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Sample records for hkon mosby mud

  1. Multibeam Bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Rathlau, Rike; Schenke, Hans Werner

    2005-03-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano is a natural laboratory to study geological, geochemical, and ecological processes related to deep-water mud volcanism. High resolution bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano was recorded during RV Polarstern expedition ARK XIX/3 utilizing the multibeam system Hydrosweep DS-2. Dense spacing of the survey lines and slow ship speed (5 knots) provided necessary point density to generate a regular 10 m grid. Generalization was applied to preserve and represent morphological structures appropriately. Contour lines were derived showing detailed topography at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano and generalized contours in the vicinity. We provide a brief introduction to the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano area and describe in detail data recording and processing methods, as well as the morphology of the area. Accuracy assessment was made to evaluate the reliability of a 10 m resolution terrain model. Multibeam sidescan data were recorded along with depth measurements and show reflectivity variations from light grey values at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano to dark grey values (less reflective) at the surrounding moat.

  2. Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano provides unusual example of venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P. R.; Cherkashev, G.; Ginsburg, G.; Ivanov, G.; Milkov, A.; Crane, K.; Sundvor, A.; Pimenov, N.; Egorov, A.

    A seafloor mud volcano north of Norway is presenting researchers with an uncommon example of venting and is raising important questions. Seafloor aqueous vents, gas vents, mud volcanoes, and mud diapirs are found in a variety of geological settings. However, scientists did not expect to discover venting at the northern site, now known as the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV). It is considered especially unusual because of its Arctitc Location (72°N), its development largely within glacial marine sediments, and its lack of association either with salt tectonics or with plate subduction. Further, the volcano is posing questions for investigators about the relationship of methane generation and mud volcanism to thick, rapidly deposited sediments; sediment failure; and gas hydrates (GH).

  3. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  4. Novel microbial communities of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano and their role as a methane sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Helge; Lösekann, Tina; de Beer, Dirk; Elvert, Marcus; Nadalig, Thierry; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Sauter, Eberhard J; Schlüter, Michael; Klages, Michael; Foucher, Jean Paul; Boetius, Antje

    2006-10-19

    Mud volcanism is an important natural source of the greenhouse gas methane to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Recent investigations show that the number of active submarine mud volcanoes might be much higher than anticipated (for example, see refs 3-5), and that gas emitted from deep-sea seeps might reach the upper mixed ocean. Unfortunately, global methane emission from active submarine mud volcanoes cannot be quantified because their number and gas release are unknown. It is also unclear how efficiently methane-oxidizing microorganisms remove methane. Here we investigate the methane-emitting Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV, Barents Sea, 72 degrees N, 14 degrees 44' E; 1,250 m water depth) to provide quantitative estimates of the in situ composition, distribution and activity of methanotrophs in relation to gas emission. The HMMV hosts three key communities: aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (Methylococcales), anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2) thriving below siboglinid tubeworms, and a previously undescribed clade of archaea (ANME-3) associated with bacterial mats. We found that the upward flow of sulphate- and oxygen-free mud volcano fluids restricts the availability of these electron acceptors for methane oxidation, and hence the habitat range of methanotrophs. This mechanism limits the capacity of the microbial methane filter at active marine mud volcanoes to <40% of the total flux.

  5. Changes of biogeochemical activities before and after significant mud displacement at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Yoerger, D.; Camilli, R.; German, C.; Olu, K.; Feseker, T.; de Beer, D.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (72°N, 14° 43' E, 1250 m water depth) was studied for a period of a year by the Long-term Observatory On Mud-volcano Eruptions (LOOME) in 2009-2010, to investigate temporal variations of mud volcanism and consequences for biogeochemical processes. The HMMV is a highly active methane cold seep ecosystem characterized by high rates of methane efflux. It hosts different chemosynthetic communities such as thiotrophic bacterial mats and siboglinid tubeworm assemblages. This study focuses on changes in community composition and biogeochemical activity such as methane emission, total benthic oxygen uptake, microbial methane and sulfate consumption before and after a major mud displacement recorded by LOOME. The sensor-enabled long-term observations of the HMMV habitats were combined with short-term analyses before and after the displacement events by ROVs QUEST (MARUM) and GENESIS (University of Gent), the AUV Sentry (WHOI) equipped with a multibeam and subbottom profiler, CTD and photographic unit as well as with a mass spectrometer. We found shifts in the distribution patterns of chemosynthetic communities and also substantial changes in their activity, consistent with changes in temperature gradients. This study was sponsored by the EU-Projects HERMIONE "Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact on European Seas", and ESONET "European Seas Observatory Network" (Demonstration Mission LOOME "Long term observations on mud volcano eruptions").

  6. Trophic specialisation of metazoan meiofauna at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano: fatty acid biomarker isotope evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gaever, S.; Moodley, L.; Pasotti, F.; Houtekamer, M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Danovaro, R.; Vanreusel, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a detailed investigation on the trophoecology of two dominant meiofaunal species at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV), a deep-sea cold methane-venting seep. Analyses of fatty acids (FAs) and their stable carbon isotopes were used to determine the importance of

  7. Various microbial communities reduce methane efflux from Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvert, M.; Niemann, H.; Sauter, E.; Nadalig, T.; Lösekann, T.; Krüger, M.; Schlüter, M.; Boetius, A.

    2003-04-01

    Sediments of Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) are characterized by different microbial communities, which are oxidizing methane that is advectively transported to the sediment surface. Combined molecular and geochemical data reveal the presence of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in Beggiatoa and Pogonophera sediment areas whereas aerobic oxidation of methane is observed in the thermal center of HMMV. The activity is limited in each case to a narrow subsurface sediment horizon whereas the deeper layers are mostly inactive. Evidence for AOM is provided by lipid biomarker and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, targeting microbial consortia of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanotrophic archaea. The archaea detected could be assigned to a new group affiliated with Methanosarcinales, which is distinct from known phylogenetic groups involved in AOM (i.e., ANME1, ANME2). Comparative analyses show a correlating vertical distribution pattern with a sharp decline of sulfate concentration, biomarker concentration, aggregate number and AOM rate. A similar biogeochemical scenario is observed at the thermal center where, in contrast, aerobic methanotrophic gamma-proteobacteria dominate the microbial community. Biomarker analyses suggest that these bacteria are close relatives of known Methylomonas species. Without the processes of methane oxidation, the emission of methane to the hydrosphere would be even greater. Thus, the activity of the various microbial communities is an effective biological filter for methane seepage at HMMV.

  8. Changes in seabed morphology, mud temperature and free gas venting at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, offshore northern Norway, over the time period 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Jean-Paul; Dupré, Stéphanie; Scalabrin, Carla; Feseker, Tomas; Harmegnies, François; Nouzé, Hervé

    2010-06-01

    The Håkon Mosby mud volcano is a 1.5-km-diameter geological structure located on the Southwest Barents Sea slope at a water depth of 1,270 m. High-definition seabed mapping of the mud volcano has been carried out in 2003 and 2006. A comparative analysis of the bathymetry and backscatter maps produced from the two surveys shows subtle morphological changes over the entire crater of the mud volcano, interpreted to be the consequence of mud eruption events. Mud temperature measurements point to a persistently warm mud at shallow depth in the crater. This is explained by upward fluid advection, rather than conductive cooling of mud flows. The small-scale spatial variability in the temperature distribution may be related to mud outflows or changes in the fluid flow regime. Furthermore, the locations of free gas venting observed in 2006 were found to differ from those of 2003. Our observations of overall similar topographic profiles across the mud volcano in 2003 and 2006 suggest that eruption events would have been modest. Nevertheless, the data bring evidence of significant change in activity even over short time intervals of only 3 years. This may be a characteristic shared by other submarine mud volcanoes, notably those considered to be in a quiescent stage.

  9. Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösekann, Tina; Knittel, Katrin; Nadalig, Thierry; Fuchs, Bernhard; Niemann, Helge; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf

    2007-05-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. They are highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. In this study, the microbial diversity and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) were investigated by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the active volcano center, which has a diameter of about 500 m, the main methane-consuming process was bacterial aerobic oxidation. In this zone, aerobic methanotrophs belonging to three bacterial clades closely affiliated with Methylobacter and Methylophaga species accounted for 56%+/-8% of total cells. In sediments below Beggiatoa mats encircling the center of the HMMV, methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-3 clade dominated the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation. ANME-3 archaea form cell aggregates mostly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfobulbus (DBB) branch. These ANME-3/DBB aggregates were highly abundant and accounted for up to 94%+/-2% of total microbial biomass at 2 to 3 cm below the surface. ANME-3/DBB aggregates could be further enriched by flow cytometry to identify their phylogenetic relationships. At the outer rim of the mud volcano, the seafloor was colonized by tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora). Here, both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers were found, however, in lower abundances. The level of microbial diversity at this site was higher than that at the central and Beggiatoa species-covered part of the HMMV. Analysis of methyl-coenzyme M-reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes showed a strong dominance of a novel lineage, mcrA group f, which could be assigned to ANME-3 archaea. Our results further support the hypothesis of Niemann et al. (54), that high methane availability and different fluid flow regimens at the HMMV provide distinct niches for aerobic and

  10. The small-sized benthic biota of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (SW Barents Sea slope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwedel, Thomas; Portnova, Daria; Kolar, Ingrid; Mokievsky, Vadim; Schewe, Ingo

    2005-04-01

    R/V POLARSTERN expedition ARK XVIII/1 in summer 2002 provided the opportunity to carry out a sampling programme to assess the activity, biomass and composition of the small-sized benthic biota (size range: bacteria to meiofauna) around the active mud-oozing and methane-seeping Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) on the SW Barents Sea slope, Northern North-Atlantic. A total of 11 stations, covering different areas (e.g., bacterial mat sites, and pogonophoran fields) within the crater, and sites outside the caldera were sampled using a multiple corer. Subsamples were analyzed for various biogenic compounds to estimate the flux of organic matter to the seafloor (sediment-bound chloroplastic pigments indicating phytodetritus), activities (bacterial exo-enzymatic turnover rates) and the total biomass [from bulk parameters, like phospholipid (PL) concentrations in the sediments] of the smallest sediment-inhabiting organisms (range: bacteria to meiofauna). Direct investigations of bacterial numbers and biomasses as well as on meiofauna densities and composition completed our investigations at HMMV. As expected for a comparable small deep-sea area with only minor disparity in water depth between sampling sites, our investigations revealed generally no significant differences in organic matter input from phytodetritus sedimentation between sampling sites inside and outside HMMV. Bacterial exo-enzymatic activities as well as total microbial biomass (TMB) and meiofauna densities, however, exhibited generally higher values at HMMV, compared to sites outside the mud volcano. Enhanced benthic life at HMMV is based on chemosynthetic processes, making the mud volcano a "chemosynthetic oasis" in an otherwise oligotrophic deep-sea environment. As we did not find any indication for bacterial symbioses in the meiofauna, comparably rich meiofaunal assemblages at HMMV are presumably indirectly related to a general enhanced biological production.

  11. Diversity and Abundance of Aerobic and Anaerobic Methane Oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösekann, Tina; Knittel, Katrin; Nadalig, Thierry; Fuchs, Bernhard; Niemann, Helge; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. They are highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. In this study, the microbial diversity and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) were investigated by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the active volcano center, which has a diameter of about 500 m, the main methane-consuming process was bacterial aerobic oxidation. In this zone, aerobic methanotrophs belonging to three bacterial clades closely affiliated with Methylobacter and Methylophaga species accounted for 56% ± 8% of total cells. In sediments below Beggiatoa mats encircling the center of the HMMV, methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-3 clade dominated the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation. ANME-3 archaea form cell aggregates mostly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfobulbus (DBB) branch. These ANME-3/DBB aggregates were highly abundant and accounted for up to 94% ± 2% of total microbial biomass at 2 to 3 cm below the surface. ANME-3/DBB aggregates could be further enriched by flow cytometry to identify their phylogenetic relationships. At the outer rim of the mud volcano, the seafloor was colonized by tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora). Here, both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers were found, however, in lower abundances. The level of microbial diversity at this site was higher than that at the central and Beggiatoa species-covered part of the HMMV. Analysis of methyl-coenzyme M-reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes showed a strong dominance of a novel lineage, mcrA group f, which could be assigned to ANME-3 archaea. Our results further support the hypothesis of Niemann et al. (54), that high methane availability and different fluid flow regimens at the HMMV provide distinct niches for aerobic and

  12. High-Resolution Seismic Identification of the Caldera System and Dynamics of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, C.; Feseker, T.; Mienert, J.; Berndt, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) is an active 1 km wide cold seep structure located at 1250 m deep in the Bear Island Slide, southwestern Barents Sea. The HMMV is one of the few examples of mud volcanoes in non-compressional tectonic settings. Previous studies defined the deeper structure of the HMMV as an approximately 3 km deep seismic disturbance in Plio-Pleistocene deposits. Two-dimensional 3.5 kHz Sediment Echosounder Profiler data combined with Chirp seismic data collected during two cruises in 2005 and 2006 show the HMMV as an inverted-conical-shaped structure composed by five seismic units (U5-U1 from older to younger) and characterized by pull-down of reflections towards its geometrical centre as well as by a vertically oriented central area of poor seismic image quality. The lack of coherent reflectivity or "blanking" is likely due to the presence of gas in the section. Several studies have interpreted this lack of reflectivity as a "caldera" for mud volcanoes which constitutes the main pathway for fluid and gas in such structures. Isopach maps of the identified seismic units show that U5-U2 distribution is regional, but the youngest unit U1 is confined to the surroundings of the HMMV. The seismic signature of U5-U3 is mainly parallel or absent while unit U1 follows a hummocky trend, interpreted as mud flow deposits. Although the seismic unit U2 is mainly parallel, hummocky reflections as those in U1 have been identified westward of the geometrical centre of the volcano. Detailed analysis of the blanking effect over the seismic units reveals spatially overlapping calderas indicating different ages. Both size and position change, being circular and centrically located in U5-U3 units and oval and northeasterly displaced in both U2 and U1. The shallow structure of the HMMV can be described as a caldera complex in which five overlapping calderas have been identified. They record the migration dynamics of the HMMV over the time. Three years of in

  13. Meiobenthos at the Arctic Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano with a parental caring nematode thriving in sulphide-rich sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gaever, S.; Moodley, L.; De Beer, D.; Vanreusel, A.

    2006-01-01

    Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV, SW Barents Sea slope, 1280 m) is one of the numerous cold methane-venting seeps existing along the continental margins. Analyses of video-guided core samples revealed extreme differences in the diversity and density of the metazoan meiobenthic communities associated

  14. Endosymbioses between bacteria and deep-sea siboglinid tubeworms from an Arctic Cold Seep (Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösekann, Tina; Robador, Alberto; Niemann, Helge; Knittel, Katrin; Boetius, Antje; Dubilier, Nicole

    2008-12-01

    Siboglinid tubeworms do not have a mouth or gut and live in obligate associations with bacterial endosymbionts. Little is currently known about the phylogeny of frenulate and moniliferan siboglinids and their symbionts. In this study, we investigated the symbioses of two co-occurring siboglinid species from a methane emitting mud volcano in the Arctic Ocean (Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, HMMV): Oligobrachia haakonmosbiensis (Frenulata) and Sclerolinum contortum (Monilifera). Comparative sequence analysis of the host-specific 18S and the symbiont-specific 16S rRNA genes of S. contortum showed that the close phylogenetic relationship of this host to vestimentiferan siboglinids was mirrored in the close relationship of its symbionts to the sulfur-oxidizing gammaproteobacterial symbionts of vestimentiferans. A similar congruence between host and symbiont phylogeny was observed in O. haakonmosbiensis: both this host and its symbionts were most closely related to the frenulate siboglinid O. mashikoi and its gammaproteobacterial symbiont. The symbiont sequences from O. haakonmosbiensis and O. mashikoi formed a clade unaffiliated with known methane- or sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the dominant bacterial phylotypes originated from endosymbionts residing inside the host trophosome. In both S. contortum and O. haakonmosbiensis, characteristic genes for autotrophy (cbbLM) and sulfur oxidation (aprA) were present, while genes diagnostic for methanotrophy were not detected. The molecular data suggest that both HMMV tubeworm species harbour chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing symbionts. In S. contortum, average stable carbon isotope values of fatty acids and cholesterol of -43 per thousand were highly negative for a sulfur oxidizing symbiosis, but can be explained by a (13)C-depleted CO(2) source at HMMV. In O. haakonmosbiensis, stable carbon isotope values of fatty acids and cholesterol of -70 per thousand are difficult to reconcile with

  15. The ecology and distribution of benthic foraminifera at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (SW Barents Sea slope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenburg, J. E.; Mackensen, A.

    2009-08-01

    To investigate a possible influence of submarine methane seepage on benthic foraminiferal communities, Rose Bengal stained ("live") and empty tests of benthic foraminifera were studied from the sediment surface down to 15 cm sub-bottom depth of 12 sites at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV). In addition, one reference site well away from the seep sites, but from similar water depths and the same general hydrographic setting was occupied for comparison. The HMMV is located at 1265 m water depth on the SW Barents Sea continental slope. Distinct living foraminiferal associations at the HMMV are linked to specific sedimentary, microbial, and macrofaunal habitats. In the center of the crater, and in crater areas completely covered by bacterial mats, Cassidulina reniforme is the only, albeit rare, living species. Below the top few millimeters, sediments are anoxic and devoid of living specimens. At the rim of the mud volcano, at sites densely populated by pogonophoran tube worms, three benthic foraminiferal associations are found; (i) a Fontbotia wuellerstorfi-Lobatula lobatula association living attached to the upper parts of pogonophoran tubes, which protrude into oxic water, (ii) a diverse Cassidulina neoteretis association populating dysoxic sediments of the surface centimeter, and (iii) a species-poor Bolivina pseudopunctata association colonizing the subsurface sediments down to four centimeters. Generally, we did not find endemic or seep indicative species or associations at the HMMV. However, the HMMV live faunas dominated by B. pseudopunctata are not found at the reference site nor are they described from comparable water depths and environments without gas seepages from the Norwegian-Greenland Seas. In the center and outer rim of the mud volcano, a C. neoteretis-Reophax guttifer dead association, similar to the one at the reference site, characterizes an assemblage of strongly corroded and partly displaced tests. At bacterial mat sites, a C. reniforme dead

  16. Density and distribution of megafauna at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (the Barents Sea based on image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rybakova (Goroslavskaya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During a survey of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV, located on the Bear Island fan in the southwest Barents Sea at ∼1250 m water depth, different habitats inside the volcano caldera and outside it were photographed using a towed camera platform, an Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS. Three transects were performed across the caldera and one outside, in the background area, each transect was ∼2 km in length. We compared the density, taxa richness and diversity of nonsymbiotrophic megafauna in areas inside the volcano caldera with different bacterial mat and pogonophoran tubeworm cover. Significant variations in megafaunal composition, density and distribution were found between considered areas. Total megafaunal density was highest in areas of dense pogonophoran populations (mean 52.9 ind. m−2 followed by areas of plain light-coloured sediment that were devoid of bacterial mats and tube worms (mean 37.7 ind. m−2. The lowest densities were recorded in areas of dense bacterial mats (mean ≤1.4 ind. m−2. Five taxa contributed to most of the observed variation: the ophiuroid Ophiocten gracilis, lysianassid amphipods, the pycnogonid Nymphon macronix, the caprellid Metacaprella horrida and the fish Lycodes squamiventer. In agreement with previous studies, three zones within the HMMV caldera were distinguished, based on different habitats and megafaunal composition: "bacterial mats", "pogonophoran fields" and "plain light-coloured sediments". The zones were arranged almost concentrically around the central part of the caldera that was devoid of visible megafauna. The total number of taxa showed little variation inside (24 spp. and outside the caldera (26 spp.. The density, diversity and composition of megafauna varied substantially between plain light-coloured sediment areas inside the caldera and the HMMV background. Megafaunal density was lower in the background (mean 25.3 ind. m−2 compared to areas of plain light-coloured sediments

  17. Density and distribution of megafauna at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (the Barents Sea) based on image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova (Goroslavskaya), E.; Galkin, S.; Bergmann, M.; Soltwedel, T.; Gebruk, A.

    2013-05-01

    During a survey of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV), located on the Bear Island fan in the southwest Barents Sea at ˜1250 m water depth, different habitats inside the volcano caldera and outside it were photographed using a towed camera platform, an Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS). Three transects were performed across the caldera and one outside, in the background area, each transect was ˜2 km in length. We compared the density, taxa richness and diversity of nonsymbiotrophic megafauna in areas inside the volcano caldera with different bacterial mat and pogonophoran tubeworm cover. Significant variations in megafaunal composition, density and distribution were found between considered areas. Total megafaunal density was highest in areas of dense pogonophoran populations (mean 52.9 ind. m-2) followed by areas of plain light-coloured sediment that were devoid of bacterial mats and tube worms (mean 37.7 ind. m-2). The lowest densities were recorded in areas of dense bacterial mats (mean ≤1.4 ind. m-2). Five taxa contributed to most of the observed variation: the ophiuroid Ophiocten gracilis, lysianassid amphipods, the pycnogonid Nymphon macronix, the caprellid Metacaprella horrida and the fish Lycodes squamiventer. In agreement with previous studies, three zones within the HMMV caldera were distinguished, based on different habitats and megafaunal composition: "bacterial mats", "pogonophoran fields" and "plain light-coloured sediments". The zones were arranged almost concentrically around the central part of the caldera that was devoid of visible megafauna. The total number of taxa showed little variation inside (24 spp.) and outside the caldera (26 spp.). The density, diversity and composition of megafauna varied substantially between plain light-coloured sediment areas inside the caldera and the HMMV background. Megafaunal density was lower in the background (mean 25.3 ind. m-2) compared to areas of plain light-coloured sediments inside the caldera. So

  18. Automatic content-based analysis of georeferenced image data: Detection of Beggiatoa mats in seafloor video mosaics from the HÅkon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, K.; Lüdtke, A.; Schlüter, M.; Ioannidis, G. T.

    2007-02-01

    The combination of new underwater technology as remotely operating vehicles (ROVs), high-resolution video imagery, and software to compute georeferenced mosaics of the seafloor provides new opportunities for marine geological or biological studies and applications in offshore industry. Even during single surveys by ROVs or towed systems large amounts of images are compiled. While these underwater techniques are now well-engineered, there is still a lack of methods for the automatic analysis of the acquired image data. During ROV dives more than 4200 georeferenced video mosaics were compiled for the HÅkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV). Mud volcanoes as HMMV are considered as significant source locations for methane characterised by unique chemoautotrophic communities as Beggiatoa mats. For the detection and quantification of the spatial distribution of Beggiatoa mats an automated image analysis technique was developed, which applies watershed transformation and relaxation-based labelling of pre-segmented regions. Comparison of the data derived by visual inspection of 2840 video images with the automated image analysis revealed similarities with a precision better than 90%. We consider this as a step towards a time-efficient and accurate analysis of seafloor images for computation of geochemical budgets and identification of habitats at the seafloor.

  19. In-situ inventory of gas and gas hydrates in deposits of the Hâkon Mosby mud volcano, SW Barents Sea

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    Pape, T.; Feseker, T.; Kasten, S.; Fischer, D.; Abegg, F.; Hohnberg, H.-J.; Bohrmann, G.

    2009-04-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are an important source and reservoir of methane and other low-molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWHC). Consequently, mud volcanoes located within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) are known to host shallow buried gas hydrates in high density. However, gas hydrate inventories in shallow mud volcano deposits are strongly affected by changes in local physico-chemical conditions due to episodic volcanic activity and response by fixation or release of abundant portions of LMWHC. We determined the in situ gas inventories in shallow deposits of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV, SW Barents Sea) in approx. 1,250 m water depth by quantitative degassing of pressure cores recovered with our Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corer. As recognized during previous studies of the HMMV, a concentric arrangement of geochemical parameters and topographic features allow for the distinction of three geomorphological units (I, II, III). During our cruise in summer 2008 we recovered pressure cores (up to 2.65 m below seafloor, b.s.f.) from all the three units and volumetric gas-sediment (wet) ratios ranged between 2.6 in a core taken at the northwestern outer rim (Unit III), and 25.2 obtained for a core in the northeastern section (Unit II). Gas sub-samples collected during degassing of pressure cores belonging to the three units showed C1/C2+ ratios >1,000 suggestive of a predominantly microbial LMWHC origin. Hydrate stability calculations based on LMWHC distributions, pore water salinities and bottom water temperatures suggest that structure I hydrates are the most stable crystallographic hydrate structure at the HMMV. Pore water chloride and sulfate profiles combined with in situ temperature data were used to delineate local boundaries of hydrate accumulations in each of the three geomorphologic units. Subsequently, gas volumes in pressure cores were referred to core segments comprising gas hydrates, and hydrate concentrations were calculated. Low gas hydrate

  20. Distribution and abundance of gas hydrates in near-surface deposits of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano, SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Feseker, Tomas; Kasten, Sabine; Fischer, David; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of gas hydrates at submarine mud volcanoes (MVs) located within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) is controlled by upward fluid and heat flux associated with MV activity. Determining the spatial distribution of gas hydrates at MVs is crucial to evaluate their sensitivity to known episodic changes in volcanic activity. We determined the hydrocarbon inventory and spatial distribution of hydrates at an individual MV structure. The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV), located at 1,250 m water depth on the Barents Sea slope, was investigated by combined pressure core sampling, heat flow measurements, and pore water chemical analysis. Quantitative pressure core degassing revealed gas-sediment ratios between 3.1 and 25.7, corresponding to hydrate concentrations of up to 21.3% of the pore volume. Hydrocarbon compositions and physicochemical conditions imply that gas hydrates incipiently crystallize as structure I hydrate, with a dissociation temperature of around 13.8°C at this water depth. Based on numerous in situ measurements of the geothermal gradient in the seabed, pore water sulfate profiles and microbathymetric data, we show that the thickness of the GHSZ increases from less than 1 m at the warm center to around 47 m in the outer parts of the HMMV. We estimate the total mass of hydrate-bound methane stored at the HMMV to be about 102.5 kt, of which 2.8 kt are located within the morphological Unit I around the center and thus are likely to be dissociated in the course of a large eruption.

  1. 76 FR 31822 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO AGENCY: Federal... Mosby, MO. Decommissioning of the Mosby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Midwest National Air Center Airport, Mosby, MO, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument...

  2. Marvelous Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2011-01-01

    The author visited the Open Spaces Preschool in Whangarei, New Zealand and was surprised to see the most amazing natural preschool play. There were six preschoolers stripped down to tee shirts and underpants slipping, slopping, and sliding in the dirt spot which had now become the most lovely, silky-smooth deep-brown mud ever. Studies have…

  3. MOSBY: a molecular structure viewer program with portability and extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yutaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2002-03-01

    A molecular structure viewer program, MOSBY has been developed for studies that use atomic coordinates to understand the structures of protein molecules. The program is designed to be portable with a comprehensive user interface by our high-throughput graphics library. In addition, it cooperates with extension modules customized for individual research topics and analysis. For example, an electron density module loads and displays electron density maps derived in X-ray crystallographic analysis superimposed to an atomic model. A molecular dynamics module reads a trajectory file of the results of molecular dynamics calculations and animates the structure. These plug-in modules are devised to function without modification to the MOSBY program. For variations of analysis and calculations with atomic coordinates, the portability and extensibility illustrated by MOSBY play an important rule in scientific computational tools with active software development.

  4. Jack Mosby en la revuelta de 1911 en Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Douglas Taylor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza el papel que desempeñó el estadounidense John R. Mosby, conocido popularmente como Jack Mosby, en la revuelta de 1911 en Baja California encabezada por Ricardo Flores Magón y el Partido Liberal Mexicano. Mosby fue uno de los personajes más interesantes y controvertidos de esta campaña. Militar de profesión, también era miembro de los Industrial Workers of the World (Trabajadores Industriales del Mundo , una organización laboral radical de Estados Unidos que contribuyó a la defensa legal de los miembros de la junta dirigente del P L M, acusados por las autoridades estadounidenses de haber violado las leyes de neutralidad. Se examina la postura de Mosby a lo largo de la lucha, incluyendo las raíces de su apoyo entre los hombres de la Segunda División de los grupos armados liberales en la Baja California, su decisión de sostener los principios de Ricardo Flores Magón y del P L M, así como su determinación de continuar la lucha en la región aun cuando la derrota era casi inevitable.

  5. 76 FR 1377 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mosby, MO. Decommissioning of the Mosby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Midwest National Air Center Airport, Mosby, MO, has made this action necessary for the...

  6. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-11-11

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO₂ from the seafloor.

  7. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  8. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  9. MUD and Self Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Min

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

  10. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor. PMID:25384354

  11. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...models and methods that explain observed material and acoustic properties of different physical types of shallow-ocean mud sediments. Other goals...are to assess prior data relating to the acoustic properties of mud and to provide guidance in the development and interpretation of experiments. A

  12. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  13. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  14. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42... Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud flats are broad flat areas along the sea coast and in coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats...

  15. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  16. Fluid Mud in Energetic Systems: FLUMES II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    FINAL REPORT Fluid Mud in Energetic Systems: FLUMES II Gail C. Kineke Dept of...the dynamics of fluid mud and its role in the transport and deposition of sediment in coastal environments. In particular, we sought greater...understanding of the processes that influence the formation and maintenance of fluid mud in energetic environments. OBJECTIVES The research is a process

  17. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  18. Pumping fluid mud: theoretical and experimental considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Berlamont, J.

    1989-01-01

    In many cases maintenance dredging in harbors and access channels could be much cheaper and easier if the deposited mud could be pumped using fixed equipment. Therefore the feasibility of pumping fluid mud was examined. It is found that homogeneous mud can be pumped efficiently up to densities of 1150 kgm-3 (for the Zeebrugge (Belgium) mud). For higher densities the influence radius of the pumps becomes very small. A 1-D model can be used to determine the static equilibrium slope and the equi...

  19. Impact of hydrocarbon drilling mud on mud motor elastomers at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epikhin, A. V.; Melnikov, V. V.; Nechaeva, L. N.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes the experimental research of hydrocarbon drilling mud impact on engineering parameters of mud motor elastomer samples. It is believed to be urgent due to an increase in using mud motors in oil and gas well construction now, and the issue of intense exploitation is currently topical. The test results of elastomer IRP- 1226 dependent on the temperature are shown in the paper. It is proved that the hydrocarbon drilling muds have a significant impact on wearing of mud motors elastomers under the condition of a temperature increase.

  20. A method for making a drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishtvan, I.I.; Bityukov, N.N.; Galaburda, V.K.; Kosarevich, I.V.; Lopotko, M.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the invention is to increase the stability of a drilling mud. The formulated goal is achieved by the fact that in accordance with the method for preparing a drilling mud, which includes drying of organic mud, the dried organic mud is mixed with water, cured until its completion of swelling and it is then dispersed with mixing until the acquisition of a homogeneous suspension, where the mixing, curing and dispersion are conducted at 40 to 100C. The basic structure forming component of the drilling muds based on organic mud are the humus substances, whose content in the organic muds reaches 38 percent of its organic part. Along with the humus substances, the organic mud also contains bitumens, easily and difficultly hydrolized substances and mineral impurities. The macromolecules of the humus substances are inclined towards aggregation into chains and the forces of the hydrogen bonds may form drusy accumulations, clumps and aggregates. In hot water with intensive mixing the clumps of macromolecules build up and the accumulations and aggregates are peptized.

  1. 30 CFR 250.1614 - Mud program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud program. 250.1614 Section 250.1614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1614 Mud program. (a) The quantities...

  2. 33 CFR 117.177 - Mud Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud Slough. 117.177 Section 117.177 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.177 Mud Slough. The draw of the Union Pacific...

  3. Spatial heterogeneity in estuarine mud dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, D.; Van Kessel, T.; Eleveld, M.A.; Vanlede, J.

    2010-01-01

    The fate of mud in an estuary over an entire year was unravelled using complementary, independent, spatially explicit techniques. Sequential ERS-2 SAR and Envisat MERIS-FR data were used to derive synoptic changes in intertidal bottom mud and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the top of the

  4. NATURAL .CQNVECTION MUD TYPE SOLAR DRYERS ' FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype direct mode natural convection mud e solar dryer was fabricatedin the Department of Agricultural Engineering, du Bello University, Zaria' follome the model expressed in Equations 1 to 8. Mud was prepared in a local gethod y thoroughly mixmg soil, chopped summer~grass and water to paste-. - onsistency. ,.

  5. Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua; Li, Li; Yao, Xiangdong; Rudolph, Victor; Haghseresht, Fouad

    2008-10-01

    Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery, has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCl treatment shows the highest adsorption capacity among all the red mud samples, giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCl treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of two acidic phosphorus species, H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-). An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model.

  6. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with flame...

  7. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  8. A method for processing drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhin, L.K.; Khramchenko, L.N.; Rybalchenko, V.S.; Zavorotnyy, V.L.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase the speed of bonding hydrogen sulfide with a simultaneous preservation of its absorptive capability and the rheological properties of the muds with a high content of solid phase. This is achieved through processing the drilling muds by introducing an additive which bonds the hydrogen sulfide, which is based on iron oxides, which are the dehydrated residue from the production of aminotoluenes through reduction of nitrotoluene in a volume of 5 to 50 percent by weight of the drilling mud.

