Advancing DOE’s Waste Disposal/Tank Closure Efforts – 15436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Heather [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, Frank [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Langton, Christine [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, Kevin [Vanderbilt Univ./CRESP, Nashville, TN (United States); Kosson, David [Vanderbilt Univ./CRESP, Nashville, TN (United States); Samson, Eric [SIMCO Technologies, Inc. (United States); Mallick, Pramod [US DOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Tank Waste Management-sponsored Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is chartered with providing the technical basis for implementing cement-based waste forms and radioactive waste containment structures for long-term disposal. DOE needs in this area include the following to support progress in final treatment and disposal of legacy waste and closure of High-Level Waste (HLW) tanks in the DOE complex: long-term performance predictions, flow sheet development and flow sheet enhancements, and conceptual designs for new disposal facilities. The DOE-EM Cementitious Barriers Partnership is producing software and experimental programs resulting in new methods and data needed for end-users involved with environmental cleanup and waste disposal. Both the modeling tools and the experimental data have already benefited the DOE sites in the areas of performance assessments by increasing confidence backed up with modeling support, leaching methods, and transport properties developed for actual DOE materials. In 2014, the CBP Partnership released the CBP Software Toolbox –“Version 2.0” which provides concrete degradation models for 1) sulfate attack, 2) carbonation, and 3) chloride initiated rebar corrosion, and includes constituent leaching. These models are applicable and can be used by both DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for service life and long-term performance evaluations and predictions of nuclear and radioactive waste containment structures across the DOE complex, including future SRS Saltstone and HLW tank performance assessments and special analyses, Hanford site HLW tank closure projects and other projects in which cementitious barriers are required, the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) project which requires source terms from cementitious containment structures as input to their flow simulations, regulatory reviews of DOE performance

  16. Performance evaluation testing of wells in the gradient control system at a federally operated Confined Disposal Facility using single well aquifer tests, East Chicago, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David C.; Unthank, Michael D.

    2016-12-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed tests to evaluate the hydrologic connection between the open interval of the well and the surrounding Calumet aquifer in response to fouling of extraction well pumps onsite. Two rounds of air slug testing were performed on seven monitoring wells and step drawdown and subsequent recovery tests on three extraction wells on a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) in East Chicago, Indiana. The wells were tested in 2014 and again in 2015. The extraction and monitoring wells are part of the gradient control system that establishes an inward gradient around the perimeter of the facility. The testing established a set of protocols that site personnel can use to evaluate onsite well integrity and develop a maintenance procedure to evaluate future well performance.The results of the slug test analysis data indicate that the hydraulic connection of the well screen to the surrounding aquifer material in monitoring wells on the CDF and the reliability of hydraulic conductivity estimates of the surrounding geologic media could be increased by implementing well development maintenance. Repeated air slug tests showed increasing hydraulic conductivity until, in the case of the monitoring wells located outside of the groundwater cutoff wall (MW–4B, MW–11B, MW–14B), the difference in hydraulic conductivity from test to test decreased, indicating the results were approaching the optimal hydraulic connection between the aquifer and the well screen. Hydraulic conductivity values derived from successive tests in monitoring well D40, approximately 0.25 mile south of the CDF, were substantially higher than those derived from wells on the CDF property. Also, values did not vary from test to test like those measured in monitoring wells located on the CDF property, which indicated that a process may be affecting the connectivity of the wells on the CDF property to the Calumet aquifer. Derived hydraulic conductivity

  17. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  18. [Incineration system for the disposal of 125I-radioimmunoassay test tube wastes--confirmation of 125I decay in wastes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naba, K; Nakazato, K

    1985-01-01

    Before incineration of disposed RIA test tubes, residual 125I radioactivity should be measured for the purpose of radiation safety. This confirmation method has been carried out according to the followings: Residual 125I radioactivity of test tubes in the plastic bag was measured from outside with the low-energy gamma-ray survey meter (S1371, Ohyo Kohken CO., Ltd.) newly developed by one of the authors. Gaseous 125I released from the residual 125I-compounds in test tubes by radiation self decomposition was adsorbed by the activated carbon fiber filter (ACFF), and was measured. From the above 2 methods, the minimum detectable concentration of residual 125I in waste tubes would be reached under a level of about 100 mBq/g (2.8 X 10(-6) muCi/g).

  19. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  20. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHRADER, T.; MACBETH, P.

    2002-01-01

    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  1. 39 CFR 263.4 - Records disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records disposal. 263.4 Section 263.4 Postal... § 263.4 Records disposal. All disposals of records containing sensitive information, i.e. transfers to... records regarding such disposal, must be accomplished in accordance with procedures issued by the Records...

  2. Water-quality effects and characterization of indicators of onsite wastewater disposal systems in the east-central Black Hills area, South Dakota, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Sawyer, J. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) are used extensively in the Black Hills of South Dakota where many of the watersheds and aquifers are characterized by fractured or solution-enhanced bedrock with thin soil cover. A study was conducted during 2006-08 to characterize water-quality effects and indicators of OWDS. Water samples were collected and analyzed for potential indicators of OWDS, including chloride, bromide, boron, nitrite plus nitrate (NO2+NO3), ammonia, major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, isotopes of nitrate, microbiological indicators, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). The microbiological indicators were fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), and coliphages. Sixty ground-water sampling sites were located either downgradient from areas of dense OWDS or in background areas and included 25 monitoring wells, 34 private wells, and 1 spring. Nine surface-water sampling sites were located on selected streams and tributaries either downstream or upstream from residential development within the Precambrian setting. Sampling results were grouped by their hydrogeologic setting: alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian. Mean downgradient dissolved NO2+NO3 concentrations in ground water for the alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian settings were 0.734, 7.90, 8.62, and 2.25 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved chloride concentrations in ground water for these settings were 324, 89.6, 498, and 33.2 mg/L, respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved boron concentrations in ground water for these settings were 736, 53, 64, and 43 micrograms per liter (ug/L), respectively. Mean dissolved surface-water concentrations for NO2+NO3, chloride, and boron for downstream sites were 0.222 mg/L, 32.1 mg/L, and 28 ug/L, respectively. Mean values of delta-15N and delta-18O (isotope ratios of 14N to 15N and 18O to 16O relative to standard ratios) for

  3. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  4. Report - Melter Testing of New High Bismuth HLW Formulations VSL-13R2770-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The primary objective of the work described was to test two glasses formulated for a high bismuth waste stream on the DM100 melter system. Testing was designed to determine processing characteristics and production rates, assess the tendency for foaming, and confirm glass properties. The glass compositions tested were previously developed to maintain high waste loadings and processing rates while suppressing the foaming observed in previous tests

  5. DATA SUMMARY REPORT SMALL SCALE MELTER TESTING OF HLW ALGORITHM GLASSES MATRIX1 TESTS VSL-07S1220-1 REV 0 7/25/07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    Eight tests using different HLW feeds were conducted on the DM100-BL to determine the effect of variations in glass properties and feed composition on processing rates and melter conditions (off-gas characteristics, glass processing, foaming, cold cap, etc.) at constant bubbling rate. In over seven hundred hours of testing, the property extremes of glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, and T{sub 1%}, as well as minimum and maximum concentrations of several major and minor glass components were evaluated using glass compositions that have been tested previously at the crucible scale. Other parameters evaluated with respect to glass processing properties were +/-15% batching errors in the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs) to the feed, and variation in the sources of boron and sodium used in the GFCs. Tests evaluating batching errors and GFC source employed variations on the HLW98-86 formulation (a glass composition formulated for HLW C-106/AY-102 waste and processed in several previous melter tests) in order to best isolate the effect of each test variable. These tests are outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to the Test Specification for this work. The present report provides summary level data for all of the tests in the first test matrix (Matrix 1) in the Test Plan. Summary results from the remaining tests, investigating minimum and maximum concentrations of major and minor glass components employing variations on the HLW98-86 formulation and glasses generated by the HLW glass formulation algorithm, will be reported separately after those tests are completed. The test data summarized herein include glass production rates, the type and amount of feed used, a variety of measured melter parameters including temperatures and electrode power, feed sample analysis, measured glass properties, and gaseous emissions rates. More detailed information and analysis from the melter tests with complete emission chemistry, glass durability, and

  6. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  7. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  8. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  9. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  10. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  11. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  12. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  13. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn

  14. Geotechnical engineering for ocean waste disposal. An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homa J.; Demars, Kenneth R.; Chaney, Ronald C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    As members of multidisciplinary teams, geotechnical engineers apply quantitative knowledge about the behavior of earth materials toward designing systems for disposing of wastes in the oceans and monitoring waste disposal sites. In dredge material disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in selecting disposal equipment, predict stable characteristics of dredge mounds, design mound caps, and predict erodibility of the material. In canister disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in specifying canister configurations, predict penetration depths into the seafloor, and predict and monitor canister performance following emplacement. With sewage outfalls, geotechnical engineers design foundation and anchor elements, estimate scour potential around the outfalls, and determine the stability of deposits made up of discharged material. With landfills, geotechnical engineers evaluate the stability and erodibility of margins and estimate settlement and cracking of the landfill mass. Geotechnical engineers also consider the influence that pollutants have on the engineering behavior of marine sediment and the extent to which changes in behavior affect the performance of structures founded on the sediment. In each of these roles, careful application of geotechnical engineering principles can contribute toward more efficient and environmentally safe waste disposal operations.

  15. Disposable contact lenses vs. contact lens maintenance for extended wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, J E; Caffery, B E; Campbell, I; Slomovic, A R

    1990-01-01

    We compared a disposable extended wear contact lens modality with conventional extended wear over a 6-week period. To do so, we refit 31 patients who had successfully worn conventional extended wear contact lenses for more than 1 year. One eye was fit with the AcuvueR disposable contact lens, and a new extended wear lens of the type the patient had been wearing was placed on the other eye. At weekly intervals the disposable lens was discarded and a new disposable lens inserted. At the same time, the conventional lens on the fellow eye was cleaned, disinfected, and reinserted. After 6 weeks the ocular response, subjective impressions, and condition of the lenses in the two eyes were compared. Both lenses were then cultured. Three subjects had to discontinue disposable lens wear because of adverse reactions to trapped cellular debris and corneal microcysts. Although the results were not statistically significant, the Acuvue lens appeared to perform better than or equal to the conventional lens in biomicroscopic observation, visual acuity measurement, and subjective patient preference. Eighty-seven percent of patients preferred to continue with the disposable system. There were no differences found in the type or degree of microbial contamination of the lenses.

  16. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  17. HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) VITRIFICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE US: APPLICATION OF GLASS PRODUCT/PROCESS CONTROL TO OTHERHLW AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; James Marra, J

    2007-09-17

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) actual HLW tank waste has successfully been processed to stringent product and process constraints without any rework into a stable borosilicate glass waste since 1996. A unique 'feed forward' statistical process control (SPC) has been used rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product is sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property models form the basis for the 'feed forward' SPC. The property models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition. The property models are mechanistic and depend on glass bonding/structure, thermodynamics, quasicrystalline melt species, and/or electron transfers. The mechanistic models have been validated over composition regions well outside of the regions for which they were developed because they are mechanistic. Mechanistic models allow accurate extension to radioactive and hazardous waste melts well outside the composition boundaries for which they were developed.

  18. Application of hydrogeochemical modelling in simulating the transportation of elements in fly ash heap under different disposal systems in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, J. M.; Ngila, J. C.; Kindness, A.; Demlie, M.

    Ash heap modelling of South African fly ash from Tutuka was carried out and the duration of transportation projected for 20 years based on two disposal scenarios, namely; irrigation of ash with rainwater, and irrigation with brines. The hydrogeochemical modeling code, PHREEQC, was applied in the study which gave insights into the speciation, release and transport of elements from the water and brines-fly ash long term interactions. Tutuka ash-water heap model showed a general sharp decrease of total elemental concentrations released during the first 2.5 years simulation as the pH value dropped from 12.6 to 8.7, after which it remained constant and their concentration remained constant up to 20 years. The elements showing this trend included Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Sr, Zn, Na, K, Li and C(4). Generally, brines caused sharp increase in released concentration of the elements Ca, Mg, S(6) and C(4) for the first 3 years of heap irrigation whereas with water irrigation an opposite trend was observed in which the elemental concentrations decreased. Much of the release chemistry of the elements was closely related to the phase dissolution/precipitation and formation as the major controlling factors. Generally therefore, the modelled leachate quality results revealed that many elements are mobile and move through the ash heap in a progressive leaching pathway. The model could therefore be used to provide reasonable leachate quality from the modelled Tutuka ash heap which may be reaching the ground water. Overall, the ash heap modelling enhanced the understanding of the environmental impacts of ash-water-brines interactions and demonstrated that leachate composition is determined by the following factors; (i) the mass flows from the pores of fly ash, (ii) the surface dissolution of the mineral phases, (iii) the various chemical reactions involved during the ash-brine and ash-water interactions, (iv) the interactions with a gas phase (atmospheric CO2), (v) the composition of the

  19. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  20. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-05-26

    This revision 1 Level 2 Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for a sampling system and for an at-tank analysis system that will support the BNFL, Inc. privatization contract in the final disposal of Hanford's high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW). The sampling system will quickly provide large volume, representative waste samples for validating the chemical, radiological, and physical properties of the tank waste without the exposure and time concerns of the baseline grab sampling method. The on-line sensors of the at-tank analysis system will provide data from which the mixing or settling status of the waste can be assessed. This revision 1 document includes functions, requirement, and specifications for the at-tank analysis system, the results of the preliminary outline design, and the FY 1998 validation testing. The sample container filling system will comply with RCRA criteria for samples with volatile organic constituents, include empty container and swipe input ports, use Hanford's Steel Pig radioactive sample package, comply with Hanford's flammable gas criteria, and have the means to recover from broken sample containers.

  1. Characteristics of high-level radioactive waste forms for their disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2000-12-01

    In order to develop a deep geological repository for a high-level radioactive waste coming from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels discharged from our domestic nuclear power plants, the the required characteristics of waste form are dependent upon a solidifying medium and the amount of waste loading in the medium. And so, by the comparative analysis of the characteristics of various waste forms developed up to the present, a suitable medium is recommended.The overall characteristics of the latter is much better than those of the former, but the change of the properties due to an amorphysation by radiation exposure and its thermal expansion has not been clearly identified yet. And its process has not been commercialized. However, the overall properties of the borosilicate glass waste forms are acceptable for their disposal, their production cost is reasonable and their processes have already been commercialized. And plenty informations of their characteristics and operational experiences have been accumulated. Consequently, it is recommended that a suitable medium solidifying the HLW is a borosilicate glass and its composition for the identification of a reference waste form would be based on the glass frit of R7T7.

  2. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  3. Radiosterilization of disposable medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad, R.; Pakravan, R.

    1997-02-01

    The initial contamination and the radiosensitivity of microorganisms isolated from 400 samples of disposable medical devices such as gauzes, eye pads, catguts and chest bottles were determined among which the Bacillus spp. were predominant. For each species the hydrophobicity of spore as measured by BATH method was greater than that of the vegetative form. Hence, it is necessary to reduce Bacillus population in samples using a suitable sterilization process such as ionizing radiation.