  9. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  10. METHODS OF IMPROVING THE MUD PUMP VALVE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miruna BĂLTĂREȚU IANCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum drilling rigs are used for identifying geologic reservoirs and for creating wells for extraction. The mud pumps of drilling rigs are operated at high mud rates to make possible the drilling process. The durability of the mud pump valves to erosive wear, due to the action of abrasive drilling fluid containing solid particles, depends on their constructive form and on the mud flow velocity. This paper analyzes a few methods of increasing the wear resistance of mud pump valves.

  11. Rheological Behavior of Drilling Muds, Characterization Using MRI Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Coussot, P; Bertrand, F; HERZHAFT, B

    2004-01-01

    Drilling muds are very complex fluids used to drill oil wells; their functions are various: to carry the rock cuttings to the surface, to maintain a sufficient pressure against the rock formation, to lubricate and cool the bit. There are mainly two families of drilling muds: oil based muds (invert emulsion of brine into an oil phase with various additives) and water based muds (aqueous solutions of clays and polymers). Originally prepared from produced oil, oil based muds formulations have ev...

  12. Automated-mud system enhances well control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.C.; Yeager, L.G.

    1974-09-01

    A new automated mud-mixing system, the Halliburton R/A Densometer, offers the industry a tool that can be used along with adjustable drilling chokes, degassers, and gas separators to form a package that will keep the operator in positive control of his well at all times. Its chief advantage lies in its ability to control impending blowouts by accurately and reliably measuring true mud density in continuous monitoring and automatic maintenance of the desired mud weight - unaffected by the material composition of normal mud systems. The system was used by Lone Star Producing Co. in drilling No. 1 Bertha Rogers to a record depth of 31,441 ft in Oklahoma's Anadarko basin.

  13. Bubble mobility in mud and magmatic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Aaron; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The rheology of particle-laden fluids with a yield stress, such as mud or crystal-rich magmas, controls the mobility of bubbles, both the size needed to overcome the yield stress and their rise speed. We experimentally measured the velocities of bubbles and rigid spheres in mud sampled from the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, Southern California. Combined with previous measurements in the polymer gel Carbopol, we obtained an empirical model for the drag coefficient and bounded the conditions under which bubbles overcome the yield stress. Yield stresses typical of mud and basaltic magmas with sub-mm particles can immobilize millimeter to centimeter sized bubbles. At Stromboli volcano, Italy, a vertical yield stress gradient in the shallow conduit may immobilize bubbles with diameter ≲ 1 cm and hinder slug coalescence.

  14. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  15. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A reagent for processing drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, G.A.; Khon-Pak, A.T.; Khon, A.V.; Normatov, L.N.; Telegin, B.V.

    1983-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for processing drilling muds. It contains an acrylic polymer and potassium permanganate. The reagent is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the quality of the drilling muds by increasing their salt resistance, the reagent contains hydrolized nitron fiber as the acrylic polymer with the following component relationship (in percent by weight): potassium permanganate, 0.015 to 0.065 and hydrolyzed nitron fiber, the remainder.

  17. NEW POLIMER SEALING FLUID STOPS MUD LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Stryczek

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a composition of sealing fluid, prepared from acrylic acid salt water solution Solakryl M. Laboratory test results of technological properties of its modifications with mineral agents are shown. A new method of sealing mud loss operations with given sealing liquid is discussed along with comments on effects of its use for stopping mud loss in case of freeze-well drilling is described (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Prevention of productivity impairment by mud solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darley, H.C.H.

    1975-09-01

    The extent to which mud solids invade a porous formation depends on the amount of mud spurt, and that depends mainly on the amount of primary bridging particles in the mud. With most muds and formations, bridging is rapid and the mud spurt penetrates only 1 to 2 in. into the formation. When the well is brought into production, most of the contamination will be carried back into the well. However, enough will remain to impair productivity a little, about 10% at the most. If the well is gun-perforated, the tunnels will extend well beyond the invaded zone, and impairment by solids will be negligible. Many formations can be completed with the drilling fluid used to drill the upper part of the hole without significant impairment. Problem wells and reservoirs especially liable to solids impairment require special treatment. If reservoir conditions permit, the surest way to avoid impairment is to use gas, foam or an underbalanced mud column. When this is not possible, it is best to use one of the special completion and workover fluids now on the market.

  19. Mud volcanos and mud domes of the central Mediterranean Ridge: near bottom and in situ observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.; Foucher, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    The first high-resolution mapping of mud volcanoes and mud domes of the Central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean) presented here is based on successive in situ observations from the Nautile submersible [MEDINAUT (1998) and NAUTINIL (2003) surveys] and near-bottom side-scan sonar data

  20. Mud exposed : We must get rid of this idea that mud is a problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruens, A.; Battjes, J.A.; Winterwerp, H.; Schrauwers, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mud and shipping dont mix. Silted-up waterways must be dredged, which costs money. Even so, the behaviour of sand in water systems has been the subject of many studies, whereas mud has remained the great unknown. Geographer Ankie Bruens dived in to gain insight into the matter.

  1. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

  2. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Pachiadaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan, we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641 belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562 were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

  3. How new biopolymers can improve muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dino, D.; Lindblad, D.E.; Moorhouse, R. (Rhoene-Poulenc Inc. (France))

    1993-11-01

    Xantham gum was introduced as a drilling-fluid component in the mid-1960s, but its use has risen noticeably since 1970, as prevalence of inhibitive polymeric drilling fluids has increased. Xanthan is known for its ability to build viscosity in both fresh water and salt solutions, its exceptional shear-thinning properties, and its tolerance to pH, all without environmental problems. Although biopolymers like xanthan typically represent only 0.25--1.5 lb/bbl of a drilling fluid, they are critical in building rheology, from spudding to the special demands of angled drilling and well completion. They add properties to muds which expand their use across a variety of formations and over a wide temperature range. Beyond xanthan, another useful class of biopolymers are the guar gums. Just as muds incorporating xanthan have been in the mainstay in rheology building over the years for many muds, fluids incorporating guar have long been the backbone of fracturing fluids. Guar and its derivatives are extremely versatile as rheology modifiers, particularly when used in conjunction with xanthans. In fact, xanthan/guar combinations have already been enhancing the effectiveness of muds at drill sites in the US. This paper reviews the performance of mixed xantham/guar additives to obtain an even better mud control system.

  4. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  5. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  6. Mud dynamics on the shoreface and upper shelf, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Montfort, O.; Dankers, P.J.T.; Rijn, L.C. van; Bonne, W.

    2005-01-01

    Mud dynamics on the shoreface were studied with measured mud concentrations in the water related to hydrodynamics and measured mud concentrations in the sandy bed. In addition, mud infiltration into the bed was modelled and mud inmixing into the bed by macro-benthos was assessed. The mud

  7. Monitoring drilling mud composition using flowing liquid junction electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, R.; Fletcher, P.; Vercaemer, C.

    1990-06-27

    The concentration of a chosen ionic component of a drilling mud is determined from the potential difference between an ion selective electrode, selective to the component and a reference electrode, the reference electrode being connected to the mud by a liquid junction through which reference electrolyte flows from the electrode to the mud. The system avoids errors due to undesirable interactions between the mud and the reference electrode materials. (author).

  8. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism

    OpenAIRE

    Quei?er, M.; Burton, M.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G.I; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back?arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid?dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is r...

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually

  10. Clay mineralogy of the mud banks of Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The mineralogy of the sediments constituting the mud banks formed off Cochin, Kerala, India was studied. The clay mineral composition was used as a means of understanding the nature and source of origin of the muds. Fine fraction of the mud samples...

  11. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  12. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content...

  13. AML (Advanced Mud Logging: First Among Equals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Loermans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years an enormous development in mud logging technology has been made. Traditional mud logging was only qualitative in nature, and mudlogs could not be used for the petrophysical well evaluations which form the basis for all subsequent activities on wells and fields. AML however can provide quantitative information, logs with a reliability, trueness and precision like LWD and WLL. Hence for well evaluation programmes there are now three different logging methods available, each with its own pros and cons on specific aspects: AML, LWD and WLL. The largest improvements have been made in mud gas analysis and elemental analysis of cuttings. Mud gas analysis can yield hydrocarbon fluid composition for some components with a quality like PVT analysis, hence not only revolutionising the sampling programme so far done with only LWD/WLL, but also making it possible to geosteer on fluid properties. Elemental analysis of cuttings, e.g. with XRF, with an ability well beyond the capabilities of the spectroscopy measurements possible earlier with LWD/WLL tools, is opening up improved ways to evaluate formations, especially of course where the traditional methods are falling short of requirements, such as in unconventional reservoirs. An overview and specific examples of these AML logs is given, from which it may be concluded that AML now ought to be considered as “first among its equals”.

  14. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, M.; Burton, M. R.; Arzilli, F.; Chiarugi, A.; Marliyani, G. I.; Anggara, F.; Harijoko, A.

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s-1 (117 t d-1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d-1, comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO2 fluxes.

  15. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO2 flux of 1.4 kg s-1 (117 t d-1) was determined, in line with the CO2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO2 flux of 3 kt d-1, comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO2. After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO2, with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO2 fluxes.

  16. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  17. An entrainment model for fluid mud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1993-01-01

    An entrainment model for fluid mud is derived by integrating the equation for turbulent kinetic energy across the mixed layer and introducing some modelling assumptions. The resulting entrainment model is similar to models of mixed-layer deepening in lakes and reservoirs, but in addition accounts

  18. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  19. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail.

  20. Evaluation of Corn Cob Cellulose and its Suitability for Drilling Mud Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob; Bekee Bari-Agara

    2014-01-01

    Properties of mud formulated with variable concentrations of cellulose processed from corn cob have been studied. The results obtained were compared with that of a standard mud formulated from Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC). These results have shown that the pH, mud density, specific gravity of the mud formulated from corn cob cellulose are higher than that of the standard mud, but rheology of the prepared mud was lower than that of the standard mud. The results show that cellulo...

  1. Study on dealkalization and settling performance of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Muxi; Qi, Xuejiao; Zhang, Yurui; Ren, Yufei; Tong, Jiacheng; Chen, Zining; Hou, Yiming; Yeerkebai, Nuerxiate; Wang, Hongtao; Feng, Shijin; Li, Fengting

    2017-01-01

    At present, the dealkalization and comprehensive utilization of red mud is a worldwide problem. Studies on the settling performance and phase transformation of red mud by HCl, CaO, and H2O leaching are limited. In this study, the characteristics of red mud were systematically analyzed. The average sizes of graded and initial red mud were 4.11 and 9.20 μm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectra (XRF), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) results indicated the different mineralogical phases, composition, and thermal behavior. The addition of HCl could neutralize the alkalization in the red mud slurry, and CaO could replace the Na and K. Notably, the pH of the red mud slurry had no obvious change with the increase in water washing times in a certain pH. Interestingly, soluble Al and Fe were not detected in the HCl-red mud and CaO-red mud. In addition, the settling ratio was used to express the settling performance of the red mud slurry. Their interaction mechanisms were proposed, which may include phase transformation and the changing of the size and surface area. The research provided a better understanding of the phase transformation and settling performance in the treatment of red mud by HCl, CaO, and H2O leaching.

  2. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A method for making a drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleutskiy, Ye.V.; Babarykin, A.I.; Kavaz-ogly, A.A.; Kiselev, A.T.; Monetkin, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is proposed for making a drilling mud, which includes mixing of an aqueous solution of a water soluble acrylic polymer with clay. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce the corrosion activity of the clay solution, the dry clay is slaked in an aqueous solution of partially hydrolized polyacrylonitrile with the following component relationship (in percent by mass): clay, 3 to 10; hydrolized polyacrylonitrile, 3 to 5 and water, the remainder.

  4. Feasibility of Using Dredged Mud for Prepared the Permeable Brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoqun; Cheng, Xiaosu; Zeng, Lingke; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Through experimental analysis found that the chemical composition of the dredged mud is similar to clay and the dredged mud does not leach heavy metals. Using the dredged mud in the preparation of permeable bricks reduced the quantity of incineration dredged mud buried in landfills, and the exploitation and consumption of natural sandstone. The dredged mud needs to be checked by the validation criteria when the second use, so we used the TCLP test to identify hazardous materials. Its leaching of heavy metals was in line with industry standard. And the basic formula of permeable brick were prepared, its performance was in line with national standards. The use of dredged mud preparing eco-friendly permeable bricks, not only solves the problem of environmental pollution, but also gets some economic and social profit.

  5. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET. Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than that of the normal red mud. After UV irradiation for 50 min, the removal percentage of MO reached 94.2%. The study provided a novel way for the application of red mud to the photocatalytic degradation of organic wastes.

  6. Antimicrobial properties of Dead Sea black mineral mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Zeev; Henis, Yigal; Alon, Yaacov; Orlov, Elina; Sørensen, Ketil B; Oren, Aharon

    2006-05-01

    The unique, black, hypersaline mud mined from the Dead Sea shores is extensively used in mud packs, masks, and topical body and facial treatments in spas surrounding the lake, and in cosmetic preparations marketed worldwide, but little is known about its antimicrobiological properties. We performed detailed microbial and chemical analysis of Dead Sea mineral mud compounded in dermatological and cosmetic preparations. Using conventional bacteriological media (with or without salt augmentation), we found surprisingly low numbers of colony-forming microorganisms in the mud. The highest counts (up to 20,000 colonies per gram, mostly consisting of endospore-forming bacteria) were obtained on sheep blood agar. Test microorganisms (i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans) rapidly lost their viability when added to the mud. Zones of growth inhibition were observed around discs of Dead Sea mud placed on agar plates inoculated with Candida or with Propionibacterium, but not with Staphylococcus or Escherichia. The effect was also found when the mud was sterilized by gamma irradiation. Using (35)S-labeled sulfate as a tracer, bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction could be demonstrated at a low rate (0.13 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm(3).d). The antibacterial properties of Dead Sea mud are probably owing to chemical and/or physical phenomena. Possible modes of antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties are discussed.

  7. Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves over Viscoelastic Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Neyestani, E.; Tahvildari, N.

    2016-12-01

    Mud is ubiquitous in coastal waters, and it is well known that surface waves dissipate strongly over a muddy seabed. An accurate model for wave evolution requires an accurate characterization of mud rheology. There has been several assumptions for mud rheology. In this study, we incorporate a mud-induced damping mechanism in a frequency-domain phase-resolving nonlinear wave model. The mud layer is assumed to be thin and behave as a viscoelastic medium. First, model results for monochromatic surface waves are compared with laboratory experiments and a good comparison is obtained. It is shown that increasing the mud elasticity results in a decrease in damping and an increase in phase-shift from the case with a purely viscous mud. The validated model is then employed to examine the combined effect of mud viscosity and elasticity on evolution of surface wave spectrum. Two-dimensional simulations demonstrate strong wave dissipation over a mud patch resulting in a significant diffraction in the lee side.

  8. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Mingjie Ma; Guanyu Wang; Zhengpeng Yang; Shanxiu Huang; Weijie Guo; Yuxia Shen

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than tha...

  10. Thermophilic Microorganisms in Sediments at Arctic Marine Mud Volcanoes - Do They Come From the Deep Biosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Hubert, C.; Boetius, A.; Jorgensen, B. B.

    2008-12-01

    Thermophilic endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been detected in the permanently cold Arctic fjord sediments (Svalbard; 79°N). Incubating these sediments at 50°C results in high rates of sulfate reduction that are due to induction of an abundant thermophilic population. Sources for such a relatively high density of thermophiles in cold sediments are unknown, but could include the warm, deep biosphere where growth-supporting habitats for thermophiles may exist. This warm environment could be connected to the cold surface sediments via upward fluid flow within the sea bed. Mud volcanoes regularly transport hot sediment from the deep biosphere to surface areas, and as such may represent transport mechanisms from warm to cold environments. Sediment samples from the Haakon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV) located south of Svalbard in the Barents Sea (72°N, 14°44' E; 1,250 m water depth), were examined to further investigate this possibility. During incubations at 50°C, sulfate reduction rates in Smeerenburgfjorden and HMMV sediments began to increase exponentially following a lag phase, during which sulfate reduction rates were not detected using a radiotracer assay. Assuming that thermophilic SRB in both sediments are similar, the magnitude and nature of their response can be used to estimate their relative abundance in different samples. Using this approach, more thermophilic SRB were detected in Svalbard sediment than in HMMV sediments. The presence of thermophilic SRB at the HMMV supports the idea that mudflow may be a legitimate mechanism for transporting thermophiles from the deep biosphere to cold surface sediments. Further depth and concentric resolution at HMMV may allow a more thorough understanding of how the transport mechanism might work. Considering the relative responses and the distance between the two study sites, thermophilic SRB in Svalbard sediments likely do not come from the HMMV. Local cold seeps around Svalbard share some

  11. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Christianto; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Djwantoro Hardjito; , Antoni

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The...

  12. SWAN-mud: engineering model for mud-induced wave damping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Winterwerp, J.C.; de Boer, G.J.; Cornelisse, JM.; Zijlema, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a new dispersion relation and energy-dissipation equation obtained from a viscous two-layer model schematization in the state-of-the-art wave forecasting model SWAN to simulate wave damping in coastal areas by fluid mud deposits. This new dispersion

  13. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of. Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  15. Mud banks of Kerala: Mystery yet to be unveiled!

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    processors and exporters buy up the bumper crop and cash in on the abundance. The formation and behaviour of Mud Banks is a phenomenon unique to the southwest coast of India. They are peculiar in their formation as well as functions. Mud Banks are defi...

  16. Cannibalistic interactions of juvenile mud crabs Scylla serrata : the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the culture of mud crab Scylla serrata, cannibalism is often the greatest cause of mortality. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the influence of size class differences and shelter on cannibalism and limb loss in juvenile mud crabs (20–70 mm internal carapace width; ICW). Four size classes of juvenile crab (A: ...

  17. The anaerobic digestion of organic matter in sugarbeet mud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, M.G.; Haan, de F.A.M.; Blom, J.J.C.; Knaapen, J.W.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Storage of sugar-beet mud in the traditional way, i.e., direct dewatering after pumping the slurry in storage basins, may cause odor nuisance because of digestion of organic substances. In order to prevent these bad odor problems the mud should remain submerged during the digestion period. No

  18. Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The stark, geometric, black and white designs tradi- tionally found on the mud cloths from Mali, can today be found on everything from clothing and furniture to book covers and wrapping paper. Along with kente. (from Ghana), mud cloth has become one of the best- known African cloth traditions worldwide (Clarke,. 2001).

  19. Calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruibing [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems, Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Tingan, E-mail: zhangta@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A new approach named calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing is proposed. • The method can prevent emission of red mud from alumina production and is good for the environment. • Thermodynamics characteristics were investigated. • The method was verified experimentally using a jet-flow reactor. - Abstract: Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification–carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO{sub 2} carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with <0.3% alkali can be used in cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized.

  20. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario....... In MUD, corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion are computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns are derived....

  1. Natural convection mud type solar dryers for rural farmers | Eke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype direct mod'e natural convection mud type solar dryer was designed, fabricated and tested. Mud was selected as a major dryer material based on its thermal properties, availability and workability by the rural dwellers who .are the end users. Consequent to the laboratory test which dried maize from initial moisture ...

  2. Adsorption of dichromate ions on the red mud surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, M. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Artamonova, I. V.; Rusakova, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of using a red mud (waste of alumina production) as a sorbent of dichromate ions from aqueous solutions is studied. A method for the activation of red mud by hydrochloric acid is proposed. The dependences of the amount adsorbed of dichromate ions on the pH and initial concentration of aqueous solutions are studied.

  3. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  4. Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) Culture: Understanding the Technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-return analysis on a per year basis/50 crabs showed that the use of either bamboo or fito as cage construction material was economically viable with a return on capital investment of 122.3 -181.7%. Therefore the integration of mud crab culture in mangrove forest is feasible in Kenya. Keywords: Mud crab, Pens, Cages, ...

  5. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrik, J. [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  6. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  7. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  8. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  9. Durability of Bricks Coated with Red mud Based Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Basavanagowda, S. N.; Aswath, M. U.; Ranganath, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    The present study is undertaken to assess the durability of concrete blocks coated with red mud - fly ash based geopolymer paste. Concrete blocks of size 200 x 200 x 100mm were coated with geopolymer paste synthesized by varying the percentages of red mud and fly ash. Uncoated concrete blocks were also tested for the durability for comparison. In thermal resistance test, the blocks were subjected to 600°C for an hour whereas in acid resistance test, they were kept in 5% sulphuric acid solution for 4 weeks. The specimens were thereafter studied for surface degradation, strength loss and weight loss. Pastes with red mud percentage greater than 50% developed lot of shrinkage cracks. The blocks coated with 30% and 50% red mud paste showed better durability than the other blocks. The use of blocks coated with red mud - fly ash geopolymer paste improves the aesthetics, eliminates the use of plaster and improves the durability of the structure.

  10. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns.

  11. Serpentinite mud volcanism: observations, processes, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Large serpentinite mud volcanoes form on the overriding plate of the Mariana subduction zone. Fluids from the descending plate hydrate (serpentinize) the forearc mantle and enable serpentinite muds to rise along faults to the seafloor. The seamounts are direct windows into subduction processes at depths far too deep to be accessed by any known technology. Fluid compositions vary with distance from the trench, signaling changes in chemical reactions as temperature and pressure increase. The parageneses of rocks in the mudflows permits us to constrain the physical conditions of the decollement region. If eruptive episodes are related to seismicity, seafloor observatories at these seamounts hold the potential to capture a subduction event and trace the effects of eruption on the biological communities that the slab fluids support, such as extremophile Archaea. The microorganisms that inhabit this high-pH, extreme environment support their growth by utilizing chemical constituents present in the slab fluids. Some researchers now contend that the serpentinization process itself may hold the key to the origin of life on Earth.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of sterilized muds for pharmaceutics/cosmetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitsou, Maria D; Sygouni, Varvara; Kanellopoulou, Dimitra G; Gardikis, Konstantinos; Koutsoukos, Petros G

    2017-12-30

    Clays and muds have been used for centuries as cosmetics or pharmaceutical products for various therapies. The suitability of muds and clays for health- and beauty-related applications depends on their physicochemical properties, mineralogical composition, particle characteristics and toxicity. In this work, the physicochemical characterization of 12 mud specimens from different natural spa resorts in Greece and one from Israel (Dead Sea) is presented. All specimens were sterilized at 121 °C for 20 min, because of their intended use. The Greek mud specimens were collected from various locations in Macedonia, Western Greece and Northeast Aegean. All muds were characterized concerning their mineralogical, chemical components as well as their morphological characteristics using appropriate methods [powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen absorption specific surface area measurements (BET), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy]. The concentrations of F-, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- anions at equilibrium with the mud specimens were measured by ion chromatography. Total calcium concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the concentration of total N, C, H and S in the solids was measured using elemental analysis. Moreover, total phenolic concentration (TPC) in distilled water equilibrated with the mud specimens was measured as an index for their antioxidant properties. Several muds were found to present high TPC. Several of the examined mud specimens were found to have the potential use as pharmaceuticals or cosmetics. Based on the physicochemical characteristics of the mud specimens examined, possible improvement in their use and applicability has been suggested.

  13. Preliminary analytical results for a mud sample collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  14. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianchi A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical changes and release a series of chemical species to the mud, resulting, in particular, in an enrichment phenomenon for some radionuclides. In this work, the first radiochemical analysis extended to all the Euganean Thermal District is reported. In particular, chemical analyses of mud, as well as radiochemical analyses of both mud and waters were performed; the enrichment of the radioisotopes in mud used for treatments was also documented. The results show that the 226Ra content in mud, during the "maturation" process, presents an enrichment even of one order of magnitude with respect to the value found in the unprocessed mud. Furthermore, in the same thermal waters, high concentrations of "unsupported" 222Rn have been found, which have shown to be not completely negligible both for people under treatment and particularly for spa workers.

  15. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  16. Distribution of Gassy Sediments and Mud Volcanoes Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Kun Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results from recent intense marine geophysical surveys conducted offshore of southwestern Taiwan. Mud volcanoes and gassy sediments have been identified along chirp sonar and seismic reflection profile data. The distribution of gassy sediments and mud volcanoes has been compiled, showing these features extending from the accretionary wedge to the passive China continental margin. Submarine mud volcanoes could be grouped into four main clusters in the accretionary wedge province: offshore Kaohsiung, adjacent to the Kaoping Submarine Canyon, near the head of the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and along the Yung-An Lineament. Each cluster is composed of a few to more than 10 submarine mud volcanoes. Their origin could be related to gas hydrate dissociation with rising highpressure fluid along faults or mud diapir piercing the seafloor. These gassy sediments and mud volcanoes could be formed by fluids escaping from dewatering sedimentary layers of mud diapirs, or along faults and fractures where free gases or gases dissociating from hydrates migrate to the seafloor.

  17. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  19. Thermal mud maturation: organic matter and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centini, M; Tredici, M R; Biondi, N; Buonocore, A; Maffei Facino, R; Anselmi, C

    2015-06-01

    Many of the therapeutic and cosmetic treatments offered in spas are centred on mud therapy, to moisturize the skin and prevent skin ageing and rheumatic diseases. Thermal mud is a complex matrix composed of organic and inorganic elements which contribute to its functions. It is a natural product derived from the long mixing of clay and thermal water. During its maturation, organic substances are provided by the microalgae, which develop characteristic of the composition of thermal water. The aim of this study was to identify methods for introducing objective parameters as a basis for characterizing thermal mud and assessing its efficacy. Samples of thermal mud were collected at the Saturnia spa, where there are several sulphureous pools. The maturation of the mud was evaluated by organic component determination using extractive methods and chromatographic analysis (HPLC, GC-MS, SPME). We also studied the radical scavenging activity of mud samples at different stages of maturation, in a homogeneous phase, using several tests (DPPH, ORAC, ABTS). We identified several classes of compounds: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxyl acids, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, alcohols and others. SPME analysis showed the presence of various hydrocarbons compounds (C(11) -C(17)) and long-chain alcohols (C(12) -C(16)). Six or seven months seemed appropriate to complete the process of maturation, and the main effect of maturation time was the increase of lipids. Six-month mud showed the highest activity. The hydrophilic extract was more active than the lipophilic extract. The results indicate that maturation of thermal mud can be followed on the basis of the changes in its organic composition and antioxidant properties along the time. They also highlight the need to develop reference standards for thermal muds in relation to assess their use for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF LAPINDO MUD DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundakir Mundakir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lapindo mud disaster that occurred since 29 May 2006 is considered as the longest disaster that occurred in Indonesia. This disaster has caused damage and lost of property which has been affecting the viability of the residents of the affected areas. Psychosocial well being is one af the impacts of disaster. Research was conducted using qualitative design with descriptive phenomenology method. The purpose required of this research was to identify the psychological impact, social impact, and hope for the settlement of problems and health services. Method: Number of participants were involved in this research based on the saturation of data was 7 people. This study used purposive sampling technique using the key informant. Procedure of data collection techniques using depth interviews with a semi-structured form of used questions. The Digital Voice Record was utilized to record the interviews, and verbatim transcripts made and analyzed using the methods of Colaizi (1978, in Daymon and Dolloway, 2008. Result: This study revealed 9 theme of core and 2 additional theme. Nine the core theme is emotional changes, cognitive changes, coping mechanism, changes in family function, changes in social relationships, social support, hope to the problem to the government and PT Lapindo, physical health service needs and psychological health. Discussion: While two additional theme that is risk and growth trouble, and distres spiritual. Conclusion of this research society of victim of mud of Lapindo experience of impact of psikosoial and hope to government and PT Lapindo settle the payment phase II (80% and also provide service of health of physical and also psikososial. This research recommend the importance of intervention of psikososial to society of victim and research of continuation after society of victim take possession of new residences.

  1. Mudéjarská architektura v Granadě

    OpenAIRE

    Vopálková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This thesis called "Mudéjar Architecture in Granada" presents the most genuine artistic expresion of the Christian Midle Aged Spain. It deals with areas of the mudéjar architecture and it puts the main accent on mudéjar architecture in the south spanish town in Andalusia named Granada. I chose this subject matter because I am interested in spanish culure and history of spanish art. I availed of my annual research fellowship at the University of Granada and my annual staying in that mysterious...

  2. Comparative study of using Water-Based mud containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus Oil-Based mud in HPHT fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abduo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-Based mud (WBM and Oil-Based mud (OBM are the most common drilling fluids currently used and both have several characteristics that qualify them for High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT purposes. This paper compares the different characteristics of WBM containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs and OBM to help decide the most suitable mud type for HPHT drilling by considering mud properties through several laboratory tests to generate some engineering guidelines. The tests were formulated at temperatures from 120 °F up to 500 °F and pressures from 14.7 psi to 25,000 psi. The comparison will mainly consider the rheological properties of the two mud types and will also take into account the environmental feasibility of using them. The results showing that the Water-Based offers a more environmental friendly choice yet some of additives that are used to enhance its performance at (HPHT conditions, such as (MWCNTs, thus it is necessary to develop new formulas for (HPHT Water-Based muds that could act like Oil-Based mud but cause less harm to the environment.

  3. Ascent velocity and dynamics of the Fiumicino mud eruption, Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, A.; Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; D'Ambrosio, R.; Romano, C.; Manga, M.

    2015-08-01

    In August 2013 drilling triggered the eruption of mud near the international airport of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy). We monitored the evolution of the eruption and collected samples for laboratory characterization of physicochemical and rheological properties. Over time, muds show a progressive dilution with water; the rheology is typical of pseudoplastic fluids, with a small yield stress that decreases as mud density decreases. The eruption, while not naturally triggered, shares several similarities with natural mud volcanoes, including mud componentry, grain-size distribution, gas discharge, and mud rheology. We use the size of large ballistic fragments ejected from the vent along with mud rheology to compute a minimum ascent velocity of the mud. Computed values are consistent with in situ measurements of gas phase velocities, confirming that the stratigraphic record of mud eruptions can be quantitatively used to infer eruption history and ascent rates and hence to assess (or reassess) mud eruption hazards.

  4. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Agwu, Okorie E.; Anietie N. Okon; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  5. Characteristics of Lusi Mud Volcano and Its Impacts on the Porong River

    OpenAIRE

    B D Krisnayanti; D. S. Agustawijaya

    2014-01-01

    Since the first gas and mud volcano spewed from well at Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia (called Lusi or Lapindo mud) in 2006, its keep flowing ever since. Despite the occurrence of Lusi mud volcano was debated. Either it was natural or unnatural disaster, but maintaining the impact of the mud on social and environment is important. In addition, monitoring water, land and air quality under permitable condition is urgently necessary, due to some scientist stated that the eruption of mud volcano ...

  6. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  7. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January - April, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  8. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  9. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE USE OF MUD "TINAKSKAYA" IN MEDICINE (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Tsurigova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the published data on the therapeutic properties of the mud "Tinakskaya". In addition, data on the use of natural factors lake "Therapeutic" in medicine is performed.

  11. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January - April, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  12. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  13. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - August, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  14. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  15. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - August, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  16. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - August, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  17. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January - April, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  18. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill mud cuttings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Payne, J; Fancey, L; Andrews, C; Meade, J; Power, F; Lee, K; Veinott, G; Cook, A

    2001-01-01

    Data are presented on the short term effect of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods...

  19. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuarine morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten; van Kessel, Thijs; Wongsoredjo, Samor; Bergsma, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Sandy river estuaries have great economic and ecologic values, but a better understanding is required about the effect of mud on large-scale morphodynamics to optimise maintenance strategies. Very few studies actually include sand-mud interaction effects on morphodynamics on decadal and centennial timescales due to model limitations and lack of spatially and temporally dense data of mud in the bed. Here we study effects of cohesive sediment supply on equilibrium estuary shape, bar-channel patterns and dynamics, during formation from idealised initial conditions over a time scale of centuries and millennia. On the basis of related modelling and experimentation of river and delta patterns we hypothesise that mud will settle into mud flats flanking the estuary that resist erosion and thus self-confine and narrow the estuary and reduce braiding index and channel-bar mobility. We applied the process-based numerical model Delft3D in depth-averaged mode starting from idealised convergent estuaries. Mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades-Krone relations for the cohesive regime, and Engelund-Hansen for the non-cohesive regime depending on the fraction of mud. This was subjected to a range of different mud inputs from the river or from the sea and a range of river discharge and tidal amplitudes. Our modelling results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the sides of the estuary. Higher mud concentration at the river inflow leads to narrower and shorter estuaries. Channels within the estuary also become narrower due to increased cohesion in the channel banks. This trend is confirmed in preliminary experiments. However, channels do not increase in depth; this is in contrast with what is observed in rivers and we do not yet fully understand this. Migration rates of channels and bars and bar splitting and merging also reduce with increasing mud concentration. For higher discharge channel

  20. Selection of parameters for mud pumps used for HDD Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ziaja

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Design solutions of rigs used for HDD are presented in the paper. HDD devices are classified on the basis of presented criteria, and then a division of rigs was proposed. The principles of determining technological parameters of piston mud pumps for HDD are presented. The principles of determining volume flow rate for an arbitrary rheological model of drilling mud are discussed. The dependences enabling a calculation of resistance of drilling fluid flow in a circulation system are also presented.

  1. Transcultured Architecture: Mudéjar’s Epic Journey Reinterpreted

    OpenAIRE

    Ila Nicole Sheren

    2011-01-01

    The Mudéjar phenomenon is unparalleled in the history of architecture. This style of architecture and ornamentation originated with Arab craftsmen living in reconquered medieval Spain. Embraced by Spanish Christians, Mudéjar traveled over the course of the next four centuries, becoming part of the architectural history of Latin America, especially present-day Mexico and Peru. The style’s transmission across different religions and cultures attests to its ability to unify disparate groups of p...

  2. Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds

    OpenAIRE

    Marthe Monique Gagnon; Sajida Bakhtyar

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to ...

  3. Spring Deposits and Mud Volcanoes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Baker, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    We report evidence for spring deposits in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra. The Vernal structures are low mounds, each approximately 250 m by 500 m in extent, with terraced flanks, apical depressions, river-like channels, concentric fractures, and elliptical tonal anomalies. All of these features are common in terrestrial springs such as the Dalhousie complex in Australia. The structures occur in an apparent unit of interdune, water-laid sediment and are associated with evidence of subsurface fluid flow in sets of aligned outcrops. The Vernal springs may be part of a larger complex of spring deposits and lineations, suggesting that fluid flow in this region was relatively extensive. The structures in Vernal Crater are coated with a thin layer of dust, which prevents mineral identification from orbit. In an attempt to find evidence for additional spring mounds, we conducted a survey of nearly 2,000 locations for which CRISM spectral images are available. We used CRISM data to identify dust-free, hydrated areas and HiRISE, CTX, and MOC images to evaluate morphology. This study covered all longitudes and latitudes from 50N to 70S, except near Tharsis where data were analyzed south of 15S. No location exhibited morphological features that closely resembled those in Vernal Crater, suggesting that these putative spring mounds are not common in the highlands of Mars. Our search led us to concentrate on a dust-free area, centered at 41.8N, 332.5E in Acidalia Planitia where Farrand et al. (2005) identified features resembling spring mounds or mud volcanoes. Tanaka et al. (2005) mapped this region as part of the Early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis Unit, interpreted as reworked sediments from outflow channels and highland sources. We mapped over 20 high-albedo pitted domes in the area covered by one HiRISE frame, with dome diameters ranging from 350 m to 1 km. Nearby, similar domes have measured heights ranging from 36 to 65 m. The dome material is darker in THEMIS nighttime IR than

  4. Martian mud volcanism: Terrestrial analogs and implications for formational scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J.A.; Mazzini, A.

    2009-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the stratigraphic characteristics of its uppermost crust (mega-regolith) suggest that some of the pervasively-occurring pitted cones, mounds, and flows may have formed through processes akin to terrestrial mud volcanism. A comparison of terrestrial mud volcanism suggests that equivalent Martian processes likely required discrete sedimentary depocenters, volatile-enriched strata, buried rheological instabilities, and a mechanism of destabilization to initiate subsurface flow. We outline five formational scenarios whereby Martian mud volcanism might have occurred: (A) rapid deposition of sediments, (B) volcano-induced destabilization, (C) tectonic shortening, (D) long-term, load-induced subsidence, and (E) seismic shaking. We describe locations within and around the Martian northern plains that broadly fit the geological context of these scenarios and which contain mud volcano-like landforms. We compare terrestrial and Martian satellite images and examine the geological settings of mud volcano provinces on Earth in order to describe potential target areas for piercement structures on Mars. Our comparisons help to evaluate not only the role of water as a functional component of geological processes on Mars but also how Martian mud volcanoes could provide samples of otherwise inaccessible strata, some of which could contain astrobiological evidence.

  5. Dead Sea mud packs for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Mayer, Amit; Friger, Michael; Harari, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is chronic disease without a curative therapy. Alternative and complementary therapies are widely used in the management of this condition. To evaluate the efficacy of home application of Dead Sea mud compresses to the back of patients with chronic LBP. Forty-six consecutive patients suffering from chronic LBP were recruited. All patients were followed at the Soroka University Rheumatic Diseases Unit. The patients were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with mineral-rich mud compresses, and the other with mineral-depleted compresses. Mud compresses were applied five times a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was the patient's assessment of the overall back pain severity. The score of the Ronald & Morris questionnaire served as a secondary outcome. Forty-four patients completed the therapy and the follow-up assessments: 32 were treated with real mud packs and 12 used the mineral-depleted packs. A significant decrease in intensity of pain, as described by the patients, was observed only in the treatment group. In this group, clinical improvement was clearly seen at completion of therapy and was sustained a month later. Significant improvement in the scores of the Roland & Morris questionnaire was observed in both groups. The data suggest that pain severity was reduced in patients treated with mineral-rich mud compresses compared with those treated with mineral-depleted compresses. Whether this modest effect is the result of a "true" mud effect or other causes can not be determined in this study.

  6. Biological properties of mud extracts derived from various spa resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilioti, Eliana; Vargiami, Margarita; Letsiou, Sophia; Gardikis, Konstantinos; Sygouni, Varvara; Koutsoukos, Petros; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2017-08-01

    Spa resorts are known for thousands of years for their healing properties and have been empirically used for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions. Mud is one of the most often used natural materials for preventive, healing and cosmetic reasons and although it has been used since the antiquity, little light has been shed on its physical, chemical and biological properties. In this study we examined the effect of mud extracts on the expression of adhesion molecules (CAMs) by endothelial cells as well as their effects on monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells. Most of mud extracts inhibited the expression of VCAM-1 by endothelial cells and reduced monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells, indicating a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the mud extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity; however, most of them appeared inactive against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. One of the mud extracts (showing the best stabilization features) increased significantly the expression of genes involved in cell protection, longevity and hydration of human keratinocytes, such as, collagen 6A1, forkhead box O3, sirtuin-1, superoxide dismutase 1 and aquaporin-3. The present study reveals that mud exerts important beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activity as well as moisturizing effects, implicating important cosmeceutical applications.

  7. Large historical eruptions at subaerial mud volcanoes, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Active mud volcanoes in the northern Apennines, Italy, currently have gentle eruptions. There are, however, historical accounts of violent eruptions and outbursts. Evidence for large past eruptions is also recorded by large decimeter rock clasts preserved in erupted mud. We measured the rheological properties of mud currently being erupted in order to evaluate the conditions needed to transport such large clasts to the surface. The mud is well-characterized by the Herschel-Bulkley model, with yield stresses between 4 and 8 Pa. Yield stresses of this magnitude can support the weight of particles with diameters up to several mm. At present, particles larger than this size are not being carried to the surface. The transport of larger clasts to the surface requires ascent speeds greater than their settling speed in the mud. We use a model for the settling of particles and rheological parameters from laboratory measurements to show that the eruption of large clasts requires ascent velocities > 1 m s−1, at least three orders of magnitude greater than during the present, comparatively quiescent, activity. After regional earthquakes on 20 May and 29 May 2012, discharge also increased at locations where the stress changes produced by the earthquakes would have unclamped feeder dikes below the mud volcanoes. The magnitude of increased discharge, however, is less than that inferred from the large clasts. Both historical accounts and erupted deposits are consistent in recording episodic large eruptions.

  8. Radiological restrictions of using red mud as building material additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hannian; Wang, Ning; Liu, Shirong

    2012-09-01

    Red mud remains as residue from the processing of bauxite using different methods. The chemical composition of red mud varies widely with respect to the types of bauxite ore and processing parameters. Red mud samples from Guizhou, China, were investigated using a X-ray fluorescence spectroscope, a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and a electron probe micro-analyzer. The results showed that red mud consisted of eight main chemical components--CaO, Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), Na(2)O, K(2)O and MgO--and dozens of trace elements, including natural radioactive elements, such as uranium and thorium. Gamma spectrometric analysis showed that the values of internal exposure index I (Ra) and external exposure index I (γ) of Guizhou red mud were 1.1-2.4 and 2.3-3.5 respectively. Thus, it should not be used as a main building material indiscriminately. The amount of red mud from Guizhou when it is used for main building materials in China should be less than 28-44%.

  9. A Study on the Reservoir Capacity to Control Mud Flood Derived from Mud Volcano: A Phenomenon in Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholihin Sholihin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended research of Coastal Zone Management of Sidoarjo mud phenomenon. The idea is to find special concept of management to control mud flood using reservoir system. This method, in the mud fluid, is intentionally used to make separation of the solid materials from water. The concept is to calculate sediment velocity in order to find the time of sedimentation then to estimate the volume of mud. Therefore, the reservoir will be determined from this calculation. The result of this research is the dimension of the reservoir: area of 3,704,144.36 m2, the depth of 5.94 m, and the volume 22.018.856.07 m3. The time of sedimentation is calculated of 28.33 hours for 42.2 % of material volume sedimentation. Consequently, the suspension material is 57.8 %. The correction of calculation is depending on the calculation of the velocity of sedimentation, about 2 %.

  10. Mud-induced periodic stratification in the hyperconcentrated Ems estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Feedback of stratification on the flow is widely acknowledged to play a significant role in estuarine sediment transport. Recently, attention was drawn to the influence of sediment-induced horizontal density gradients on the location of the estuarine turbidity zone and, in general, on subtidal dynamics in hyper-concentrated estuaries. By contrast to the increasing number of modelling studies, few experimental results were published regarding the actual vertical structure of the water column, or the intratidal dynamics of high concentration layers, such as fluid mud. In this study, we measured tidal variations of stratification due to suspended sediments in the center of the turbidity zone of the Ems estuary, North Sea. The suspended sediment concentration profile was controlled by strong vertical gradients, first, a lutocline on top of a mobile mud layer, and second, an interface that separated the mobile mud from a higher concentrated, stationary mud layer below (> 50 g/l). Entrainment of the mobile mud layer was observed at the beginning of the flood tide. Re-formation of the mobile mud layer occurred at an unexpectedly early stage during flood. This is interpreted to result from super-saturated conditions after entrainment. The exceptionally high concentration of suspended sediments was not sustained during stagnating flow, and the settling flux was increased, inducing a collapse of the vertical concentration profile. Subsequently, the flow was decoupled between the upper and the lower layer and separated by the lutocline approximately in the middle of the water column. Remarkably, the flow was flood directed in the upper layer, while velocities in the lower, mobile mud layer were ebb directed. The mobile mud layer remained unaffected by entrainment for a period of 4.5 h around high water and moved in ebb direction, with a peak velocity of 0.12 m/s. This ebb directed turbidity current is seen as the combined effect of the downstream concentration gradient and

  11. Long-term in situ observations at the Athina mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean: Taking the pulse of mud volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Walter; Völker, David; Sahling, Heiko; Zoellner, Christian; dos Santos Ferreira, Christian; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Kopf, Achim

    2017-11-01

    Long-term monitoring on mud volcanoes is fundamental to unravel episodic processes and transient changes that might otherwise be missed by using snapshot observations during time-limited research expeditions. We deployed a pore- and seafloor-pressure observatory close to the main conduit of the Athina mud volcano, south of Turkey (Eastern Mediterranean Sea), for a period of 26 months between February 2014 and April 2016. The observatory recorded 32 pore pressure transients related to as many seismic events (out of 625 earthquakes with Mw ≥ 2.5 occurred over the monitoring period in a radius of 1000 km) and few pore pressure excursions related to mud volcanism. The data helped to define a threshold for earthquake-triggered changes in mud volcano pore pressure, thus delineating possible pore pressure-distance relationships for different magnitudes ranges. Peak ground accelerations, as representative for earthquakes ground motion at the observatory have been calculated with different ground motion prediction equations. Using a conservative approach, an empirical equation has been identified, which specify the lowermost PGA necessary to induce a change in pore pressure record at the Athina mud volcano. Moreover, internal variations of the mud volcano system recordable through the pore pressure signal have been described for the first time in such a submarine feature.

  12. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Agwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-based mud (OBM was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low yield point and gel strength when compared with the diesel oil mud. The mud density measurement showed that soybean OBM was slightly higher than diesel OBM with mud density values of 8.10 lb/gal and 7.98 lb/gal, respectively, at barite content of 10 g. Additionally, the filtration loss test results showed that soybean mud fluid loss volumes, water and oil, were 13 mL and 10 mL, respectively, compared to diesel oil mud volume of 15 mL and 12 mL. Furthermore, the filtration loss test indicated that the soybean oil mud with filter cake thickness of 2 mm had a cake characteristic of thin and soft while the diesel oil mud resulted in filter cake thickness of 2.5 mm with cake characteristic of firm and rubbery. In comparison with previous published works in the literature, the soybean oil mud exhibits superior rheological and filtration property over other vegetable oil-based muds. Therefore, the formulated soybean oil mud exhibited good drilling mud properties that would compare favourably with those of diesel oil muds. Its filter cake characteristic of thin and soft is desirable and significant to avert stuck pipe during drilling operations, meaning that an oil-based drilling mud could be formulated from soybean oil.

  13. An experimental and numerical investigation on wave-mud interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W. Y.; Hwung, H. H.; Hsu, T. J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Yang, R. Y.

    2013-03-01

    Wave attenuation over a mud (kaolinite) layer is investigated via laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. The rheological behavior of kaolinite exhibits hybrid properties of a Bingham and pseudoplastic fluid. Moreover, the measured time-dependent velocity profiles in the mud layer reveal that the shear rate under wave loading is highly phase dependent. The measured shear rate and rheological data allow us to back-calculate the time-dependent viscosity of the mud layer under various wave loadings, which is also shown to fluctuate up to 1 order of magnitude during one wave period. However, the resulting time-dependent bottom stress is shown to only fluctuate within 25% of its mean. The back-calculated wave-averaged bottom stress is well correlated with the wave damping rate in the intermediate-wave energy condition. The commonly adopted constant viscosity assumption is then evaluated via linear and nonlinear wave-mud interaction models. When driving the models with measured wave-averaged mud viscosity (forward modeling), the wave damping rate is generally overpredicted under the low wave energy condition. On the other hand, when a constant viscosity is chosen to match the observed wave damping rate (inverse modeling), the predicted velocity profiles in the mud layer are not satisfactory and the corresponding viscosity is lower than the measured value. These discrepancies are less pronounced when waves become more energetic. Differences between the linear and nonlinear model results become significant under low-energy conditions, suggesting an amplification of wave nonlinearity due to non-Newtonian rheology. In general, the constant viscosity assumption for modeling wave-mud interaction is only appropriate for more energetic wave conditions.

  14. Seismic signals at the Nirano Mud Volcanic Field, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Verónica; Lupi, Matteo; Carrier, Aurore; Planès, Thomas; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Ricci, Tullio; Sciarra, Alessandra; Moretti, Milena

    2017-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological phenomena that only recently are beginning to be investigated with passive seismic methods. To shed light on the seismic signals associated with mud volcanic activity we deployed a temporary network composed of 7 seismic stations around Nirano, Italy. We identified the different types of signals generated by this active system. During the three months survey period, the stations repeatedly recorded drumbeat signals beneath the structure. We have identified two types of drumbeat signals: one with durations of about 50 seconds and frequency range of 10-45 Hz; the second has a duration of about 4 seconds and frequency range of 5-45 Hz. These drumbeat signals were captured depending on the position of the seismic station and the distance from the mud vents. We also identified a third signal, present in almost every station in the network, with a duration of about 10 seconds and frequency range of 5-45 Hz. The amplitude of these signals varies across the stations suggesting that the most active part of the system is located in the north eastern-most area of the mud volcanic field where new mud vents recently appeared.

  15. Inscuteable Regulates the Pins-Mud Spindle Orientation Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Jonathon F.; Prehoda, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    During asymmetric cell division, alignment of the mitotic spindle with the cell polarity axis ensures that the cleavage furrow separates fate determinants into distinct daughter cells. The protein Inscuteable (Insc) is thought to link cell polarity and spindle positioning in diverse systems by binding the polarity protein Bazooka (Baz; aka Par-3) and the spindle orienting protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins; mPins or LGN in mammals). Here we investigate the mechanism of spindle orientation by the Insc-Pins complex. Previously, we defined two Pins spindle orientation pathways: a complex with Mushroom body defect (Mud; NuMA in mammals) is required for full activity, whereas binding to Discs large (Dlg) is sufficient for partial activity. In the current study, we have examined the role of Inscuteable in mediating downstream Pins-mediated spindle orientation pathways. We find that the Insc-Pins complex requires Gαi for partial activity and that the complex specifically recruits Dlg but not Mud. In vitro competition experiments revealed that Insc and Mud compete for binding to the Pins TPR motifs, while Dlg can form a ternary complex with Insc-Pins. Our results suggest that Insc does not passively couple polarity and spindle orientation but preferentially inhibits the Mud pathway, while allowing the Dlg pathway to remain active. Insc-regulated complex assembly may ensure that the spindle is attached to the cortex (via Dlg) before activation of spindle pulling forces by Dynein/Dynactin (via Mud). PMID:22253744

  16. Inscuteable regulates the Pins-Mud spindle orientation pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon F Mauser

    Full Text Available During asymmetric cell division, alignment of the mitotic spindle with the cell polarity axis ensures that the cleavage furrow separates fate determinants into distinct daughter cells. The protein Inscuteable (Insc is thought to link cell polarity and spindle positioning in diverse systems by binding the polarity protein Bazooka (Baz; aka Par-3 and the spindle orienting protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins; mPins or LGN in mammals. Here we investigate the mechanism of spindle orientation by the Insc-Pins complex. Previously, we defined two Pins spindle orientation pathways: a complex with Mushroom body defect (Mud; NuMA in mammals is required for full activity, whereas binding to Discs large (Dlg is sufficient for partial activity. In the current study, we have examined the role of Inscuteable in mediating downstream Pins-mediated spindle orientation pathways. We find that the Insc-Pins complex requires Gαi for partial activity and that the complex specifically recruits Dlg but not Mud. In vitro competition experiments revealed that Insc and Mud compete for binding to the Pins TPR motifs, while Dlg can form a ternary complex with Insc-Pins. Our results suggest that Insc does not passively couple polarity and spindle orientation but preferentially inhibits the Mud pathway, while allowing the Dlg pathway to remain active. Insc-regulated complex assembly may ensure that the spindle is attached to the cortex (via Dlg before activation of spindle pulling forces by Dynein/Dynactin (via Mud.

  17. Leaching of metals from fresh and sintered red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrani; Guha, Saumyen; Balasubramaniam, R; Kumar, A V Ramesh

    2011-01-30

    The disposal of red mud, a solid waste generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of the major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Proper disposal followed by its utilization, for example as bricks, can provide a satisfactory solution to this problem. Pollution potential of red mud and its finished product, due to metals leaching out from them under certain environmental conditions, need to be studied. Sintering of red mud was performed in a resistance type vertical tube furnace to simulate the brick-making conditions in lab-scale. Leachability of metals in red mud and the sintered product was evaluated by performing sequential extraction experiments on both. The metals studied were the 'macro metals' iron and aluminum and the 'trace metals' copper and chromium. The total extractabilities of all the metals estimated by the microwave digestion of red mud samples decreased due to sintering. The leachability in sequential extraction of the macro metals iron and aluminum, on the other hand, increased due to sintering in all phases of sequential extraction. However, the effect of sintering on the leachability of the trace metals by sequential extraction was different for copper and chromium in different fractions of sequential extraction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of bioavailability of metals from drilling mud barite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M

    2008-04-01

    Drilling mud and associated drill cuttings are the largest volume wastes associated with drilling of oil and gas wells and often are discharged to the ocean from offshore drilling platforms. Barite (BaSO4) often is added as a weighting agent to drilling muds to counteract pressure in the geologic formations being drilled, preventing a blowout. Some commercial drilling mud barites contain elevated (compared to marine sediments) concentrations of several metals. The metals, if bioavailable, may harm the local marine ecosystem. The bioavailable fraction of metals is the fraction that dissolves from the nearly insoluble, solid barite into seawater or sediment porewater. Barite-seawater and barite-porewater distribution coefficients (Kd) were calculated for determining the predicted environmental concentration (PEC; the bioavailable fraction) of metals from drilling mud barite in the water column and sediments, respectively. Values for Kdbarite-seawater and Kdbarite-porewater were calculated for barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in different grades of barite. Log Kdbarite-seawater values were higher (solubility was lower) for metals in the produced water plume than log Kdbarite-porewater values for metals in sediments. The most soluble metals were cadmium and zinc and the least soluble were mercury and copper. Log Kd values can be used with data on concentrations of metals in barite and of barite in the drilling mud-cuttings plume and in bottom sediments to calculate PECseawater and PECsediment.

  19. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardjito, Djwantoro; Antoni; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Christianto, Danny

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI), the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  20. Chemical mediation of egg capsule deposition by mud snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittschof, Dan; Sawardecker, Prasad; Petry, Caroline

    2002-11-01

    Mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta = Nassarius obsoletus = Nassa obsoleta) deposit eggs in protective capsules on hard substrata in soft bottom environments. We studied sites of egg capsule deposition and snail movement responses to odors to determine if chemoreception plays a role in deposition site selection. From results of field surveys, laboratory experiments, and field experiments, we conclude that mud snails use chemoreception for capsule deposition. Attractive odors originate from mud snail and whelk egg capsules and from living bivalves. Evidence for attractive odors from conspecifics is equivocal. Capsules are deposited on living odor sources and nearby hard substrates. We hypothesize that deposition of capsules on living substrates increases the likelihood that embryos will survive by decreasing the chance of smothering of embryos by sediments.

  1. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Valorization of mud from Fergoug dam in manufacturing mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laoufi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of calcined mud, with pozzolanic properties, from the large quantities of sediments dredged from Algerian dams, could be a good opportunity for the formulation of high performance mortars and pozzolanic concretes, with lower costs and less greenhouse gas (CO2 emissions. The optimal temperatures selected for calcination were 750, 850 and 950 °C. The burning operation was continuous over a period of 3 h. Therefore, a series of physical, chemical, mechanical and microstructural analyses were conducted on sediment samples, collected from the waters of Fergoug dam. The results obtained from the analyses of the calcined mud, from the dam, allowed saying that mortars with different percentages of that mud represent a potential source of high reactivity pozzolanic materials.

  3. Production of Green Steel from Red Mud: A Novel Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Behera, Pravas Ranjan; Mishra, Chitta Ranjan

    Red mud of Indian origin contains around 55% plus of Fe2O3 and is considered as a hazardous waste for the alumina industry. For production of one tone of alumina employing the Bayer's Process, around two tones of red mud is generated from three tones of Bauxite. Conventional process of steel making is not devoid of environmental pollution. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to produce steel from red mud by adopting reduction roasting, magnetic separation and hydrogen plasma smelting route. Magnetic fraction, containing enriched iron oxide and minimal content of alumina, is produced following the first two stages which is then subjected to hydrogen plasma smelting process for production of steel. This novel concept follows a green path way for production of steel free from pollution and is termed as green steel. Further, the only by-product that is produced in the process, is water, which is eco-friendly and recyclable.

  4. Radiological investigation of the effects of red mud disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, T; Sas, Z; Somlai, J; Jobbágy, V; Szeiler, G

    2012-11-01

    On 4 October 2010, the gate of a red mud waste dump of a Hungarian alumina factory was damaged and ∼800.000 m(3) of alkaline red mud flooded the vicinity of the dumps. Red mud samples were collected from the contaminated area and they were investigated from the radiological point of view. The activity concentrations were as follows: (232)Th: 264 (194-337) Bq kg(-1), (238)U: 265 (197-332) Bq kg(-1), (226)Ra: 180 (143-237) Bq kg(-1), (40)K: 283 (228-360) Bq kg(-1). As a function of the moisture content (0-28 %), the obtained radon emanation coefficients were relatively high (7.6-20 %) and, consequently, the radon exhalation also increased.

  5. Experimental study on rule of radioactive change of red mud concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Tan, Zhuoying; Yu, Zhongtao

    2017-12-01

    Red mud was used to partially replace cement to prepare red mud concrete, with replacement rate of red mud mass being 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively, and hydration age being 3d, 28d and 90d. The experiment of cube compressive strength and radioactivity were conducted for 90 cubical test pieces respectively. The results show that with rise of replacement rate of red mud, the cube compressive strength of red mud concrete at the same hydration age first increased and then decreased, leading to increase of content of 226Ra,232Th,40K in red mud concrete, and increase of material’s radioactivity accordingly; as hydration age was prolonged, with the replacement rate of red mud being the same, the compressive strength increased, and internal and external exposure indices and total specific activity all increased yet with small increase range. Generally the hydration age does not significantly influence the radioactivity of red mud concrete.

  6. Frictional pressure losses for the flow of drilling mud and mud/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlinais, J.P.; Bourgoyne, A.T.; Holden, W.R.

    1983-10-01

    In this study, experimental pressure gradient data have been taken in two 6000 ft. wells. Frictional pressure losses for single phase flow (mud only) in two annuli were compared to values predicted by the Bingham Plastic and Power law Models. These calculations utilized the equivalent diameters defined by the Crittendon criteria, the hydraulic radius, and the slot approximation. Also, total pressure difference for two-phase flow was measured for one annular geometry. This data was compared to that predicted by the Poettmann and Carpenter, Hagedorn and Brown, Orkiszewski, and Beggs and Brill correlations. Comparison of experimental data with the various prediction techniques was favorable, each having advantage in certain situations. For the data investigated, the Crittendon criteria using a Bingham Plastic Model gave the best results. The two phase flow data was best predicted by the Hagedorn and Brown correlation utilizing a hydraulic radius equivalent diameter.

  7. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  8. Long term chemical and ecological recovery of Kinghorn Loch (Scotland, UK) following red mud pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewska, Justyna Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The estimated global production of red mud, a by-product of alumina production, is ~120 million t per year. Little is known about the long-term chemical, physical and ecological responses in aquatic ecosystems following pollution with red mud. To date, no whole-lake assessment of the impact of red mud and recovery trajectories has been conducted. Kinghorn Loch, Fife, Scotland, is an important example of a red mud polluted aquatic ecosystem. This is due mainly to the availabilit...

  9. Chitinolytic bactery activity isolated from the mud fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuniek Herdyastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chitinolytic microorganism had been isolated from mud fields in Ketintang Surabaya area by using a minimal media containing 0.4% colloidal chitin. Activity assay is based on released N-acetyl-glucosamine which reacted with 3,5 dinitrosalicyclic acid. Mud fields produce 63 bacterial isolates with chitinase activity (TNH1 – TNH63 isolates. The highest activity was shown by TNH11 isolate with specific activity 1.27 U/mg. TNH11 isolates was Gram negative, rod-cocoid cell, has a colony of yellow, round shape, convex elevation, flat margin and the colony diameter 3–5 mm.

  10. Synthetic drilling muds: Environmental gain deserves regulatory recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Efficient drilling technology is essential to meet the needs of the oil industry. Both the challenges of new oil provinces, especially in offshore waters, and the demands for efficient environmental protection have driven the development of new technology. Drilling mud is a key factor influencing drilling technology use in modern drilling operations. New oil industry developments involve directional and horizontal drilling as well as drilling in frontier areas at greater and greater depths. Such capabilities and conditions demand careful attention to the selection and engineering of efficient mud systems.

  11. Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and

  12. Polyamine sensitization in offshore workers handling drilling muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, A D; Wakeel, R A; Mann, T A; Main, R A; Aldridge, R D

    1989-11-01

    Oil-based mud, a complex mixture containing amines in emulsifiers, is used in offshore drilling operations. It is a skin irritant that occasionally gives rise to allergic contact sensitivity. In patch testing patients with allergy to drilling mud, we have identified polyamine (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine) sensitivity in 5 patients. All 5 patients were also allergic to emulsifiers. These emulsifiers are cross-linked fatty acid amido-amines, in which unreacted amine groups are thought to cross-sensitize with these constituent polyamines. Cross-reactivity between ethylenediamine, diethylenetetramine and triethylenetetramine was found in 9 subjects.

  13. Lime stabilisation of the chicoco mud of the Niger Delta | Omotosho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicoco mud is a very soft and extremely compressible organic marine mud found extensively and to considerable depths within the saline tidal flat or mangrove swamp of the Niger delta region in southern Nigeria. Natural chicoco mud is highly compressible barely able to support an average human weight but air-dried ...

  14. Methane concentration inside a submarine mud volcano examined through seismic velocity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioka, Arata; Tsuji, Takeshi; Otsuka, Hironori; Ashi, Juichiro

    2017-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are considered to be among largest geological sources releasing hydrocarbon gases into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have revealed their origins and compositions from submarine mud volcanoes. A recent long-term observation at a submarine mud volcano sheds light on that larger volume of methane gas than expected is escaped from deep-water mud volcanoes, suggesting that the global methane flux from the seafloor is likely underestimated. Yet, estimates of the gas amount inside mud volcanoes have been still challenging, because of the difficulty of in-situ measurements. This study provides a new model to bridge methane amounts and seismic velocities in fluidized mud conduits of submarine mud volcanoes. This model is universally applicable and enables estimates of methane concentration in the mud conduits, using the seismic velocity profile derived from reflection/refraction seismic and/or downhole logging data. In this study, (1) we examine our modeled results through deep-drilling data obtained at mud volcanoes in the Olimpi mud field of the central Mediterranean Ridge accretionary margin, to evaluate the difference between in situ methane amounts and those calculated from our model, and (2) apply our model to the seismic velocity profile derived from seicmic data to estimate the methane amount inside the submarine mud volcano in the Nankai accretionary margin. Our scheme may provide an opportunity to re-estimate the total methane flux from submarine mud volcanoes.

  15. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of the mud-flat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-27

    Jan 27, 2012 ... Genetic structure and evolutionary demography of the mud-flat crabs (Helice tientsinensis and H. latimera) were investigated ... revealed significant genetic structure in the 10 populations of H. tientsinensis and H. latimera. For all populations, the ..... Yellow Sea depression (Chen, 1991). A large land bridge,.

  16. Visuality and Representation in Traditional Igbo Uli Body and Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and non- figurative representations. Uli women painters have produced a voluminous body of work widely distributed throughout Igbo land. However, there is a dearth of uli body and mud wall paintings or decorations as well as their processes of execution as women community art project literature on the corpus of uli art, ...

  17. Neither a Toddler nor a Stick-in-the-Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Livi

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to express the views from the "outside," from laypeople who want to go to museums, but perhaps find themselves not going very often. Adult visitors to history museums are often treated as either toddlers or sticks-in-the-mud, where they are assumed to break anything they touch, or enjoy didactic lectures. As a result,…

  18. corrosion response of low carbon steel in tropical road mud

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A.N.Enetanya. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of. Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Corrosion damages in Steel and Cast- Iron frequently occur in automobile and other vehicle undercarriage parts as a result of regular road mud and other dirt deposits on those components on those vehicles ...

  19. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of the mud-flat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic structure and evolutionary demography of the mud-flat crabs (Helice tientsinensis and H. latimera) were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Samples of 213 individuals were collected from nine localities over most of the species' range along the coast of China seas ...

  20. Corrosion Response of Low Carbon Steel in Tropical Road Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These ultimately result in Deposit and Pilling Corrosion damages which perforate the metal structure if left unattended. Cathodic Protection and the use of Corrosion Inhibitors are not practical in this problem. Other steel structures, as buildings, petroleum, gas, water and sewage pipelines exposed to soil and mud are ...

  1. Clasts from mud volcanoes from the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Benkhelil, J.; Giresse, P.; Mascle, J.; Muller, C.L.C.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the eastern Mediterranean, numerous argilo-kinetic manifestations, commonly named 'mud volcanoes', have been identified and studied in some detail during the last twenty years using several techniques. The Medinaut survey (December 1998) has provided new insights into this phenomenon through

  2. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    The Ginsburg mud volcano was broadly studied since its discovery: the chemical composition of pore water, the gas hydrate, the petrography of clasts and micropaleon- tological studies (León et al., 2006; Mazurenko et al.,. 2003; Niemann et al., 2006; Pinheiro et al., 2003). Both cores, 521G and 522G, were collected from ...

  3. Laboratory experiments on consolidation and strength evolution of mud layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by dredging large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to the depth at which the density is equal to a certain

  4. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-09-15

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 degrees C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  5. The exploration of making acidproof fracturing proppants using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaorang; Wu, Bolin; Li, Jian

    2008-12-30

    In this study, the exploration of making acidproof fracturing proppants using red mud was carried out. The main raw materials are red mud and the refractory waste. During the exploration, three methods were explored to enhance the acid resistance of the samples of the fracturing proppants. Eventually, fracturing proppants with good acid resistance were produced using red mud, the refractory waste, barium carbonate and plasticizer. The acid solubility of the samples of the acidproof fracturing proppants was less than 4.5% which reached the demands of The Petroleum and Gas Industrial Standards of China (SY/T5108-2006). The results show that adding barium carbonate to the raw materials can decrease the acid solubility of the samples effectively. The main reason is the monoclinic celsian-BaAl2Si2O8 formed in sintering process which can protect the other compositions of the acidproof fracturing proppants to prevent them from erosion by acid. The exploration shows that it is probable to produce fracturing proppants with good acid resistance using red mud.

  6. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHENCUI HUANG

    In this study, the roles of this gene under cold stress in a warm-water mud crab, Scylla paramamosain was investigated. The full-length cDNA ... such as growth, development and reproduction (Aguilar-. Alberola and Mesquita-Joanes ...... Effects of different temperature and salinity on the expression of adenine nucleotide ...