  4. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    1997-11-01

    In 1987, microbiology became a part of the Swedish scientific program for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). The goal of the microbiology sub-program is to understand how subterranean microorganisms will interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. The Swedish research program on subterranean microbiology has mainly been performed at two sites in granitic rock aquifers at depths ranging from 70 m down to 1240 m; the Stripa research mine in the middle of Sweden and the Aespoe hard rock laboratory (HRL) situated on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Some work has also been performed in co-operation with other national or international research groups in Sweden, Canada and at the natural analogue sites in Oklo in Gabon and Maqarin in Jordan. The most recent report in the SKB technical report series on microbiology and performance assessment, SKB-TR--95-10, gave the state of the art regarding microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment. That report is recommended as a source of knowledge about basic microbiology, microbial ecology of subterranean environments and the nuclear waste disposal concept in a microbiological perspective. The present report summarises results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997 and is a continuation of SKB TR 95-10. The report is structured as summary which explains and analyses the obtained results and conclusions in a performance assessment perspective. The scientific basis for the summary is an enclosed series of eleven papers of which eight have gone through an international peer review process for publication in international scientific journals and reports and papers published earlier. 413 refs, 56 figs, 39 tabs.

  5. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David Cm; Kirkpatrick, Carl Mj

    2015-06-01

    The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal.

  6. A method for the evaluation of a system for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and farm manure; Vorstudie fuer eine Methode zur Bewertung der Entsorgungs- und Nutzungsverfahren von biogenen Abfaellen und Hofduenger. Entwicklung der Methodik und Anwendung auf ausgewaehlte Technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baettig, M.; Klingler, G.; Dettli, R. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M. [ESU-Services Ltd., fair consulting in sustainability, Uster (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the evaluation of a system for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and farm dung. The principle aim of the study was to develop a method for the evaluation of the various methods for the disposal and use of biogenic wastes and the manure produced in agriculture. A further aim was the exemplary use of the method on a selection of waste disposal methods and the drawing of initial conclusions from the ecological, economic and social points of view. The report provides details on the biomass fractions examined and their energy content. The fundamentals on which the development of the methods used are based are described. Test use of the multi-criterion analysis developed is discussed as is sensitivity analysis. Finally conclusions concerning the evaluation are presented and recommendations are made. The appendix to the report contains details on the comprehensive questionnaire used to collect information and the results of an on-line survey on the weighting of the criteria. Also, fact sheets on the 24 disposal and usage variants examined and an overview of disposal and collection costs are presented. The appendix also contains result tables on the use of the method for biogenic wastes, sewage sludge, farm manure, wood wastes and scrap wood.

  7. Disposal of Unused Drugs: Knowledge and Behavior Among People Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paut Kusturica, Milica; Tomas, Ana; Sabo, Ana

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the practice of medication disposal around the world and get insight into possible association between environmental awareness and people's behavior regarding this issue. A literature search (2005-2015) was performed to identify reports with quantitative data on disposal practices published in peer-reviewed literature. The most common method for disposal of unused medications in households is disposal in the garbage (Kuwait, United Kingdom, Lithuania, Qatar, Serbia, Ghana, Bangladesh, Malta and Saudi Arabia). The practice of flushing drugs into the sewage system still takes place in New Zealand, USA and Bangladesh. Only in Sweden and Germany, practice of returning drugs to pharmacy was practiced to a larger extent. The environmental impact of improper medication disposal is expected in countries with poorly functioning waste management schemes (Middle Eastern, Asian and African countries). Lack of the adequate information and clear instructions on proper manners of drug disposal was reported in many surveyed countries (USA, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Malta and Ireland). Clear and definite connection between knowledge about environmental detrimental effects of improper drug disposal and the preference towards disposal methods could not be established. Many respondents were generally concerned with issues of inadequate medicines discarding but the behavior regarding disposal of unused drugs often did not equate the awareness (Serbia, USA, Kuwait, Malta and UK). The current data emphasizes the global issue of improper medicine disposal, prevalent in environmentally-aware people.

  8. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-02-08

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract.

  9. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-07-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  10. Evaluation of dose due to the liberation of the radioactive content present in systems of final disposal of radioactive residues; Evaluacion de la dosis debida a la liberacion del contenido radiactivo presente en sistemas de disposicion final de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, V.; Lopez, F. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (C1429BNP) (Argentina)]. e-mail: vamado@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The disposal systems of radioactive residuals well-known as repositories near to the surface, are used to dispose residuals that can contain high concentrations of radionuclides of period of short semi disintegration, which they would decay at levels radiologically insignificant in some few decades or in some centuries: and acceptably low concentrations of radionuclides of period of long semi disintegration. The dose that would receive the critic group due to these systems it could be increased by cause of discreet events that affect the foreseen retard time, or by the gradual degradation of the barriers. To this last case it contributes the presence of water, because it implies leaching and dissolution that can give place to radionuclide concentrations in the underground water greater to the prospective ones. The dosimetric evaluation is important because it offers useful objective information to decide if a given repository is adjusted to the purposes of its design and it fulfills the regulatory requirements. In this work a simplified evaluation of the dose that would receive the critic group due to the liberation of contained radionuclides in a hypothetical system of final disposition of radioactive residuals is presented. For it, they are considered representative values of the usually contained activities in this type of systems and they are carried out some approaches of the source term. The study is developed in two stages. In the first one, by means of the Radionuclide pollutant scattering pattern in phreatic aquifers (DRAF) it is considered the scattering of the pollutants in the phreatic aquifer, until the discharge point in the course of the nearest surface water. This model, developed originally in the regulatory branch of the National Commission of Argentine Atomic Energy (CNEA); it solves the transport equation of solutes in porous means in three dimensions, by the finite differences method having in account the soil retention and the radioactive

  11. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  12. Disposable bioreactors: the current state-of-the-art and recommended applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Regine; Kaiser, Stephan; Lombriser, Renate; Eibl, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    Disposable bioreactors have increasingly been incorporated into preclinical, clinical, and production-scale biotechnological facilities over the last few years. Driven by market needs, and, in particular, by the developers and manufacturers of drugs, vaccines, and further biologicals, there has been a trend toward the use of disposable seed bioreactors as well as production bioreactors. Numerous studies documenting their advantages in use have contributed to further new developments and have resulted in the availability of a multitude of disposable bioreactor types which differ in power input, design, instrumentation, and scale of the cultivation container. In this review, the term "disposable bioreactor" is defined, the benefits and constraints of disposable bioreactors are discussed, and critical phases and milestones in the development of disposable bioreactors are summarized. An overview of the disposable bioreactors that are currently commercially available is provided, and the domination of wave-mixed, orbitally shaken, and, in particular, stirred disposable bioreactors in animal cell-derived productions at cubic meter scale is reported. The growth of this type of reactor system is attributed to the recent availability of stirred disposable benchtop systems such as the Mobius CellReady 3 L Bioreactor. Analysis of the data from computational fluid dynamic simulation studies and first cultivation runs confirms that this novel bioreactor system is a viable alternative to traditional cell culture bioreactors at benchtop scale.

  13. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  14. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Trotter, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  15. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  16. Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated.

  17. Research study for extremely unlikely scenario of high level waste disposal: Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    In this research, first, event and process relevant to the key words (or scenario initiator) such as volcanism have been identified and, especially a middle-scale eruption scenario including pyroclastic flows has been analyzed as the catastrophic scenario, which inspires ordinary people to have tremendous concern. Secondly, based upon the characteristic events and processes of each scenario considered in the above and through the research of existing model of such risk, quantitative concept (release amount magnitude, release mode, release form, frequency of release, probability etc.) and impact on repository system, facility and environment have been analyzed, defended and defined. Model which can assess and analyze such impact has been built. Using these models, risks directly or indirectly caused by HLW repository have been calculated. Finally, the process for assessing the consequence of volcanism scenario and its risk calculated by the model developed in the above have been visualized, and presented by comparing with other risks. (author)

  18. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  19. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient.

  20. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks. FY15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. Chapter headings are as follows: Fuel matrix degradation model and its integration with performance assessments, Investigation of thermal effects on the chemical behavior of clays, Investigation of uranium diffusion and retardation in bentonite, Long-term diffusion of U(VI) in bentonite: dependence on density, Sorption and desorption of plutonium by bentonite, Dissolution of plutonium intrinsic colloids in the presence of clay and as a function of temperature, Laboratory investigation of colloid-facilitated transport of cesium by bentonite colloids in a crystalline rock system, Development and demonstration of discrete fracture network model, Fracture continuum model and its comparison with discrete fracture network model.

  1. INCONEL 690 CORROSION IN WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT) HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS MELTS RICH IN ALUMINUM & BISMUTH & CHROMIUM OR ALUMINUM/SODIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; FENG Z; GAN H; PEGG IL

    2009-11-05

    Metal corrosion tests were conducted with four high waste loading non-Fe-limited HLW glass compositions. The results at 1150 C (the WTP nominal melter operating temperature) show corrosion performance for all four glasses that is comparable to that of other typical borosilicate waste glasses, including HLW glass compositions that have been developed for iron-limited WTP streams. Of the four glasses tested, the Bi-limited composition shows the greatest extent of corrosion, which may be related to its higher phosphorus content. Tests at higher suggest that a moderate elevation of the melter operating temperature (up to 1200 C) should not result in any significant increase in Inconel corrosion. However, corrosion rates did increase significantly at yet higher temperatures (1230 C). Very little difference was observed with and without the presence of an electric current density of 6 A/inch{sup 2}, which is the typical upper design limit for Inconel electrodes. The data show a roughly linear relationship between the thickness of the oxide scale on the coupon and the Cr-depletion depth, which is consistent with the chromium depletion providing the material source for scale growth. Analysis of the time dependence of the Cr depletion profiles measured at 1200 C suggests that diffusion of Cr in the Ni-based Inconel alloy controls the depletion depth of Cr inside the alloy. The diffusion coefficient derived from the experimental data agrees within one order of magnitude with the published diffusion coefficient data for Cr in Ni matrices; the difference is likely due to the contribution from faster grain boundary diffusion in the tested Inconel alloy. A simple diffusion model based on these data predicts that Inconel 690 alloy will suffer Cr depletion damage to a depth of about 1 cm over a five year service life at 1200 C in these glasses.

  2. Domestic Sewage Disposal and Quality of Water from Hand Dug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 84% of household use septic tanks, 8.9% use pit or pail latrine, 5.1% dispose of their sewage indiscriminately and 2% by dig and bury system. 20 well water samples were collected during the months of January, February, June, July and September 2011 with the aid of sterilized buckets and sent to the laboratory for ...

  3. The HILW-LL (high- and intermediate-level waste, long-lived) disposal project: working toward building the Cigeo Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal; Le projet HA-MAVL: vers la realisation du centre industriel de stockage geologique Cigeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labalette, Th. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - ANDRA, Dir. des Projets, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2011-02-15

    The French Act of 28 June 2006 identifies reversible disposal in deep geological facilities as the benchmark solution for long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and for intermediate-level long-lived waste (ILW-LL). The Act tasks ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) with the pursuit of studies and research on the choice of a site and the design of the repository, with a view to examining the licence application in 2015 and, provided that the licence is granted, to make the facility operational by 2025. At the end of 2009, ANDRA submitted to the Government its proposals regarding the site and the design of the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal, known as CIGEO. With the definition of a possible area for the construction of underground disposal facilities, one of the key stages in the project has been achieved. The choice of a surface site will be validated following the public consultation scheduled for the end of 2012. The project is now on the point of entering the definition stage (preliminary design). CIGEO will be a nuclear facility unlike any other. It will be built and operated for a period of over 100 years. For it to be successful, the project must meet certain requirements related to its integration in the local area, industrial planning, safety and reversibility, while also controlling costs. Reversibility is a very important concept that will be defined by law. It is ANDRA's responsibility to ensure that a reasonable balance is found between these different concerns. (author)

  4. Ape & Banana : A new user experience for collecting bio-based disposables at festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, S.; Karana, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the implementation of a bio-plastic material (PLA) for disposables at the Lowlands Music Festival. The main aim of the study is to develop a system which motivates Lowlands festival visitors to litter their PLA disposables effectively. In the paper, littering behavior

  5. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  6. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-12-31

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R&D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  7. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison. (DLC)

  8. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida; Ana Maria Miranda Martins Wilson; Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% ...

  9. Interim report on reference biospheres for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorp, F. van [NAGRA (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    Primary criteria for repository safety are commonly expressed in terms of risk or dose, and a biosphere model is required to evaluate the corresponding assessment endpoints. Even when other indicators are used to express the safety goals, a biosphere model is still needed in order to justify those indicators. In safety or performance assessments of a repository, the uncertainties in space and time for the different components of the repository system have to be considered. For the biosphere component, prediction of future human habits, in particular, is extremely uncertain. This is especially important in the assessment of deep geological disposal, which involves very long timescales, particularly for wastes containing very long lived radionuclides. Thus, the results of biosphere modelling should not be seen as predictions, but as illustrations of the consequences that may occur, should the postulated release occur today or under other conditions implied by the underlying biosphere model assumptions. Differences in biosphere modelling approaches arise because of differences in regulations, the nature of the wastes to be disposed of, disposal site characteristics, disposal concepts and purposes of the assessment. Differences in treatment of uncertainties can also arise. For example, if doses or risks are anticipated to be far below regulatory limits, assessments may be based upon simplified and, necessarily, conservative biosphere models. At present biosphere models used to assess radioactive waste disposal show significant differences in the features, events and processes (FEPs) included or excluded. In general, the reasons for these differences have not been well documented or explained. Developments in radioecology have implications for biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal. In particular, after the Chernobyl accident, radioecological research has been significantly increased. Results of this research are already having and will continue to have a

  10. The Environmental Protection Agency's Safety Standards for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Potential Path Forward in Response to the Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future - 13388

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forinash, Betsy; Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Following the decision to withdraw the Yucca Mountain license application, the Department of Energy created a Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future, tasked with recommending a national strategy to manage the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The BRC issued its final report in January 2012, with recommendations covering transportation, storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); potential reprocessing; and supporting institutional measures. The BRC recommendations on disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) are relevant to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which shares regulatory responsibility with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC): EPA issues 'generally applicable' performance standards for disposal repositories, which are then implemented in licensing. For disposal, the BRC endorses developing one or more geological repositories, with siting based on an approach that is adaptive, staged and consent-based. The BRC recommends that EPA and NRC work cooperatively to issue generic disposal standards-applying equally to all sites-early in any siting process. EPA previously issued generic disposal standards that apply to all sites other than Yucca Mountain. However, the BRC concluded that the existing regulations should be revisited and revised. The BRC proposes a number of general principles to guide the development of future regulations. EPA continues to review the BRC report and to assess the implications for Agency action, including potential regulatory issues and considerations if EPA develops new or revised generic disposal standards. This review also involves preparatory activities to define potential process and public engagement approaches. (authors)