  7. Visuality and Representation in Traditional Igbo Uli Body and Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nature and social contest of uli body and mud wall paintings or decorations as well as their processes of execution as women community art project. Introduction. Traditional art, according to Kaego Okeke (2002:1), is the chain linking the past with the present. It is indeed the basis of contemporary African artistic ideas.

  8. Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Llanes, Manuel; Gázquez González, Manuel Jesús; García Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J.; López, Félix A.; Bolívar Raya, Juan Pedro

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of sulphur polymer cements (SPCs) incorporating waste ilmenite mud for use in concrete construction works. The ilmenite mud raw material and the mud-containing SPCs (IMC-SPCs) were characterised physico-chemically and radiologically. The optimal IMC-SPC mixture had a sulphur/mud ratio (w/w) of 1.05 (mud dose 20 wt%); this cement showed the greatest compressive strength (64 MPa) and the lowest water absorption coefficient (0.4 g cm−2 at 28 days). Since ilmeni...

  9. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  10. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xin, Ruirui; Li, Chengcheng; Xu, Chunli; Yang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis. The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated. It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200 degrees C. Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  11. Red mud as a carbon sink: variability, affecting factors and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chunhua; Ma, Yingqun; Lin, Chuxia

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of red mud to sequester CO(2) varied markedly due to differences in bauxite type, processing and disposal methods. Calcium carbonates were the dominant mineral phases responsible for the carbon sequestration in the investigated red mud types. The carbon sequestration capacity of red mud was not fully exploited due to shortages of soluble divalent cations for formation of stable carbonate minerals. Titanate and silicate ions were the two major oxyanions that appeared to strongly compete with carbonate ions for the available soluble Ca. Supply of additional soluble Ca and Mg could be a viable pathway for maximizing carbon sequestration in red mud and simultaneously reducing the causticity of red mud. It is roughly estimated that over 100 million tonnes of CO(2) have been unintentionally sequestered in red mud around the world to date through the natural weathering of historically produced red mud. Based on the current production rate of red mud, it is likely that some 6 million tonnes of CO(2) will be sequestered annually through atmospheric carbonation. If appropriate technologies are in place for incorporating binding cations into red mud, approximately 6 million tonnes of additional CO(2) can be captured and stored in the red mud while the hazardousness of red mud is simultaneously reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The integrated method to select drilling muds for abnormally high pressure formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorev, V. S.; Dmitriev, A. Yu; Boyko, I. A.; Kayumova, N. S.; Rakhimov, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the method for choosing a drilling mud for drilling abnormally high pressure formations. A carefully selected drilling mud formulation would not only enhance an array of interrelated fluid properties, but also minimize the impact on the pay zones when the drill bit first penetrates the pay. To ensure a better assessment of drilling mud impact on the pay zone, it is reasonable to carry out the study focused on the analysis of technological parameters, involving filtration, acid and drilling mud tests, as well as formation damage analysis. This would enable evaluating the degree of mudding off, reservoirs acid fracturing effect and the risks of pipe sticking at significant depth. The article presents the results of the above-described study with regard to the currently used drilling mud and new experimental formulations developed at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Laboratory).

  13. Frictional pressure losses for annular flow of drilling mud and mud-gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlinais, J.P.; Bourguyne, A.T.; Holden, W.R.

    1985-03-01

    The calculation of single-phase and two-phase flowing pressure gradients in a well annulus is generally based on an extension of empirical correlations developed for Newtonian fluids in circular pipes. Various techniques for extending pipe flow correlations to an annular geometry have been presented in the literature which involve the representation of the annular well geometry with an equivalent circular diameter and the representation of non-Newtonian fluid behavior with an apparent Newtonian viscosity. Unfortunately, little experimental data have been available which would allow a comparison of the relative accuracy of the various proposed techniques. In this study, experimental pressure gradient data have been taken in two 6000-ft wells. Frictional pressure losses for single-phase flow (mud only) in two annuli were compared to values predicted by the Bingham plastic and power law models. These calculations utilized the equivalent diameters defined by the Crittendon criteria, the hydraulic diameter, and the slot approximation. Also, total pressure difference for two-phase flow was measured for one annular geometry. This data was compared to that predicted by the Poettmann and Carpenter, Hagedorn and Brown, Orkiszewski, and Beggs and Brill correlations. Comparison of experimental data with the various prediction techniques was favorable, each having advantage in certain situations. For the data investigated, the Crittendon criteria using a Bingham plastic model gave the best results. The two-phase flow data was best predicted by the Hagedorn and Brown correlation utilizing an equivalent hydraulic diameter.

  14. Mud Pit Identification Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (September 2001, Rev. No. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2001-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection completed the Mud Pit Strategy, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (DOE/NV, 2001) to document a systematic process for identifying and categorizing potentially contaminated mud pits located on the NTS, and systematically evaluating them for inclusion in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The objectives of this report are to summarize the process used to define the six mud pit categories, identify mud pits, discuss the mud pits that do not meet FFACO entry criteria, identify mud pits for proposed FFACO entry, and describe the general mud pit distribution. Underground nuclear testing conducted since 1951 at the NTS has produced mud pits that were used for the transfer and collection of drilling mud, rock cuttings, and drilling fluids. This report documents the execution of the strategy document by examining the identification process and documenting these results. For clarification purposes, this document uses the term ''entry'' to indicate inclusion of mud pits into the FFACO and ''exclusion'' to indicate those mud pits which do not meet the ''entry'' criteria defined in this report. Based on this criteria, 257 mud pits identified that have been proposed for FFACO entry were found in 14 separate areas of the NTS. Each of the 257 mud pits proposed for FFACO entry will need to be located in the field, photographed, and documented during future Industrial Sites Project, Preliminary Assessment activities. If the field review determines that a mud pit was misidentified or improperly categorized, the appropriate FFACO modification request will be submitted for review and approval.

  15. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  16. Utilization of red mud and Pb/Zn smelter waste for the synthesis of a red mud-based cementitious material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Cheng; Min, Xiao-Bo; Ke, Yong; Chai, Li-Yuan; Shi, Mei-Qing; Tang, Chong-Jian; Wang, Qing-Wei; Liang, Yan-Jie; Lei, Jie; Liu, De-Gang

    2018-02-15

    A new method in which Pb/Zn smelter waste containing arsenic and heavy metals (arsenic sludge), red mud and lime are utilized to prepare red mud-based cementitious material (RCM) is proposed in this study. XRD, SEM, FTIR and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were employed to assess the physicochemical properties of RCM. In addition, ettringite and iron oxide-containing ettringite were used to study the hydration mechanism of RCM. The results show that the UCS of the RCM (red mud+arsenic sludge+lime) was higher than that of the binder (red mud+arsenic sludge). When the mass ratio of m (binder): m (lime) was 94:6 and then maintained 28days at ambient temperature, the UCS reached 12.05MPa. The red mud has potential cementitious characteristics, and the major source of those characteristics was the aluminium oxide. In the red mud-arsenic sludge-lime system, aluminium oxide was effectively activated by lime and gypsum to form complex hydration products. Some of the aluminium in ettringite was replaced by iron to form calcium sulfoferrite hydrate. The BCR and leaching toxicity results show that the leaching concentration was strongly dependent on the chemical speciation of arsenic and the hydration products. Therefore, the investigated red mud and arsenic sludge can be successfully utilized in cement composites to create a red mud-based cementitious material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of red mud as an immobiliser for metal/metalloid-contaminated soil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yumei; Heal, Kate V; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang

    2017-03-05

    This review focuses on the applicability of red mud as an amendment for metal/metalloid-contaminated soil. The varying properties of red muds from different sources are presented as they influence the potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration in amended soil. Experiments conducted worldwide from the laboratory to the field scale are screened and the influencing parameters and processes in soils are highlighted. Overall red mud amendment is likely to contribute to lowering the PTE availability in contaminated soil. This is attributed to the high pH, Fe and Al oxide/oxyhydroxide content of red mud, especially hematite, boehmite, gibbsite and cancrinite phases involved in immobilising metals/metalloids. In most cases red mud amendment resulted in a lowering of metal concentrations in plants. Bacterial activity was intensified in red mud-amended contaminated soil, suggesting the toxicity from PTEs was reduced by red mud, as well as indirect effects due to changes in soil properties. Besides positive effects of red mud amendment, negative effects may also appear (e.g. increased mobility of As, Cu) which require site-specific risk assessments. Red mud remediation of metal/metalloid contaminated sites has the potential benefit of reducing red mud storage and associated problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics of Lusi mud volcano and its impacts on the Porong River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Krisnayanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the first gas and mud volcano spewed from well at Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia (called Lusi or Lapindo mud in 2006, its keep flowing ever since. Despite the occurrence of Lusi mud volcano was debated. Either it was natural or unnatural disaster, but maintaining the impact of the mud on social and environment is important. In addition, monitoring water, land and air quality under permitable condition is urgently necessary, due to some scientist stated that the eruption of mud volcano might be impossible to stop. The Lusi’s mud was analyzed in 2009 and showed that the concentration of heavy metals were below environmental soil quality guidelines. There were no environmental effect of heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni, Hg, and As resulted of mud, unless when these metals are associated with other elements. In contrast, the physical and chemical of mud-water was above the environmental standard. Continues monitoring on mud and mud-water was required to protect the environment, thus human health

  19. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  20. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  1. Influence of seismicity on the Lusi mud eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael; Tingay, Mark; Davies, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes trigger the eruption of mud and magmatic volcanoes and influence ongoing eruptive activity. One mechanism that could trigger an eruption is clay liquefaction. Here we model the propagation of seismic waves beneath the Lusi mud eruption (East Java, Indonesia) using available seismic velocity and density models to assess the effect of subsurface structure on the amplification of incident seismic waves. We find that using an updated subsurface density and velocity structure, there is no significant amplification of incident seismic energy in the Upper Kalibeng Formation, the source of the erupting solids. Hence, the hypothesis that the Lusi eruption was triggered by clay liquefaction appears unlikely to be correct. Independent constraints from gas chemistry as well as analyses of drilling activities at the nearby Banjar-Panji 1 gas exploration well and an analysis of the effects of other earthquakes all favor a drilling trigger.

  2. Fluid mud consolidation delayed by extracellular polymer substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Qixiu; Zhang, Ruibo; Wen, Chunpeng; Han, Peipei

    2017-08-10

    A strain of bacterium identified as Burkholderia vietnamiensis was newly isolated and screened from mud deposited in a harbour basin. The effects of B. vietnamiensis on the fluid mud consolidation and the extracellular polymer substances (EPS) secreted by the microorganisms were examined in laboratory experiments. The experiments revealed the important characteristics of the EPS and their critical contents for nautical-depth applications. The self-weight consolidations in the settling and permeability regimes were best predicated by an exponential equation and a logarithmic equation, respectively. EPS cannot change the trend of sediment settling and consolidation, but its content is negatively correlated with the velocity of sediment consolidation. EPS with high polysaccharide/protein ratio is a potential reference to select bacteria for nautical-depth applications. The critical EPS content that would effectively extend the usage time of nautical depths was estimated as 2.34 g/l.

  3. Novel Desorber for Online Drilling Mud Gas Logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackowski, Marcin; Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the construction solution and experimental results of a novel desorber for online drilling mud gas logging. The traditional desorbers use mechanical mixing of the liquid to stimulate transfer of hydrocarbons to the gaseous phase that is further analyzed. The presented approach is based on transfer of hydrocarbons from the liquid to the gas bubbles flowing through it and further gas analysis. The desorber was checked for gas logging from four different drilling muds collected from Polish boreholes. The results of optimization studies are also presented in this study. The comparison of the novel desorber with a commercial one reveals strong advantages of the novel one. It is characterized by much better hydrocarbons recovery efficiency and allows reaching lower limits of detection of the whole analytical system. The presented desorber seems to be very attractive alternative over widely used mechanical desorbers.

  4. Novel Desorber for Online Drilling Mud Gas Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lackowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the construction solution and experimental results of a novel desorber for online drilling mud gas logging. The traditional desorbers use mechanical mixing of the liquid to stimulate transfer of hydrocarbons to the gaseous phase that is further analyzed. The presented approach is based on transfer of hydrocarbons from the liquid to the gas bubbles flowing through it and further gas analysis. The desorber was checked for gas logging from four different drilling muds collected from Polish boreholes. The results of optimization studies are also presented in this study. The comparison of the novel desorber with a commercial one reveals strong advantages of the novel one. It is characterized by much better hydrocarbons recovery efficiency and allows reaching lower limits of detection of the whole analytical system. The presented desorber seems to be very attractive alternative over widely used mechanical desorbers.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives.

  6. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  7. Evidence for Basinwide Mud Volcanism in Acidalia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2010-01-01

    High-albedo mounds in Acidalia Planitia occur in enormous numbers. They have been variously interpreted as pseudocraters, cinder cones, tuff cones, pingos, ice disintegration features, or mud volcanoes. Our work uses regional mapping, basin analysis, and new data from the Context Camera (CTX), High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to re-assess the origin and significance of these structures.

  8. Cavitation Erosion of P110 Steel in Different Drilling Muds

    OpenAIRE

    Kmieć M.; Karpiński B.; Szkodo M.

    2016-01-01

    The P110 steel specimens were subjected to ultrasonic cavitation erosion in different compositions of drilling muds and surfactant additive. The test procedure was based on ASTM-G-32 standard recommendations. API 5CT-P110 steel is used for pipes in oil and gas industry. The harsh environment and high velocity of flows poses corrosive and erosive threat on materials used there. The composition of drilling fluid influences its rheological properties and thus intensity of cavitation erosion. The...

  9. Investigating Created Properties of Nanoparticles Based Drilling Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Nahid; Mirzaee, Mojtaba; Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar

    2017-11-01

    The success of drilling operations is heavily dependent on the drilling fluid. Drilling fluids cool down and lubricate the drill bit, remove cuttings, prevent formation damage, suspend cuttings and also cake off the permeable formation, thus retarding the passage of fluid into the formation. Typical micro or macro sized loss circulation materials (LCM) show limited success, especially in formations dominated by micropores, due to their relatively large sizes. Due to unique characteristics of nanoparticles such as their size and high surface area to volume ratio, they play an effective role in solving problems associated with the drilling fluid. In this study, we investigate the effect of adding Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles into the drilling mud. Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were used in 20 and 60 nm of size and 0.05 wt% in concentration. Investigating the effects of temperature and pressure has shown that an increase in temperature can reduce the drilling mud rheological properties such as plastic viscosity, while an increase in pressure can enhance these properties. Also, the effects of pressure in high temperatures were less than those in low temperatures. Studying the effects of adding nanoparticles has shown that they can reduce the drilling mud rheological properties. Moreover, they can increase gel strength, reduce capillary suction time and decrease formation damage.

  10. Scientific studies on decorated mud mortar of Ajanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to reveal the decorated earthen plaster of Ajanta. The mud plaster of Ajanta caves has been analyzed with the help of physical and analytical tools. The results indicate that high silt (>70% low clay soil may have been mixed purposefully with lime (calcite for the reason to enhance the cementing characteristics. The presence of calcium oxalate was detected from FTIR spectra may have been the resultant product of proteic materials presented in mud plaster. Ferrugineous silicate along with rarer gluconite–celendonite and white zeolites were also perceived from SEM and FTIR spectral analysis. The existence of quartz and sepiolite in mud mortar was also detected from XRD and SEM studies. The vegetal matter might have been added to tailor the construction behavior. The analytical results authenticate the similarity of earthen plaster of Ajanta and alluvion deposits of Waghura River just in front of caves, probably used as raw material in improvement of new material that suits for restoration for optimize performance and compatibility with the existing materials.

  11. Immobilization of copper flotation waste using red mud and clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra

    2008-10-01

    The flash smelting process has been used in the copper industry for a number of years and has replaced most of the reverberatory applications, known as conventional copper smelting processes. Copper smelters produce large amounts of copper slag or copper flotation waste and the dumping of these quantities of copper slag causes economic, environmental and space problems. The aim of this study was to perform a laboratory investigation to assess the feasibility of immobilizing the heavy metals contained in copper flotation waste. For this purpose, samples of copper flotation waste were immobilized with relatively small proportions of red mud and large proportions of clinoptilolite. The results of laboratory leaching demonstrate that addition of red mud and clinoptilolite to the copper flotation waste drastically reduced the heavy metal content in the effluent and the red mud performed better than clinoptilolite. This study also compared the leaching behaviour of metals in copper flotation waste by short-time extraction tests such as the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), deionized water (DI) and field leach test (FLT). The results of leach tests showed that the results of the FLT and DI methods were close and generally lower than those of the TCLP methods.

  12. Geochemical recovery of the Torna-Marcal river system after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Á D; Klebercz, O; Magyar, Á; Burke, I T; Jarvis, A P; Gruiz, K; Mayes, W M

    2014-12-01

    The failure of the Ajka red mud depository in October 2010 led to the largest single release of red mud into the surface water environment. This study provides a comparative assessment of stream sediment quality in the Torna-Marcal-Rába catchment between post-disaster surveys (2010) and follow up surveys at an identical suite of 21 locations in 2013. The signature of red mud apparent in initial surveys with high Al, As, Cr, Na, V was only apparent at a small number of sample stations in recent surveys. These constitute 20 km reach of affected sediments in the immediate aftermath of the spill. Concentrations of red mud-derived contaminants are predominately associated with fine fractions of the red mud (mud-derived contaminants and, along with extensive remedial efforts, has substantially limited the within-channel inventory of potentially ecotoxic metals and metalloids.

  13. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    tritium (3H), sourced from the fallout of thermo nuclear weapons testing, carried out in the atmosphere during 1950e1963, could be effectively used to identify the recent recharge (estimate residence time) from precipitation or surface water bodies...- ditions; absence of energetic oceanic wind waves may be favouring the conditions for the formation of fluid mud. Acknowledgements The project was funded by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India (No...

  14. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, S.; Ahmed, A.S.; Reddy Anr; Hamdan, S

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification s...

  15. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yao-Chang; Sracek, Ondra; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Yang, Huai-Jen; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ(18)O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water-rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of organic matter among the mud volcanoes being examined. Because arsenate concentration in the mud fluids was found to be independent from geochemical factors, it was considered that organic matter may induce arsenic mobilization through an adsorption/desorption mechanism with humic substances under reducing conditions. Organic matter therefore plays a significant role in the mobility of arsenic in mud volcanoes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    KRIVENKO PAVEL; Kovalchuk, O; PASKO ANTON; CROYMANS TOM; HULT MIKAEL; LUTTER GUILLAUME; VANDEVENNE N.; Schreurs, S.; SCHROEYERS W.

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  17. Tide Driven Dynamics of Subaqueous Fluid Mud Layers in Turbidity Maximum Zones of German Estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Fluid mud is a highly concentrated suspension of fine-grained cohesive sediment, which often occurs in estuarine turbidity maximum zones (ETMZs) throughout the world. As an interface between the sea and inland, the estuarine zone is considered to be an ideal location for trade and thus ports are constructed in the estuarine zone. The occurrence of fluid mud is problematic as it might restrain navigability. Besides, cohesive sediments like mud particles are known to be the main carrier of poll...

  18. Biogeochemical interactions among the arsenic, iron, humic substances, and microbes in mud volcanoes in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Sracek, Ondra; Kar, Sandeep; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Lu, Hsueh-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Fluid and mud samples collected from Hsiaokunshui (HKS), Wushanting (WST), Yenshuikeng (YSK), Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), and Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH) mud volcanoes of southwestern Taiwan were characterized for major ions, humic substances (HS) and trace elements concentrations. The relationship between the release of arsenic (As) and activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been assessed to understand relevant geochemical processes in the mud volcanoes. Arsenic (0.02-0.06 mg/L) and humic substances (4.13 × 10(-4) to 1.64 × 10(-3) mM) in the fluids of mud volcanoes showed a positive correlation (r = 0.99, p mud volcano. Arsenic and iron in mud sediments formed two separate groups i) high As, but low Fe in HKS, WST, and SYNH; and ii) low As, but high Fe in the YSK, KSP, and LYS mud volcanoes. The Eh(S.H.E.) values of the mud volcano liquids were characterized by mild to strongly reducing conditions. The HKS, SYNH, and WST mud volcanoes (near the Chishan Fault) belongs to strong reducing environment (-33 to -116 mV), whereas the LYS, YSK, and KSP mud volcanoes located near the coastal plain are under mild reducing environment (-11 to 172 mV). At low Eh values mud volcanoes, saturation index (SI) values of poorly crystalline phases such as amorphous ferric hydroxide indicate understaturation, whereas saturation is reached in relatively high Eh(S.H.E.) values mud volcanoes. Arsenic contents in sediments are low, presumably due to its release to fluids (As/Fe ratio in YSK, KSP, and LYS sediment: 4.86 × 10(-4)-6.20 × 10(-4)). At low Eh(S.H.E.) values (mild to strong reducing environment), arsenic may co-precipitate with sulfides as a consequence of sulfate reduction (As/Fe ratios in WST, HKS, and SYNH sediments: 0.42-0.69).

  19. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  20. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH) 2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  1. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  2. Tectonics and mud volcano development in the Gulf of Cádiz

    OpenAIRE

    Medialdea, T.; Somoza-Losada, L. (Luis); Pinheiro, L.; Fernández-Puga, M. C.; Vázquez, J. T.; León, R.; M. K. Ivanov; Magalhaes, V.; Díaz-del-Río-Español, V. (Víctor); Vegas, R.

    2009-01-01

    Many structures associated with fluid escape, including mud volcanoes, mud-carbonate mounds, pockmarks and slides, have been identified and characterized in the Gulf of Cádiz. Most of the mud volcanoes following NE–SW and NW–SE main trends are found at 350–2000 m depth in the eastern domain of the Gulf of Cádiz, which corresponds to the Betic–Rifean Margin. Scattered mud volcanoes have also been recognized on the lower slope at 2300–3900 m depth. The major tectonic structures are ...

  3. Wave attenuation over seabed mud modeled by a two-layered viscoelastic model

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Y.Z.

    2013-01-01

    In coastal areas, wave-mud interaction is an important mechanism of wave attenuation. The present study on mud-induced wave attenuation is settled in a system composed of an inviscid water layer and a mud layer, in which the mud layer is modeled by a two-layered viscoelastic model. In the two-layered model, the upper layer is described by a Maxwell model, which is fluid-like; the lower layer is described by a Kelvin-Voigt model, which is heavier, and solid-like. Including the influence of the...

  4. GEOCHEMICAL AND CLAY-MINERAL STUDY OF HEALING MUD FROM WUDALIANCHI, NE CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rasskazov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, people have used healing mud (peloids to draw toxins out of the body, boost the immune system, cure psoriasis, acne, depression, and hair loss. The beauty industry has used mud-clay masks, body wraps, soaps, and baths. The useful properties of mud were established empirically. The most popular healing-mud spars are known in the Dead Sea in Israel, Baden-Baden in Germany, Calistoga in California, Budapest in Hungary, Akhtala and Kumisi in Georgia, Paratunka in Kamchatka, Wudalianchi in China.

  5. The economics of sugar mill waste management in the Australian Sugar Industry: Mill mud case study

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak

    2001-01-01

    Sugar mills produce a range of by-products during the process of sugar extraction. Mill mud is one of the by-products that is produced in significant volume. Often mill mud is mixed with mill ash from the firing of bagasse, which together forms the bulk of mill waste available for disposal from raw sugar mills. The practice of spreading mill mud over nearby cane fields has been the primary means of disposing mill mud for many years. Mills generally promote the practice by offering freight sub...

  6. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2012-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, t...

  7. Mud transportation on a steep shelf, Rio de La Plata shelf, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, K.A.; Pilkey, O.H.; Trumbull, J.V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hurricanes David (August 29-30, 1979) and Frederick (September 2-5, 1979) caused major flooding of the Rio de La Plata in northern Puerto Rico. A thin mud layer was deposited across the narrow insular shelf adjacent to the river mouth. Within 5 months, fair-weather shelf-winnowing processes moved the mud layer entirely from the shelf, 0.5 to 2 km to the shelf break at the 50-m contour and beyond. The process of mud movement is termed 'mud hopping.' ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  8. The integrated method to select drilling muds for well construction in difficult geological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horev, V. S.; Dmitriev, A. Y.; Boyko, I. A.; Rakhimov, T. R.; Pandey Kumar, Sushil

    2016-03-01

    The article is concerned with the integrated approach to choose drilling mud composition for pay horizons penetration. An optimal choice of drilling mud composition would not only mean ensuring basic fluid properties, but also should minimize the impact on the pay zones when penetrating the pay horizons for the first time. To carry out better assessment of drilling mud impact on pay horizons, it is reasonable to study both technological parameters and filtration analyses, which would allow us to estimate the level of drilling mud impact on the pay horizon.

  9. The Lusi mud eruption dynamics: constraints from field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Sciarra, Alessandra; Lupi, Matteo; Mauri, Guillaume; Karyono, Karyono; Husein, Alwi; Aquino, Ida; Ricco, Ciro; Obermann, Anne; Hadi, Soffian

    2017-04-01

    The Indonesian Lusi eruption has been spewing boiling water, gas, and sediments since the 29th of May 2006. Initially, numerous aligned eruptions sites appeared along the Watukosek fault system that was reactivated after the Yogyakarta earthquake occurring the 27th of May in the Java Island. Since its birth Lusi erupted with a pulsating behavior showing intermittent periods of stronger activity resulting in higher fluids and solid emissions intervals. Since 2010 two active vents are constantly active. We conducted detailed monitoring of such clastic geysering activity and this allowed us to distinguish four distinct phases that follow each other and that reoccur every 30 minutes: (1) regular bubbling activity (constant emission of water, mud breccia, and gas); (2) clastic geysering phase with intense bubbling (consisting in reduced vapor emission and more powerful diffused mud bursting); (3) clastic geysering with mud bursts and intense vapour discharge (typically dense plume that propagates up to 100 m in height); (4) quiescent phase marking the end of the geysering activity (basically no gas emissions or bursts observed). In order to better understand this pulsating behavior and to constrain the mechanisms controlling its activity, we designed a multidisciplinary monitoring of the eruption site combining the deployment of numerous instruments around the crater site. Processing of the collected data reveals the dynamic activity of Lusi's craters. Satellite images show that the location of these vents migrated along a NE-SW direction. This is subparallel to the direction of the Watukosek fault system that is the zone of (left) lateral deformation upon which Lusi developed in 2006. Coupling HR camera images with broadband and short period seismic stations allowed us to describe the seismic signal generated by clastic geysering and to constrain the depth of the source generating the signal. We measure a delay between the seismic (harmonic) record and the associated

  10. Warts phosphorylates mud to promote pins-mediated mitotic spindle orientation in Drosophila, independent of Yorkie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Evan B; Sanchez, Desiree; Johnston, Christopher A

    2015-11-02

    Multicellular animals have evolved conserved signaling pathways that translate cell polarity cues into mitotic spindle positioning to control the orientation of cell division within complex tissue structures. These oriented cell divisions are essential for the development of cell diversity and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Despite intense efforts, the molecular mechanisms that control spindle orientation remain incompletely defined. Here, we describe a role for the Hippo (Hpo) kinase complex in promoting Partner of Inscuteable (Pins)-mediated spindle orientation. Knockdown of Hpo, Salvador (Sav), or Warts (Wts) each result in a partial loss of spindle orientation, a phenotype previously described following loss of the Pins-binding protein Mushroom body defect (Mud). Similar to orthologs spanning yeast to mammals, Wts kinase localizes to mitotic spindle poles, a prominent site of Mud localization. Wts directly phosphorylates Mud in vitro within its C-terminal coiled-coil domain. This Mud coiled-coil domain directly binds the adjacent Pins-binding domain to dampen the Pins/Mud interaction, and Wts-mediated phosphorylation uncouples this intramolecular Mud interaction. Loss of Wts prevents cortical Pins/Mud association without affecting Mud accumulation at spindle poles, suggesting phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch to specifically activate cortical Mud function. Finally, loss of Wts in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelial cells results in diminished cortical Mud and defective planar spindle orientation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular basis for dynamic regulation of the cortical Pins/Mud spindle positioning complex and highlight a novel link with an essential, evolutionarily conserved cell proliferation pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Paraformaldehyde-Resistant Starch-Fermenting Bacteria in “Starch-Base” Drilling Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, G. E.

    1962-01-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde. PMID:13936949

  12. Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes

  13. Mud volcano origin of the Mottled Zone, South Levant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Novikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mottled Zone (MZ or Hatrurim Formation, which occurs near the Levantine Transform in the South Levant, has been studied during the last 150 years but its origin remains debatable. Mottled Zone Complex/Complexes (MZC/MZCs consist of brecciated carbonate and low-temperature calcium-hydrosilicate rocks, which include unusual high- and ultra-high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP metamorphic mineral assemblages. The MZ has been regarded as a product of combustion of bituminous chalks of the Ghareb Fm. of Cretaceous (Maastrichtian age. In this paper we present detailed geographic, geomorphologic, structural and geological data from the MZCs of the South Levant, which show that the MZCs cannot be stratigraphically correlated with the Ghareb Fm., because MZC late Oligocene–late Pleistocene deposits occur within or unconformably, i.e., with stratigraphic hiatus, overlap both the late Cretaceous and, in places, Neogene stratigraphic units. We propose an alternative model for the formation of MZCs by tectonically induced mud volcanism during late Oligocene–late Pleistocene time. This model explains (i the presence of dikes and tube-like bodies, which consist of brecciated exotic clastic material derived from stratigraphically and hypsometrically lower horizons; (ii mineral assemblages of sanidinite facies metamorphism; (iii multi-stage character of HT-LP pyrometamorphism; and (iv multi-stage low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. High temperatures (up to 1500 °C mineral assemblages resulted from combustion of hydrocarbon gases of mud volcanoes. Mud volcanism was spatially and structurally related to neotectonic folds and deformation zones formed in response to opening of the Red Sea rift and propagation of the Levantine Transform Fault. Our model may significantly change the prospects for oil-and-gas deposits in the region.

  14. Transcultured Architecture: Mudéjar’s Epic Journey Reinterpreted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Nicole Sheren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mudéjar phenomenon is unparalleled in the history of architecture. This style of architecture and ornamentation originated with Arab craftsmen living in reconquered medieval Spain. Embraced by Spanish Christians, Mudéjar traveled over the course of the next four centuries, becoming part of the architectural history of Latin America, especially present-day Mexico and Peru. The style’s transmission across different religions and cultures attests to its ability to unify disparate groups of people under a common visual language. How, then, did mudejar managto gain popularity across reconquered Spain, so much so that it spread to the New World colonies? In this article, I argue that art and architecture move more fluidly than ideologies across boundaries, physical and political. The theory of transculturation makes it possible to understand how an architectural style such as Mudéjar can be generated from a cultural clash and move to an entirely different context. Developed in 1947 by Cuban scholar and theorist Fernando Ortíz, transculturation posited means by which cultures mix to create something entirely new. This process is often violent, the result of intense conflict and persecution, and one culture is almost always defeated in the process. The contributions of both societies, however, coexist in the final product, whether technological, artistic, or even agricultural. I argue that mudejar in Latin America is a product of two separate transculturations: the adoption of Arab design and ornamentation by Spanish Christians, and the subsequent transference of these forms to the New World through the work of indigenous laborers.

  15. Mud-filtrate correction of sonic logs by fluid substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne

    seismograms generated from velocity versus depth trends recorded as a sonic log in a borehole. Such a comparison is referred to as a well-tie. A high-quality well-tie requires a highquality sonic log, but shallow depth of penetration makes sonic logs sensitive to invasion of mud-filtrate from the borehole...... of wetting phase saturation, and the clay content. When the water saturation is at the irreducible water saturation or higher only the effect of clay on the elastic velocities have a differential effect on the elastic velocities. Mixed saturations are fluid substituted using effective fluid moduli formulated...

  16. Identification Method of Mud Shale Fractures Base on Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weixu; Lai, Fuqiang; Luo, Han

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, inspired by seismic analysis technology, a new method for analysing mud shale fractures oil and gas reservoirs by logging properties has emerged. By extracting the high frequency attribute of the wavelet transform in the logging attribute, the formation information hidden in the logging signal is extracted, identified the fractures that are not recognized by conventional logging and in the identified fracture segment to show the “cycle jump”, “high value”, “spike” and other response effect is more obvious. Finally formed a complete wavelet denoising method and wavelet high frequency identification fracture method.

  17. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  18. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - extraction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick S.; Gasser, Christoph A.; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red mud is a by-product of alumina extraction from bauxite by the Bayer process produced in the billion tons scale worldwide. Red muds, or more generally bauxite residues, are regarded as waste, but may potentially be valuable sources of critical raw materials (CRM). In the present study

  19. The effect of drilling muds on the environment in conditions of the extreme North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Yu.I.; Bratishko, Yu.A.; Voytenko, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of experimental studies of the effect of drilling muds on individual links in tundra biogeocenoses (soil, vegetation and bodies of water) The most toxic components (chromates, fusel oil and so on) are identified. The negative effect of the drilling mud on the life of lichens and on the change in the ecological situation in the bodies of water is shown.