  11. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Assessment of radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of presenting an assessment of the repository system scenarios leading to radionuclide releases that have been identified in Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios. A base scenario, variant scenarios and disturbance scenarios are considered. For each scenario, a range of calculation cases, also identified in Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, has been analysed, complemented by Monte Carlo simulations, a probabilistic sensitivity analysis and other supporting calculations. The calculation cases and analyses take into account major uncertainties in the initial state of the barriers and possible paths for the evolution of the repository system identified in Performance Assessment. Quality control and assurance measures have been adopted to ensure transparency and traceability of the calculations performed and hence to promote confidence in the analysis of the calculation cases. The calculation cases each consider a single, failed canister, where three possible modes of failure are addressed: (1) the presence of an initial penetrating defect in the copper overpack of the canister, (2) corrosion of the copper overpack, which occurs most rapidly in scenarios in which buffer density is reduced, e.g. by erosion, (3) shear movement on a fracture intersecting a deposition hole. The likelihood and consequences of multiple canister failure occurring during the assessment time frame are also considered. In particular, the analyses consider: The likelihood and consequences of there being multiple canisters with initial penetrating defects; The consequences if canister failure due to corrosion following buffer erosion were to occur; and The low annual probability of there being an earthquake large enough to give rise to canister failure due to rock shear movements and the potential consequences of such an earthquake

  12. Disposable cartridge biosensor platform for portable diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaras, Yusuf S.; Cakmak, Onur; Gunduz, Ali B.; Saglam, Gokhan; Olcer, Selim; Mostafazadeh, Aref; Baris, Ibrahim; Civitci, Fehmi; Yaralioglu, Goksen G.; Urey, Hakan

    2017-03-01

    We developed two types of cantilever-based biosensors for portable diagnostics applications. One sensor is based on MEMS cantilever chip mounted in a microfluidic channel and the other sensor is based on a movable optical fiber placed across a microfluidic channel. Both types of sensors were aimed at direct mechanical measurement of coagulation time in a disposable cartridge using plasma or whole blood samples. There are several similarities and also some important differences between the MEMS based and the optical fiber based solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparison between the two solutions and the results. For both types of sensors, actuation of the cantilever or the moving fiber is achieved using an electro coil and the readout is optical. Since both the actuation and sensing are remote, no electrical connections are required for the cartridge. Therefore it is possible to build low cost disposable cartridges. The reader unit for the cartridge contains light sources, photodetectors, the electro coil, a heater, analog electronics, and a microprocessor. The reader unit has different optical interfaces for the cartridges that have MEMS cantilevers and moving fibers. MEMS based platform has better sensitivity but optomechanical alignment is a challenge and measurements with whole blood were not possible due to high scattering of light by the red blood cells. Fiber sensor based platform has relaxed optomechanical tolerances, ease of manufacturing, and it allows measurements in whole blood. Both sensors were tested using control plasma samples for activated-Partial-Thromboplastin-Time (aPTT) measurements. Control plasma test results matched with the manufacturer's datasheet. Optical fiber based system was tested for aPTT tests with human whole blood samples and the proposed platform provided repeatable test results making the system method of choice for portable diagnostics.

  13. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  14. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  15. Disposal of saltwater during well construction--Problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William A.; Meyer, Frederick W.; Hull, John E.

    1977-01-01

    The recent interest in the disposal of treated sewage effluent by deep-well injection into salt-water-filled aquifers has increased the need for proper disposal of salt water as more wells are drilled and tested each year.The effects on an unconfined aquifer of the improper disposal of salt water associated with the construction of three wells in southeastern Florida emphasize this need. In two of the wells provisions to prevent and detect salt-water contamination of the unconfined aquifer were practically nonexistent, and in one well extensive provisions were made. Of the three drilling sites the one with proper provision for detection presented no serious problem, as the ground water contaminated by the salt water was easily located and removed. The provisions consisted of drilling a brine-injection well to dispose of salt water discharged in drilling and testing operations, using a closed drilling circulation system to reduce spillage, installing shallow observation wells to map the extent and depth of any salt-water contamination of the shallow aquifer, and installing a dewatering system to remove contaminated ground water.

  16. Study of Some Strategies for Disposal of the GNSS Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Merguizo Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the GNSS and the several types of satellites in the MEO region turns the creation of a definitive strategy to dispose the satellites of this system into a hard task. Each constellation of the system adopts its own disposal strategy; for example, in the American GPS, the disposal strategy consists in changing the altitude of the nonoperational satellites to 500 km above or below their nominal orbits. In this work, we propose simple but efficient techniques to discard satellites of the GNSS by exploiting Hohmann type maneuvers combined with the use of the 2ω˙+Ω˙≈0 resonance to increase its orbital eccentricity, thus promoting atmospheric reentry. The results are shown in terms of the increment of velocity required to transfer the satellites to the new orbits. Some comparisons with direct disposal maneuvers (Hohmann type are also presented. We use the exact equations of motion, considering the perturbations of the Sun, the Moon, and the solar radiation pressure. The geopotential model was considered up to order and degree eight. We showed the quantitative influence of the sun and the moon on the orbit of these satellites by using the method of the integral of the forces over the time.

  17. Earth reencounter probabilities for aborted space disposal of hazardous nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Feingold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative assessment is made of the long-term risk of earth reencounter and reentry associated with aborted disposal of hazardous material in the space environment. Numerical results are presented for 10 candidate disposal options covering a broad spectrum of disposal destinations and deployment propulsion systems. Based on representative models of system failure, the probability that a single payload will return and collide with earth within a period of 250,000 years is found to lie in the range .0002-.006. Proportionately smaller risk attaches to shorter time intervals. Risk-critical factors related to trajectory geometry and system reliability are identified as possible mechanisms of hazard reduction.

  18. Research on treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. Progress in Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, JAERI, has been carrying out research on safe and rational disposal systems of radioactive wastes arising from medical activities and research institutes (RI and Research Institute Waste). The research area includes a study on molten solidified waste form, a geological survey on Japan, a proposal on integrated disposal systems, data acquisition for safety evaluation, and a safety analysis of disposal systems. This report introduces progress and future works for the treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. (author)

  19. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  20. Disposable electrochemical DNA biosensor for environmental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple procedure for the voltammetric detection of the DNA damage using a disposable electrochemical DNA biosensor is reported. The DNA biosensor is assembled by immobilizing the double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsDNA) on the surface of a disposable carbon screen-printed electrode. The interaction of ...

  1. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  2. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... terminate at ice-free land areas or in blue ice areas of high ablation. (g) No wastes may be disposed of... provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice shelves or grounded ice-sheet unless such wastes were generated by stations located inland on ice shelves...

  3. Consolidation and disposal of PWR fuel inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeman, B.H. (Virginia Electric and Power Co., Glen Allen, VA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Design and licensing of the Surry Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation was initiated in 1982 by Virginia Power as part of a comprehensive strategy to increase spent fuel storage capacity at the Station. Designed to use large, metal dry storage casks, the Surry Installation will accommodate 84 such casks with a total storage capacity of 811 MTU of spent pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies. Virginia Power provided three storage casks for testing at the Idaho National Engineerinq Laboratory's Test Area North and the testing results have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute. Sixty-nine spent fuel assemblies were transported in truck casks from the Surry Power Station to Test Area North for testing in the three casks. Because of restrictions imposed by the cask testing equipment at Test Area North, the irradiated insert components stored in these fuel assemblies at Surry were removed prior to transport of the fuel assemblies. Retaining these insert components proved to be a problem because of a shortage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool that did not already contain insert components. In 1987 Virginia Power contracted with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. to process and dispose of 136 irradiated insert components consisting of 125 burnable poison rod assemblies, 10 thimble plugging devices and 1 part-length rod cluster control assembly. This work was completed in August and September 1987, culminating in the disposal at the Barnwell, SC low-level radioactive waste facility of two CNS 3-55 liners containing the consolidated insert components.

  4. Technology for remediation and disposal of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Ahmed, Feroze

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater contaminated with arsenic must be treated to meet stringent drinking water standards or guideline values. In recent years, several reliable, cost-effective, and sustainable treatment technologies have been developed, although improvements will continue to emerge as work continues. All treatment technologies work by concentrating arsenic at some stage of treatment. Large-scale use of arsenic removal systems generates arsenic-rich treatment wastes, and indiscriminate disposal of these sizable wastes may lead to environmental pollution. Safe disposal of arsenic-rich media is a growing environmental concern that needs to be addressed. For the developing world, arsenic-contaminated water requires some form of treatment to be sufficiently safe for consumption by local populations. Such treatment is particularly important where arsenic [particularly as As(III)] levels in raw water exceed 200 microg/L. At this level and above, >95% removal efficiency is required to produce water that meets international standards, an unlikely result in many locations. Alternative sources for securing safe water may also include rainwater harvesting, use of uncontaminated (filtered) surface waters, and water extraction from new deep tube wells and dug wells. There are disadvantages attendant to using these alternative water sources. For example, rainwater has few mineral salts and is subject to contamination from air pollution or by microbes, including pathogens. Similarly, surface waters, e.g., pond waters, or water from dug wells may require purification before use. Excessive pumping from deep tube wells may lower the water table sufficiently to allow entry of arsenic-contaminated waters from shallower horizons. Bioremediation and phytoremediation are more suitable to developing countries where sunlight is plentiful. In such countries, plant biodiversity is also great and may allow identification of plants suitable for bioremediation. In addition to removing arsenic from water

  5. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of... Disposal among the records that it retains under § 761.180(b). (d)(1) Generators of PCB waste shall keep a copy of each Certificate of Disposal that they receive from disposers of PCB waste among the records...

  6. Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. E.

    2006-01-31

    The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and radiological properties of the waste forms relevant to qualification. These include the effects of composition and thermal treatments on the phase stability, radiation effects, and methods for monitoring product consistency. Other tests were conducted to characterize the degradation and radionuclide release behaviors of the ceramic waste form (CWF) used to immobilize waste salt and the metallic waste form (MWF) used to immobilize metallic wastes and to develop models for calculating the release of radionuclides over long times under repository-relevant conditions. Most radionuclides are contained in the binder glass phase of the CWF and in the intermetallic phase of the MWF. The release of radionuclides from the CWF is controlled by the dissolution rate of the binder glass, which can be tracked using the same degradation model that is used for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass. Model parameters measured for the aqueous dissolution of the binder glass are used to model the release of radionuclides from a CWF under all water-contact conditions. The release of radionuclides from the MWF is element-specific, but the release of U occurs the fastest under most test conditions. The fastest released constituent was used to represent all radionuclides in model development. An empirical aqueous degradation model was developed to describe the dependence of the radionuclide release rate from a MWF on time, pH, temperature, and the Cl{sup -} concentration. The models for radionuclide release from the CWF and MWF are both bounded by the HLW glass

  7. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was

  8. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  9. No nuclear power. No disposal facility?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinhals, J. [DMT GmbH und Co.KG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Countries with a nuclear power programme are making strong efforts to guarantee the safe disposal of radioactive waste. The solutions in those countries are large disposal facilities near surface or in deep geological layers depending on the activity and half-life of the nuclides in the waste. But what will happen with the radioactive waste in countries that do not have NPPs but have only low amounts of radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities as well as from research reactors? Countries producing only low amounts of radioactive waste need convincing solutions for the safe and affordable disposal of their radioactive waste. As they do not have a fund by an operator of nuclear power plants, those countries need an appropriate and commensurate solution for the disposal of their waste. In a first overview five solutions seem to be appropriate: (i) the development of multinational disposal facilities by using the existing international knowhow; (ii) common disposal with hazardous waste; (iii) permanent storage; (iv) use of an existing mine or tunnel; (v) extension of the borehole disposal concept for all the categories of radioactive wastes.

  10. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit. The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps’ disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%, sink drain (28.9%, sharps’ box with orange bag (14.3%, and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%. No disposal was identified after drug administration. CONCLUSION A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary.

  11. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  12. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  13. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  14. Disposable bioreactors for inoculum production and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Regine; Löffelholz, Christian; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Disposable bioreactors have been increasingly implemented over the past ten years. This relates to both R & D and commercial manufacture, in particular, in animal cell-based processes. Among the numerous disposable bioreactors which are available today, wave-mixed bag bioreactors and stirred bioreactors are predominant. Whereas wave-mixed bag bioreactors represent the system of choice for inoculum production, stirred systems are often preferred for protein expression. For this reason, the authors present protocols instructing the reader how to use the wave-mixed BIOSTAT CultiBag RM 20 L for inoculum production and the stirred UniVessel SU 2 L for recombinant protein production at benchtop scale. All methods described are based on a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) suspension cell line expressing the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP).

  15. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  16. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  17. Evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Fujita, Tomoo; Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Wataru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository of HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the coupled T-H-M phenomena, the analysis model was developed physically and numerically and the adequacy and the applicability was tested though the engineered scale laboratory test and in-situ test. In this report, the investigative results for the development of coupled T-H-M model were described. This report consists of eight chapters. In Chapter 1, the necessity of coupled T-H-M model in the geological disposal project of the high-level radioactive waste was described . In Chapter 2, the laboratory test results of the rock sample and the buffer material for the coupled T-H-M analysis were shown. The rock samples were obtained from the in-situ experimental site at Kamaishi mine. As the buffer material, bentonite clay (Kunigel V1 and Kunigel OT-9607) and bentonite-sand mixture were used. In Chapter 3, in-situ tests to obtain the rock property were shown. As in-situ tests

  18. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  19. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  20. Disposable contact lenses in penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, R; Gupta, S; Taneja, M; Raina, U K; Mehta, D K

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of disposable contact lenses in management of complications after keratoplasty. Twenty-eight patients with various post keratoplasty complications were fit with disposable contact lenses (45% Vifilcon A and 55% water content). Indications for lens use included persistent epithelial defects, wound leak, graft edema, dry eye and protection of normal corneal epithelium. Success was obtained with the therapeutic use of disposable lenses in 20 of the 28 cases. The best results were seen in maintenance and restoration of healthy ocular surface and small wound leaks. Stromal graft edema with no epithelial involvement was the major area of therapeutic failure. Disposable contact lenses are an attractive low cost option in the management of complications after keratoplasty. They are particularly useful in maintaining a healthy ocular surface, providing symptomatic relief and avoiding resurgery in patients with small wound leaks.

  1. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  3. Household hazardous waste disposal project. Metro toxicant program report number 1d. SLEUTH (strategies and lessons to eliminate unused toxicants: help) - Educational activities on the disposal of household hazardous waste. Final report 1981-82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyckman, C.; Luboff, C.; Smith-Greathouse, L.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents a number of educational activities for students in the elementary and secondary grades that will help them understand the issues related to, and the best disposal options for hazardous household wastes. Teachers are provided with a series of illustrated lessons and quizzes, problem solving exercises, and role playing games. The projects are designed to define terms and concepts for understanding hazardous wastes, provide information on disposal systems available in King County, indicate problems with current disposal practices, and discuss personal responsibility for proper waste disposal.

  4. FINANCING THE DISPOSAL OF UNWANTED AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Lewell F.; Terence J. Centner

    1998-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, it has been recognized that significant quantities of unwanted pesticides are being retained by agricultural producers in barns and other out buildings throughout the United States. State governments have responded to the hazards posed by these pesticides by implementing programs to collect and dispose of them. This paper reviews issues related to costs and funding of pesticide collection and disposal programs. Primary and secondary information on states' approaches to an...

  5. Cavern/Vault Disposal Concepts and Thermal Calculations for Direct Disposal of 37-PWR Size DPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clayton, Daniel James [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides two sets of calculations not presented in previous reports on the technical feasibility of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal directly in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs): 1) thermal calculations for reference disposal concepts using larger 37-PWR size DPC-based waste packages, and 2) analysis and thermal calculations for underground vault-type storage and eventual disposal of DPCs. The reader is referred to the earlier reports (Hardin et al. 2011, 2012, 2013; Hardin and Voegele 2013) for contextual information on DPC direct disposal alternatives.

  6. Research on Application of Internet of Things in the Disposal of Environmental Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of things is an important part of a new generation of information technology and also an important stage of Information Age. Application of Internet of things in the disposal of environmental emergency is an inevitable trend of application of Internet of things in the field of environmental protection. This paper summarizes the principle, process and application field of Internet of things, and focuses on the general frame-work of environmental emergency disposal system based on Internet of things and further analyses the factors of restricting application of Internet of things in the disposal of environmental emergency. At last, the suggestions and countermeasures to optimize environmental emergency disposal system are proposed.

  7. Development of a Universal Canister for Disposal of High-Level Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gomberg, Steve [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The mission of the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Some of the wastes that must be managed have been identified as good candidates for disposal in a deep borehole in crystalline rock. In particular, wastes that can be disposed of in a small package are good candidates for this disposal concept. A canister-based system that can be used for handling these wastes during the disposition process (i.e., storage, transfer, transportation, and disposal) could facilitate the eventual disposal of these wastes. Development of specifications for the universal canister system will consider the regulatory requirements that apply to storage, transportation, and disposal of the capsules, as well as operational requirements and limits that could affect the design of the canister (e.g., deep borehole diameter). In addition, there are risks and technical challenges that need to be recognized and addressed as Universal Canister system specifications are developed. This paper provides an approach to developing specifications for such a canister system that is integrated with the overall efforts of the DOE’s Used Fuel Disposition Campaign's Deep Borehole Field Test and compatible with planned storage of potential borehole-candidate wastes.

  8. Expediting the commercial disposal option: Low-level radioactive waste shipments from the Mound Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.; Rothman, R.

    1995-12-31

    In April, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., successfully commenced operation of its mixed waste treatment operation. A mixed waste which was (a) radioactive, (b) listed as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and (c) prohibited from land disposal was treated using Envirocare`s full-scale Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment system involved application of chemical fixation/stabilization technologies to reduce the leachability of the waste to meet applicable concentration-based RCRA treatment standards. In 1988, Envirocare became the first licensed facility for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material. In 1990, Envirocare received a RCRA Part B permit for commercial mixed waste storage and disposal. In 1994, Envirocare was awarded a contract for the disposal of DOE mixed wastes. Envirocare`s RCRA Part B permit allows for the receipt, storage, treatment, and disposal of mixed wastes that do not meet the land-disposal treatment standards of 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 268. Envirocare has successfully received, managed, and disposed of naturally occurring radioactive material, low-activity radioactive waste, and mixed waste from government and private generators.

  9. Engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal projects of sudden water pollution incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao; Khan, Afed Ullah; Wang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Without an engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal in response to sudden water pollution incidents, responders are prone to be challenged during emergency decision making. To address this gap, the concept and framework of emergency disposal engineering risks are reported in this paper. The proposed risk index system covers three stages consistent with the progress of an emergency disposal project. Fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA), a logical and diagrammatic method, was developed to evaluate the potential failure during the process of emergency disposal. The probability of basic events and their combination, which caused the failure of an emergency disposal project, were calculated based on the case of an emergency disposal project of an aniline pollution incident in the Zhuozhang River, Changzhi, China, in 2014. The critical events that can cause the occurrence of a top event (TE) were identified according to their contribution. Finally, advices on how to take measures using limited resources to prevent the failure of a TE are given according to the quantified results of risk magnitude. The proposed approach could be a potential useful safeguard for the implementation of an emergency disposal project during the process of emergency response.

  10. 32 CFR 644.395 - Coordination on disposal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Coordination on disposal problems. 644.395... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.395 Coordination on disposal problems. If any major change or problem requires a significant revision in the time schedule for disposal, prompt...

  11. 12 CFR 717.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 717.83... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 717.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly dispose of any...

  12. Clinical tests with improved disposable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R L

    1987-01-01

    Etiologic factors in the development of episodic diaper dermatitis include skin wetness and skin damage from fecal enzymes. In addition, when urine and feces mix, the activities of fecal enzymes increase as the pH rises from production of ammonia. An improved disposable diaper has been developed to provide better control of these factors by improved wetness and pH control. The improved diaper contains absorbent gelling materials (AGMs) blended into the diaper's cellulose core. AGMs are nontoxic, cross-linked polyacrylate polymers. They bind water tightly, give pH control by providing a buffering capacity, and in a diaper help to segregate urine and feces, thereby reducing the potential for increases in pH from ammonia production. To assess the effectiveness of this diaper, four 16-week clinical home-use tests were conducted with the AGM disposable versus conventional cellulose core disposable and home-laundered cloth diapers. Rigid group randomized stratification of infant maturity, diet, and initial level of diaper dermatitis provided control of factors other than the diaper that impact on development of diaper dermatitis. Skin wetness as measured by transepidermal water loss immediately after diaper removal, skin pH, and blinded visual evaluation of diaper dermatitis were used as skin condition measures. The use of AGM disposable diapers was associated with significantly reduced skin wetness and closer to normal skin pH as compared with the use of conventional disposable or home-laundered cloth diapers. Considered as an aggregate, the four clinical studies showed that AGM disposable diapers provide a better diaper environment and are associated with significantly lower degrees of diaper dermatitis than conventional disposable and home-laundered cloth diapers.

  13. Ape & Banana: A new user experience for collecting bio-based disposables at festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Mink, S.; Karana, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the implementation of a bio-plastic material (PLA) for disposables at the Lowlands Music Festival. The main aim of the study is to develop a system which motivates Lowlands festival visitors to litter their PLA disposables effectively. In the paper, littering behavior of festival visitors, their norms and values are explored; and several approaches are discussed for creating a motivation for effective littering at Lowlands. Two concepts are created and tested at ...

  14. OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF LANDFILL DISPOSAL SITE: A FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit P. Singh, A. K. Vidyarthi

    2008-01-01

    The arbitrary disposal through land-fill sites and also the unscientific management of solid wastes generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities leading to serious problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation in India demand an immediate proper solid waste disposal planning otherwise it may cause a serious problem, especially in small and medium-sized cities/towns if proper steps are not initiated now. The present paper aims to develop decision support systems t...

  15. Long-term non-isothermal reactive transport model of compacted bentonite, concrete and corrosion products in a HLW repository in clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Alba; Samper, Javier; Montenegro, Luis; Naves, Acacia; Fernández, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories envisages engineered barriers such as carbon-steel canisters, compacted bentonite and concrete liners. The stability and performance of the bentonite barrier could be affected by the corrosion products at the canister-bentonite interface and the hyper-alkaline conditions caused by the degradation of concrete at the bentonite-concrete interface. Additionally, the host clay formation could also be affected by the hyper-alkaline plume at the concrete-clay interface. Here we present a non-isothermal multicomponent reactive transport model of the long-term (1Ma) interactions of the compacted bentonite with the corrosion products of a carbon-steel canister and the concrete liner of the engineered barrier of a high-level radioactive waste repository in clay. Model results show that magnetite is the main corrosion product. Its precipitation reduces significantly the porosity of the bentonite near the canister. The degradation of the concrete liner leads to the precipitation of secondary minerals and the reduction of the porosity of the bentonite and the clay formation at their interfaces with the concrete liner. The reduction of the porosity becomes especially relevant at t=104years. The zones affected by pore clogging at the canister-bentonite and concrete-clay interfaces at 1Ma are approximately equal to 1 and 3.3cm thick, respectively. The hyper-alkaline front (pH>8.5) spreads 2.5cm into the clay formation after 1Ma. Our simulation results share the key features of the models reported by others for engineered barrier systems at similar chemical conditions, including: 1) Pore clogging at the canister-bentonite and concrete-clay interfaces; 2) Narrow alteration zones; and 3) Limited smectite dissolution after 1Ma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  17. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  18. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  19. Proceedings of the 1981 subseabed disposal program. Annual workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 Annual Workshop was the twelfth meeting of the principal investigators and program management personnel participating in the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). The first workshop was held in June 1973, to address the development of a program (initially known as Ocean Basin Floors Program) to assess the deep sea disposal of nuclear wastes. Workshops were held semi-annually until late 1977. Since November 1977, the workshops have been conducted following the end of each fiscal year so that the program participants could review and critique the total scope of work. This volume contains a synopsis, as given by each Technical Program Coordinator, abstracts of each of the talks, and copies of the visual materials, as presented by each of the principal investigators, for each of the technical elements of the SDP for the fiscal year 1981. The talks were grouped under the following categories; general topics; site studies; thermal response studies; emplacement studies; systems analysis; chemical response studies; biological oceanography studies; physical oceanographic studies; instrumentation development; transportation studies; social environment; and international seabed disposal.

  20. Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-02-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks.

  1. Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-02

    As mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development of the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 directed that only Yucca Mountain be characterized to evaluate the site's suitability. Three main components of the DOE site characterization program are testing, design, and performance assessment. These program components consist of: Investigation of natural features and processes by analyzing data collected from field tests conducted above and below ground and from laboratory tests of rock, gas, and water samples Design of a repository and waste packages tailored to the site features, supported by laboratory testing of candidate materials for waste packages and design related testing in the underground tunnels where waste would be emplaced Quantitative estimates of the performance of the total repository system, over a range of possible conditions and for different repository configurations, by means of computer modeling techniques that are based on site and materials testing data and accepted principles of physics and chemistry. To date, DOE has completed and documented four major iterations of total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site: TSPA-91 (Barnard et al. 1992), TSPA-93 (Wilson et al. 1994; CRWMS M and O 1994), TSPA-95 (CRWMS M and O 1995), and the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) (DOE 1998a, Volume 3). Each successive TSPA iteration has advanced the technical understanding of the performance attributes of the natural features and processes and enhanced engineering designs. The next major iteration of TSPA is to be conducted in support of the next major programmatic milestone for the DOE, namely the

  2. A choice experiment analysis for solid waste disposal option: a case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Jamal, Othman

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia, most municipal wastes currently are disposed into poorly managed 'controlled tipping' systems with little or no pollution protection measures. This study was undertaken to assist the relevant governmental bodies and service providers to identify an improved waste disposal management strategy. The study applied the choice experiment technique to estimate the nonmarket values for a number of waste disposal technologies. Implicit prices for environmental attributes such as psychological fear, land use, air pollution, and river water quality were estimated. Compensating surplus estimates incorporating distance from the residences of the respondents to the proposed disposal facility were calculated for a number of generic and technology-specific choice sets. The resulting estimates were higher for technology-specific options, and the distance factor was a significant determinant in setting an equitable solid waste management fee. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. INTERIM STORAGE AND LONG TERM DISPOSAL OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D

    2006-08-22

    Aluminum clad research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is currently being consolidated in wet storage basins (pools). Approximately 20 metric tons (heavy metal) of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) is being consolidated for treatment, packaging, interim storage, and preparation for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. The storage and disposal of Al-SNF are subject to requirements that provide for safety and acceptable radionuclide release. The options studied for interim storage of SNF include wet storage and dry storage. Two options have also been studied to develop the technical basis for the qualification and repository disposal of aluminum spent fuel. The two options studied include Direct Disposal and Melt-Dilute treatment. The implementation of these options present relative benefits and challenges. Both the Direct Disposal and the Melt-Dilute treatment options have been developed and their technical viability assessed. Adaptation of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of spent fuel offers the benefits of converting the spent fuel into a proliferation resistant form and/or significantly reducing the volume of the spent fuel. A Mobile Melt-Dilute system concept has emerged to realize these benefits and a prototype system developed. The application of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of legacy nuclear materials has been evaluated and also offers the promise for the safe disposal of these materials.

  4. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  5. Daily disposable vs. disposable extended wear: a contact lens clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J J; Mitchell, G L; Zadnik, K

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare traditional standards of contact lens success and patient-reported preferences in the daily-disposable and disposable extended-wear contact lens modalities. This study was a randomized, cross-over contact lens clinical trial involving 50 patients. After the baseline examination, two outcome examinations were performed including the self-administration of the Refractive Status and Vision Profile (RSVP) survey, an additional survey, and masked visual acuity and slit-lamp assessments. No differences were noted on the RSVP when comparing treatment modalities. Patients were considered equally successful in terms of wearing time, overall comfort, visual acuity, and ocular health criteria. In terms of patient preferences, a significant number of patients preferred the disposable extended-wear modality over the daily-disposable modality (chi2(1) = 4.08, p = 0.04). Patients preferred disposable extended-wear over daily-disposables due to convenience (odds ratio = 30.33). Disposable extended-wear represents a convenient contact lens option for contact lens patients.

  6. Disposal of unwanted medications: throw, bury, burn or just ignore?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the relevance of proper disposal of unwanted medications. Proper disposal of unwanted medications is a global issue. The consequences of improper disposal are a major concern, as it has negative consequences on both human health and the environment. Pharmacists are in a key position to ensure proper disposal and reduce the generation of unwanted medications. There is urgent need for awareness on a global scale, among the public and healthcare professionals, of the importance of proper disposal of unwanted medications. Research is required to assess pharmacists' attitudes and methods used for disposal from pharmacies. © 2012 The Author. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Alternate Methods for Disposal of Nitrocellulose Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-22

    1973. electro-osmosis: Sprute, R.H. and D.J. Kelsh, " Electrokinetic Consolidation of Slimes in an Underground Mine", U.S. Bureau of Mines. Report of...Explosive Waste Disposal", JANNAF Propulsion Meetinq, 1974. -37- (The eleven criteria matrices,, individually.) -38- USE FOR WORKER SAFETY CRITERION

  8. SAFE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTES IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of modern scientific methods of waste management, treatment and disposal, the non-enforcement cum .... 13 Damilola Olawuyi, The Principles of Nigerian Environmental Law (Business Perspectives. 2013) 195. ... 17 B. Abila and J. Kantola 'Municipal Solid Waste Management Problems in Nigeria: Evolving. Knowledge ...

  9. 40 CFR 761.60 - Disposal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capacitors. (3) PCB hydraulic machines. (i) Any person disposing of PCB hydraulic machines containing PCBs at... liquid contains ≥1,000 ppm PCB, then the hydraulic machine must be decontaminated in accordance with... accordance with § 761.61 or § 761.79, as applicable. (B) Any person who markets or burns for energy recovery...