  20. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqun Ma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  1. Conditioning of red mud for subsequent titanium and scandium recovery. A conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, G.; Xakalashe, B.; Kaussen, F.; Friedrich, Bernd [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IME Inst. of Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling; Yagmurlu, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IME Inst. of Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling; MEAB Chemie Technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Leaching experiments were undertaken on red mud materials (red mud and red mud slag). The red mud slag was produced via the carbothermic reduction of red mud at high temperatures (T > 1500 C) via SAF treatment. Furthermore, iron was recovered in the smelting step to the metal phase. Ti and Sc were successfully recovered from the red mud materials by hydrometallurgical treatment. For both critical metals, it was found that sulfuric acid was the best mineral acid among others. Since direct red mud leaching had some shortcomings, a route designed to overcome them is proposed. For optimal Ti and Sc recovery from red mud a promising process flowsheet combining pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical treatment is proposed as follows: pyrometallurgical processing (fluxed smelting to produce calcium oxide based slag phases and controlled cooling for crystalline and glassy slags), leaching for maximized Ti- and Sc extraction and followed by a multistage precipitation (for metal recovery and solution purification). Initial trial results showed that the proposed process is promising.

  2. A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental Composition of Mud in Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to understand the comparative abundance and source of elemental constituents in mud of four coastal shrimp farming areas, Vunh Tau (VT), Nha Trang (NT), Da Nang (DN) and Hue (HU) in Viet Nam using SEM-EDS analysis. Mud samples were collected from shrimp farming coastal zones ...

  3. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; AnilKumar, A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Chivas, A.R.; Sekar, B.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    for those at the shelf break. Calibrated radiocarbon ages of the lime mud ranged from 17.6 - 11.9 ka in different cores. The results reported here suggest that the lime muds in the shallow shelf are probably reworked from the Gulf of Kachchh, whereas those...

  4. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlou, J.-L.; Donval, J.-P.; Zitter, T.; Roy, N.; Jean Baptiste, P.; Foucher, J.P.; Woodside, J.M.; Medinaut, Party

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the Dutch-French MEDINAUT diving expedition in 1998, cold seeps and mud volcanoes were studied and sampled in two distinctive tectonic settings in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The first setting was the Olimpi Mud Volcano field (OMV area), including Napoli, Milano, Maidstone and Moscow

  6. Toxicity and histopathological effects of oil-based drilling mud on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histo-pathological consequences of the tested mud on the crabs included irregular tissue shape, macrophages, inflammatory cells and basiophilic spots, etc. Uptake of barium, a carcinogenic component of the drilling mud by the crabs and implications for human consumers are also discussed. Animal Production Research ...

  7. Experiment study of mud to the moving process influent about viscous debris flow along slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, JiXian; Ying, Liang; Li, Pan Hua; Qiang, OuGuo

    2018-01-01

    Mud is the main component of viscous debris flow. The physical model experiments of viscous debris flow were carried out through the mixing mud with different density and fixed components of coarse particles. The width, longitudinal movement distance and motion velocity were recorded by video cameras during experiment. Through viscous debris flow physical model experiments, the influence of mud to transverse width, longitudinal movement distance and motion velocity was discussed. The physical model experiment results show that the motion forms change from inviscid particle flow to viscous debris flow and to the whole mass sliding with the increase of mud density; the width and the length along the slope decrease with mud density increasing; the movement process has classified phenomena about viscous debris flow composed by different mud densities: the velocity increases rapidly with time and the change gradient is steady when the density of mud is lower than 1.413g/cm3; the movement process can be divided into two stages when the density of mud is higher than 1.413g/cm3: the movement velocity is lower and the gradient change is small in the initial stage; but in the second stage, the movement velocity increases quickly, and the gradient is higher than the first stage, and with steady value.

  8. Extraction of Al and Na from red mud by magnesium oxide sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sintering of Bayer's process waste residue: Red mud along with magnesium oxide and sodium carbonate is adopted for recovery of aluminum and sodium followed by leaching. This is facilitated by the high temperature reaction of magnesium oxide sodium carbonate and DSP in the red mud to produce an insoluble ...

  9. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2012-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  10. Status of the mud crab fishery in Kenya: A review | Mirera | Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The requirement for wild mud crab seed in aquaculture has also increased over the last decade. The demand for all sizes of mud crab to meet the requirements of the different market chains in Kenya require effective management approaches to guide exploitation of the fishery. The development of Beach Management Units ...

  11. Fine-Scale Volume Heterogeneity in a Mixed Sand/Mud Sediment Off Fort Walton Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    lenses within the mud drape. Lens- shaped mud inclusions within the sand sediment, or (lasers, were cre- ated when the mud that settled into the troughs...tected from resuspension by bottom currents. Over the course of the experiment, subsequent storm events broke up the surface mud layer into small clasts ...grained fractions (silt and clay sizes) were rele- gated to discrete layers, lenses, or clasts , occurring in 45% of all collected cores but occupying only

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Omotioma M; Ejikeme P. C. N

    2014-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extr...

  13. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  14. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum

  15. Boron geochemistry of mud volcano products and their significance for global B cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, A.; Kopf, A.

    2003-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a global phenomenon in mostly convergent margin settings, whose nature has long been subject to scientific investigation. However, only recently its significance has been unravelled by quantitative studies in well-investigated submarine environments, like large accretionary complexes. The fluid flux through active mud volcanoes has been estimated to exceed that of the frontal accretionary prism (Kopf et al. 2001, EPSL 189), and may have done so in earlier earth history. We report results from a systematic B geochemical study of pore fluids, muds and clasts of onshore and offshore mud volcanoes all over the world (Kopf and Deyhle, 2002, Chem. Geol., 192). When tied into results from hydrothermal geochemical experiments in the laboratory (You et al. 1996, EPSL 140), the B geochemistry proofs to be a powerful tracer to estimate the depth of fluid and mud mobilization below ground. Boron adsorbed to clay minerals is preferably donated to the fluid when either tectonic stress (vertical and/or lateral compaction) or temperature increase. Here, we report variations in B content and B isotopes in mud volcano deposits as a result of different history of the material prior to extrusion. Results reflect the regional geology of the study areas, ranging from dewatering of undercompacted marine sediments in accretionary prisms (Barbados, Makran, Mediterranean Sea) to diagenetic reactions in mud volcanoes of orogenic belts (Malaysia, Pakistan, Georgia, Taman Peninsula, Western Alps). Boron shows maximum enrichment in the fluid phase (owing to desorption in the mud) when faulting roots deepest and deformation is strongest. Mud domes juxtaposing out-of-sequence faults in the Caucasus orogenic wedge show mud B contents 8x marine sediment and fluid B contents up to 25x seawater. Deep-seated, B-rich fluids liquefy clay-bearing strata to facilitate mud extrusion, allowing the clay to re-adsorb B in the process. B isotopic composition of the mud decreases with incipient

  16. Pilot-Scale Test of Dephosphorization in Steelmaking Using Red Mud-Based Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengshan; Zhang, Yanling; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-09-01

    Bayer red mud is characterized by its highly oxidizing nature and high alkalinity. It can act as an ideal flux and dephosphorizer in steelmaking. In this study, pilot-scale tests applying the Bayer red mud-based flux in steelmaking have been conducted in a 200-kg, medium-frequency induction furnace. Good slag fluidity and no rephosphorization phenomena are observed. High dephosphorization rates ( 90%) and low final [P] (mud-based slag can reach as high as 34.05 wt.%, far higher than the 6.73 wt.% in ordinary industrial slag. This suggests that the Al2O3, TiO2 in Bayer red mud can enhance the solid solubility of phosphorus in the P-rich phase. The data obtained are important for promoting the large-scale application of red mud in steelmaking.

  17. Removal of Pb ion from water samples using red mud (bauxite ore processing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the use of red mud (bauxite ore processing waste in removal of lead ions in water samples. For this 0.1 g of red mud has been used as adsorbent which suspended in 10 ml of lead solution with the concentration of 50 mg l-1 for about 1 h. After that the lead concentration in the samples taken from the red mud treated lead solution measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The effect of some parameter which is important in adsorption of lead on red mud such as suitable adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time of solution and adsorbent was investigated. The result shows that red mud as solid waste and low-cost adsorbent can be successfully used for the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution.

  18. Review of The Architecture of Mud and Qudad DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Enrico Fodde

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This superb documentary by Caterina Borelli is a study of the craftsmanship involved in the construction of the mud brick architecture of the Hadramaut and Do'an valleys of the Yemen, and the cultural aspects of a traditional architecture which incorporates an understanding of buildings which dates back centuries. Expanding the existing knowledge of these earthen heritage properties, examining their behaviour in the local climate and the preservation of traditional craftsmanship as part of a sustainable conservation future are the other prominent concerns of this work. The traditional heritage of the Hadramaut and Do'an regions in the south east of the Yemen are entirely constructed from loam. Throughout the centuries, the population has developed very sophisticated building techniques, and created a unique architectural environment. Spectacular structures such as ten-story mud brick tower houses rise up from green valleys that are surrounded by arid mountains. As in other parts of the world, with the advent of modern materials such as cement, indigenous construction and conservation practices carried out by craftsmen are rendered intellectually invisible by a process similar to the drawing of a veil. The elimination of these practices equals the erosion of centuries of building and conservation culture. As this heritage is rapidly disappearing, as shown by these obsolete construction techniques, this documentary is an excellent archive for future generations.

  19. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  20. Flume Experiment on Fluid Mud Behavior into Dredged Navigation Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Murayama, H.

    2016-12-01

    In order to elucidate processes of suspended sediment transport and their deposition processes in the vicinity of navigation channel around river mouth or estuarine area, field monitoring works were carried out with CTD, tubidity and bulk density measurements in the Port of Niigata, which locates at the mouth of the Shinano river in the west coast of Japan. The field measurement provbided several specific features of sedimentary processes during a flood condition showing dispersal of highely turbid water in the near surface fresh water layer, less turbid sea water in the lower layer and formation of fluid mud layer just above the bottom surface. We carried out the hydraulic model experiments to reproduce the fine sediment transport process under the estuarine system with environment of halocline formation with a circulating flume. In the experiment, density profile or halocline was reproduced as observed in the field with the upper fresh water and the lower sea water and the topography of the dredged navigation channel was modeled in the flume. For the modeling of sediment behavior, diluted caolinite clay was injected upstream boundary in the flume. The experiments clarified the influence of the halocline on the vertical mixing of suspended sediment and penetration of fluid mud through the denser sea water along the slope in the dredged chanell area.

  1. Increasing arsenic sorption on red mud by phosphogypsum addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G; Costa, E T S; Curi, N; Penha, H G V

    2013-11-15

    Mining by-products have been tested as adsorbents for arsenic in order to reduce As bioavailability. This study evaluated a red mud (RM) treated with or without phosphogypsum (G) in order to improve its As retention. Red mud and G samples and their mixtures were chemically and mineralogically characterized to gather information concerning their composition, which is key for a better understanding of the adsorbent properties. Phosphogypsum was added to RM in the following proportions: 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25% by weight. These mixtures were subjected to As adsorption and desorption and tested for their maximum adsorption capacity of As (AsMAC). Arsenic adsorption increased upon increasing the proportion of G added to RM. The AsMAC at pure RM reached 909 mg kg(-1), whereas the 75%-RM+25%-G mixture sorbed up to 3333 mg kg(-1) of As, i.e., a 3.5-fold increase in AsMAC. Using G in mixtures with RM increases the efficiency of As adsorption due to the presence of Ca(2+), which alters the charge balance of the adsorbent, leading to the formation of ternary complexes. Addition of G to RM is thus a promising technique to improve As retention, while providing additional value to both by-products, G and RM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  3. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Monique Gagnon

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster, to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs. Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs: an ester (E, an isomerized olefin (IO and linear alpha olefin (LAO. Condition factor (CF, liver somatic index (LSI, hepatic detoxification (EROD activity, biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70 were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  4. Identification of mud crab reovirus VP12 and its interaction with the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Dong; Su, Hong-Jun; Zou, Wei-Bin; Liu, Shan-Shan; Yan, Wen-Rui; Wang, Qian-Qian; Yuan, Li-Li; Chan, Siuming Francis; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo; Weng, Shao-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the causative agent of a severe disease in cultured mud crab (Scylla paramamosain), which has caused huge economic losses in China. MCRV is a double-stranded RNA virus with 12 genomic segments. In this paper, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses revealed that the VP12 protein encoded by S12 gene is a structural protein of MCRV. Immune electron microscopy assay indicated that MCRV VP12 is a component of MCRV outer shell capsid. Yeast two hybrid cDNA library of mud crab was constructed and mud crab voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (mcVDAC) was obtained by MCRV VP12 screening. The full length of mcVDAC was 1180 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 849 bp encoding a 282 amino acid protein. The mcVDAC had a constitutive expression pattern in different tissues of mud crab. The interaction between MCRV VP12 and mcVDAC was determined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The results of this study have provided an insight on the mechanisms of MCRV infection and the interactions between the virus and mud crab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiological survey of the covered and uncovered drilling mud depository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, Jácint; Somlai, János; Csordás, Anita; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-11-02

    In petroleum engineering, the produced drilling mud sometimes contains elevated amounts of natural radioactivity. In this study, a remediated Hungarian drilling mud depository was investigated from a radiological perspective. The depository was monitored before and after a clay layer was applied as covering. In this study, the ambient dose equivalent rate H*(10) of the depository has been measured by a Scintillator Probe (6150AD-b Dose Rate Meter). Outdoor radon concentration, radon concentration in soil gas, and in situ field radon exhalation measurements were carried out using a pulse-type ionization chamber (AlphaGUARD radon monitor). Soil gas permeability (k) measurements were carried out using the permeameter (RADON-JOK) in situ device. Geogenic radon potentials were calculated. The radionuclide content of the drilling mud and cover layer sample has been determined with an HPGe gamma-spectrometer. The gamma dose rate was estimated from the measured radionuclide concentrations and the results were compared with the measured ambient dose equivalent rate. Based on the measured results before and after covering, the ambient dose equivalent rates were 76 (67-85) nSv/h before and 86 (83-89) nSv/h after covering, radon exhalation was 9 (6-12) mBq/m2s before and 14 (5-28) mBq/m2s after covering, the outdoor radon concentrations were 11 (9-16) before and 13 (10-22) Bq/m3after covering and the soil gas radon concentrations were 6 (3-8) before and 24 (14-40) kBq/m3 after covering. Soil gas permeability measurements were 1E-11 (7E-12-1E-11) and 1E-12 (5E-13-1E-12) m2 and the calculated geogenic radon potential values were 6 (3-8) and 12 (6-21) before and after the covering. The main radionuclide concentrations of the drilling mud were CU-238 12 (10-15) Bq/kg, CRa-226 31 (18-40) Bq/kg, CTh-232 35 (33-39) Bq/kg and CK-40 502 (356-673) Bq/kg. The same radionuclide concentrations in the clay were CU-238 31 (29-34) Bq/kg, CRa-226 45 (40-51) Bq/kg, CTh-232 58 (55-60) Bq/kg and

  6. Cold seep communities in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea: composition, symbiosis and spatial distribution on mud volcanoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olu-Le Roy, K; Sibuet, M.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Gofas, S; Salas, C.; Mariotti, A.; Foucher, J.-P.; Woodside, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two mud volcano fields were explored during the French-Dutch MEDINAUT cruise (1998) with the submersible NAUTILE, one south of Crete along the Mediteranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field) and the other south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field) where high

  7. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2017-11-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  8. Comparing the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsan, Ayşe; Akkaya, Nuray; Ozgen, Merih; Yildiz, Necmettin; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Ardic, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack therapies on patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed as a prospective, randomized-controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with clinical and radiologic evidence of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups and were treated with mature mud packs (n 15) or hot packs (n=12). Patients were evaluated for pain [based on the visual analog scale (VAS)], function (WOMAC, 6 min walking distance), quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 and 6~months after treatment. The mud pack group shows a significant improvement in VAS, pain, stifness, and physical function domains of WOMAC. The difference between groups of pain and physical activity domains is significant at post-treatment in favor of mud pack. For a 6 min walking distance, mud pack shows significant improvement, and the difference is significant between groups in favor of mud pack at post-treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Mud pack shows significant improvement in the pain subscale of SF-36 at the third month continuing until the sixth month after the treatment. Significant improvements are found for the social function, vitality/energy, physical role disability, and general health subscales of SF-36 in favor of the mud pack compared with the hot pack group at post-treatment. A significant increase is detected for IGF-1 in the mud pack group 3 months after treatment compared with the baseline, and the difference is significant between groups 3 months after the treatment. Mud pack is a favorable option compared with hotpack for pain relief and for the improvement of functional conditions in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  9. Fluid flow and mud volcanism in the Eastern Mediterranean incipient collision zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Woodside, J. M.; Mascle, J.

    2003-04-01

    Fluid venting activity, either coupled with mud volcanism or along deep active faults or both, has been investigated in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, mainly in two areas associated with the incipient collision process between Africa and Eurasia. Mud volcanoes are abundant on the crestal part of the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary prism, in association with thrusts, back-thrusts and transcurrent features. They are also found in the Anaximander Mountains/Florence Rise area, to the west of Cyprus, where a wrench system accommodates the pre-collisional deformation. Combined swath multibeam bathymetry and imagery, seismic profiling (ANAXIPROBE survey, 1995 and PRISMED II survey, 1998) and O.R.E.Tech sidescan sonar data (MEDINETH survey, 1999) indicate the genetic relationship between mud volcanoes and tectonics, particularly potential influence of strike-slip faulting. The in situ observations of mud volcanoes (MEDINAUT survey, 1998) have revealed common characteristics at cold seeps, such as carbonate crust constructions and specific chemosynthetic-based fauna. Ground-truth of the sonar data shows that the geophysical signature of mud volcanoes may be related to spatial and temporal evolution of mud volcanism activity, because the seafloor characteristics (surface of the mud flows, distribution and nature of the crusts) and the degree of colonization by benthic fauna vary with the intensity and age of the fluid seepage. Moreover, clay mineralogy studies on the mud matrix samples give insights into the depositional environment, age, and depth of the lithological unit from which the mud breccia is extruded. The shallow signature of the mud reservoir tends to indicate that the overpressured fluids originate from deeper strata than the solid phase of the expelled material.

  10. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  11. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  12. A comparative study of mud-like and coralliform calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Qiao, Tie; Huang, Hai-Yi; Zhong, Hai-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    To gain insight to underlying mechanism of the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) gallbladder stones, we did comparative study of stones with mud appearance and those with coralliform appearance. A total of 93 gallbladder stones with mud appearance and 50 stones with coralliform appearance were analyzed. The appearance, color, texture, and the detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs by microscopic examination were compared between the two groups. Then, the material compositions of stones were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the spectrogram characteristics were compared. Moreover, microstructure characteristics of the two kinds of stones were observed and compared with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mud-like gallbladder stones were mainly earthy yellow or brown with brittle or soft texture, while coralliform stones were mainly black with extremely hard texture, the differences between the two groups was significant (p mud-like gallbladder stones were CaCO3 stones, and mainly aragonite; while all of the coralliform stones were CaCO3 stones, and mainly calcite (p mud-like CaCO3 stones was lower than that in coralliform CaCO3 stones (p Mud-like CaCO3 stones mainly happened to patients with cystic duct obstruction. Clonorchis sinensis infection was mainly associated with coralliform (calcite) CaCO3 stones. Cystic duct obstruction was mainly associated with mud-like (aragonite) CaCO3 stones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  14. Effect of formulation variables on the physical properties and stability of Dead Sea mud masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Sawsan; Hamed, Saja; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2015-01-01

    The physical stability of Dead Sea mud mask formulations under different conditions and their rheological properties were evaluated as a function of the type and level of thickeners, level of the humectant, incorporation of ethanol, and mode of mud treatment. Formulations were evaluated in terms of visual appearance, pH, moisture content, spreadability, extrudability, separation, rate of drying at 32 degrees C, and rheological properties. Prepared mud formulations and over-the-shelf products showed viscoplastic shear thinning behavior; satisfactory rheological behavior was observed with formulations containing a total concentration of thickeners less than 10% (w/w). Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models were found the most suitable to describe the rheological data of the prepared formulations. Thickener incorporation decreased phase separation and improved formulation stability. Bentonite incorporation in the mud prevented color changes during stability studies while glycerin improved spreadability. Addition of 5% (w/w) ethanol improved mud extrudability, slightly increased percent separation, accelerated drying at 32 degrees C, and decreased viscosity and yield stress values. Different mud treatment techniques did not cause a clear behavioral change in the final mud preparation. B10G and K5B5G were labeled as "best formulas" based on having satisfactory physical and aesthetic criteria investigated in this study, while other formulations failed in one or more of the tests we have performed.

  15. Carbonised red mud--a new water treatment product made from a waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, I D; Hargreaves, J S J; Ďurišová, J; Kramulova, B; Girard, C; Balakrishnan, M; Batra, V S; Rico, J L

    2012-06-15

    Proposals to use red mud, the waste produced by the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore in the Bayer process, as a material for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated water are limited by its inherent alkalinity and variability. Attempts to lower its pH have been largely unreliable. However, an alternative strategy is carbonisation of red mud by catalytic hydrocarbon cracking, which results in a magnetic material of greater surface area. The efficacy of this material has been compared with that of the untreated parent red mud and acidified red mud for the sorption of CrO(4)(2-), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). Carbonised red mud does not remove CrO(4)(2-) from solution, but shows enhancement of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) removal. There is an approximate ten-fold increase in removal of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) by carbonised red mud compared with acidified red mud. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immobilisation of beryllium in solid waste (red-mud) by fixation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, P N; Ghosh, D K; Desai, M V M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on the immobilization of beryllium (Be) in solid waste generated in the extraction process of beryllium from its ore, Beryl. This solid waste, termed red-mud, contains oxides of iron, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and beryllium. The red-mud waste contains beryllium at levels above the permissible limit, which prevents its disposal as solid waste. The total beryllium content in the red-mud analysed showed value ranging from 0.39 to 0.59% Be The studies showed that 50% of the total beryllium in red-mud can be extracted by water by repeated leaching over a period of 45 days. The cement mix, casting into cement blocks, was subjected to leachability studies over a period of 105 days and immobilization factor (IF factor) was determined. These IF values, of the order of 102, were compared with those obtained by performing leachability study on vitrified red-mud masses produced at different temperature conditions. Direct heating of the red-mud gave the gray coloured, non-transparent vitreous mass (as 'bad glass') showed effective immobilisation factor for beryllium in red-mud of the order of 10(4).

  17. Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Manuel; Gázquez, Manuel Jesús; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J; López, Félix A; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the preparation of sulphur polymer cements (SPCs) incorporating waste ilmenite mud for use in concrete construction works. The ilmenite mud raw material and the mud-containing SPCs (IMC-SPCs) were characterised physico-chemically and radiologically. The optimal IMC-SPC mixture had a sulphur/mud ratio (w/w) of 1.05 (mud dose 20 wt%); this cement showed the greatest compressive strength (64 MPa) and the lowest water absorption coefficient (0.4 g cm(-2) at 28 days). Since ilmenite mud is enriched in natural radionuclides, such as radium isotopes (2.0·10(3) Bq kg(-1)(228)Ra and 5.0·10(2) Bq kg(-1)(226)Ra), the IMC-SPCs were subjected to leaching experiments, which showed their environmental impact to be negligible. The activity concentration indices for the different radionuclides in the IMC-SPCs containing 10% and 20% ilmenite mud met the demands of international standards for materials used in the construction of non-residential buildings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of Phosphate Using Red Mud: An Environmentally Hazardous Waste By-Product of Alumina Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkumar S. Prajapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial waste, bauxite residue generated in the Bayer chemical process of alumina production, commonly known as red mud (RM has been used as the adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions. RM collected from the storage area of alumina industry was characterized by chemical analysis and physical methods such as BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD methods. Among the various red mud samples (0.2–200 μ studied, the samples treated with 1 M HCl for 2 h were found better for the selective adsorption of phosphate in comparison with untreated and heat treated RM samples. The presence of phosphate in the aqueous samples collected after adsorption studies with red mud was determined by standard spectrophotometric procedure using ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid in nitrate medium at λmax 880 nm. The studies reported significant adsorption of phosphate on acid treated red mud in comparison with adsorption of phosphate on untreated and heat treated red mud, respectively. The adsorption of phosphate on raw red mud and activated red mud was further investigated with respect to stirring time, pH of the solution, dose of adsorbent, and varying phosphate concentration. Acid treated RM is observed as an efficient and cost-effective adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions.

  19. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  20. Members of the methanotrophic genus Methylomarinum inhabit inland mud pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle T. Fradet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR. This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling.

  1. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble......The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can...

  2. Ultra-Deepwater Riserless Mud Circulation with Dual Gradient Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Myers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drilling deep holes in very deep water presents the offshore drilling community with major wellbore stability challenges that are typically mitigated through the circulation of dense drilling mud to prevent hole collapse and to remove drilling debris (“cuttings”. This is normally accomplished through the application of a riser system (Fig. 1; however, riser lengths ; are presently limited to use in water depths of around 3047 m. In the scientific ocean drilling realm, we have been very successful in drilling relatively shallow holes (<1500 m in water depths greater than 3657 m, a range we call “hyper-deep”. Drilling in these extreme water depths requires the use of the “riserless” drilling technique (Fig. 1A which is not constrained by the length limitations of a riser system (“riser”.

  3. Bleeding Mud: The Testimonial Poetry of Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Finzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Rubén Darío, Nicaragua has long prided itself in being a country of poets. During the Sandinista Revolution, popular poetry workshops dispatched by Minister of Culture Ernesto Cardenal taught peasants and soldiers to write poetry about everyday life and to use poetry as a way to work through trauma from the civil war. When Hurricane Mitch--one of the first superstorms that heralded climate change--brought extreme flooding to Nicaragua in 1998, poetry again served as a way for victims to process the devastation. Examining testimonial poetry from Hurricane Mitch, this article shows how the mud and despair of this environmental disaster function as palimpsests of conquest and imperial oppression.

  4. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF AN ORGANIC MUD AGITATOR SCREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special performances obtained by means of the optimisation method applied to the axial runners of run-of-river hydraulic turbines and of wind turbines, as well as in the case of the screws for boat propulsion, perfected by the first of the authors [1] - [10], in this work one extend the application of this method at the case of an organic mud agitator screw for fermentation and biogas production. One presents the obtaining of the bio liquid circulation minimal velocity in the two possible cases [3]: extracting the fluid velocity from the peripheral force exerted by the runner, as well as from the mechanical power consumed for its driving. After the obtaining of the optimal relative peripheral angle one determines also the optimal incidence angles of the profile for other blade radii. This method permits in the same time to find the optimal profile, using the multitude of the profile characteristics, experimentally studied.

  5. Applications of advanced mud removal techniques for well cementing in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germini, Felipe V.; Goncalves, Rodrigo [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Failure to effectively remove drilling mud during primary cementing operations is the leading cause of improper zonal isolation. The lack of hydraulic seal often results in the migration of formation fluids into the wellbore and across formations. The remedial operations that normally become necessary to repair such deficiencies can have a significant economic impact on the development and work over of a well. Complete Mud Removal is crucial to successful well cementing. The ability to effectively remove mud from the annulus is contingent on a variety of factors including well geometry, fluid properties and volumes, flow regimes, and casing movement. Significant improvement over the previous Mud Removal techniques have been applied worldwide with the introduction a new Engineering Solution package that consists of an integrated application of new environmentally friendly chemicals and an advanced computer based Mud Removal Simulator to predict the displacement of fluids in the annulus, identifies channel types, detects any contact between mud and cement, identifies the risk of leaving a mud film behind the cement. In the effort to develop the new technique, a strong emphasis was placed on the Laboratory Testing Methodology for optimized spacer rheologies. A Mud Removal Advisor was developed in order to help into fine tuning the spacer additive concentrations (as a function of Temperature and Density), predict minimum acceptable standoff for good displacement and minimum and maximum acceptable flow rates. Three field cases will be discussed to validate the new technique and highlight the ability of the simulator to predict Mud Removal and cement coverage through the examination of cement bond logs. (author)

  6. Mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea are hot spots of exclusive meiobenthic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Mea, Marianna; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Danovaro, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    Mud volcanoes are cold seeps, in which the escape of gas and fluids associated with mud creates 3-D bottom structures that enhance the spatial heterogeneity and potentially alter the functioning of the benthic ecosystems. We investigated a complex system of mud volcanoes of the Mediterranean Sea characterised by the presence of different structures (i.e., isolated domes, domes surrounded by moats, clustered domes, and ridges) displaying different levels of seepage. We hypothesize that the combined effects of seafloor heterogeneity (i.e., different 3-D structures as revealed by detailed topographic analysis), fluid emissions and trophic characteristics of these systems can influence the structural and functional biodiversity of meiofauna (with special focus on the nematodes). We found that sediments affected by intensive seepage displayed the lowest faunal abundances and number of higher taxa. However, mud volcanoes without emissions, but characterized by a high structural complexity (such as the ridges), were associated with the highest meiofaunal abundances and number of higher taxa. Mud volcanoes hosted also a remarkable abundance of rare taxa specifically associated with these structures (e.g., acarians, cumaceans, tanaids, cladocerans and hydroids) and absent in slope sediments (used as a control). Each mud-volcano area displayed a different nematode species composition. Overall 76 nematode species (from a total of 235) were exclusively associated with mud-volcano structures, whilst 29 were exclusively encountered in slope sediments. We conclude that the presence of mud volcanoes, for their contribution to increase spatial heterogeneity and for the extreme conditions associated with gas emissions, promotes higher levels of beta diversity, thus enhancing the regional (gamma) benthic diversity. These findings provide new insights on the factors controlling meiobenthic biodiversity in mud volcanoes and clues for future action of conservation of the biodiversity

  7. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuary morphology and development over centuries to millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, Lisanne; van Kessel, Thijs; Leuven, Jasper R. F. W.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2017-10-01

    Alluvial river estuaries consist largely of sand but are typically flanked by mudflats and salt marshes. The analogy with meandering rivers that are kept narrower than braided rivers by cohesive floodplain formation raises the question of how large-scale estuarine morphology and the late Holocene development of estuaries are affected by cohesive sediment. In this study we combine sand and mud transport processes and study their interaction effects on morphologically modelled estuaries on centennial to millennial timescales. The numerical modelling package Delft3D was applied in 2-DH starting from an idealised convergent estuary. The mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades-Krone relations for mud and Engelund-Hansen for sand. The model was subjected to a range of idealised boundary conditions of tidal range, river discharge, waves and mud input. The model results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the side of the estuary. Marine mud supply only influences the mouth of the estuary, whereas fluvial mud is distributed along the whole estuary. Coastal waves stir up mud and remove the tendency to form muddy coastlines and the formation of mudflats in the downstream part of the estuary. Widening continues in estuaries with only sand, while mud supply leads to a narrower constant width and reduced channel and bar dynamics. This self-confinement eventually leads to a dynamic equilibrium in which lateral channel migration and mudflat expansion are balanced on average. However, for higher mud concentrations, higher discharge and low tidal amplitude, the estuary narrows and fills to become a tidal delta.

  8. Effect of lime on some physical properties of mud as an alternative refractory material for lining of furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In ceramic industries, lime or calcium oxide (CaO has been used successfully to improve the permeability of materials made from clay. This paper presents the outcome of research into the possible use of mud mixed with lime to improve the quality of mud bricks for use in lining of furnaces in the foundry. Results of the tests show that mud generally consist mainly of very fine clay and silt particles sizes less than 300 µm. It was also found that the addition of lime in mud improves the permeability with an average conductivity of 1.15 mm/s. The addition of lime also reduces the resistance of the mud to thermal resistance as the samples indicated cracks at high temperatures. The compressive strength and setting time of the mud- lime brick was found to increase progressively. The addition of lime to mud can therefore be recommended for low temperature furnace lining.

  9. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  10. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  11. Mud Volcanoes from the Beaufort Sea to the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Dallimore, S.; Melling, H.; Liu, C. S.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed morphology of five submarine mud volcanoes were surveyed using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Mud volcanoes are constructional features built by extrusion of gas, subsurface fluids and fine-grained sediment. Two surveys covering four submarine mud volcanoes were conducted on the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. A survey of one mud volcano was conducted on the Taiwanese Ocean Research V in the South China Sea, SE of Taiwan. The AUV carried a multibeam sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a110 kHz sidescan, and obtained overlapping multibeam bathymetric coverage at a vertical resolution of 0.15 m with a horizontal footprint of 0.9 m and chirp seismic-reflection profiles with a vertical resolution of 0.11 m. Mud volcanoes were either flat topped or conical. The conical mud volcano off Taiwan had a diameter of ~2 km and 10° side slopes; the conical feature in the Beaufort Sea had a diameter of ~1.5 km and 4° side slopes. The sides of the conical mud volcanoes were smooth, suggesting they were formed by sediment flows that emanate from a vent on their crests. The flanks of the conical mud volcanoes characteristically had very low acoustic reflectivity, but one single high reflectivity trail from the crest of the Beaufort Sea mud volcano indicates a recent flow. Three mud volcanoes in the Beaufort Sea formed circular, flat-topped plateaus that are up to ~1.1 km in diameter and elevated up to 30 m from the surrounding seafloor. The fine scale morphology and reflectivity on these plateaus show low relief, concentric, and ovoid circles that appear to be mud boils probably associated with eruptive events of varying ages at shifting vent sites. The different mud volcano shapes are attributed to variations in the viscosity of the erupting sediment slurries and may represent a sequential morphology, which is altered by shifts in venting position over

  12. Lime-mud layers in high-energy tidal channels: A record of hurricane deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Steinen, R.P.; Dill, R.F.; Major, R.