  10. Aircraft Disposal and Recycle Cost Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky; Borsato, M.; Wognum, N.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a method for the sake of evaluating Disposal and Recycle (D&R) cost in view of the increasing demand in aircraft retirement. Firstly, a process model is extracted. The subordinated cost elements are also identified. Next, the cost aggregations based on the D&R

  11. A Clinical Comparison of Disposable Airway Devices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Methods. Adult ASA 1-3 patients (30-100 kg) presenting for elective peripheral surgery in Tygerberg Hospital were randomized by drawing of sealed envelopes, to receive the gold standard. Classic LMA, or one of 4 disposable devices. They all received a standardized anaesthetic with propofol, fentanyl and isoflurane in ...

  12. DESIGN OF SANITARY DISPOSAL OF POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1979-03-01

    Mar 1, 1979 ... by. NNAMDI EGBUNIWE. Department of Civil Engineering. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ABSTRACT. The physical and biological characteristics of the chicken manure from the University of. Nigeria Poultry Farm are presented. Different methods of manure processing and disposal are reviewed.

  13. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  14. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Assessment of Household Solid Waste Disposal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plate 1shows the waste disposed of in the vicinity. Stanley/Andrew/Dania/Sani. 51. Food. Paper. Old Clothes. & Fabrics. Plastics. Others. Type of Waste. 40. 35. 30 .... 2 shows that 61.26% of the respondents perceived that wastes have high potential for farm manure, while 18.02% has potential for recycling. Also 9.91% has.

  16. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for temporary..., in some cases, overlap with the EPA-designated recovered content product: Paper and Paper Products... paper and paper products and which product should be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to...

  17. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    financial losses, the vaccination of pigs with attenuated live or inactivated vaccines is widely performed. A laboratory- attenuated ADV replicates well in BHK 21 cells (Puentes. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor. I SLIVAC. 1, V GAURINA SRČEK. 1, K RADOŠEVIĆ. 1, I KMETIČ. 2 and Z KNIEWALD.

  18. Final Report (BMWi Project No.: 02 E 10971): Joint project: Retention of radionuclides relevant for final disposal in natural clay rock and saline systems - Subproject 2: Geochemical behavior and transport of radionuclides in saline systems in the prese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, Katja [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Fritsch, Katharina [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Lippold, Holger [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Poetsch, Maria [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Kulenkampff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Jordan, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Joseph, Claudia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Bader, Miriam [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden, (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2016-02-29

    The objective of this project was to study the influence of increased salinities on interaction processes in the system radionuclide – organics – clay – aquifer. For this, complexation, redox, sorption, and diffusion studies were performed under variation of the ionic strength (up to 4 mol kg-1) and the background electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2).

  19. The impact of harbour sludge disposal on benthic macrofauna communities in the Weser estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jan; Schroeder, Alexander; Knust, Rainer; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2004-04-01

    During an open-water disposal of about 710,000 m3 of harbour sludge in the polyhaline zone of the Weser estuary, Germany, a monitoring programme was carried out to investigate the impact on benthic invertebrates. The macrofaunal communities of four sites within the disposal area and five sites in a reference area were compared after discharge. The location and extent of the potentially affected area were inferred from a morphodynamic computer model (TIMOR 3; Zanke 1998). Disposal effects were analysed by comparing species numbers, densities, diversity and faunal similarity using multivariate methods. A loss of diversity and a decline in the abundance of several species in the disposal area were measured. The species number was reduced up to 50% and important habitat structures were absent from the disposal area. Several benthic species were affected by the disposal. The importance of species such as Mytilus edulis (Mollusca) and Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta) for the diversity of the community, and the sensitivity of these species to sediment discharge are analysed. The difficulties of separating dumping effects from natural variation in a dynamic estuarine channel system are discussed.

  20. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  1. Stampless fabrication of sheet bars using disposable templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the new method of small-scale fabrication of sheet bars. The procedure is performed by using disposable overlay templates, or those associated with a sheet, which parameters are obtained directly from the drawing. The proposed method used as a substitution of die cutting enables to intensify the preparatory technological process, which is particularly effective when launching the market-oriented items into production. It significantly increases the competitiveness of mechanical engineering and creates the conditions for technical support of present-day flexible production systems.

  2. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  3. A quantitative analysis of municipal solid waste disposal charges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zhang, Weiqian; Xu, Jiaxuan; Che, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Rapid industrialization and economic development have caused a tremendous increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China. China began implementing a policy of MSW disposal fees for household waste management at the end of last century. Three charging methods were implemented throughout the country: a fixed disposal fee, a potable water-based disposal fee, and a plastic bag-based disposal fee. To date, there has been little qualitative or quantitative analysis on the effectiveness of this relatively new policy. This paper provides a general overview of MSW fee policy in China, attempts to verify whether the policy is successful in reducing general waste collected, and proposes an improved charging system to address current problems. The paper presents an empirical statistical analysis of policy effectiveness derived from an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) test on panel data of China. EKC tests on different kinds of MSW charge systems were then examined for individual provinces or cities. A comparison of existing charging systems was conducted using environmental and economic criteria. The results indicate the following: (1) the MSW policies implemented over the study period were effective in the reduction of waste generation, (2) the household waste discharge fee policy did not act as a strong driver in terms of waste prevention and reduction, and (3) the plastic bag-based disposal fee appeared to be performing well according to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Based on current situation of waste discharging management in China, a three-stage transitional charging scheme is proposed and both advantages and drawbacks discussed. Evidence suggests that a transition from a fixed disposal fee to a plastic bag-based disposal fee involving various stakeholders should be the next objective of waste reduction efforts.

  4. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.... Forest Service in its sales and forestry practices. U.S. Forest Service personnel may be available for...

  5. Dredge spoil disposal off Kavaratti Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Maintenance dredging has been carried out along the navigational channel at Kavaratii Island and dredge spoil is disposed in the open sea. This paper describes the movement of sediment plume while dredging and disposal. The study indicates...

  6. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing Format: Select one PDF [105 KB] Recommend on ... need to wash yourself and dispose of your clothing In most cases, emergency coordinators will let you ...

  7. Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) Survey Work 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) is a dredged material disposal site located 3 nautical miles (nm) offshore of Humboldt Bay in Northern California....

  8. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  9. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-11-07

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  10. 21 CFR 880.6060 - Medical disposable bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6060 Medical disposable bedding. (a) Identification. Medical disposable bedding is a device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical disposable bedding. 880.6060 Section 880...

  11. Household Solid Waste Disposal in Public Housing Estates in Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on household solid waste disposal in the public housing estates in Awka, Anambra State. The study identified solid waste disposal methods from the households in AHOCOL, Udoka, Iyiagu and Real Housing Estates with an intention to make proposals for better solid waste disposal.

  12. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to low-income...

  13. 10 CFR 61.81 - Tests at land disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests at land disposal facilities. 61.81 Section 61.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 61.81 Tests at land disposal facilities. (a) Each...

  14. 40 CFR 228.10 - Evaluating disposal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to what extent the marine environment has been impacted by materials disposed of at an ocean disposal site: (1) Movement of materials into estuaries or marine sanctuaries, or onto oceanfront beaches, or...-seasonal, changes in water quality or sediment composition at the disposal site, when these changes are...

  15. 41 CFR 301-54.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... BILLED TRAVEL CHARGE CARD General Rules § 301-54.2 What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is your..., etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay you receive from your agency, e.g., basic pay...

  16. 41 CFR 301-76.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is the part of the employee's compensation remaining after the... deductions such as savings bonds, charitable contributions, etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay...

  17. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disposal methods such as dumping sites, incineration, recycling, shipping and home garbage disposal units have been used in different societies. There are newer advances in disposal methods, such as pyrolysis, biodegradable containers and biodegradation. These have fewer functional problems but more feasibility ...

  18. Medical waste disposal at a hospital in Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the correct disposal of medical waste is the separation of waste at the point of generation, followed by its disposal into colour-coded containers. Medical waste in these containers can then be disposed of through incineration, sterilisation, chemical disinfection or burial in a secured landfill.[3] Sharps, which include ...

  19. 12 CFR 571.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 571.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Scope. This section applies to savings associations whose deposits... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 571.83...

  20. 12 CFR 334.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Records Disposal § 334.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 334.83... construed to: (1) Require you to maintain or destroy any record pertaining to a consumer that is not imposed...

  1. 10 CFR 20.2108 - Records of waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of waste disposal. 20.2108 Section 20.2108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2108 Records of waste disposal. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the disposal of licensed materials made...

  2. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a) Records control schedule. A directive describing records... officials to implement such instructions. (b) Disposal (records). The permanent removal of records or... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal...

  3. 16 CFR 682.3 - Proper disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper disposal of consumer information. 682.3 Section 682.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DISPOSAL OF CONSUMER REPORT INFORMATION AND RECORDS § 682.3 Proper disposal of consumer information. (a...

  4. 12 CFR 41.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 41.83 Disposal... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 41.83 Section... maintain or destroy any record pertaining to a consumer that is not imposed under any other law; or (2...

  5. 20 CFR 209.16 - Disposal of payroll records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposal of payroll records. 209.16 Section... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.16 Disposal of payroll records. Employers may dispose of payroll records for periods subsequent to 1936, provided that the payroll records are more than...

  6. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled by...

  7. Residents' perception of solid waste disposal practices in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proper waste disposal is a key to protecting public health. Thus poorly managed and disposed waste encourages breeding of insect vectors and exposed public to increase risk of infection. This study aimed at determining the residents' perception about waste disposal in Sokoto metropolis. This was a descriptive ...

  8. A new procedure for deep sea mining tailings disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sea mining tailings disposal is a new environmental challenge related to water pollution, mineral crust waste handling, and ocean biology. The objective of this paper is to propose a new tailings disposal procedure for the deep sea mining industry. Through comparisons of the tailings disposal

  9. Joint project. Retention of radionuclides relevant for final disposal in natural clay rock and saline systems. Subproject 2. Geochemical behavior and transport of radionuclides in saline systems in the presence of repository-relevant organics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, Katja; Fritsch, Katharina; Lippold, Holger [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Ressource Ecology; and others

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this project was to study the influence of increased salinities on interaction processes in the system radionuclide - organics - clay - aquifer. For this purpose, complexation, redox, sorption, and diffusion studies were performed under variation of the ionic strength (up to 4 mol kg{sup -1}) and the background electrolyte. The U(VI) complexation by propionate was studied in dependence on ionic strength (up to 4 mol kg{sup -1} NaClO{sub 4}) by TRLFS, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. An influence of ionic strength on stability constants was detected, depending on the charge of the respective complexes. The conditional stability constants, determined for 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 complexes at specific ionic strengths, were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. The interaction of the bacteria Sporomusa sp. MT-2.99 and Paenibacillus sp. MT-2.2 cells, isolated from Opalinus Clay, with Pu was studied. The experiments can be divided into such without an electron donor where biosorption is favored and such with addition of Na-pyruvate as an electron donor stimulating also bioreduction processes. Moreover, experiments were performed to study the interactions of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense DSM-15987 with U(VI), Eu(III), and Cm(III) in 3 M NaCl solutions. Research for improving process understanding with respect to the mobility of multivalent metals in systems containing humic matter was focused on the reversibility of elementary processes and on their interaction. Kinetic stabilization processes in the dynamics of humate complexation equilibria were quantified in isotope exchange studies. The influence of high salinity on the mobilizing potential of humic-like clay organics was systematically investigated and was described by modeling. The sorption of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) onto the iron(II)-containing minerals magnetite and siderite was studied by means of batch sorption experiments, ATR FT-IR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The strong Tc

  10. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  11. Periglacial phenomena affecting nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niini, H.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow future changes in astronomic phenomena seem to make it likely that Finland nll suffer several cold periods during the next 100,000 years. The paper analyses the characteristics of the periglacial factors that are most likely to influence the long-term safety of high-level radioactive waste disposed of in bedrock. These factors and their influences have been divided into two categories, natural and human. It is concluded that the basically natural phenomena are theoretically better understood than the complicated phenomena caused by man. It is therefore important in future research into periglacial phenomena, as well as of the disposal problem, to emphasize not only the proper applications of the results of natural sciences, but especially the effects and control of mankind's own present and future activities.

  12. Disposable and frequent replacement contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, William H; Donshik, Peter C; Suchecki, Jeanine K

    2003-09-01

    Disposable and frequent replacement contact lenses dominate the marketplace. They are available in a wide variety of parameters for use in refractive errors, including myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. They are convenient and affordable and lend themselves to most wearing modalities, including daily wear, flexible wear, and extended wear for up to 30 days. In addition, they have been shown to be the most trouble-free contact lens wear modality for daily wear or extended wear. They are an appropriate choice for patients who desire occasional contact lens wear and have gained wide acceptance as therapeutic bandage contact lenses. Disposable and frequent replacement lenses will remain important modalities for some time to come as the variety of contact lenses and contact lens parameters that are offered continue to expand. New contact lens varieties, such as the high-Dk silicone hydrogel lenses, will further expand the role of these contact lenses in vision correction.

  13. Energy production from a refuse disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A refuse disposal site produces a considerable amount of biogas caused by the anaerobic fermentation which takes place inside. The components of the biogas are mainly methane (up to 60 vol. %) and carbon dioxide. For reasons of safety (danger of fire, explosion, smell) the gas must be collected. Now and then it is being utilised in special engines and burners. Usually, however, the biogas is being flared off. With the assistance of special hollow fibre membranes it has of late become possible, to lower the part of the carbon dioxide in the biogas to such an extend that a methane-rich gas is produced, which can be utilised in the same way as natural gas. Thus, a refuse disposal operator has the possibility to utilise in full the energy potential of the deposited waste, by selling this processed gas.

  14. Foldable and Disposable Memory on Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Il; Bae, Hagyoul; Seong, Hyejeong; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seol, Myung-Lok; Han, Jin-Woo; Meyyappan, M.; Im, Sung-Gap; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-12-01

    Foldable organic memory on cellulose nanofibril paper with bendable and rollable characteristics is demonstrated by employing initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for polymerization of the resistive switching layer and inkjet printing of the electrode, where iCVD based on all-dry and room temperature process is very suitable for paper electronics. This memory exhibits a low operation voltage of 1.5 V enabling battery operation compared to previous reports and wide memory window. The memory performance is maintained after folding tests, showing high endurance. Furthermore, the quick and complete disposable nature demonstrated here is attractive for security applications. This work provides an effective platform for green, foldable and disposable electronics based on low cost and versatile materials.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  16. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  17. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Liange

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005...

  18. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  19. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  20. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  1. Chemical Decontamination for Self-Disposal of Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Wangkyu; Yoon, Inho; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Kunewoo; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    There are needs in metal waste volume reduction and self-disposal technology for enhancing the safety and economy in the management of large scale metal wastes such as retired SGs and RHs. In order to remove radionuclide contamination from the surface of materials, the variety of decontamination technologies have been developed in many countries. Chemical decontamination processes were originally designed to remove the radioactive deposit in order to reduce the radiation exposure to workers while operating the nuclear facilities. Diluted chemical solutions have been used to avoid damaging the system materials. On the other hand, in cases of the decontamination processes for decommissioning or recycling large components, it is greatly important to remove radioactive contamination completely by using a more aggressive solution. In this study, the effectiveness of metal surface decontamination using inorganic acid solutions such as HF/HNO{sub 3} and HF/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated to evaluate the applicability of these processes to the decontamination of retired SGs. The chemical decontamination process using inorganic acid containing fluoride was investigated as a metal surface decontamination process for decommissioning and self-disposal of metal wastes. The HF/NaNO{sub 3} decontamination process that improves the existing HF/HNO{sub 3} decontamination process has been suggested as a decontamination process for retired SGs consisting of different types of system materials such as stainless steel and Inconel.

  2. Arsenic waste management: a critical review of testing and disposal of arsenic-bearing solid wastes generated during arsenic removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Tara M; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2013-10-01

    Water treatment technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater have been extensively studied due to widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources. Central to the successful application of arsenic water treatment systems is the consideration of appropriate disposal methods for arsenic-bearing wastes generated during treatment. However, specific recommendations for arsenic waste disposal are often lacking or mentioned as an area for future research and the proper disposal and stabilization of arsenic-bearing waste remains a barrier to the successful implementation of arsenic removal technologies. This review summarizes current disposal options for arsenic-bearing wastes, including landfilling, stabilization, cow dung mixing, passive aeration, pond disposal, and soil disposal. The findings from studies that simulate these disposal conditions are included and compared to results from shorter, regulatory tests. In many instances, short-term leaching tests do not adequately address the range of conditions encountered in disposal environments. Future research directions are highlighted and include establishing regulatory test conditions that align with actual disposal conditions and evaluating nonlandfill disposal options for developing countries.

  3. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  4. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Cheeseman, Christopher R; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilize soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As.

  5. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, Christopher R., E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Graham, Nigel J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilise soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As.

  6. Survey of the geological characteristics on the Japanese Islands for disposal of RI and research institute waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Shigeru [Chuo Kaihatsu Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    In the disposal of radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope utilization facilities and nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to establish the disposal system in proportion to half-lives of radionuclides and radioactivity concentrations in the wastes. According to this disposal system, the radioactive waste should be buried in the underground near the surface, shallow position and deep position. Therefore, it is important to grasp the features of the earth scientific phenomena and geological structure for the disposal system of radioactive waste. Then, for the purpose of the survey of the geological characteristics around the Japanese Islands whole neighborhood, the earth scientific phenomena at present, the geological structure and geotectonic history were summarized on the basis of the existing literatures. (author)

  7. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal in Engineered Trenches 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-12

    Revision 0 of this UDQE addressed the proposal to place Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) in the footprint designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12) and operate using ST#12 disposal limits. Similarly, Revision 1 evaluates whether ET#4 can be located in and operated to Slit Trench #13 (ST#13) disposal limits. Both evaluations conclude that the proposed operations result in an acceptably small risk of exceeding a SOF of 1.0 and approve these actions from a performance assessment (PA) perspective. Because ET#3 will be placed in the location previously designated for ST#12, Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore, new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  8. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  9. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Angélica Randoli de; Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2016-01-01

    To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit). The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps' disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%), sink drain (28.9%), sharps' box with orange bag (14.3%), and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%). No disposal was identified after drug administration. A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare) waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary. Verificar o descarte dos resíduos de medicamentos realizado em unidades pediátricas. Estudo descritivo e observacional, realizado em um hospital universitário. A amostra de conveniência foi constituída pelos medicamentos descartados durante o período de estudo. Observaram-se a manipulação e o descarte durante o preparo e a administração. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em horários preestabelecidos e realizada por meio de instrumento pré-validado. Identificaram-se 356 descartes de medicamentos (35,1% na clínica, 31,8% na unidade de cuidados intensivos, 23,8% na cirúrgica e 9,3% na infectologia). As classes farmacológicas mais descartadas foram: 22,7% antimicrobianos, 14,8% eletrólitos, 14,6% analgésicos, 9,5% diuréticos e 6,7% antiulcerosos. Vias mais utilizadas: caixa descartável para perfurocortante com

  10. Comparing Trash Disposal and Reuse Options for Deep Space Gateway and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Goodliff, Kandyce; Clowdsley, Martha; Singleterry, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Taking out the trash at NASA's newly proposed Deep Space Gateway (DSG) will not be a trivial task. While not the most important aspect of planning this cislunar outpost, there are several options that should be carefully considered since they may affect the crew as well as mission mass and volume. This study extends an earlier one, which focused on waste disposal options for a Mars Transit Vehicle. In that study, gasifying and venting trash along the way was found to noticeably reduce propellant needs and launch mass, whereas keeping processed trash on board in the form of radiation shielding tiles would significantly lower the crew's radiation dose during a solar particle event. Another favorable strategy was packing trash in a used logistics module for disposal. Since the DSG does not need much propulsion to maintain its orbit and Orion will be present with its own radiation storm shelter at the Gateway, the driving factors of the waste disposal trade study are different than for the Mars mission. Besides reviewing the propulsion and radiation shielding factors, potential drivers such as mass, power, volume, crew time, and human factors (e.g. smell) were studied. Disposal options for DSG include jettison of a used logistics module containing waste after every human stay, jettison of the same logistics module after several missions once it is full, regular disposal of trash via an airlock, or gasifying waste products for easier disposal or reuse. Conversely, a heat melt compactor device could be used to remove water and stabilize trash into tiles which could be more compactly stored on board and used as radiation shielding. Equivalent system mass analysis is used to tally the benefits and costs (mass, volume, power, crew time) of each case on an equivalent mass basis. Other more subjective factors are also discussed. Recommendations are made for DSG and Mars mission waste disposal.

  11. Reducing disposable equipment waste for tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Eddie; Yasso, Sabrina F; Wei, Julie L

    2012-10-01

    Large amounts of waste in hospitals are generated in the operating rooms from disposable surgical supplies. Tonsillectomy/adenotonsillectomy (T&A) cases use many disposable supplies that are not recyclable. It is critical to reduce disposable waste, as such waste directly affects the environment and increases health care costs. The authors noticed a difference between the number of disposable items prepared, available, but almost never used, for each tonsillectomy case between a children's hospital setting and a university ambulatory surgery center setting. The aims were the following: (1) identify what disposable medical supplies were unnecessarily opened for each case, (2) eliminate all disposable medical waste that was not critical to the case in both settings, and (3) determine the cost reduction at both hospital and surgery center facilities by revising the current disposable instruments/supplies pulled for tonsillectomy cases. The authors report projected cost savings and reduction in waste for one children's hospital and nationally based on their waste reduction.

  12. 77 FR 67203 - Privacy Act of 1974; Republication of Systems of Records Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... access. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are retained and disposed of in accordance with the National... those NRC employees whose official duties require access. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are retained... security LAN/WAN system. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are retained and disposed of in accordance with...

  13. Reducing the Cost of Laparoscopy: Reusable versus Disposable Laparoscopic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness in health care management is critical. The situation in debt-stricken Greece is further aggravated by the financial crisis and constant National Health System expense cut-downs. In an effort to minimize the cost of laparoscopy, our department introduced reusable laparoscopic instruments in December 2011. The aim of this study was to assess potential cost reduction of laparoscopic operations in the field of general surgery. Hospital records, invoice lists, and operative notes between January 2012 and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed and data were collected on laparoscopic procedures, instrument failures, and replacement needs. Initial acquisition cost of 5 basic instrument sets was €21,422. Over the following 24 months, they were used in 623 operations, with a total maintenance cost of €11,487. Based on an average retail price of €490 per set, projected cost with disposable instruments would amount to €305,270, creating savings of €272,361 over the two-year period under study. Despite the seemingly high purchase price, each set amortized its acquisition cost after only 9 procedures and instrument cost depreciated to less than €55 per case. Disposable instruments cost 9 times more than reusable ones, and their high price would almost equal the total hospital reimbursement by social security funds for many common laparoscopic procedures.

  14. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, D.D. [Water Resources Engineer, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stansbury, J. [Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  15. Study of classification and disposed method for disused sealed radioactive source in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl; Lee, Seung Hee [FNC Technology Co., Ltd.,Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In accordance with the classification system of radioactive waste in Korea, all the disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) fall under the category of EW, VLLW or LILW, and should be managed in compliance with the restrictions for the disposal method. In this study, the management and disposal method are drawn in consideration of half-life of radionuclides contained in the source and A/D value (i.e. the activity A of the source dividing by the D value for the relevant radionuclide, which is used to provide an initial ranking of relative risk for sources) in addition to the domestic classification scheme and disposal method, based on the characteristic analysis and review results of the management practices in IAEA and foreign countries. For all the DSRSs that are being stored (as of March 2015) in the centralized temporary disposal facility for radioisotope wastes, applicability of the derivation result is confirmed through performing the characteristic analysis and case studies for assessing quantity and volume of DSRSs to be managed by each method. However, the methodology derived from this study is not applicable to the following sources; i) DSRSs without information on the radioactivity, ii) DSRSs that are not possible to calculate the specific activity and/or the source-specific A/D value. Accordingly, it is essential to identify the inherent characteristics for each of DSRSs prior to implementation of this management and disposal method.

  16. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2001-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  17. Wavelet discretization of the engineered barrier system. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, Hesham; Umeki, Hiroyuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    The relative merits of the wavelet-Galerkin solution of the nonlinear system of partial differential equations arising from a model formulation of migration of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Wavelet functions are generated by dilation and translation on a scaling function. The wavelet functions are localized in space and compactly supported, so these properties can be utilized to solve differential equations that have severe 'stiff'. A mathematical model for predicting the nuclide migration of (HLW) was formulated and compared with the results from the reference case. The model, which is wavelet-discretized model, is devised to be very reasonable and accurate by proper selection of wavelet order and dilation order pair. We would like to thank Mr. Atsushi Neyama (Computer Software Development Co., Ltd.) and Prof. Atsuyuki Suzuki (Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science) for some productive discussions and their critical reviews of this study. (author)

  18. Application of Disposable Bag Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering and for the Production of Therapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, R.; Eibl, D.

    In order to increase process efficiency, many pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have introduced disposable bag technology over the last 10 years. Because this technology also greatly reduces the risk of cross-contamination, disposable bags are preferred in applications in which an absolute or improved process safety is a necessity, namely the production of functional tissue for implantation (tissue engineering), the production of human cells for the treatment of cancer and immune system diseases (cellular therapy), the production of viruses for gene therapies, the production of therapeutic proteins, and veterinary as well as human vaccines.

  19. Disposability Characteristics of Military Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-06

    CELLULOSICS COMtK TKW TCMNHATUKI Op IFOUMI CELLULOSE ACETATE (SHEET, FILM) MIATOFCOMMJtTION 15770 .S3». UHt WRAPPING MATINUM.OWWTV 71.76...POLYURETHANE (SOLID STOCK) HEATOFCOMUJITION 11.000- ^ 12.0C0 Lt UHt CONTAINERS MATERIAL DENSITY 65.52- u 93.60 "ÖÜ7T. FEDERAL/ MILITARY...rtwftttAU MILITARY iPiciFiCATicf NUMSIR COMPOSITION L-P-535 MILK DENSITY 9o-ioo ja CU.FT. CHARACTERISTICS FAAOMENTAtlLITY DISPOSAL RATING

  20. Disposable Bioreactors: Maturation into Pharmaceutical Glycoprotein Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, René

    Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.

  1. DR Argillite Disposal R&D at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kim, Kunhwi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Hao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    Within the Natural Barrier System (NBS) group of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy, LBNL’s research activities have focused on understanding and modeling EDZ evolution and the associated coupled processes and impacts of high temperature on parameters and processes relevant to performance of a clay repository to establish the technical base for the maximum allowable temperature. This report documents results from some of these activities. These activities address key Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), which have been ranked in importance from medium to high, as listed in Table 7 of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Disposal Research and Development Roadmap (FCR&D-USED-2011-000065 REV0) (Nutt, 2011). Specifically, they address FEP 2.2.01, Excavation Disturbed Zone, for clay/shale, by investigating how coupled processes affect EDZ evolution; FEP 2.2.05, Flow and Transport Pathways; and FEP 2.2.08, Hydrologic Processes, and FEP 2.2.07, Mechanical Processes, and FEP 2.2.09, Chemical Process—Transport, by studying near-field coupled THMC processes in clay/shale repositories. The activities documented in this report also address a number of research topics identified in Research & Development (R&D) Plan for Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) Natural System Evaluation and Tool Development (Wang 2011), including Topics S3, Disposal system modeling – Natural System; P1, Development of discrete fracture network (DFN) model; P14, Technical basis for thermal loading limits; and P15 Modeling of disturbed rock zone (DRZ) evolution (clay repository).

  2. Safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [and others

    1997-12-01

    During 1994-1997 a project on the disposal of radioactive waste was carried out as part of the NKS program. The objective of the project was to give authorities and waste producers in the Nordic countries background material for determinations about the management and disposal of radioactive waste. The project NKS/AFA-1 was divided into three sub-projects: AFA-1.1, AFA-1.2 and AFA-1.3. AFA-1.1 dealt with waste characterisation, AFA-1.2 dealt with performance assessment for repositories and AFA-1.3 dealt with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The studies mainly focused on the management of long-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from research, hospitals and industry. The AFA-1.1 study included an overview on waste categories in the Nordic countries and methods to determine or estimate the waste content. The results from the AFA-1.2 study include a short overview of different waste management systems existing and planned in the Nordic countries. However, the main emphasis of the study was a general discussion of methodologies developed and employed for performance assessments of waste repositories. Some of the phenomena and interactions relevant for generic types of repository were discussed as well. Among the different approaches for the development of scenarios for safety and performance assessments one particular method, the Rock Engineering System (RES), was chosen to be tested by demonstration. The possible interactions and their safety significance were discussed, employing a simplified and generic Nordic repository system as the reference system. New regulations for the inventory of a repository may demand new assessments of old radioactive waste packages. The existing documentation of a waste package is then the primary information source although additional measurements may be necessary. (EG) 33 refs.

  3. A disposable sticky electrode for the detection of commercial silver NPs in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W.; Stuart, E. J. E.; Tschulik, K.; Cullen, J. T.; Compton, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to perform efficient and affordable field detection and quantification of nanoparticles in aquatic environmental systems remains a significant technical challenge. Recently we reported a proof of concept of using ‘sticky’ electrodes for the detection of silver nanoparticles (Tschulik et al 2013 Nanotechnology 29 295502). Now a disposable electrode for detection and quantification of commercial Ag nanoparticles in natural seawater is presented. A disposable screen printed electrode is modified with cysteine and characterized by sticking and stripping experiments, with silver nanoparticle immobilization on the electrode surface and subsequent oxidative stripping, yielding a quantitative determination of the amount of Ag nanoparticles adhering to the electrode surface. The modified electrode was applied to natural seawater to mimic field-based environmental monitoring of Ag NPs present in seawater. The results demonstrated that commercial Ag NPs in natural seawater can be immobilized, enriched and quantified within short time period using the disposable electrodes without any need for elaborate experiments.

  4. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Hong, D. S.; Hwang, G. H.; Shin, J. J.; Yuk, D. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Characteristics and states of management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in site : state of management for each type of wastes, characteristics of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste, stage of management of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste. Survey of state of management and characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in foreign countries : state of management of disposal facilities, classification criteria and target radionuclides for assessment in foreign disposal facilities. Survey of the assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory and establishing the direction of requirement : assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory, analysis of radionuclides assay system in KORI site, establishment the direction of requirement in the assessment methods.