    1993-01-01

    During or immediately following the transit of Hurricane Andrew (August 23-24, 1992) across the northern part of the Great Bahama Bank, thin laminated beds of carbonate mud were deposited in high-energy subtidal channels (4 m depth) through the ooid shoals of south Cat Cay and Joulters Cays. Thicker, more cohesive (and therefore older) mud beds and angular mud fragments associated with ooids from Joulters Cays have similar characteristics but lack fresh plant fragments. We infer that these older beds were similarly deposited and thus record the passage of previous hurricanes or tropical storms. -from Authors

  13. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  14. Valorisation of ilmenite mud waste in the manufacture of commercial ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Llanes, Manuel; Martín, M. I.; Gázquez González, Manuel Jesús; Romero, M.; Bolívar Raya, Juan Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study focused on the production of ceramic tiles from ilmenite mud (MUD), a waste generated by the industry devoted to the TiO2 pigment production. Ceramic tiles were produced from mixtures of a commercial red stoneware mixture (RSM) with different concentrations of mud (3, 5, 7, 10, 30 and 50 wt.%). The samples were sintered to simulate a fast-firing process. The sintering behaviour of the fired samples was evaluated according to ISO methodologies by linea...

  15. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta)Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633Tributyltin (TBT...

  16. Meiofaunal stratification in relation to microbial food in a tropical mangrove mud flat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parulekar, A

    The vertical gradients of meiofauna mainly in relation to biochemical changes and microbial abundance in the upper 20 cm of deposit of a mangrove mud flat were studied. Strong vertical gradients in the redox potential (Eh), interstitial water...

  17. Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) Analysis of Ubiquitinated Proteins in Plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudy Maor; Alex Jones; Thomas S. Nühse; David J. Studholme; Scott C. Peck; Ken Shirasu

    2007-01-01

    .... High molecular weight ubiquitinated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, and the trypsin-digested samples were then analyzed by a multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) system...

  18. Availability of MudPIT data for classification of biological samples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Di Silvestre, Dario; Zoppis, Italo; Brambilla, Francesca; Bellettato, Valeria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Mauri, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    ...) on experimental data obtained by MudPIT approach. In particular, we compared the performance capabilities of SVM by using two independent collection of complex samples and different data-types, such as mass spectra (m/z...

  19. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  20. Drilling technology research program. [Bits, mud instrumentation, materials, downhole information while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, M. M.; Huff, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the activities of the program conducted for DOGST/ERDA from program inception in April, 1976, to September, 1977. Progress on four projects is presented: High Performance Bits, High Temperature Mud Instrumentation, High Temperature Materials and Downhole Information While Drilling. The high performance bit development centers on improved bonding techniques for attaching the General Electric man-made diamond (Stratapax) to a mounting structure or bit body. Preliminary design work on high temperature mud filtration and viscosity instrumentation is described along with initial attempts to characterize physical changes that occur in muds in deep hot wells. Experiments underway to determine ways to increase the service life of drill steels and elastomers in hot corrosive environments are discussed. Limited activity occurred on development of a ''Drilling and Formation Information System'' to determine the difference between formation and mud column pressures while drilling. (DLC)

  1. Does subterranean flow initiate mud banks off the southwest coast of India?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.

    Coastal waters off the southwest coast of India draw special attention because of the occurrence of mud banks at certain locations during southwest monsoon period. The present study puts forward a hypothesis of a subterranean flow, which could be a...

  2. Evaluation of some vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants as additives for water based mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. El-Sukkary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-based drilling fluids are increasingly being used for oil and gas exploration and are generally considered to be more environmentally acceptable than oil-based or synthetic-based fluids. In this study, new types of vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants were evaluated as additives in water-based mud. Their rheological properties in water-based mud were investigated which included the apparent viscosity, the plastic viscosity, the yield point, the gel strength, the thixotropy as well as the filtration properties. Also, the effect of high temperature on the rheology of the formulated water based mud was studied. The tested ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants showed good results when utilized in the formulation of water-based mud.

  3. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  4. Red mud application in construction industry: review of benefits and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M. S. S.; Thives, L. P.; Haritonovs, V.; Bajars, K.

    2017-10-01

    Red mud is a waste originated in the processing of bauxite into aluminium, which properties of high alkalinity make it cumulatively stored, occupying increasing deforested areas. Annually, it is estimated that approximately 117 million tons of red mud are generated in the world, with no prospect of use, what represents an imminent risk of pollution prone to contamination. Nevertheless, environmental liabilities caused by red mud affect not only the environment, but also the companies responsible for the waste, which will be subject to highest fee payments. Although there are studies that prove the feasibility of using this solid waste in the constitution of ceramic materials, there are no large-scale applications. This study seeks to evaluate the possibilities of red mud application in construction industry, focusing into two main areas: cement production/ceramic material and road construction. Backgrounds from other researchers were taken into consideration and analysed according environmental, economic and technical feasibilities.

  5. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  6. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  7. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January, February, March, April 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  8. Narrative report Mud Lake Refuge, Minnesota: February 1st, 1940 to April 30th, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1940. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Narrative report Mud Lake Refuge, Minnesota Period: November 1st, 1938 to January 31st, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November of 1938 through January of 1939. The report begins by...

  10. Narrative report Mud Lake Refuge, Minnesota Period: November 1st, 1941 to January 31st, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November of 1941 through January of 1942. The report begins by...

  11. Narrative report Mud Lake Refuge, Minnesota Period: November 1st, 1939 to January 31st, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November of 1939 through January of 1940. The report begins by...

  12. [Narrative report Mud Lake Refuge, Minnesota: February through to April, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1942 The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  14. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  15. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, 1950 - August, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  16. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December [1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  17. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  18. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  19. Present Practice of Using Nautical Depth to Manage Navigation Channels in the Presence of Fluid Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    discontinuity which coincides with a characteristic level in the deposit where mud properties change.” From the analyses of initial rigidity and...Teeter 1992). The factors include (PIANC 1997) the following: • stress history • sand content • particle diameter • clay mineralogy • rate of...fluid mud viscosity is shear-rate dependent and depends on the vessel shape , size, and speed, yield stress (or strength) is a less variable property

  20. Origin of Fluids and Salts at Mercator Mud Vulcano, Gulf of Cadiz

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Heeschen; M. Haeckel; C.  Berndt; D. Teagle; M. Palmer; D. Green; M. Cooper; H. Vaneste; V. Liebetrau

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is located at the plate boundary between the Eurasian and African plates and is characterized by widespread mud volcanism all along the continental margins. It is commonly believed that this results from sediment dewatering enhanced by the compressional forces within the accretionary prism. Recently, 3D seismic data and geochemical sediment cores indicated that in addition to compressional tectonics, halokinesis controls the location and dynamics of the Mercator mud volca...

  1. Archaeal Populations in Hypersaline Sediments Underlying Orange Microbial Mats in the Napoli Mud Volcano▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered dur...

  2. Mud Volcanoes - A New Class of Sites for Geological and Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.C.; Oehler, D.Z.; Baker, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mud volcanoes provide a unique low-temperature window into the Earth s subsurface - including the deep biosphere - and may prove to be significant sources of atmospheric methane. The identification of analogous features on Mars would provide an important new class of sites for geological and astrobiological exploration. We report new work suggesting that features in Acidalia Planitia are most consistent with their being mud volcanoes.

  3. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65-7.89 × 10(9) viruses g(-1) d(-1)), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0-8.3 μgC g(-1) d(-1)) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49 mgC m(-2) d(-1), thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems.

  4. Management of fluid mud in estuaries, bays, and lakes. II: Measurement, modeling, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, W.H.; Teeter, A.; Schoellhamer, D.; Friedrichs, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hayter, E.; Shrestha, P.; Rodriguez, H.; Sheremet, A.; Kirby, R.

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for measurement, modeling, and management of fluid mud are available, but research is needed to improve them. Fluid mud can be difficult to detect, measure, or sample, which has led to new instruments and new ways of using existing instruments. Multifrequency acoustic fathometers sense neither density nor viscosity and are, therefore, unreliable in measuring fluid mud. Nuclear density probes, towed sleds, seismic, and drop probes equipped with density meters offer the potential for accurate measurements. Numerical modeling of fluid mud requires solving governing equations for flow velocity, density, pressure, salinity, water surface, plus sediment submodels. A number of such models exist in one-, two-, and three-dimensional form, but they rely on empirical relationships that require substantial site-specific validation to observations. Management of fluid mud techniques can be classified as those that accomplish: Source control, formation control, and removal. Nautical depth, a fourth category, defines the channel bottom as a specific fluid mud density or alternative parameter as safe for navigation. Source control includes watershed management measures to keep fine sediment out of waterways and in-water measures such as structures and traps. Formation control methods include streamlined channels and structures plus other measures to reduce flocculation and structures that train currents. Removal methods include the traditional dredging and transport of dredged material plus agitation that contributes to formation control and/or nautical depth. Conditioning of fluid mud by dredging and aerating offers the possibility of improved navigability. Two examples-the Atchafalaya Bar Channel and Savannah Harbor-illustrate the use of measurements and management of fluid mud. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  5. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65–7.89 × 109 viruses g−1 d−1), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0–8.3 μgC g−1 d−1) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49 mgC m−2 d−1, thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems. PMID:22170423

  6. Removal of Phosphate Using Red Mud: An Environmentally Hazardous Waste By-Product of Alumina Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, Shivkumar S.; Najar, P. A. Mohamed; Tangde, Vijay M.

    2016-01-01

    The industrial waste, bauxite residue generated in the Bayer chemical process of alumina production, commonly known as red mud (RM) has been used as the adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions. RM collected from the storage area of alumina industry was characterized by chemical analysis and physical methods such as BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Among the various red mud samples (0.2–...

  7. Environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud studied by fractionation and speciation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milačič, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) is mostly produced from bauxite ore, which contains up to 70% of Al(2)O(3) (alumina). Before alumina is refined to aluminum metal, it is purified by hot alkaline extraction. As a waste by-product red mud is formed. Due to its high alkalinity and large quantities, it represents a severe disposal problem. In Kidričevo (Slovenia), red mud was washed with water before disposal, and after drying, covered with soil. In Ajka (Hungary), the red mud slurry was collected directly in a containment structure, which burst caused a major accident in October 2010. In the present work the environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud from Kidričevo and Ajka were evaluated by applying a sequential extraction procedure and speciation analysis. The predominant red mud fraction was the insoluble residue; nevertheless, environmental concern was focused on the highly mobile water-soluble fraction of Al and Cr. Al in the water-soluble Ajka mud fraction was present exclusively in form of toxic [Al(OH)(4)](-), while Cr existed in its toxic hexavalent form. Comparative assessment to red mud from Kidričevo (Slovenia) with a lower alkalinity (pH 9) with that from Ajka demonstrated significantly lower Al solubility and the presence of only trace amounts of Cr(VI), confirming that disposal of neutralized mud is environmentally much more acceptable and carries a smaller risk of ecological accidents. Since during the Ajka accident huge amounts of biologically available Al and moderate Cr(VI) concentrations were released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, monitoring of Al and Cr(VI) set free during remedial actions at the contaminated site is essential. Particular care should be taken to minimize the risk of release of soluble Al species and Cr(VI) into water supplies and surface waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental aspect of oil and water-based drilling muds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil based drilling wastes (muds and cuttings) were collected at prescribed depths and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon (AH) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon ... hydrocarbon in the two off-shore wells were in the range of 1,004.95 – 2,052.69 mg/kg for the cuttings and 5,759.11 – 6,546.01 mg/kg for the drill mud.

  9. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  10. Gametogenic development and spawning of the mud clam, Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1876) at Chorao Island, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Clemente, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    , which is crucial in aquaculture development. Key words: Gametogenic development, mud clam, Polymesoda erosa, reproduction, spawning Introduction The process of reproduction is the generation of new individuals that have the potential to become mem- bers... based on 10 mm intervals. A total of 185 individuals were used only for fecundity studies, whereas a total of 588 indivi- duals were used for other parameters. After collec- tion, the clams were brought to the laboratory, washed of all mud and towel...

  11. Biotesting of modeled drilling mud as an indicator of environmental risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushunina, A. S.; Azarova, S. V.; Yazikov, E. G.; Parygina, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    In the system of environmental monitoring, biomonitoring plays an important and independent role. The essence of the method determining the toxicants’ effect consists in the specially selected organisms under standard conditions and recording different behavioral, physiological and biochemical factors. The paper studies the biological influence of modeled drilling mud components. The research results have shown the toxic effect of investigated muds. The obtained data confirm that biotesting can be applied for drilling fluids certification by the complex assessment of hazardous substances.

  12. Biodegradation of Anco Green Novaplus Drilling Muds on Cuttings Deposited in Benthic Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Schaanning, M.; Hylland, K.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Rygg, B.

    1996-01-01

    Kontakt MTS ved bestilling Discharge of drilling fluids attached to bore hole cuttings may affect the benthic environment on the deposition sites in the North Sea. The effects may vary according to dose and properties of the base fluid and other components of the mud recipe. In the present study, biodegradation and environmental effects of two new drilling muds, Anco Green (based on an ester produced from fish oil fatty acids) and Novaplus (based on a linear olefin), was investigated in a ...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from 2001-05-27 to 2001-06-19 (NODC Accession 0113754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113754 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Greenland Sea and...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1996-11-21 to 1996-11-30 (NODC Accession 0113544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113544 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1996-11-21 to...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from 1997-02-25 to 1997-03-24 (NODC Accession 0113545)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113545 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from 1994-08-26 to 1994-09-10 (NODC Accession 0113542)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113542 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from 1995-02-17 to 1995-03-18 (NODC Accession 0113543)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113543 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the Barents Sea, North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from 1999-10-03 to 1999-10-11 (NODC Accession 0113888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113888 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the Barents Sea, North Greenland Sea and Norwegian...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from 1998-03-08 to 1998-03-24 (NODC Accession 0113546)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113546 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1994-02-03 to 1994-02-23 (NODC Accession 0117371)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117371 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1994-02-03 to...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the Barents Sea from 2000-09-23 to 2000-10-03 (NODC Accession 0113886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113886 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the Barents Sea from 2000-09-23 to 2000-10-03 and...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from 1994-02-24 to 1994-03-17 (NODC Accession 0113541)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113541 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea from...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea from 2001-08-22 to 2001-08-29 (NODC Accession 0113887)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113887 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea from 2001-08-22...

  4. Resources Management Strategy For Mud Crabs (Scylla spp.) In Pemalang Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnama Fitri, Aristi Dian; Boesono, Herry; Sabdono, Agus; Adlina, Nadia

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is to develop resources management strategies of mud crab (Scylla spp.) in Pemalang Regency. The method used is descriptive survey in a case study. This research used primary data and secondary data. Primary data were collected through field observations and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. Secondary data were collected from related publications and documents issued by the competent institutions. SWOT Analysis was used to inventory the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. TOWS matrix was used to develop an alternative of resources management strategies. SWOT analysis was obtained by 6 alternative strategies that can be applied for optimization of fisheries development in Pemalang Regency. The strategies is the control of mud crab fishing gear, restricted size allowable in mud crab, control of mud crab fishing season, catch monitoring of mud crab, needs a management institutions which ensure the implementation of the regulation, and implementation for mud crab aquaculture. Each alternative strategy can be synergized to optimize the resources development in Pemalang Regency.

  5. Effect of strong acids on red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wentao; Couperthwaite, Sara J; Kaur, Gurkiran; Yan, Cheng; Johnstone, Dean W; Millar, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    The removal of fluoride using red mud has been improved by acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid. The acidification of red mud causes sodalite and cancrinite phases to dissociate, confirmed by the release of sodium and aluminium into solution as well as the disappearance of sodalite bands and peaks in infrared and X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution of these mineral phases increases the amount of available iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites that are accessible for the adsorption of fluoride. However, concentrated acids have a negative effect on adsorption due to the dissolution of these iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites. The removal of fluoride is dependent on the charge of iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxides on the surface of red mud. Acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid resulted in surface sites of the form ≡SOH2(+) and ≡SOH. Optimum removal is obtained when the majority of surface sites are in the form ≡SOH2(+) as the substitution of a fluoride ion does not cause a significant increase in pH. This investigation shows the importance of having a low and consistent pH for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions using red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Capping hazardous red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite for plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2014-01-01

    A nearly three-year microcosm experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of capping red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite in sustaining the growth of a grass species. This 'sandwich-structured' design allowed self-sustaining growth of the plants under rain-fed conditions no matter whether the underlying red mud was neutralized or not. During the initial stage, the plants grew better when the red mud was not neutralized with MgCl2 probably due to pH rise in the root zone. Neutralization of red mud led to salinization and pH decrease in the root zone. However, the difference in plant growth performance between these scenarios became less remarkable over time due to gradual improvement of soil conditions in the neutralized scenarios. Continuous leaching of soluble salts and alkali by rainwater extended the root zone to the red mud layer. As a result of vegetative production, soil organic matter rapidly accumulated. This, combined with increase in pH and decrease in salinity, markedly facilitated microbial activities and consequently improved the supply of nutrients. This study provides abasis for field-scale experimental design that will have implications for effectively establishing vegetative cover in red mud disposal sites to control dust hazards.

  7. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arogundade, A. I., E-mail: ajiunolorioba@gmail.com; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M., E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my; Faiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Bhat, A. H. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  8. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Mechanisms of Surface Wave Energy Dissipation over a Fluid Mud Sediment Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykovski, P.; Trowbridge, J. H.; Kineke, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Field observations from the spring of 2008 on the Louisiana shelf were used to elucidate the mechanisms of wave energy dissipation over a muddy seafloor. After a period of high discharge from the Atchafalaya River acoustic measurements showed the presence of 20 cm thick mobile fluid mud layers during and after wave events. While total wave energy dissipation (D) was greatest during the high energy periods, these periods had relatively low normalized attenuation rates (Κ = Dissipation/Energy Flux). During declining wave energy conditions, as the fluid mud layer settled, the attenuation process became more efficient with high Κ and low D. The transition from high D and low Κ to high Κ and low D was caused by a transition from turbulent to laminar flow in the fluid mud layer as measured by a Pulse-coherent Doppler profiler. Measurements of the oscillatory boundary layer velocity profile in the fluid mud layer during laminar flow reveal a very thick wave boundary layer with curvature filling the entire fluid mud layer, suggesting a kinematic viscosity two to three orders of magnitude greater than clear water. This high viscosity is also consistent with a high wave attenuation rates measured by across shelf energy flux differences. The transition to turbulence was forced by instabilities on the lutocline, with wavelengths consistent with the dispersion relation for this two layer system. The measurements also provide new insight into the dynamics of wave supported turbidity flows during the transition from a laminar to turbulent fluid mud layer.

  10. Automatic mouse ultrasound detector (A-MUD): A new tool for processing rodent vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitschmidt, Doris; Noll, Anton; Balazs, Peter; Penn, Dustin J.

    2017-01-01

    House mice (Mus musculus) emit complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during social and sexual interactions, which have features similar to bird song (i.e., they are composed of several different types of syllables, uttered in succession over time to form a pattern of sequences). Manually processing complex vocalization data is time-consuming and potentially subjective, and therefore, we developed an algorithm that automatically detects mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (Automatic Mouse Ultrasound Detector or A-MUD). A-MUD is a script that runs on STx acoustic software (S_TOOLS-STx version 4.2.2), which is free for scientific use. This algorithm improved the efficiency of processing USV files, as it was 4–12 times faster than manual segmentation, depending upon the size of the file. We evaluated A-MUD error rates using manually segmented sound files as a ‘gold standard’ reference, and compared them to a commercially available program. A-MUD had lower error rates than the commercial software, as it detected significantly more correct positives, and fewer false positives and false negatives. The errors generated by A-MUD were mainly false negatives, rather than false positives. This study is the first to systematically compare error rates for automatic ultrasonic vocalization detection methods, and A-MUD and subsequent versions will be made available for the scientific community. PMID:28727808

  11. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogundade, A. I.; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  12. Potential use of natural red mud as pozzolan for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production by the Bayer process, is considered hazardous due to its high pH, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004, and worldwide generation of this waste exceeds 117 million tons/year. In this work, non-calcined red mud was used, thus requiring less energy and time and reducing costs, which is the ideal condition for reusing wastes. Mortars containing 30 wt. (% of cement substituted by red mud showed higher strength of hardened products. The pozzolanic activity index was evaluated based on physical and mechanical parameters (Brazilian NBR 5751 and NBR 5752 standards and on a chemical analysis (European EN 196-5 standard. A comparison of the reference mixture (without red mud and the results obtained with red mud confirm the potential of non-calcined red mud for use a as pozzolanic additive in cementitious materials. The setting time (according to the MERCOSUL NM 65 standard tends to increase but workability remains almost unchanged.

  13. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  14. Molecular Simulation Study on Modification Mechanism of Red Mud Modified Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, FU; Hui-ming, BAO; xing-xing, Duan

    2017-12-01

    This article used red mud, the aluminum industrial wastes, as modified asphalt material, through the study of the routine test of modified asphalt properties, and the micro test of electron microscope scanning, infrared spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis etc. to discuss its performance and modification mechanism . The test results show that after mixing red mud, asphalt’s penetration index and 15 °C ductility reduced, softening point enhanced, thus the temperature sensitivity and high temperature stability of asphalt improved; Red mud after mixing the matrix asphalt, can form a uniform, stable and matrix asphalt blending system, and improve the asphalt’s thermal stability. Using molecular simulation technology to analyze the asphalt with the temperature change of energy and find in the process of asphalt melting, the largest is the key to influence on bituminous, and van der waals energy is small. It concludes that red mud -modified asphalt material is mainly controlled by bond energy, in order to obtain its favorable property of modification mechanism, red mud of senior activation and molecular bond energy of asphalt is needed to be enhanced.The results of molecular simulation show that the main component of hematite in red mud is the most adsorbed in the asphalt, the asphaltene is the second, the colloid is the worst, but the adsorption capacity of the colloid is the highest.

  15. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnachandra Rao, V.; Anil Kumar, A.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Chivas, Allan R.; Sekar, B.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.

    2012-06-01

    Two sediment types were found in five gravity cores collected from water depths between 56 m and 121 m along the northwestern continental margin of India: lime muds were abundant in the lower section while siliciclastic sediments dominated the upper section. Lime mud-dominated sediments in shelf cores contained 60%-75% carbonate, 0.3%-0.6% Sr and terrigenous minerals, whereas those at the shelf break were found to have >90% carbonate, 0.6%-0.8% Sr and traces of terrigenous minerals. Aragonite needles showing blunt edges, jointed needles and needles wrapped in smooth aragonite cement were found to be common. Stable (O and C) isotopes of lime mud indicate a potentially freshwater contribution for shelf cores and purely marine contribution for those at the shelf break. Calibrated radiocarbon ages of the lime muds ranged from 17.6-11.9 ka in different cores. The results reported here suggest that the lime muds in the shallow shelf are probably reworked from the Gulf of Kachchh, whereas those at the shelf break were biodetrital, initially formed on the carbonate platform during low stands of sea level and then exported. The change in lime mud-dominated to siliciclastic-dominated sediments in the cores may be due to climate change and rapid rise in sea level during the early Holocene.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  17. Excimer laser cleaning of mud stained paper and parchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte, J. P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of excimer lasers when processing materials, its the emission of a radiation with wavelength in the ultraviolet region. This characteristic allows an extremely accurate and very well defined shape of material removal as well as total absence of heat affected zone and alterations in the material structure. In excimer laser paper and parchment cleaning, the mud is removed by breaking the physicalchemical bonding between this last one and the material to be cleaned not affecting neither its structure nor the chromatic pigment existing in some samples.

    A principal vantagem dos lasers de excímeros, no processamento de materiais, é a emissão de um feixe luminoso com comprimento de onda compreendido na região do ultravioleta, permitindo urna remoçao do material com precisão muito elevada e excelente definição de bordos, ausência de zona térmicamente afectada e ausência de alterações da estrutura. Na limpeza dos papéis e pergaminhos a lama é removida por quebra das ligações fisico-químicas entre a lama e o papel não se afectando a estrutura deste, assim como não se afectaram os pigmentos cromáticos existentes em algumas amostras.

  18. Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.

    2013-08-01

    Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  19. Restoration of red mud deposits by naturally growing vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Tripti; Singh, N B; Singh, Nandita

    2017-05-04

    Disposal of red mud (RM) poses serious environmental problems such as wind erosion, air and water pollution. To overcome these problems, effective restoration of the disposal land through naturally growing vegetation is a sustainable and economical approach. The present study involved estimation of frequency (F), density (D), abundance (Ab), and important value index (IVI) of natural flora on abandoned RM sites in order to assess their metal toxicity tolerance capacity. Based on visual observations and highest IVI, S. Asper and S. punicea were identified as effective ecological tools for the restoration of barren RM sites. From the study, remarkable differences were observed between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric RM of both species. These rhizospheric RM analyses confirm the ability of S. asper and S. punicea for enhancing the biological activities of abandoned RM. Translocation factor (TF) of iron was maximum (2.58) in S. asper, and bioconcentration factor (BCF) was found maximum (1.25) in S. punicea, but both TF (2.58) and BCF (1.35) were high in S. asper. Therefore, this plant could be reported as an iron hyperaccumulator plant. These results suggest that these plant species can be exploited for effective restoration of RM deposited land without any inputs or maintenance.

  20. Measurement system analysis of viscometers used for drilling mud characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat-Shayuti, M. S.; Adzhar, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Viscometers in the Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University Teknologi MARA, are subject to heavy utilization from the members of the faculty. Due to doubts surrounding their result integrity and maintenance management, Measurement System Analysis was executed. 5 samples of drilling muds with varied barite content from 5 - 25 weight% were prepared and their rheological properties determined in 3 trials by 3 operators using the viscometers. Gage Linearity and Bias Study were performed using Minitab software and the result shows high biases in the range of 19.2% to 38.7%, with non-linear trend along the span of measurements. Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility (Nested) analysis later produces Percent Repeatability & Reproducibility more than 7.7% and Percent Tolerance above 30%. Lastly, good and marginal Distinct Categories output are seen among the results. Despite acceptable performance of the measurement system in Distinct Categories, the poor results in accuracy, linearity, and Percent Repeatability & Reproducibility render the gage generally not capable. Improvement to the measurement system is imminent.

  1. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  2. Soupy surface muds: a probable Sandy storm horizon with a potential source fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Goff, J. A.; Austin, J. A.; Browne, C. M.; Duzgoren-Aydin, N. S.; Flood, R. D.; McHugh, C. M.; Dutton, J.; Hosseini, P.; Brownawell, B.

    2013-12-01

    Sandy, a powerful storm that impacted nearly half of the U.S., had a diameter in excess of 1000km. As it came onshore near Brigantine, NJ on October 29, 2012, it struck a devastating blow to Long Island's developed south shore (as well as NYC and much of NJ). Much of the south shore was affected by a 3 m or greater storm surge, measured as 1-2 m above ground level. A two-pronged assessment effort was undertaken in January and February 2013: a UTIG-led geophysical mapping/grab sampling effort that focused on sites offshore Fire Island and Long Beach, as well as Jones Inlet and some of the channels of the Western Bays, and an Adelphi-led sediments sampling effort that focused on the estuary. This study addresses the muddy sediments collected offshore in January and in the Western Bays of Nassau County in February. Three offshore regions were targeted for grab sampling in January off the R/V Seawolf: Fire Island (Fire Island East, FIE; Fire Island West, FIW) in Suffolk County and Long Beach (LB) in Nassau County. Offshore samples were also collected from Jones Inlet to the Rockaways in February off the R/V Pritchard. The high- energy, shallow offshore environment is typically characterized by coarse-grained sediments, but a discontinuous mud layer up to ~0.5 m thick is found at each location, overlying a coarser layer of sand or gravel. This suggests that the mud layer is a storm-related deposit. These muds are clearly observed as low-backscatter patches in the multi-beam data. We are not able to determine absolute thickness everywhere, but it is variable, ranging from a few cm thick to filling the grab sampler, which is ~ 20 cm high. The mud is observed in the CHIRP data as ponded regions; the thickest accumulations suggest up to ~0.5 m. Offshore of the breach on Fire Island (at Old Inlet), a thin layer of sand rests on the mud layer. The mud was not identified in Jones Inlet, but it was sampled in Hempstead Bay, on the south edge of Reynolds Channel. Previous

  3. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecotoxicity of fluvial sediments downstream of the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebercz, Orsolya; Mayes, William M; Ánton, Aron Dániel; Feigl, Viktória; Jarvis, Adam P; Gruiz, Katalin

    2012-08-01

    An integrated assessment of biological activity and ecotoxicity of fluvial sediments in the Marcal river catchment (3078 km(2)), western Hungary, is presented following the accidental spill of bauxite processing residue (red mud) in Ajka. Red mud contaminated sediments are characterised by elevated pH, elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. As, Co, Cr, V), high exchangeable Na, and induce an adverse effect on test species across a range of trophic levels. While background contamination of the river system is highlighted by adverse effects on some test species at sites unaffected by red mud, the most pronounced toxic effects apparent in Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition, Lemna minor bioassay and Sinapis alba root and shoot growth occur at red mud depositional hotspots in the lower Torna Creek and upper Marcal. Heterocypris incongruens bioassays show no clear patterns, although the most red mud-rich sites do exert an adverse effect. Red mud does however appear to induce an increase in the density of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial communities when compared with unaffected sediments and reference sites. Given the volume of material released in the spill, it is encouraging that the signal of the red mud on aquatic biota is visible at a relatively small number of sites. Gypsum-affected samples appear to induce an adverse effect in some bioassays (Sinapis alba and Heterocypris incongruens), which may be a feature of fine grain size, limited nutrient supply and greater availability of trace contaminants in the channel reaches that are subject to intense gypsum dosing. Implications for monitoring and management of the spill are discussed.

  5. Genesis of mud volcano fluids in the Gulf of Cadiz - A novel model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher; Burwicz, Ewa; Hensen, Christian; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Wallmann, Klaus; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2017-04-01

    Mud volcanism and fluid seepage are common phenomena on the continental margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, North East Atlantic Ocean. Over the past 2 decades more than 50 mud volcanoes have been discovered and investigated interdisciplinarily. Mud volcano fluids emanating at these sites are sourced at great depths and migration is often mediated by strike slip faults in a seismically active region. The geochemical signals of the mud volcano fluids are affected by widespread various processes such as clay mineral dehydration, but also the recrystallization of ancient carbonate rocks and the alteration of oceanic crust have been suggested (Hensen et al., 2015). We developed a novel fully-coupled, basin-scale, reaction-transport model with an adaptive numerical mesh to simulate the fluid genesis in this region. An advantage of this model is the coupling of a realistic geophysical and geochemical approach, considering a growing sediment column over time together with instant compaction of sediments as well as diffusion and advection of dissolved pore water species and chemical reactions. In this proof of concept study, we looked at various scenarios to identify the processes of fluid genesis for 4 mud volcanoes, representing combinations in different subsurface settings. We can reproduce the fluid signatures (chloride, strontium, 87Sr/86Sr) of all mud volcanoes. Furthermore, we can give additional evidence that alteration of oceanic crust by fluid flow is a likely process affecting the fluid composition. Hensen, C., Scholz, F., Nuzzo, M., Valadares, V., Gràcia, E., Terrinha, P., Liebetrau, V., Kaul, N., Silva, S., Martínez-Loriente, S., Bartolome, R., Piñero, E., Magalhães, V. H., Schmidt, M., Weise, S. M., Cunha, M., Hilario, A., Perea, H., Rovelli, L., and Lackschewitz, K., 2015, Strike-slip faults mediate the rise of crustal-derived fluids and mud volcanism in the deep sea: Geology, v. 43, no. 4, p. 339-342.

  6. Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud transition: A global survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.A.; Hill, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The influences of wave climate and sediment supply on the depths of sand-mud transitions (hSMT) are investigated. Depths of sand-mud transitions (SMT) are based on published granulometric data from surface samples gathered from 14 sites in different wave-dominated coastal environments with fluvial input, including high energy (Columbia, Eel, Russian, San Lorenzo, Copper, and Nepean rivers), moderate energy (Ebro, Nile, Santa Clara, Tseng-wen and Kao-ping rivers), and low energy (Po, Pescara and Tronto rivers) regimes. Geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mud percent are compiled from samples along shore-normal transects, and significant correlation is found between these two textural descriptors. Nominally, the SMT is defined as the transition from GMD > 63????m to 25% mud. This dual definition is applied to the 14 systems, and hSMT is tabulated for each system. Correlation is found between hSMT and the depth at which wave-induced bottom shear stress equals the critical erosion shear stress of the largest mud particles and also between hSMT and significant wave height. Lack of correlation between hSMT and sediment load of nearby rivers indicates either that the influence of sediment supply on depth of the sand-mud transition is small or is not adequately represented in this study. Shelf width and slope do not correlate with residuals from a formalized linear relationship between hSMT and significant wave height. The relationship between hSMT and wave climate is useful for calibration of numerical models of erosion and deposition in wave-dominated coastal environments, for prediction of seabed properties in remote or inaccessible areas, and for reconstruction of paleodepth based on facies changes from sand to mud in ancient rocks. ?? 2008.