  5. [Screening on key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of public health emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q R; Yang, L; Ma, H Y; Xie, W Q; Cong, L M; Xu, L W

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To explore the key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection to improve the ability of surveillance and disposal on public health emergency. Methods: Framework on surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection was set up, based on literature review and expert group discussion. Delphi method and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution comprehensive evaluation method were used for ordering preference by similarity, to screen key techniques set for surveillance and disposal of the above said events. Results: Framework to be used for selecting key techniques was designed, based on the classification of emergency events, processing cycle of emergency events and level of techniques. Twenty six public health experts were selected for a 2-round consultation, with their authority as 0.796. Ten key techniques with important significance for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection were selected from each event. Among these key techniques, the early-warning system was recognized as the key technique, important for the surveillance and disposal of all three emergency events. Items as technology used for unknown pathogenic microorganism detection, personal protection, gene sequencing and tracing technology, microorganism molecular typing technology, nucleic acid detection technology etc . were the key techniques and need to develop for the surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases and iatrogenic infection. Data regarding key technologies on security and privacy, early warning and forecasting, field rapid detection were sorted out that all in need to improve the surveillance programs on disposal of infectious diseases and food poisoning. Data exchange appeared another key technique on infectious diseases, with toxin detection and other 5 techniques the key techniques for food poisoning

  6. Safety Tips: Disposal, Labeling, and Storage in a High School Chemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Recounts the problems of a high school chemistry program in safely storing and disposing of chemicals. Describes the school's new system of inventorying and dating all chemicals, using warning stickers, isolating certain hazardous substances, and cataloging references to the use of each chemical and its container. (TW)

  7. 7 CFR 1484.36 - How do Cooperators dispose of disposable property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Program Operations § 1484.36 How do Cooperators... shall be disposed of in one of the following ways. The Cooperator may: (1) Exchange or sell the property, provided that it applies any exchange allowance, insurance proceeds, or sales proceeds toward the purchase...

  8. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  9. Nuclear-waste disposal in geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.

    1982-08-02

    Deep geologic repositories are being widely studied as the most favored method of disposal of nuclear waste. Scientists search for repository sites in salt, basalt, tuff and granite that are geologically and hydrologically suitable. The systematic evaluation of the safety and reliability of deep geologic disposal centers around the concept of interacting multiple barriers. The simplest element to describe of the geologic barrier is the physical isolation of the waste in a remote region at some depth within the rock unit. Of greater complexity is the hydrologic barrier which is determined by the waste dilution factors and groundwater flow rates. The least understood is the geochemical barrier, identified as a series of waste/water/rock interactions involving sorption, membrane filtration, precipitation and complexing. In addition to the natural barriers are the engineered barriers, which include the waste form and waste package. The relative effectiveness of these barriers to provide long-term isolation of nuclear waste from the human environment is being assessed through the use of analytical and numerical models. The data used in the models is generally adequate for parameter sensitivity studies which bound the uncertainties in the release and transport predictions; however, much of the data comes from laboratory testing, and the problem of correlating laboratory and field measurements has not been resolved. Although safety assessments based on generic sites have been useful in the past for developing site selection criteria, site-specific studies are needed to judge the suitability of a particular host rock and its environment.

  10. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2015 and July 2016 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Los Alamos focused on two main activities during this period: Discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling to describe flow and radionuclide transport in complex fracture networks that are typical of crystalline rock environments, and a comprehensive interpretation of three different colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport experiments conducted in a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland between 2002 and 2013. Chapter 1 presents the results of the DFN work and is divided into three main sections: (1) we show results of our recent study on the correlation between fracture size and fracture transmissivity (2) we present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph for characterization of discrete fracture networks, and (3) we describe the Crystalline International work in support of the Swedish Task Force. Chapter 2 presents interpretation of the colloidfacilitated radionuclide transport experiments in the crystalline rock at the Grimsel Test Site.

  11. Assessment of Available Particle Size Data to Support an Analysis of the Waste Feed Delivery System Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JEWETT, J.R.

    2000-08-10

    Available data pertaining to size distribution of the particulates in Hanford underground tank waste have been reviewed. Although considerable differences exist between measurement methods, it may be stated with 95% confidence that the median particle size does not exceed 275 {micro}m in at least 95% of the ten tanks selected as sources of HLW feed for Phase 1 vitrification in the RPP. This particle size is recommended as a design basis for the WFD transfer system.

  12. Disposal R&D in the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign: A Discussion of Opportunities for Active International Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-06-01

    For DOE's Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), international collaboration is a beneficial and cost-effective strategy for advancing disposal science with regards to multiple disposal options and different geologic environments. While the United States disposal program focused solely on Yucca Mountain tuff as host rock over the past decades, several international programs have made significant progress in the characterization and performance evaluation of other geologic repository options, most of which are very different from the Yucca Mountain site in design and host rock characteristics. Because Yucca Mountain was so unique (e.g., no backfill, unsaturated densely fractured tuff), areas of direct collaboration with international disposal programs were quite limited during that time. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel at Yucca Mountain has shifted UFDC's interest to disposal options and geologic environments similar to those being investigated by disposal programs in other nations. Much can be gained by close collaboration with these programs, including access to valuable experience and data collected over recent decades. Such collaboration can help to efficiently achieve UFDC's long-term goals of conducting 'experiments to fill data needs and confirm advanced modeling approaches' (by 2015) and of having a 'robust modeling and experimental basis for evaluation of multiple disposal system options' (by 2020). This report discusses selected opportunities of active international collaboration, with focus on both Natural Barrier System (NBS) and Engineered Barrier System (EBS) aspects and those opportunities that provide access to field data (and respective interpretation/modeling) or allow participation in ongoing field experiments. This discussion serves as a basis for the DOE/NE-53 and UFDC planning process for FY12 and beyond.

  13. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  14. Approaches to consider covers and liners in a low-level waste disposal facility performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Suttora, Linda [USDOE, Office of Environmental Management, Germantown, MD (United States)

    2015-03-17

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several USDOE sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the USEPA in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. One task completed by the working group addressed approaches for considering the performance of covers and liners/leachate collection systems in the context of a performance assessment (PA). A document has been prepared which provides recommendations for a general approach to address covers and liners/leachate collection systems in a PA and how to integrate assessments with defense-in-depth considerations such as design, operations and waste acceptance criteria to address uncertainties. Specific information and references are provided for details needed to address the evolution of individual components of cover and liner/leachate collection systems. This information is then synthesized into recommendations for best practices for cover and liner system design and examples of approaches to address the performance of covers and liners as part of a performance assessment of the disposal system.

  15. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  16. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  17. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  18. Disposable screen-printed sensors for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarfaj Nawal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A screen-printed disposable electrode system for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DL was developed using screen-printing technology. Homemade printing has been characterized and optimized on the basis of effects of the modifier and plasticizers. The fabricated bi-electrode potentiometric strip containing both working and reference electrodes was used as duloxetine hydrochloride sensor. The proposed sensors worked satisfactorily in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 with detection limit reaching 5.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 and adequate shelf life of 6 months. The method is accurate, precise and economical. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the drug in pure and in its dosage forms. In this method, there is no interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and diluents. Results of the analysis were validated statistically by recovery studies.

  19. Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

    2003-01-01

    Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

  20. The long path to a disposal for high radioactive waste. Pt. 2. A new approach for a better understanding of processes and the system in a whole; Auf dem langen Weg zu einem Endlager fuer hoch radioaktive Waerme entwickelnde Weg Abfaelle. T. 2. Ein neuer konzeptionell-konfigurativer Ansatz und ein neues Simulationswerkzeug zur Erarbeitung eines verbesserten Prozess- und Systemverstaendnisses fuer HAW-Entsorgungsanlagen - ohne und mit direktem laengerfristigem Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Karl-Heinz; Wolters, Ralf; Zhao, Juan [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Aufbereitung, Deponietechnik und Geomechanik

    2017-04-15

    A new conceptual-configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems - without and with direct long term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrieveability of the heat generating high radio active waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

  1. The long path to a disposal for high radioactive waste. Pt. 1. A new approach for a better understanding of processes and the system in a whole; Auf dem langen Weg zu einem Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Waerme entwickelnde Abfaelle. T. 1. Ein neuer konzeptionell-konfigurativer Ansatz und ein neues Simulationswerkzeug zur Erarbeitung eines verbesserten Prozess- und Systemverstaendnisses fuer HAW-Entsorgungsanlagen - ohne und mit direktem laengerfristigem Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Karl-Heinz; Wolters, Ralf; Zhao, Juan [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Aufbereitung, Deponiertechnik und Geomechanik

    2017-03-15

    A new conceptual-configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems - without and with direct long-term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrievability of the heat-generating high-radioactive waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post-closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

  2. Modeling Approach for Estimating Co-Produced Water Volumes and Saltwater Disposal Volumes in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Management of produced fluids has become an important issue in Oklahoma because large volumes of saltwater are co-produced with oil and gas, and disposed into saltwater disposal wells at high rates. Petroleum production increased from 2009-2015, especially in central and north-central Oklahoma where the Mississippian and Hunton zones were redeveloped using horizontal wells and dewatering techniques that have led to a disproportional increase in produced water volumes. Improved management of co-produced water, including desalination for beneficial reuse and decreased saltwater disposal volumes, is only possible if spatial and temporal trends can be defined and related to the producing zones. It is challenging to quantify the volumes of co-produced water by region or production zone because co-produced water volumes are generally not reported. Therefore, the goal of this research is to estimate co-produced water volumes for 2008-present with an approach that can be replicated as petroleum production shifts to other regions. Oil and gas production rates from subsurface zones were multiplied by ratios of H2O:oil and H2O:gas for the respective zones. Initial H2O:oil and H2O:gas ratios were adjusted/calibrated, by zone, to maximize correlation of county-scale produced H2O estimates versus saltwater disposal volumes from 2013-2015. These calibrated ratios were then used to compute saltwater disposal volumes from 2008-2012 because of apparent data gaps in reported saltwater disposal volumes during that timeframe. This research can be used to identify regions that have the greatest need for produced water treatment systems. The next step in management of produced fluids is to explore optimal energy-efficient strategies that reduce deleterious effects.

  3. Fully Disposable Manufacturing Concepts for Clinical and Commercial Manufacturing and Ballroom Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Berthold; Goldstein, Adam; Mahajan, Ekta

    2017-11-04

    The availability and use of pre-sterilized disposables has greatly changed the methods used in biopharmaceuticals development and production, particularly from mammalian cell culture. Nowadays, almost all process steps from cell expansion, fermentation, cell removal, and purification to formulation and storage of drug substances can be carried out in disposables, although there are still limitations with single-use technologies, particularly in the areas of pretesting and quality control of disposables, bag and connections standardization and qualification, extractables and leachables (E/L) validation, and dependency on individual vendors. The current status of single-use technologies is summarized for all process unit operations using a standard mAb process as an example. In addition, current pros and cons of using disposables are addressed in a comparative way, including quality control and E/L validation.The continuing progress in developing single-use technologies has an important impact on manufacturing facilities, resulting in much faster, less expensive and simpler plant design, start-up, and operation, because cell culture process steps are no longer performed in hard-piped unit operations. This leads to simpler operations in a lab-like environment. Overall it enriches the current landscape of available facilities from standard hard-piped to hard-piped/disposables hybrid to completely single-use-based production plants using the current segregation and containment concept. At the top, disposables in combination with completely and functionally closed systems facilitate a new, revolutionary design of ballroom facilities without or with much less segregation, which enables us to perform good manufacturing practice manufacturing of different products simultaneously in unclassified but controlled areas.Finally, single-use processing in lab-like shell facilities is a big enabler of transferring and establishing production in emergent countries, and this is

  4. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-05

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded. (DMC)

  5. Effect of precipitation, sorption and stable of isotope on maximum release rates of radionuclides from engineered barrier system (EBS) in deep repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekifarsani, A; Skachek, M A

    2009-10-01

    The basic function of the engineered barrier system (EBS) in geological disposal is to prevent or limit the release of radionuclides into the underground environment. For this purpose, the vitrified waste is contained in an overpack to isolate it from contact with groundwater for a certain initial period of time. However, it is impossible to ensure complete containment for all time. Therefore, the eventual release of nuclides must be minimized after the overpack fails (AEC, 1984. Radioactive waste processing and disposal measures; JNC, 2000a. Project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan--first progress report-H3. Geological Environment in Japan, JNC TN1410 2000-002; JNC, 2000b. H12: project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan--repository design and engineering technology, JNC TN1410 2000-003.). Low-permeability buffer material is installed between the overpack and the host rock to ensure that radionuclide release from the vitrified waste is limited by diffusive transport rather than advective transport in groundwater. Nuclides released from the waste form precipitate when their concentrations in the porewater result in their elemental solubility limits being exceeded. This limits the concentrations of many nuclides in the buffer and thus limits the release rates to the surrounding rock. High sorption coefficients act to delay the transport of certain nuclides during their migration through the buffer (PNC, development and management of the technical knowledge base for the geological disposal of HLW. Supporting report 2: repository engineering technology). The presence of isotopes of the same element has the effect of reducing the effective solubility of some nuclides; a lower nuclide concentration is required for precipitation to occur if the presence of any isotopes of the same element is taken into account. The calculated release rates of radionuclides from the EBS (per waste package) are

  6. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Challenges in disposing of anthrax waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesperance, Ann M; Stein, Steve; Upton, Jaki F; Toomey, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration's (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist in the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material would require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussions was the identification of 3 primary topical areas that must be addressed: planning, unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  8. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  9. DRUG USAGE AND DISPOSAL: OVERVIEW OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides the background for understanding the many complex variables that combine to cause pollution of the environment with the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals. It also summarizes the many approaches that could potentially reduce this pollution. Significantly, actions designed for pollution prevention or pollution reduction hold the potential to also reduce healthcare expenses, improve therapeutic outcomes, and moderate the long-persisting national problem of morbidity and mortality caused by poisonings of infants, children, adults, pets, and sometimes wildlife. These collateral benefits are important to this discussion beacuse one of the major unknowns regarding trhe various pollution control actions (such as reducing generation and disposal of unwanted drugs) is whether they would actually result in significantly reduced pollution. The main driving force for reducing pollution may have more to do with human health and safety. Presentation

  10. Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  11. TMI Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Taylor

    2003-09-01

    This report documents the reported contents of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) canisters. proposed packaging, and degradation scenarios expected in the repository. Most fuels within the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel inventory deal with highly enriched uranium, that in most cases require some form of neutronic poisoning inside the fuel canister. The TMI-2 fuel represents a departure from these fuel forms due to its lower enrichment (2.96% max.) values and the disrupted nature of the fuel itself. Criticality analysis of these fuel canisters has been performed over the years to reflect conditions expected during transit from the reactor to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, water pool storage,1 and transport/dry-pack storage at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.2,3 None of these prior analyses reflect the potential disposal conditions for this fuel inside a postclosure repository.