  7. Assessing the role of bed sediments in the persistence of red mud pollution in a shallow lake (Kinghorn Loch, UK)

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewska, Justyna P; Heal, Kate V.; Winfield, Ian J.; Eades, Lorna J.; Spears, Bryan M

    2017-01-01

    Red mud is a by-product of alumina production. Little is known about the long-term fate of red mud constituents in fresh waters or of the processes regulating recovery of fresh waters following pollution control. In 1983, red mud leachate was diverted away from Kinghorn Loch, UK, after many years of polluting this shallow and monomictic lake. We hypothesised that the redox-sensitive constituents of red mud leachate, phosphorus (P), arsenic (As) and vanadium (V), would persist in the Kinghorn ...

  8. Thessaloniki Mud Volcano, the Shallowest Gas Hydrate-Bearing Mud Volcano in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Perissoratis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed multibeam survey and the subsequent gravity coring carried out in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean, detected a new active gas hydrate-bearing mud volcano (MV that was named Thessaloniki. It is outlined by the 1315 m bathymetric contour, is 1.67 km2 in area, and has a summit depth of 1260 m. The sea bottom water temperature is 13.7∘C. The gas hydrate crystals generally have the form of flakes or rice, some larger aggregates of them are up to 2 cm across. A pressure core taken at the site contained 3.1 lt. of hydrocarbon gases composed of methane, nearly devoid of propane and butane. The sediment had a gas hydrate occupancy of 0.7% of the core volume. These characteristics place the gas hydrate field at Thessaloniki MV at the upper boundary of the gas hydrate stability zone, prone to dissociation with the slightest increase in sea water temperature, decrease in hydrostatic pressure, or change in the temperature of the advecting fluids.

  9. Frictional Constitutive Parameters for Serpentine Mud from South Chamorro Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.; Ishii, T.

    2005-12-01

    The lack of great earthquakes in Izu-Ogasawara and Mariana subduction zones may be associated with low-temperature serpentinite (M. Kasahara, 2003). We have thus started experimental studies on fault constitutive properties of serpentinite gouge, using a biaxial frictional testing machine at Kyoto University. Many conically-shaped serpentine seamounts are developed behind those subduction zones. They are consisted mainly of serpentinite mud with clasts of mantle rocks and high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Previous studies imply that the serpentinite is likely to have formed at depths around 30km. We have used serpentine mud, consisted mainly of chrysotile, in the drill core from South Chamorro Seamount (ODP Leg195). Double shear frictional experiments have been conducted on about 0.3 mm thick gouge at 30 MPa normal stress, at room temperature and under wet conditions (but without pore pressure). A series of velocity-step tests were performed in velocity range from 0.015 to 150 μm/s. Rate-and-state constitutive laws were fit to experimental data, by solving specimen-apparatus interaction numerically searching for the optimum constitutive parameters. Determination of stiffness of the apparatus is essential for accurate estimate of constitutive parameters. Careful measurements have revealed that the total stiffness (9.00×107 N/m) fluctuates by up to about 10 % probably owing to loose alignment of machine elements. This induces errors in constitutive parameters depending on dc}. If dc is in the order of 10 μm or larger, the error in b value is in the order of percent or less. But if the dc is around 1 μm, it becomes tens of percents or larger. The absolute value of frictional coefficient is around 0.2, very low and consistent with that of pure chrysotile (Moore et al., 1997). a- σb value is about 0.005 for velocity steps at 0.015-0.15 μm/s, decreases with increasing slip rate down to about -0.01 for the velocity steps at 15-150 μm/s. It changes from positive to

  10. VOLCANIC ENVIRONMENTS MONITORING BY DRONES MUD VOLCANO CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amici

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  11. Gases in Taiwan mud volcanoes: Chemical composition, methane carbon isotopes, and gas fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Hung-Chun [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)] [Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); You, Chen-Feng, E-mail: cfy20@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)] [Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chih-Hsien [Exploration and Production Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    Mud volcanoes are important pathways for CH{sub 4} emission from deep buried sediments; however, the importance of gas fluxes have hitherto been neglected in atmospheric source budget considerations. In this study, gas fluxes have been monitored to examine the stability of their chemical compositions and fluxes spatially, and stable C isotopic ratios of CH{sub 4} were determined, for several mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan. The major gas components are CH{sub 4} (>90%), 'air' (i.e. N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} + Ar, 1-5%) and CO{sub 2} (1-5%) and these associated gas fluxes varied slightly at different mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. The Hsiao-kun-shui (HKS) mud volcano emits the highest CH{sub 4} concentration (CH{sub 4} > 97%). On the other hand, the Chung-lun mud volcano (CL) shows CO{sub 2} up to 85%, and much lower CH{sub 4} content (<37%). High CH{sub 4} content (>90%) with low CO{sub 2} (<0.2%) are detected in the mud volcano gases collected in eastern Taiwan. It is suggestive that these gases are mostly of thermogenic origin based on C{sub 1} (methane)/C{sub 2} (ethane) + C{sub 3} (propane) and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} results, with the exception of mud volcanoes situated along the Gu-ting-keng (GTK) anticline axis showing unique biogenic characteristics. Only small CH{sub 4} concentration variations, <2%, were detected in four on-site short term field-monitoring experiments, at Yue-shi-jie A, B, Kun-shui-ping and Lo-shan A. Preliminary estimation of CH{sub 4} emission fluxes for mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan fall in a range between 980 and 2010 tons annually. If soil diffusion were taken into account, the total amount of mud volcano CH{sub 4} could contribute up to 10% of total natural CH{sub 4} emissions in Taiwan.

  12. Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlou, J. L.; Donval, J. P.; Zitter, T.; Roy, N.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Foucher, J. P.; Woodside, J.; Medinaut Scientific Party

    2003-08-01

    As a part of the Dutch-French MEDINAUT diving expedition in 1998, cold seeps and mud volcanoes were studied and sampled in two distinctive tectonic settings in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The first setting was the Olimpi Mud Volcano field (OMV area), including Napoli, Milano, Maidstone and Moscow mud volcanoes, south of Crete on the Mediterranean ridge. The second setting was the Anaximander Mountains (AM area), southwestern Turkey, where Amsterdam, Kazan and Kula mud volcanoes were explored. Large methane concentrations (45-892 nmol/kg) were measured in the water column not only above mud volcanoes but also in seeps and vents along related fault systems, indicating intense degassing related to fluid circulation in sediments. The tracer results show that there is considerable variability in terms of gas seepage and matter flux between these mud volcanoes. Brine accumulations found as shallow pools on Napoli or associated with deep faults (Nadir Lake) outside mud volcanoes exhibit variable chlorinity, mineral and gas composition. The brines are significantly enriched in δ18O relative to ambient seawater and are consistent with evaporated seawater. In the Nadir Brine Lake, the level of methane is as high as 5.93 mmol/kg, lower than the methane saturation level of 120 mmol/kg theoretically found at the salinity (120), pressure (200 bar), and temperature (13.6°C) conditions of Nadir lake. In contrast, the shallow brine pools on Napoli mud volcano (also OMV area) have methane levels of only 4.45 μmol/kg. In all brines, helium data show a clear radiogenic isotopic ratio ( R=0.06× Ra), in excellent agreement with recently published data for the Urania basin. Methane to ethane ratios (>1000) and δ13C(CH 4) values (-65.6‰PDB) indicate that the CH 4 is microbially produced. Unlike mid-ocean ridges, where abiogenic methane and helium have a common origin in the brines, the large variation in the CH 4/He ratio indicates that CH 4 and helium sources are unrelated, a

  13. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY FLOW BEHAVIOR IN DEEPWATER CONTROLLED MUD-CAP DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Li

    Full Text Available Abstract A new mathematical model was developed in this study to simulate the unsteady flow in controlled mud-cap drilling systems. The model can predict the time-dependent flow inside the drill string and annulus after a circulation break. This model consists of the continuity and momentum equations solved using the explicit Euler method. The model considers both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing inside the drill string and annular space. The model predicts the transient flow velocity of mud, the equilibrium time, and the change in the bottom hole pressure (BHP during the unsteady flow. The model was verified using data from U-tube flow experiments reported in the literature. The result shows that the model is accurate, with a maximum average error of 3.56% for the velocity prediction. Together with the measured data, the computed transient flow behavior can be used to better detect well kick and a loss of circulation after the mud pump is shut down. The model sensitivity analysis show that the water depth, mud density and drill string size are the three major factors affecting the fluctuation of the BHP after a circulation break. These factors should be carefully examined in well design and drilling operations to minimize BHP fluctuation and well kick. This study provides the fundamentals for designing a safe system in controlled mud-cap drilling operati.

  14. Clinical and anti-aging effect of mud-bathing therapy for patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Makino, Naoki

    2017-12-06

    Spa bathing is known as a medical treatment for certain diseases causing chronic pains. Spa water contains mineral components which lower the specific heat of the water, resulting in a higher efficiency to warm body-core temperature. This phenomenon yields pain-relieving effect for rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, sciatic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, etc. Here we introduce medical and biological effects of mud-spa-bathing therapy for fibromyalgia other than pain relief, the changes of blood examination data, and the telomere length of circulating leukocytes. The enrolled 7 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome were hospitalized and were subject to daily mud bathing at 40 °C for 10 min for about a month. Then, their subjective pain was reduced to about a quarter in average. They also showed lowered serum triglyceride and C-reactive protein level, maintaining the levels of aspartate transaminase and creatine phosphokinase, and increases of the red blood cell count, the serum albumin level, and the serum LDL-cholesterol level in comparison with cases without mud-bathing therapy, suggesting that mud bathing prevents inflammation and muscle atrophy and improves nutritional condition in fibromyalgia. In addition, the analysis of telomere length of peripheral leukocytes revealed a trend of negative correlation between telomere shortening and laboratory data change of hemoglobin and serum albumin. These telomeric changes can be explained hypothetically by an effect of mud bathing extending life-span of circulating leukocytes.

  15. Red mud enhances methanogenesis with the simultaneous improvement of hydrolysis-acidification and electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jie; Hu, Andong; Ren, Guoping; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Shungui

    2018-01-01

    The role of red mud in the improvement of methanogenesis during sludge anaerobic digestion was innovatively investigated in this study. The results demonstrated that the addition of 20g/L red mud resulted in a 35.5% increase in methane accumulation. Red mud effectively promoted the hydrolysis-acidification of organic compounds in the sludge, which resulted in the increase of protein, polysaccharide, and VFAs by 5.1-94.5%. The activities of key enzymes were improved by 41.4-257.3%. Electrochemical measurements presented direct evidence that the electrical conductivity was significantly improved with red mud. More conductive magnetite was formed during the secondary mineralization after Fe(III) reduction by Fe (III)-reducing genes such as Clostridiaceae and Ruminococcaceae. The higher conductivity enhanced the electron transfer between the syntrophic bacteria (Geobacteraceae) and methanogens (Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina), and then improved the methanogenesis. This research provides a novel perspective on the synergism between sludge and red mud for methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Deep and shallow sources for the Lusi mud eruption revealed by surface deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaei, M.; Rudolph, M. L.; Manga, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lusi mud eruption, near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia, began in May 2006 and continues to the present. Previous analyses of surface deformation data suggested an exponential decay of the pressure in the mud source, but did not constrain the location, geometry and evolution of the possible source(s) of the erupting mud and fluids. To map the surface deformation, we develop and new multitrack multitemporal interferometric processing algorithm and apply it to overlapped zones of three well-populated SAR data sets, including 51 images and acquired by the ALOS L-band satellite between May 2006 and April 2011. To understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the mud and fluid sources, we then apply a time-dependent inverse modeling scheme. Volume changes occur in two regions beneath Lusi, at 0.3-2.0 km and 3.5-4.75 km depth. The cumulative volume change within the shallow source is ~2-3 times larger than that of the deep source. The observation and model suggest that a shallow source plays a key role by supplying the erupting mud, but that additional fluids do ascend from depths >4 km on eruptive timescales.

  17. Carbon deposition and phase transformations in red mud on exposure to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushil, S. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Alabdulrahman, A.M. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Petroleum and Petrochemical Research Institute (PAPRI), PO Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Balakrishnan, M. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Batra, V.S., E-mail: vidyasb@teri.res.in [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Blackley, R.A. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Clapp, J.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Monaghan, A.; Pulford, I.D. [WestCHEM, Department of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Rico, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catalisis, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio E, CU, Morelia, Mich. C.P. 58060 (Mexico); Zhou, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    A characterization study detailing the phase transformations and microstructural nature of the carbon deposited during methane decomposition over red mud has been undertaken. In situ XRD was carried out to study the phase transformation sequences of red mud during the reaction. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET surface area determination and CHN analysis were carried out to investigate the properties of the post-reaction samples. Exposure to methane with increasing temperature caused a stepwise reduction of iron oxides in red mud and promoted methane cracking leading to carbon deposition. The presence of carbon nanostructures was confirmed by HRTEM observations. The carbon formed was graphitic in nature and the spent red mud, rich in Fe and Fe{sub 3}C formed as a result of the reduction of the iron oxide, was magnetic in nature. The surface area of the material was enhanced upon reaction. In addition, reactivity comparisons between goethite and red mud were carried out to study the formation of carbon oxides during reaction.

  18. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  19. PDC Bit Hydraulic & Mud Rheological simulation to model pressure drop across Bit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sheng Ong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During fluid flow from larger to smaller diameter pipes, a drop in pressure is experienced. High pressure drop across bit indicated high energy loss in the hydraulic system and also a setback to ROP performance. This is inefficient and pressure pumps would have to be of bigger sizing to make up for the losses. Present form of pressure drop models is in terms of mud density, flow rate, and total flow area. The objective of this paper is focused on the analysis of CFD simulation and to propose optimized parameters for improved ROP. Single phase flow study of Yield Power Law mud rheology was simulated at bottom hole of horizontal section. Parametric study on mud rheology was carried using DOE. Design points of DOE were sampled mostly using Latin Hypercube Sampling and a few by Central Composite Design. It is found that Kriging Response Surface method generated the best regression model where the predicted values are closest to the observed values and has the lowest Maximum Relative Residual (0.000336%. Inlet velocity and Power Index have significant effect on pressure drop. Consistency Index showed moderate effect while Yield Stress showed small effect to pressure drop. This research has proven that pressure loss model should take into account of mud rheology. Further research can be done with PDC bit rotation and its effect on mud behaviour.

  20. Mud invasion and array laterolog responses in horizontal well based on numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjiao; Sun, Jianmeng; Gao, Jianshen; Cui, Jiangman

    2017-02-01

    The initial formation fluid distribution and resistivity around the well will be changed while the mud-filtrate invades the permeable formation. In this paper, a simulation model of the formation is established to study the sensitivity analysis of the mud invasion and array laterolog responses in horizontal wells. According to the dynamic evolution law of water saturation distribution and the characteristics of array laterolog responses, we found that the fluid properties and formation petrophysics have a significant influence on the mud invasion profile. Combined with numerical simulation results and theoretical analysis, some conclusions are drawn that invasion characteristics exist in obvious differences in different permeable formations, filtrate flow forms symmetrical geometry in relative low permeability formation, and it generates quite complex asymmetric invasion geometries around the well in a highly permeable formation. Similarly, the research results show that the characteristics of the array laterolog responses and the differences of apparent resistivity with different investigation depths are influenced by the change of geometrical shape and saturation distribution around the well during the invasion. We can estimate the mud invasion extent according to the different characters of array laterolog. An accurate understanding of the relationship between mud invasion and array laterolog responses can provide a reliable basis for reservoir evaluation and resistivity correction in a horizontal well.

  1. Treatment of alumina refinery waste (red mud) through neutralization techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, K L; Agnihotri, A

    2017-06-01

    In the Bayer process of extraction of alumina from bauxite, the insoluble product generated after bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as 'red mud' or 'bauxite residue'. This alumina refinery waste is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5 and is conventionally disposed of in mostly clay-lined land-based impoundments. The alkaline constituents in the red mud impose severe and alarming environmental problems, such as soil and air pollution. Keeping in view sustainable re-vegetation and residue management, neutralization/treatment of red mud using different techniques is the only alternative to make the bauxite residue environmentally benign. Hence, neutralization techniques, such as using mineral acids, acidic waste (pickling liquor waste), coal dust, superphosphate and gypsum as amenders, CO 2 , sintering with silicate material and seawater for treatment of red mud have been studied in detail. This paper is based upon and emphasizes the experimental work carried out for all the neutralization techniques along with a comprehensive review of each of the processes. The scope, applicability, limitations and feasibility of these processes have been compared exhaustively. Merits and demerits have been discussed using flow diagrams. All the techniques described are technically feasible, wherein findings obtained with seawater neutralization can be set as a benchmark for future work. Further studies should be focused on exploring the economical viability of these processes for better waste management and disposal of red mud.

  2. Effect of Lubrication on Sliding Wear of Red Mud Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy 6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Panwar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, Red mud, an industrial waste, has been utilized as a reinforcement material to fabricate Aluminium 6061 matrix based metal matrix composite. Taguchi L18 orthogonal array has been employed for fabrication of composite castings and for conducting the tribological experimentation. ANOVA analysis has been applied to examine the effect of individual parameters such as sliding condition: dry and wet, reinforcement weight fraction, load, speed, and sliding distance on specific wear rate obtained experimentally. It has been found that tensile strength and impact energy increases while elongation decreases, with increasing weight fraction and decrease in particle size of red mud. The percentage contribution of the effect of factors on SWR is Sliding condition (73.17, speed (7.84, percentage reinforcement (7.35, load (5.75, sliding distance (2.24, and particle size (1.25. It has also been observed that specific wear rate is very low in wet condition. However, it decreases with increase in weight fraction of reinforcement, decrease in load and sliding speed. Al6061/red mud metal matrix composites have shown reasonable strength and wear resistance. The use of red mud in Aluminium composite provides the solution for disposal of red mud and can possibly become an economic replacement of Aluminium and its alloys.

  3. Influence of calcined mud on the mechanical properties and shrinkage of self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Taieb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of SCC has a particular interest in terms of sustainable development. Indeed, their specific formulation leads to a greater volume of dough than for common concretes, thus, a larger quantity of cement. However, for economical, ecological and technical reasons, it is sought to limit their cement content [1]. It is therefore necessary to almost always use mineral additions as a partial replacement for cement because the technology of self-compacting concretes can consume large quantities of fines, in this case calcinated mud issued from dams dredging sediments that can give and/or ameliorate characteristics and performances of this type of concretes. Four SCCs had been formulated from the same composition where the only percentage of calcinated mud of Chorfa (west of Algeria dam changed (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of calcinated mud on characteristics at fresh state of SCC according to AFGC was quantified. Mechanical strengths and shrinkage deformation (total, autogenous, drying were evaluated. The results show the possibility to make SCCs with different dosages of calcinated mud having strengths that can defy those of the control SCC. The analysis of free deformations indicates the beneficial impact of the mud by contributing to decrease the amplitudes of the shrinkage compared to those of the control SCC.

  4. Seepage behavior of mud slurry on soil around pipe in using pipe jacking; Deisui kaatsu shiki suishin koho ni okeru chunyu deisui no chisan eno shinto kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, H.; Mastui, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-25

    In this paper, in order to clarify the seepage behavior and the influences on excavated soil of the mud slurry in using the mud pressured pushing method, based on results of model tests the applicability of Eulerian Lagrangian Analysis is confirmed. And, using this analysis method the seepage behaviors of mud slurry on soil are simulated. The results obtained are as follows. By using the Eulerian Lagrangain Analysis the seepage phenomena of the mud slurry on the soil in using the mud pressured pushing method can be clarified. The seepage behaviors on soils in which the mud slurry are injected are different depending on the mud slurry pressure and specific gravity of the mud slurry, so it is necessary to select suitable mud slurry pressure and specific gravity of the mud slurry corresponding to the site conditions. When the soil has a small slurry permeation, the injected mud slurry makes strong influences on it, but when the soil has a big slurry permeation, the injected mud slurry does not make influence on it and it is possible to form a thick mud screen around the pipe. 13 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Water-retentive and anti-inflammatory properties of organic and inorganic substances from Korean sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmi; Lee, Hyang-Bok; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2010-03-01

    Sea mud has been popularly used as an effective base in cosmetic preparations although its biologically-active materials and mechanisms on skin have not yet been fully determined. We isolated humic substances as the major organic substance of the sea mud from a tidal flat in Korea, and investigated their water-retentive properties. Among the three isolated humic substances, humic acid (HA) showed the highest water retentive property (approximately 50 % mass increase from water uptake). Based on the observations that mud pack therapy has been traditionally used to soothe UV-irradiated skin, we examined the antiinflammatory property of the sea mud on UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) by measuring PGE2 levels produced by keratinocytes in the presence of either the total water or methanol extracts of the mud. The water extract showed higher inhibition of PGE2 production from HaCaT cells (30% inhibition) than the methanol extract at 200 ppm (microg/g). We further fractionated the water extract to determine the major components responsible for its anti-inflammatory effect. It was found that the minerals in the mud inhibited PGE2 production by 83 % at 200 ppm, which is comparable with the inhibitory effect of 1 microM indomethacin. No mud extract showed cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. The mineral compositions of the mineral extract were determined by ICP-MS, revealing that the sea mud consisted of more than 19 different mineral components, rich in Na+, Mg2+, and Zn2+. These results imply that the anti-inflammatory effect of the sea mud is largely due to the minerals in the mud. Our research suggests the potential use of the organic and inorganic substances from the sea mud in various skin products as safe biological substances for skin protective purposes.

  6. Provenance discrimination of sediments in the Zhejiang-Fujian mud belt, East China Sea: Implications for the development of the mud depocenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Li, Anchun; Dong, Jiang; Lu, Jian; Huang, Jie; Wan, Shiming

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, the 800 km elongated mud belt off Zhejiang-Fujian coast, East China Sea (ECS), has been extensively studied for understanding the source to sink processes on the East Asian continental margin in the context of the Asian monsoon. However, to better understand the sediment source and dispersal pattern, the existing mineralogical and geochemical data of adjacent river systems, including the Changjiang River (CJR) and local rivers in Zhejiang, Fujian and Taiwan, need to be systematically reviewed. Therefore, various indicators from published literatures for the provenance discrimination in the mud belt have been summarised in this article. The results show that high diversity of clay mineral assemblages in fluvial sediments being supplied into the mud belt, e.g., dominant illite and chlorite in the CJR, absence of smectite in Taiwan rivers, similar amounts of the four clay mineral species in Zhejiang rivers, and dominant kaolinite in Fujian rivers. On heavy mineralogy, the CJR is dominated by dolomite, hornblende, and flaky minerals; and among of them, dolomite is distinctive for the CJR. For geochemical approaches, elemental compositions, combined with strontium and neodymium isotopes, reflect strong provenance control. However, geochemical and mineralogical compositions are found to vary with grain size, and thus extra caution should be taken when using these parameters as provenance indicator to discriminate the marine sediments with variety of grain-size fractions. In addition, pyrrhotite, occurred in fluvial sediments from western Taiwan, has not been found in sediments derived from mainland China, indicating that magnetic parameters could be used to discriminate sediment provenance. The mud belt formed during sea-level highstand, when modern current system in the ECS has been established, resulting in sediments derived from the CJR have been transported southward since 8 ka. In addition, sediment provenances have not been constant since

  7. Taxonomic confirmation of mud crab species (genus Scylla) in Bangladesh by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarower, Mohammed Golam; Shahriar, Sheik Istiak Md; Nakamura, Hiromasa; Rouf, Muhammad Abdur; Okada, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    Taxonomy of mud crabs genus Scylla has been misidentified for several years due to their high morphological plasticity. Several reports concerning mud crab have been published with misleading identification in Bangladesh. In this study, partial fragments of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of Scylla species obtained from four locations along the Bangladesh coast were used to resolve taxonomical ambiguity of mud crab species. A single PCR product from the nuclear first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) marker and phylogenetic trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all Scylla species obtained in this study were S. olivacea. Both molecular data and morphological characters revealed that S. olivacea is the only major species in Bangladesh coastal waters. Further, the 16S rDNA haplotypes significantly differed with known S. serrata by 33%. From this study it is clear that 'S. serrata' commonly reported from Bangladesh should be S. olivacea.

  8. Use of mud from metallic surface treatment industries as additive to ceramic matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpas Iglesias, F. A.; Perez Villarejo, L.; Benitez Guerrero, M.; Artiaga Diaz, R.; Pascual Cosp, J.

    2011-07-01

    Ceramic processing is one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly solutions to the enormous amounts of industrial mud produced in metal surface treatments. Moreover, ceramized products may represent an important secondary source to replace clay materials and cut down manufacturing costs. After characterization, in order to prepare specimens by uniaxial die pressing, mud was incorporated into a clay matrix at rates between 1 and 5 wt %. Compression strength, linear contraction, suction capacity and water absorption of the moulded materials were evaluated. Finally, metal leakage was characterized through chemical analysis of lixiviates. The results showed an improvement in mechanical properties following the incorporation of mud into the ceramic materials. The resulting materials meet health and safety regulations regarding dangerous waste recycling. (Author) 30 refs.

  9. Mud Volcanoes in the Martian Lowlands: Potential Windows to Fluid-Rich Samples from Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2009-01-01

    The regional setting of the Chryse-Acidalia area augurs well for a fluid-rich subsurface, accumulation of diverse rock types reflecting the wide catchment area, astrobiological prospectivity, and mud volcanism. This latter provides a mechanism for transporting samples from relatively great depth to the surface. Since mud volcanoes are not associated with extreme heat or shock pressures, materials they transport to the surface are likely to be relatively unaltered; thus such materials could contain interpretable remnants of potential martian life (e.g., organic chemical biomarkers, mineral biosignatures, or structural remains) as well as unmetamorphosed rock samples. None of the previous landings on Mars was located in an area with features identified as potential mud volcanoes (Fig. 3), but some of these features may offer targets for future missions aimed at sampling deep fluid-rich strata with potential habitable zones.

  10. Chloride diffusivity in red mud-ordinary portland cement concrete determined by migration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, which is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process, is classified as dangerous due to its high pH. In this work, the concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which initially was distilled water. The steady and nonsteady-state chloride diffusion coefficients were estimated from the "time lag"� and "equivalent time" between diffusion and migration experiments. The capillary water absorption, apparent porosity and pore size distribution of concretes were also analyzed. The addition of red mud apparently ensured lower chloride diffusion in the tested mixtures due to its superfine particle-size distribution and its "filler"� effect. Red mud lengthened the service life of the concrete to 35 years (double that of the reference concrete. This finding is very positive since it indicates a delay in the onset of the rebar corrosion process caused by the migration of chloride ions.

  11. Adsorption of basic dye from wastewater using raw and activated red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra; Geyikçi, Feza; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Red mud, an industrial by-product generated during the processing of bauxite ore, was investigated as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Chemical and heat treatments were applied to the raw red mud. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics of the raw and activated red mud were studied. Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were obtained using concentrations of methylene blue ranging from 10 to 70 mg/L. The results indicated that the Dubinin-Radushkevich model provides the best correlation of the experimental data. The adsorption rate data were analysed according to the pseudo-first order kinetic, pseudo-second order kinetic, intraparticle diffusion kinetic and Elovich kinetic models. The pseudo-second order kinetic was the best fit kinetic model for the experimental data.

  12. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insights on the structure and activity of Lusi mud edifice from land gravity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Guillaume; Husein, Alwi; Karyono, Karyono; Hadi, Soffian; Prasetyo, Hardi; Lupi, Matteo; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Miller, Stephen A.

    2017-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption in East Java, Indonesia, active since May 2006, is a sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system (SHHS) fed by magmatic fluids connected to the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex. The aims of the present study are to investigate changes in the local gravity field to obtain new insight into: 1) the evolution of the collapse structure ten years after its inception, 2) provide new insights on the thickening of the mud edifice for constraints on 3D numerical models, and 3) the pulsating phases characterizing the Lusi activity, which result in temporal density variations of the mudflow inside the active conduit. To investigate the structure of the mud edifice, we conducted a gravity spatial mapping over an area of 56 km2 with 390 new gravity stations. To investigate the density changes happening over time, we conducted several continuous gravity monitoring. We present results from gravity measurement collected during field campaigns in June and August 2016, and augmented by passive seismic and environmental parameter monitoring. We calculated for a reference density of 2,670 kg m-3 a new Bouguer anomaly map, which shows significant changes in the local gravity field in comparison to the previously published 2006-gravity map. In the west and south part of the edifice, maximum gravity decreases (-1 mGal) characterize the collapse of part of the edifice. In the southeast and east of the central area of flooded mud breccia, the gravity field increases locally (+1 mGal) along the limit defined by a previous study on the surface deformation of the mud edifice. The 3D model supports the hypothesis of a locally pinched volume of either mud, sediment, or mix of both between the subsiding volume and the uplifting volume of mud. The continuous gravity monitoring experiments were located at 320 and 380m away from the central area of a mud breccia flooded region. Over time, residual gravity variations reach up to 0.020 mGal in amplitude and occur at wavelengths

  14. Topicality and possibilities for complete processing of red mud of aluminous production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminum industry, the largest amount of waste is red mud (RM. that is a solid bauxite residue after hydrochemical processing and extraction of alumina. The topicality of its processing was shown by the ecological catastrophe in Hungary (2010, where the bund wall of the slurry storage was destroyed and the viscous mass of fine red mud fell on thousands of hectares of land.The risks of a recurrence of such a catastrophe increase due to the increased natural disasters: earthquakes, torrential rains and floods, as well as terrorist attacks. Therefore, it is proposed to exclude the storage of red mud in sludge storages and organize its shipment in transportable form to processing complexes.The article presents the results of scientific research and the experience of complex processing of red sludge on an industrial scale with the production of new types of marketable products.

  15. A nonlinear model for the fluidization of marine mud by waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, M.A.; Hunt, J.R.; Chou, Hsien-Ter (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1993-04-15

    The authors consider the problem of fluidization of mud deposits in shallow waters due to interactions with water waves. This is of increasing interest because of concerns that water pollutants, including heavy metals, pesticides, etc., are often found near surfaces of mud deposits. The authors look at the question of whether the cohesive properties of mud deposits exhibit nonlinear properties when they experience strains from water wave interactions. It is obvious that with large enough wave interactions the deposits become fluidized, and are not in that case truly nonlinear. In their modeling efforts they try to incorporate these ideas into a cohesive model where the magnitude of the water wave-sediment interaction has an influence on the type of response within the system.

  16. Practical application of failure criteria in determining safe mud weight windows in drilling operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is reported frequently as one of the most significant incidents during drilling operations. Analysis of wellbore instability includes estimation of formation mechanical properties and the state of in situ stresses. In this analysis, the only controllable parameter during drilling operation is the mud weight. If the mud weight is larger than anticipated, the mud will invade into the formation, causing tensile failure of the formation. On the other hand, a lower mud weight can result in shear failures of rock, which is known as borehole breakouts. To predict the potential for failures around the wellbore during drilling, one should use a failure criterion to compare the rock strength against induced tangential stresses around the wellbore at a given mud pressure. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is one of the commonly accepted criteria for estimation of rock strength at a given state of stress. However, the use of other criteria has been debated in the literature. In this paper, Mohr–Coulomb, Hoek–Brown and Mogi–Coulomb failure criteria were used to estimate the potential rock failure around a wellbore located in an onshore field of Iran. The log based analysis was used to estimate rock mechanical properties of formations and state of stresses. The results indicated that amongst different failure criteria, the Mohr–Coulomb criterion underestimates the highest mud pressure required to avoid breakouts around the wellbore. It also predicts a lower fracture gradient pressure. In addition, it was found that the results obtained from Mogi–Coulomb criterion yield a better comparison with breakouts observed from the caliper logs than that of Hoek–Brown criterion. It was concluded that the Mogi–Coulomb criterion is a better failure criterion as it considers the effect of the intermediate principal stress component in the failure analysis.

  17. Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

    2014-08-01

    Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Suspended matter and fluid mud off Alleppey, southwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V. Purnachandra; Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.; Babu, M. T.; Dineshkumar, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    Time series measurements on suspended particulate matter (SPM) were made at one non-mud bank (M1) and two mud bank stations (M2 and M3) off Alleppey, south west coast of India. The mean SPM was low in surface (6.2 mg/l) and mid-depth (3.7 mg/l) waters and higher in bottom-depth waters (24.6 mg/l) of these stations, during both pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Near bed suspended sediment results indicated low SPM during July (0.042 g/l) and September (0.018 g/l) at M1, but very high SPM at M2 (9.2 g/l) and M3 (6.2 g/l) during July that decreased (M2: 0.033 g/l; M3: 0.1 g/l) again in September. Observations based on LISST-25X indicated that optical transmission (OT) was high (80-100%) in surface and mid-depth waters but decreased with increasing depth. Near bed waters at M2 and M3 stations showed ∼1 m thick fluid layer with 0% OT and with high particle volume concentrations (150-200 μl/l) during monsoon. Bottom sediments were clayey silts. Sediments of fluid mud close to the bottom at M2 and M3 stations. As the wave height decreased from ∼3 m in May to 0.76 m in July, the dissipated wave energy probably liquefied, eroded and re-suspended the bottom sediment to form fluid mud. Upwelling currents may have been involved in the up keep and transportation of fluid mud. The suspended mud resettled at the bottom soon after the monsoon event.