  12. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Program review: Ground disposal of reactor effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1967-10-18

    With the exception of N Reactor the plutonium production reactors operated by Douglas United Nuclear, Inc., use treated Columbia River water as coolant on a once through basis. Thus, radionuclides formed by neutron activation of Columbia River salts not removed in the water treatment process and water treatment additives are discharged to the river. Although the quantity and possible effects of the radionuclides released are well within nationally accepted limits, emphasis has been placed for some time on reducing the releases to as low a level as possible. More recently increasing concern has been evidenced with regard to the heat which is also discharged to the river. This report discusses concept which not only would drastically reduce the radionuclide content of the river but which would also substantially decrease the heat discharge. This concept is the disposal of the reactor effluent to the ground either to a pond or to a network of trenches.

  14. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  15. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  16. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas, systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of off gas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  17. Low-level waste disposal - Grout issue and alternative waste form technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Westski, J.H. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Based on the Record of Decision (1) for the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS) (2), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to dispose of the low-level fraction of double-shell tank (DST) waste by solidifying the liquid waste as a cement-based grout placed in near-surface, reinforced, lined concrete vaults at the Hanford Site. In 1989, the Hanford Grout Disposal Program (HGDP) completed a full-scale demonstration campaign by successfully grouting 3,800 cubic meters (1 million gallons) of low radioactivity, nonhazardous, phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW), mainly decontamination solution from N Reactor. The HGDP is now preparing for restart of the facility to grout a higher level activity, mixed waste double-shell slurry feed (DSSF). This greater radionuclide and hazardous waste content has resulted in a number of issues confronting the disposal system and the program. This paper will present a brief summary of the Grout Treatment Facility`s components and features and will provide a status of the HGDP, concentrating on the major issues and challenges resulting from the higher radionuclide and hazardous content of the waste. The following major issues will be discussed: Formulation (cementitious mix) development; the Performance Assessment (PA) (3) to show compliance of the disposal system to long-term environmental protection objectives; and the impacts of grouting on waste volume projections and tank space needs.

  18. OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF LANDFILL DISPOSAL SITE: A FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh, A. K. Vidyarthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The arbitrary disposal through land-fill sites and also the unscientific management of solid wastes generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities leading to serious problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation in India demand an immediate proper solid waste disposal planning otherwise it may cause a serious problem, especially in small and medium-sized cities/towns if proper steps are not initiated now. The present paper aims to develop decision support systems to allocate the best landfill disposal site among the given alternative sites for Vidya Vihar, Pilani, Rajasthan, India. The technique is applied to determine the overall strategy for planning of solid waste disposal and management, while taking into account its environmental impact, as well as economical, technical and sustainable development issues. The model effectively reflects dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system and provides decision-makers with a decision tool to make a better decision while choosing a municipal solid waste management strategy.

  19. Assessment of knowledge and practices for disposal of unfinished ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 386 respondents reported to store medications in their households, 66.6% eventually disposed of the drugs in domestic trash in events of expiry or when drugs became unwanted. Burying (9.1%), throwing/flushing down toilets (19.7%) and burning (4.6%) were less encountered. Public awareness that improper disposal ...

  20. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment or disposal by incineration. 20.2004 Section 20.2004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal... lubricants, coolants, hydraulic or insulating fluids, or metalworking oils) that have been radioactively...

  1. The Challenges of Waste Disposal in a Secondary City: Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste disposal is a major aspect in environmental preservation for healthy living. If neglected could constitute a nuisance and force people to leave rather than live in a city and ultimately despoiling the environment. This paper focuses on the challenges of waste disposal in a secondary city, using Calabar Metropolis as a ...

  2. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  3. HYDROGEOLOGY OF REFUSE DISPOSAL SITE JAKUŠEVAC (ZAGREB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Mayer

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the aquifer and distribution of potentials in the area of refuse disposal site Jakuševac are described. Possible effects of disposal site on ground water quality are estimated (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. 15 CFR 721.3 - Destruction or disposal of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction or disposal of records... INSPECTION OF RECORDS AND RECORDKEEPING § 721.3 Destruction or disposal of records. If BIS or other authorized U.S. government agency makes a formal or informal request for a certain record or records, such...

  5. 15 CFR 786.3 - Destruction or disposal of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction or disposal of records... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS RECORDS AND RECORDKEEPING § 786.3 Destruction or disposal of records. If BIS or any other authorized U.S...

  6. Safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charafoutdinov, Rashet; Guskov, Andrey [Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Former 'Radon' facilities were designed and operated as disposal facilities in early 60's. The initial assessment performed recently shows the overall picture of the situation with the legacy disposal facilities in the Russian Federation. General results of the assessment are presented in the paper. (orig.)

  7. Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate knowledge regarding sewage disposal was found among 94% of respondents. The flush/pour-flush toilet connected to septic tank, simple pit latrine and open defaecation were the methods found in use among them. The choice of sewage disposal type was statistically significantly related to level of education.

  8. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Federal Ministry of Environment and the Department of Petroleum Resources control underground disposal of wastes in Nigeria with three principal regulations: Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground Injection and the ...

  9. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  10. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO SIMULATE CO2 OCEAN DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Masutani

    1999-12-31

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of an investigation entitled ''Laboratory Experiments to Simulate CO{sub 2} Ocean Disposal'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's University Coal Research Program. This investigation responds to the possibility that restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions may be imposed in the future to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The primary objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data that can be applied to assess the technical feasibility and environmental impacts of oceanic containment strategies to limit release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal and other fossil fuel combustion systems into the atmosphere. A number of critical technical uncertainties of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} were addressed by performing laboratory experiments on liquid CO{sub 2} jet break-up into a dispersed droplet phase, and hydrate formation, under deep ocean conditions. Major accomplishments of this study included: (1) five jet instability regimes were identified that occur in sequence as liquid CO{sub 2} jet disintegration progresses from laminar instability to turbulent atomization; (2) linear regression to the data yielded relationships for the boundaries between the five instability regimes in dimensionless Ohnesorge Number, Oh, and jet Reynolds Number, Re, space; (3) droplet size spectra was measured over the full range of instabilities; (4) characteristic droplet diameters decrease steadily with increasing jet velocity (and increasing Weber Number), attaining an asymptotic value in instability regime 5 (full atomization); and (5) pre-breakup hydrate formation appears to affect the size distribution of the droplet phase primary by changing the effective geometry of the jet.

  11. Assessing farmers' practices on disposal of pesticide waste after use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A; Telidis, Georgios K; Thanos, Stavros D

    2008-02-15

    Common practices of farmers on disposal of pesticide waste after use were surveyed in five regions of the rural area of Pieria in northern Greece using a structured questionnaire administered via personal interviews. Concerning leftover spray solutions, most farmers reported that they normally re-spray the treated field area until the spraying tank is empty (54.9%) or they apply the leftover spray solutions to another crop listed on the product label (30.2%). A minority of the farmers (4.3%) mentioned that they often release the leftover spray solutions near or into irrigation canals and streams. As regards rinsates generated from washing the application equipment, most farmers reported that they release the rinsates over a non-cropped area (45.7%) or they drop the rinsates near or into irrigation canals and streams (40.7%). Moreover, a great proportion of the farmers stated that they dump the empty containers by the field (30.2%) or they throw them near or into irrigation canals and streams (33.3%). Burning the empty containers in open fire (17.9%) or throwing the empty containers in common waste places (11.1%) was also reported. Several farmers stated that they continue to use old pesticides for spraying (35.8%). Training programs which raise awareness of farmers of the potential hazards of pesticide use and particularly of the proper management of waste products, recycling programs and collection systems for unwanted agricultural chemicals to prevent inappropriate waste disposal, as well as improving packaging of pesticides to minimize waste production are essential for promoting safety during all phases of pesticide handling.

  12. Annual Summary of the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-01-11

    An annual summary on the adequacy of the Hanford Imnmobilized Low-Activity Waste (RLAW) Performance Assessment (PA) is required for each year in which a PA is not issued (DOE 0 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management; DOE M 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual; DOE/ORP-2000-0 1, Maintenance Plan For The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment). The most recently approved PA is DOE/ORP-2000-24, Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment: 2001 Version. The ELAW PA evaluated the adequacy of the ILAW disposal facility, now referred to as the Integrated Disposal Facility (11DF), for the safe disposal of vitrified Hanford Site tank waste. More recently, a preliminary evaluation for the disposal of offsite low-level waste and mixed low-level waste was considered in 12 RPP- 15834, Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment.

  13. Influence of animal waste disposal pits on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongwon; Hosaka, Akiko; Tase, Norio

    Since the implementation of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta in 1999, the number of the farmers that do not meet the management criteria is on the decline. However, there is a possibility that many of the animal waste disposal pits that have been either abandoned or refilled according to the law have been the potential contamination source. In this study, we discussed the impacts of the abandoned disposal pits to groundwater quality. The results showed that high concentrations of nitrate (above 100mg/L) were observed in the downstream of the disposal pits. It suggests that the abandoned animal waste disposal pits have been the potential pollution source even after the period of 15 years since the termination of use. Implementation of immediate countermeasure is necessary because the animal waste disposal pits are the long-term-sources of high levels of nitrate.

  14. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  15. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  16. Physicochemical and Geotechnical Alterations to MX-80 Bentonite at the Waste Canister Interface in an Engineered Barrier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Davies

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the basic geomechanical and mineralogical evolution of the bentonite barrier under various experimental boundary conditions which replicated the near-field Thermo-Hydro-Chemico (THC conditions in a repository. The relationships between the physicochemical alterations and changes in the geotechnical properties have seldom been studied, especially on a consistent dataset. This paper attempts to link the physicochemical properties of Na-bentonite (MX-80 to the macro-scale engineering functionality of the bentonite post THC exposure. Experiments investigated the impact of THC variables on the engineering and physicochemical functionality of the bentonite with respect to its application within a High-Level Waste (HLW engineered barrier system. Intrinsic alterations to the MX-80 bentonite under relatively short-term exposure to hydrothermal and chemical conditions were measured. Additionally, two long-term tests were conducted under ambient conditions to consider the impact of exposure duration. The intrinsic measurements were then related to the overall performance of the bentonite as a candidate barrier material for application in a UK geological disposal facility. Findings indicate that exposure to thermo-saline-corrosion conditions (i.e., corrosion products derived from structural grade 275 carbon steel inhibits the free swell capacity and plasticity of the bentonite. However, the measured values remained above the design limits set out for the Swedish multi-barrier concept, from which the UK concept may take a lead. Corrosion alone does not appear to significantly affect the geotechnical measurements compared with the influence of thermal loading and high saline pore water after relatively short-term exposure. Thermal and corrosion exposure displayed no impact on the intrinsic swelling of the smectite component, indicating that no significant structural alteration had occurred. However, when exploring more complex saline

  17. A comparison of reusable and disposable perioperative textiles: sustainability state-of-the-art 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary comparisons of reusable and single-use perioperative textiles (surgical gowns and drapes) reflect major changes in the technologies to produce and reuse these products. Reusable and disposable gowns and drapes meet new standards for medical workers and patient protection, use synthetic lightweight fabrics, and are competitively priced. In multiple science-based life cycle environmental studies, reusable surgical gowns and drapes demonstrate substantial sustainability benefits over the same disposable product in natural resource energy (200%-300%), water (250%-330%), carbon footprint (200%-300%), volatile organics, solid wastes (750%), and instrument recovery. Because all other factors (cost, protection, and comfort) are reasonably similar, the environmental benefits of reusable surgical gowns and drapes to health care sustainability programs are important for this industry. Thus, it is no longer valid to indicate that reusables are better in some environmental impacts and disposables are better in other environmental impacts. It is also important to recognize that large-scale studies of comfort, protection, or economics have not been actively pursued in the last 5 to 10 years, and thus the factors to improve both reusables and disposable systems are difficult to assess. In addition, the comparison related to jobs is not well studied, but may further support reusables. In summary, currently available perioperative textiles are similar in comfort, safety, and cost, but reusable textiles offer substantial opportunities for nurses, physicians, and hospitals to reduce environmental footprints when selected over disposable alternatives. Evidenced-based comparison of environmental factors supports the conclusion that reusable gowns and drapes offer important sustainability improvements. The benefit of reusable systems may be similar for other reusables in anesthesia, such as laryngeal mask airways or suction canisters, but life cycle studies are needed to

  18. Design and Operating Criteria for Fluorine Disposal by Reaction with Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harold W.

    1959-01-01

    Experiments with the charcoal-fluorine reaction for the disposal of fluorine have shown generally that this method is effective over a wide range of conditions. Pure fluorine or fluorine diluted with nitrogen to concentrations as low as 0.3 percent fluorine may be disposed of efficiently within the rate limitation. Maximum feed rates have been established and are inversely proportional to the charcoal-bed particle diameter. Moisture content in the charcoal had no appreciable effect on the disposal efficiency after the reaction zone was established and the moisture was driven off by the heat of reaction. There was no evidence of bed poisoning resulting from continued use. Design parameters may be based on the stoichiometric requirements plus sufficient excess charcoal to maintain desired efficiency toward the end of a disposal operation. The length of time a given reactor may be used continuously is limited by the rate of fluorine input and the resistance of the system to heat and fluorine attack. Refractory-lined reactors have been in routine field use at the Lewis Research Center for over a year and have given satisfactory service over a wide range of conditions.

  19. FROM CONSUMPTION TO DISPOSAL OF PRODUCTS AND PACKAGING: ARE WE ALIENATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Nascimento

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term “alienation” is used in sociological analysis of production systems and, recently, in studies of compulsive consumption. There are no definitions or investigations discussing "alienation of disposal" of products and packaging. Following this line of thought, the aim of this article is to identify people's perceptions about the implications of the act of discarding a product or packaging. Interviews were conducted with citizens and experts in environmental issues in Porto Alegre, Brazil. We followed a semi-structured script addressing general issues about the environment, buying behavior, habits and attitudes related to disposal and destination of products and packaging. The results indicate the absence of environmental education and knowledge of the life cycle of products. The consumer, when buying a product, does not envisage that will have to discard the packaging. The disposal is associated with the act of "making disappear out of his eyes" without knowing the steps taken by the waste until its final destination. It was found detachment or alienation concerning the disposal of products and packaging. The results of this research will support initiatives to increase environmental awareness of the population, as well as to elaborate policies about product information and consumer responsibilities.

  20. Arrangement of disposal holes according to the features of groundwater flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Nak Youl; Baik, Min Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Based on the results of groundwater flow system modeling for a hypothetical deep geological repository site, quantitative and spatial distributions of groundwater flow rates at the positions of deposition holes, groundwater travel length and time from the positions to the surface environment were analyzed and used to suggest a method for determining locations of deposition holes. The hydraulic head values at the depth of the deposition holes and a particle tracking method were used to calculate the groundwater flow rates and groundwater travel length and time, respectively. From the results, an approach to designing a layout of deposition holes was suggested by selecting relatively favorable positions for maintaining performance of the disposal facility and screening some positions of deposition holes that did not comply with specific constraints for the groundwater flow rates, travel length and time. In addition, a method for determining a geometrical direction for extension of the disposal facility was discussed. Designing the layout of deposition holes with the information of groundwater flow at the disposal depth can contribute to secure performance and safety of the disposal facility.