  19. Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis for revealing thermal transformations of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Zeng, Lingmin; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a worldwide environmental problem, and many authorities are trying to find an economic solution for its beneficial application or/and safe disposal. Ceramic production is one of the potential waste-to-resource strategies for using red mud as a raw material. Before implementing such a strategy, an unambiguous understanding of the reaction behavior of red mud under thermal conditions is essential. In this study, the phase compositions and transformation processes were revealed for the Pingguo red mud (PRM) heat-treated at different sintering temperatures. Hematite, perovskite, andradite, cancrinite, kaolinite, diaspore, gibbsite and calcite phases were observed in the samples. However, unlike those red mud samples from the other regions, no TiO2 (rutile or anatase) or quartz were observed. Titanium was found to exist mainly in perovskite and andradite while the iron mainly existed in hematite and andradite. A new silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) phase was found in samples treated at temperatures above 1100°C, and two possible formation pathways for SFCA were suggested. This is the first SFCA phase to be reported in thermally treated red mud, and this finding may turn PRM waste into a material resource for the iron-making industry. Titanium was found to be enriched in the perovskite phase after 1200°C thermal treatment, and this observation indicated a potential strategy for the recovery of titanium from PRM. In addition to noting these various resource recovery opportunities, this is also the first study to quantitatively summarize the reaction details of PRM phase transformations at various temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling the impact of Siboglinids on the biogeochemistry of the Captain Arutyunov mud volcano (Gulf of Cadiz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K; van Oevelen, D.; Sommer, S.

    2012-01-01

    A 2-Dimensional mathematical reaction-transport model was developed to study the impact of the mud-dwelling frenulate tubeworm Siboglinum sp. on the biogeochemistry of a sediment (MUC15) at the Captain Arutyunov mud volcano (CAMV). By explicitly describing the worm in its surrounding sediment, we

  1. Dynamics of a fluid flow on Mars: lava or mud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    We have identified an enigmatic flow in S.W. Cerberus Fossae, Mars. The flow originates from an almost circular pit within a remnant of a yardang at 0.58 degrees N, 155.28 degrees E, within the lower unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. The flow is ~42 km long and 0.5 to 2.0 km wide. The surface textures of the resulting deposit show that the material flowed in such a way that the various deformation patterns on its surface were generally preserved as it moved, only being distorted or disrupted when the flow encountered major topographic obstacles or was forced to make rapid changes of direction. This observation of a stiff, generally undeformed surface layer overlying a relatively mobile base suggests that, while it was moving, the fluid material flowed in a laminar, and possibly non-Newtonian, fashion. The least-complicated non-Newtonian fluids are Bingham plastics. On this basis we use measurements of flow width, length, thickness and substrate slope obtained from images, a DEM constructed from stereo pairs of Context Camera (CTX) images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) altimetry points to deduce the rheological properties of the fluid, treating it as both a Newtonian and a Bingham material for comparison. The Newtonian option requires the fluid to have a viscosity close to 100 Pa s and to have flowed everywhere in a turbulent fashion. The Bingham option requires laminar flow, a plastic viscosity close to 1 Pa s, and a yield strength of ~185 Pa. We compare these parameters values with those of various environmental fluids on Earth in an attempt to narrow the range of possible materials forming the martian flow. A mafic to ultramafic lava would fit the Newtonian option but the required turbulence does not seem consistent with the surface textures. The Bingham option satisfies the morphological constraint of laminar motion if the material is a mud flow consisting of ~40% water and ~60% silt-sized silicate solids. Elsewhere on Mars, deposits with similar

  2. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Jiau; Liu, Yuan; Sha, Zhongli; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Tin-Yam; Liu, Ruiyu; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2012-11-16

    The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further

  3. Lime mud from cellulose industry as raw material in cement mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Modolo, R. C. E.; Senff, L.; Labrincha, J. A.; Ferreira, V. M.; Tarelho, L. A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the use of lime mud (LM) in cement-based-mortars. Lime mud is a waste generated in the production of cellulose by the kraft mill process. It is mainly composed of CaCO3, a small amount of magnesium carbonate and other trace minerals. Mortars were prepared by adding different amounts of LM (10, 20 and 30% by weight of cement) in dry weight. The mortar compositions were evaluated through rheology and flow table measurements, assuring that all the samples exhibited adequate co...

  4. Active hydrocarbon (methane) seepage at the Alboran Sea mud volcanoes indicated by specific lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) and pockmark fields are known to occur in the Alboran Basin (Westernmost Mediterranean). These MVs occur above a major sedimentary depocenter that includes up to 7 km thick early Miocene to Holocene sequences. MVs located on the top of diapiric structures that originated from undercompacted Miocene clays and olistostromes. Here we provide results from geochemical data-analyses of four gravity cores acquired in the Northern Mud Volcano Field (north of the 36°N): i.e. Perejil, Kalinin and Schneiderś Heart mud expulsion structures. Extruded materials include different types of mud breccias. Specific lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, hopanes, irregular isoprenoid hydrocarbons and Dialkyl Glycerol Diethers (DGDs) were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Determination of Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (GDGTs) by high performance liquid chromatography-spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and analysis of biomarker δ13C values were performed in selected samples. Lipid biomarker analysis from the three MVs revealed similar n-alkane distributions in all mud breccia intervals, showing significant hydrocarbon-derived signals and the presence of thermally immature organic-matter admixture. This suggests that similar strata fed these MVs. The hemipelagic drapes reveal comparable n-alkane distributions, suggesting that significant upward diffusion of fluids occurs. Distributions of GDGTs are generally accepted as usefull biomarkers to locate the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments. However, our GDGT profiles only reflect the marine thaumarchaeotal signature. There seems to be no archaea producing specific GDGTs involved in AOM in the recovered interval. Evidence of recent activity (i.e., methane gas-bubbling and chemosynthetic fauna at the Perejil MV) and the presence of specific lipid biomarker related with methanotropic archaea (Irregular Isoprenoids and DGDs), however, suggest the existence of

  5. Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch for increasing drilling mud quality in drilling oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, K. M.; Martynova, D. O.; Zakharov, A. S.; Sagitov, R. R.; Ber, A. A.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the impact of carboxymethyl starch preparation conditions on physicochemical properties of polysaccharide reagent, widely used as fluid loss reducing agent in drilling mud. Variation of the main parameters of carboxymethylation is researched in the experiment. The following conditions such as temperature and reaction time, amount of water, as well as ratio of NaOH to monochloracetic acid define the characteristics of carboxymethyl starch. The degree of substitution is defined for polysaccharides, as well as the characteristics of samples have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Rheological characteristics and fluid loss indicator have been investigated to study the impact of the reagents on drilling mud quality.

  6. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the

  7. Mud Volcanism and Fluid Venting In The Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Observations From Sidescan Sonar and Submersible Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Huguen, C.; Woodside, J. M.; Mascle, J.; Scientific Party, Medineth/Medinaut

    Mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea have been identified by their distinctive acoustic signature as well as their morphology and sedimentology. They appear as circular regions of high backscatter believed to be caused principally by the clast content of the mud flows forming the mud volcano. Both the MEDINAUT and MEDINETH expeditions, conducted in 1998 and 1999 over two mud fields, the Olimpi field and the Anaximander Mountains area, in Eastern Mediterranean Sea, studied mud volcanism using a multidisciplinary approach in order to determine the relationships between the activity of the mud volcanoes (importance of degassing, associated fauna) and their geophysical signature. Mud volcanoes in Eastern Mediterranean Sea vary from conical and dome-shaped reliefs from 500m to 2km wide and 100 to 200m high to large "mud pie" types up to 6km wide. Sidescan sonar records give a very high resolution of the acoustic response, enabling to distinguish several mud flows, often flowing along tectonic lineations. A clear relationship between the occurrence of mud volcanism and cold seeps and both thrust and transcurrent faulting has been observed in both mud fields, although the tectonic settings vary from purely compressional to a more transpressional stress field. The faults are inferred to provide pathways for over- pressured fluids, and secondary faulting (transcurrent and extensional faults) may facilitate mud ascension. On the basis of sidescan sonar interpretation, other typical features have been inferred such as main feeder channels, eruptive cone centers, or brine pools. The in situ observations have been used to characterize the seafloor over numerous mud volcanoes and ground-truth the sonar data. They reveal an abundance of fluid seeps, mainly methane and methane-rich brines, as well as associated specific fauna such as tube worms, clams and chemosynthetic bacteria, and specific diagenetic phenomenon i.e. carbonate crusts. Video observations proved that

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  9. Analysis of the bacterial community in aged and aging pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavour liquor by combined PCR-DGGE and quantitative PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huipeng; Li, Wenfang; Luo, Qingchun; Liu, Chaolan; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Wenxue

    2015-10-01

    The community structure of bacteria in aged and aging pit mud, which was judged according to their sensory and physicochemical characteristics, was analysed using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Synergistetes and Unclassified Bacteria were detected and the fermentative Firmicutes was predominant in both types of pit mud in the PCR-DGGE analysis. Among Firmicutes, Clostridiales was dominant in aged pit mud while Bacillales and Lactobacillales were dominant in aging pit mud. The diversity of bacterial communities in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud. In the qPCR analysis the abundance of Clostridium IV in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud and there were significant differences in the quantity of Clostridium IV between aged and aging pit mud of the same cellar (P mud. The differences in the quantity of Clostridium IV might be involved in the distinction that the aged pit mud has a strong aroma while the aging pit mud does not. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that consists in the extrusion of mud, fragments or blocks of country rocks, saline waters and gases, mostly methane. This mechanism is typically linked to in-depth hydrocarbon traps, and it builds up a variety of conical edifices with dimension and morphology similar to those of magmatic volcanoes. Interferometry by Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques have been commonly used to monitor and investigate the ground deformation connected to the eruptive phases of magmatic volcanoes. InSAR techniques have also been employed to explore the ground deformation associated with the LUSI mud volcano in Java (Indonesia). We aim to carry out a study on the paroxysmal activities of the Azerbaijan mud volcanoes, among the largest on Earth, using similar techniques. In particular the deformations of the mud volcanic systems were analyzed through the technique of satellite differential interferometry (DInSAR), thanks to the acquisition of 16 descending and 4 ascending Envisat images, spanning about 4 years (October 2003-November 2007); these data were provided by the European Space Agency. The preliminary analysis of a set of 77 interferograms and the unwrapping process elaboration of some of them selected according to the best coherence values, allowed the detection of significant deformations in correspondence of Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara Zira Island mud volcanoes. This analysis has allowed to identify relevant ground deformations of the volcanic systems in connection with the main eruptive events in 2005 and in 2006 respectively, that are recorded by the catalogue of Azerbaijan mud volcano eruptions until 2007. The preliminary analysis of the interferograms of the Ayaz-Akhtarma and the Khara Zira mud volcanoes shows that the whole volcano edifice or part of it is subject to a ground displacement before or in coincidence with the eruption. Assuming that the movement is mainly vertical, we suppose that deformation is due to bulging of the volcanic

  11. Using Integrated 2D and 3D Resistivity Imaging Methods for Illustrating the Mud-Fluid Conduits of the Wushanting Mud Volcanoes in Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2D and 3D looped resistivity surveys in the Wushanting Natural Landscape Preservation Area (WNLPA in order to understand the relationships of the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. 2D resistivity surveys were conducted along seven networked lines. Two separate C-shape looped electrode arrays surrounding the volcano craters were used in the study. First, the two 3D looped measurements were inverted separately. Yet the inverted 3D images of the mud-volcano system were inconsistent with the landscape features suggesting that artifacts perhaps appeared in the images. The 3D looped data were then combined with the 2D data for creating a global resistivity model of WNLPA. The resulting 3D image is consistent with the observed landscape features. With the resistivity model of WNLPA, we further tried to estimate the distribution of water content. The results suggest that the 3D resistivity image has the potential to resolve the dual porosity structures in the mudstone area. Last, we used a simplified WNLPA model for forward simulation in order to verify the field measurement results. We have concluded that the artifacts in the 3D looped images are in fact shadow effects from conductive objects out of the electrode loops, and that inverted images of combined 2D and 3D data provide detailed regional conductive structures in the WNLPA site.

  12. Boron and B Isotopes in Mud Volcanoes and Their Significance for Mobilization Depth and Global B Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A. J.; Deyhle, A.

    2001-12-01

    Mud volcanism is a global phenomenon in mostly convergent margin settings, whose nature has long been subject to scientific investigation. However, only recently its significance has been unravelled by quantitative studies in well-investigated submarine environments, like large acretionary complexes. The fluid flux through active mud volcanoes has been estimated to exceed that of the frontal accretionary prism (Kopf et al. 2001, EPSL 189, p295-313), and may have done so in earlier Earth`s history. Pore fluids as well as muds and clasts of onshore and offshore mud volcanoes all over the world have undergone a systematic geochemical study using contents and stable isotopes of the mobile element boron. When tied into results from hydrothermal geochemical experiments in the laboratory (You et al. 1996, EPSL 140, p41-52), the B geochemistry proofs to be a powerful tracer to estimate the depth of fluid and mud mobilization below ground. Boron adsorbed to clay minerals is preferably donated to the fluid when either tectonic stress (vertical and/or lateral compaction) or temperature increase. Here, we report variations in B content and B isotope ratios in mud volcano deposits as a result of different history of the material prior to extrusion. Results reflect the regional geology of the study areas, ranging from dewatering of undercompacted marine sediment in accretionary prisms (Barbados, Makran, Mediterranean Sea) to diagenetic reactions in mud volcanoes of orogenic belts (Malaysia, Pakistan, Georgia, Taman Peninsula, Western Alps). Boron shows maximum enrichment in the fluid phase (owing to desorption in the mud) when faulting roots deepest and deformation is strongest. Mud domes juxtaposing out-of-sequence faults in the Caucasus orogenic wedge show mud B contents 8x marine sediment, and fluid B contents up to 25x seawater. Deep-seated, B-rich fluids liquefy clay-bearing strata to facilitate mud extrusion, allowing the clay to re-adsorb B in the process. B isotopic

  13. The mud crab Scylla serrata is one of the largest por- tunids and is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    grations at Mafia Island and the Quirimba Archi- pelago. Current fishing methods and pressure are also documented. An important objective is to provide a baseline estimate of abundance of mud crab. Pauly. (1995) emphasized the importance of establishing baseline estimates early to avoid the shifting baseline syndrome ...

  14. Viscous damping of solitary waves in the mud banks of Kerala, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Murty, C.S.

    Analysis of wave damping in mud bank region following the process of transfer of wave energy to the interior of fluid column through the boundary layer and the energy loss computations owing to viscous shear beneath the solitary wave over a smooth...

  15. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Kachchh, whereas those at the shelf break were biodetrital, initially formed on the carbonate platform during low stands of sea level and then exported. The change in lime mud-dominated to siliciclastic-dominated sediments in the cores may be due to climate change and rapid rise in sea level during the early Holocene.

  16. Microbial methane oxidation and chemoauthotrophic communities at the North Alex mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treude, T.; Reischke, S.; Feseker, T.; Hensen, C.

    2009-04-01

    North Alex mud volcano, located on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan, is characterized by an active seepage center transporting pore fluids and gases from deep subsurface sources to the sediment-water interface. We sampled different locations between the center and rim of the mud volcano with ROV and multicorer to study the activity of benthic microorganisms involved in aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of methane as well as associated chemoautotrophic communities. Highest methanotrophic activity was found in the mud volcano center, where sediments exhibited high methane and sulfide concentrations. Chemoauthotrophic organisms included filamentous sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa spp.) and symbiont bivalves (Calyptogena spp., Acharax spp.). In the vicinity of the southern mud volcano rim a large tubeworm field (Lamellibrachia spp.) was discovered. The field was associated with authigenic carbonate precipitates and chemoautotrophic bivalves of the family Lucinidae. Abundant ray eggs placed within the tubeworm field as well as the presence of small fish, shrimp and squid indicated that this habitat was utilized as a nursery ground by marine organisms that are not typically related to seepage activity. Preliminary data on benthic microbial methane turnover, geochemical gradients as well as temperature profiles across the sediment-water interface will be presented.

  17. THE PROPOSED ALUMINA INDUSTRY AND HOW TO MITIGATE THE RED MUD FOOTPRINT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon K. Y. Gawu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite tailings, also known as red mud, are often generated in vast quantities by extracting alumina from bauxites. The relatively complex composition of the red mud, an insoluble residue from bauxite processing, coupled with its fine particle size distribution, high pH, poor settling properties and some toxic rare metal associations, make its disposal problematic. Two locations are being considered for the sitting of a bauxite refinery in Ghana. Since large quantities of tailings is expected to be produced at a selected site efforts need to be geared towards its management to ensure that the red mud footprint is not repeated in Ghana as happened elsewhere. This paper considers the two proposed sites and applies a site ranking criteria to identify the most suitable site, as well as an environmentally suitable disposal technology based on the selected site conditions and the general red mud characteristics. This study could serve as a sustainable development approach in site selection and the choice of disposal technologies.

  18. Geology of mud volcanos in the Eastern Mediterranean from combined sidescan and submersible surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitter, T.A.C.; Huguen, C.; Woodside, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersible observations and seafloor mapping over areas of mud volcanism in the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal an abundance of methane-rich fluid emissions, as well as specific seep-associated fauna (e.g. tubeworms, bivalves and chemosynthetic bacteria) and diagenetic deposits (i.e. carbonates

  19. Consolidation and strength evolution of Dollard mud : Measurement report on laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by having dredged large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to a depth at which the density is equal to a certain

  20. Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use | Toerien | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use. ES Toerien. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfecs.v31i1.52840 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  1. Cholesterol Effect on Survival and Development of Larval Mud Crab Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD AGUS SUPRAYUDI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on the survival and development of larval mud crab Scylla serrata were examined by feeding larvae with Artemia enriched with different level of cholesterol. Artemia enriched with four stated levels of cholesterol i.e., 0, 5, 10, and 20 ul/l (Chol 0, 5, 10, and 20. All treatments were mixed with DHA70G at 25 ul/l. All the oil was adjusted to 100 ul/l by adding the oleic acid. Survival rate, intermolt period, and carapace width at the fisrt crab stage of mud crab larvae fed Chol 0, 5, and 10 were higher compared to that of Chol 20 (P < 0.05. We suggest that free sterol contained in Artemia at 1.37% was harmful to the growth performance of mud crab larvae. This study suggests that mud crab larvae required at least 0.61% cholesterol for maintaining good survival and development and therefore no need to enrich Artemia by cholesterol for the practical purpose.

  2. The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was conducted to induce triploidy in African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus using cold shock. The fertilized eggs were exposed at one temperature regime of 0°C with varied shock treatments of 0, 15, 25 and 30 min. Some 3 min after fertilization, the success of triploidy was determined by the presence or absence of ...

  3. Stepwise extraction of valuable components from red mud based on reductive roasting with sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Liu, Mingxia; Rao, Mingjun; Jiang, Tao; Zhuang, Jinqiang; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2014-09-15

    The feasibility of an integrated technological route for comprehensive utilization of red mud was verified in this study. Valuable components in the mud, including Fe2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 were stepwise extracted by magnetic separation and sulfuric acid leaching from reduced red mud, and meanwhile TiO2 was enriched in the leaching residue. Sodium salts were proved to be favorable for the magnetic separation of metallic iron and the subsequent acid leaching of Al and Si, through facilitating the reduction of iron oxides and the growth of metallic iron grains, together with enhancing the activation of Al and Si components during the roasting process. After reductive roasting in the presence of 6% Na2CO3 and 6% Na2SO4, a magnetic concentrate containing 90.2% iron with iron recovery of 95.0% was achieved from the red mud by magnetic separation. Subsequently, 94.7% Fe, 98.6% Al and 95.9% Si were extracted by dilute sulfuric acid leaching from the upper-stream non-magnetic material, yielding a TiO2-rich material with 37.8% TiO2. Furthermore, value-added products of silica gel and Al(OH)3 were prepared from the leachate by ripening and neutralizing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE PROPOSED ALUMINA INDUSTRY AND HOW TO MITIGATE AGAINST THE RED MUD FOOTPRINT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Y. Gawu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite tailings, also known as red mud, are often generated in vast quantities by extracting alumina from bauxites. The relatively complex composition of the red mud, an insoluble residue from bauxite processing, coupled with its fine particle size distribution, high pH, poor settling properties and some toxic rare metal associations, make its disposal problematic. Two locations are being considered for the sitting of a bauxite refinery in Ghana. Since large quantities of tailings is expected to be produced at a selected site efforts need to be geared towards its management to ensure that the red mud footprint is not repeated in Ghana as happened elsewhere. This paper considers the two proposed sites and applies a site ranking criteria to identify the most suitable site, as well as an environmentally suitable disposal technology based on the selected site conditions and the general red mud characteristics. This study could serve as a sustainable development approach in site selection and the choice of disposal technologies.

  5. Map showing thickness of young bay mud, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra D.; Nichols, Donald R.; Wright, Nancy A.; Atwater, Brian

    1978-01-01

    Soft water-saturated estuarine deposits less than 10,000 years old underlie the southern part of San Francisco bay and the present and former marshlands that border the bay. Known locally as bay mud or as young bay mud, these deposits, and the estuarine environment that produces them, are of major importance in making decision on land use and development in the San Francisco Bay area. Knowledge of the distribution, thickness, and physical properties of young bay mud is critical to the feasibility, design, and maintenance of structures built on it. Fore this reason, numerous attempts have been made in the past to map or describe these characteristics (Mitchell, 1963; Goldman, 1969; McDonald and Nichols, 1974). The accompanying map of bay-mud thickness significantly revises part of an earlier compilation by Kahle and Goldman (1969) and includes new data from approximately 2400 boreholes, most of which have been drilled during the past 15 years. It also incorporates information on historic margins of San Francisco Bay and its tidal marshes (Nichols and Wright, 1971). Although this map was compelled mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is not a substitute for such studies. Rather, the map provides regional information for land-use planning, seismic zonation, and design of foundation investigations.

  6. The use of mud as an alternative source for bioelectricity using microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Raden; Widjaja, Arief; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Hendrianie, Nuniek; Hidaya, Chanifah; Sari, Dessy Rosita; Suwito, Morimura, Shigeru; Tominaga, Masato

    2017-05-01

    Alternative energy sources to substitute fossil-based energy is expected, as the fossil energy reserves decreasing every day. Mud is considered to be economical as the material sources for generating the electricity where it could be found easily and abundantly in Indonesia. The existence of a lot of mud that contains organic material has great potential as a source of electrical energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). It provides a promising technology by degrading organic compounds to yield the sustainable energy. The different sampling sites were determined to find out the electricity production, i.e. mud from soil water, brackish water and sea water using an anode immersed of 10 cm2. The results suggest that the electricity generation of the three areas are 0.331, 0.327 and 0.398 V (in terms of voltage); 0.221, 0.050 and 0.325 mA (in terms of electric current), respectively. It is investigated that the mud obtained the sea water exhibits the highest power potential compared to that obtained from the brackish and soil water.

  7. Extraction of Al and Na from red mud by magnesium oxide sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    produce an insoluble dimagnesium silicate, magnesium ferrite, magnesium titanate and a soluble sodium aluminate. A variation of the red mud ... carbonate, reacts with Fe2O3 and forms sodium ferrite as. *Corresponding author. E-mail: Id- ..... Lime Sinter with Calcium: Silica ratio::1, Comalco,. RTS Technical Note: 9392.

  8. Observations of suspended sediment from ADCP and OBS measurements in a mud-dominated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Hoekstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a 1.2-MHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and particle size variation in a mud-dominated environment has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in the Bay of Banten, Indonesia, where clays and silts in the range of 3-55

  9. Mud volcanoes and gas hydrates in the Anaximander mountains (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykousis, V.; Alexandri, S.; Woodside, J.M.; de Lange, G.; Dahlmann, A.; Perissoratis, C.; Heeschen, K.; Ioakim, Chr.; Sakellariou, D.; Nomikou, P.; Rousakis, G.; Casas, D.; Ballas, D.; Ercilla, G.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed multibeam, sedimentological, and geophysical surveys provide ample new data to confirm that the Anaximander Mountains (Eastern Mediterranean) are an important area for active mud volcanism and gas hydrate formation. More than 3000 km of multibeam track length was acquired during two recent

  10. Methanogenic activity and diversity in the centre of the Amsterdam Mud Volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; John Parkes, R; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stephane; Toffin, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    Marine mud volcanoes are geological structures emitting large amounts of methane from their active centres. The Amsterdam mud volcano (AMV), located in the Anaximander Mountains south of Turkey, is characterized by intense active methane seepage produced in part by methanogens. To date, information about the diversity or the metabolic pathways used by the methanogens in active centres of marine mud volcanoes is limited. (14)C-radiotracer measurements showed that methylamines/methanol, H(2)/CO(2) and acetate were used for methanogenesis in the AMV. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was measured all along the sediment core, Methanosarcinales affiliated sequences were detected using archaeal 16S PCR-DGGE and mcrA gene libraries, and enrichments of methanogens showed the presence of Methanococcoides in the shallow sediment layers. Overall acetoclastic methanogenesis was higher than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, which is unusual for cold seep sediments. Interestingly, acetate porewater concentrations were extremely high in the AMV sediments. This might be the result of organic matter cracking in deeper hotter sediment layers. Methane was also produced from hexadecanes. For the most part, the methanogenic community diversity was in accordance with the depth distribution of the H(2)/CO(2) and acetate methanogenesis. These results demonstrate the importance of methanogenic communities in the centres of marine mud volcanoes. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioactivity of natural medicinal preparations contained extracts from peat mud available in retail trade used externally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Kapała, Jacek; Raciborska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Milewska, Anna; Mnich, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    In this work were identified and measured the activity of radioactive isotopes present in medicinal preparations from peat mud and estimated the doses obtained from them during therapy. Radioactivity of 22 preparations from peat mud and 20 water samples from water of the North-East region of Poland was studied. The median of the total activity was 24.8 Bq kg-1. Total maximal isotope activity was observed in the Iwonicka Cube 146 Bq kg-1 while considerable amounts of isotopes were found in the Kolobrzeska Peat Mud Paste 112 Bq kg-1. The doses obtained during therapy were within the range of 11 nSv-13 μSv depending on extracts of medicinal preparations from peat mud. The probability that such a small dose would stimulate biological effects is low. However, some clinicians believe that one of the possible therapeutic mechanisms in the treatment of rheumatoid disorders is the induction of immune response by ionising radiation.

  12. Consolidation and strength evolution of Caland-Beer Channel mud : Measurement report on laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by having dredged large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to a depth at which the density is equal to a certain

  13. Page 1 Removal of Sediments from mud bank region 197 762d ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is evident in both the seasons. Grain size does not clearly reflect the seasonal changes of process-related factors influencing the granulometric variation. Hence hydro- dynamics of the transport and deposition were evaluated based on the results obtained from the detailed textural analysis of the post-mud bank sediments.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT ONTO PAVED ROADS FROM CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report characterizes fugitive dust generated by vehicular traffic on paved streets and highways resulting from mud/dirt carryout from unpaved areas as a primary source of PM-10 (particles = or < 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter), and evaluates three technologies for eff...

  15. Reuse of a treated red mud bauxite waste: studies on environmental compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Claudia; Cremisini, Carlo; Massanisso, Paolo; Pinto, Valentina; Torricelli, Leonardo

    2005-01-14

    Red mud is the major solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite (Bayer process). Environmental "compatibility" of a treated red mud was studied in order to evaluate its possible recycling in environmental compartments. The leaching test requested by the Italian law on treated solid waste to be "re-introduced in the environment" was performed on this material. Moreover, in order to better evaluate the environmental compatibility, three different types of eco-toxicological tests were applied (Microtox test, ASTM microalgae toxicity test and sea urchin embryo toxicity test). These "chemical" and eco-toxicological tests gave encouraging results. The possibility to use this material for treating contaminated waters and soils was evaluated, again with particular attention to the Italian regulatory system, through experiments on the treated red mud metal trapping ability and on the subsequent release of trapped metals, at low pH conditions. The treated red mud showed a general high metal trapping capacity and the release at low pH was generally low.

  16. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G.J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominentindicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at theseafloor on both passive and active continental margins.Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent attheWest Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlayinga major sedimentary

  17. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Rodríquez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; de Lange, G.J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary

  18. Sublethal Toxic effects of spent Oil Based Drilling Mud and Cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The procedure for the exposure was according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommended method for testing chemicals No 207. There were three replicate jars per treatment and 10 earthworms per jar of soil spiked with drilling mud. Control groups were also set up. At the end ...

  19. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud for Titanium Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Alkan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical changes, induced by leaching. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and their combination have been utilized as leaching agents with the same leaching parameters. It has been determined that sulfuric acid is the best candidate for the red mud treatment in terms of titanium leaching efficiency at the end of 2 h with a value of 67.3%. Moreover, samples from intermediate times of reaction revealed that leaching of Ti exhibit various reaction rates at different times of reaction depending on acid type. In order to explain differences, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and QEMSCAN techniques were utilized. Beside titanium oxide (TiO2 with available free surface area, a certain amount of the TiO2 was detected as entrapped in Fe dominating oxide. These associations between Ti and Fe phases were used to explain different leaching reaction rates and a reaction mechanism was proposed to open a process window.

  20. Hematite (α-Fe2O3) - A potential Ce4+carrier in red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanz, Ralph M; Kiefer, Stefan; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph

    2018-05-01

    Cerium is the most abundant rare earth element (REE) within the waste product of alumina production (red mud), but its speciation in this complex material is still barely understood. Previous studies showed evidence for a correlation between Ce and the main constituent of red mud, iron oxides, which led us to investigate the most abundant iron oxide in red mud, hematite, as possible carrier phase for Ce. Synthetic hematite can incorporate up to 1.70±0.01wt% Ce, which leads to a systematical increase of all unit cell parameters. Investigations by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy suggest an incorporation of Ce 4+ O 6 into the hematite structure by a novel atomic arrangement, fundamentally different from the close-range order around Fe 3+ in hematite. Samples of red mud were taken in Lauta (Saxony), Germany and analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass and optical emission spectrometry, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Red mud samples consist of hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) (34-58wt%), sodalite (Na 8 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 Cl 2 ) (4-30wt%), gibbsite (Al(OH) 3 ) (0-25wt%), goethite (FeOOH) (10-23wt%), böhmite (AlOOH) (0-11wt%), rutile (TiO 2 ) (4-8wt%), cancrinite (Na 6 Ca 2 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 (CO 3 ) 2 ) (0-5wt%), nordstrandite (Al(OH) 3 ) (0-5wt%) and quartz (SiO 2 ) (0-4wt%). While the main elemental composition is Fe>Al>Na>Ti>Ca (Si not included), the average concentration of REE is 1109±6mg/kg with an average Ce concentration of 464±3mg/kg. The main carrier of Ce was located in the Fe-rich fine-grained fraction of red mud (0.10wt% Ce 2 O 3 ), while other potential Ce carriers like monazite, lead oxides, secondary Ce-minerals and particles of potentially anthropogenic origin are of subordinated relevance. Cerium in red mud occurs predominantly as Ce 4+ , which further excludes Ce 3+ minerals as relevant sources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effects of remote earthquakes at the Nirano Mud Volcanic Field: insights from geophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Kenkel, Johannes; Fuchs, Florian; Ricci, Tullio; Suski, Barbara; Conventi, Marzia; Miller, Stephen A.

    2014-05-01

    Mud volcanoes are often characterized by elevated fluid pressures that deviate from hydrostatic conditions. This near-critical state makes mud volcanoes particularly sensitive to external perturbations and an ideal natural laboratory to test the effects of dynamic stress generated by remote seismic events. The Pede-Apennines Thrust, northern Italy, is characterized by several mud volcanic systems aligned along a narrow WNW-ESE trending band that runs sub-parallel to this part of the Apennine chain. We use the Nirano Mud Volcanic System as a natural laboratory to test if and how distant earthquakes may affect such geological systems. We first characterized the subsurface with a geoelectrical study and measurements of spontaneous potential. Next, we deployed a broadband seismic station (Trillium 240s equipped with a three-channel Reftek130 data-logger) inside the Nirano Mud Volcanic System to understand the typical seismic signal generated at depth. Seismic records show a background noise below 2 s period, sometimes interrupted by periods of repeated rhythmic high-frequency pulses that last from several minutes to hours. During such a period, each high-frequency pulse lasts approximately 20 s and individual pulses are separated by intervals of low frequency noise lasting from 40 s to 180 s. We identify such periods of high frequency (rhythmic) signals irregularly throughout our dataset, with no distinction between day or night hours. In the late June 2013 the aftershocks of the M5.3 Garfagnana earthquake (21st of June 2013) were still ongoing and we recorded a M4.4 event on the 30th of June, approximately 60 km from our station. The earthquake, dominated by frequencies between 1 Hz and 2 Hz, caused a maximum vertical and horizontal displacement at the surface of 0.7 mm and 0.48 mm, respectively. Before the earthquake, the frequency band between 10 Hz and 20 Hz was dominated by weaker signals while after the earthquake the same frequency band was characterized by much

  2. Observed salinity changes in the Alappuzha mud bank, southwest coast of India and its implication to hypothesis of mudbank formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, K. R.; Dinesh Kumar, P. K.; Prasanna Kumar, S.; Srijith, B.; John, Sebin; Naveen Kumar, K. R.

    2017-04-01

    Alappuzha mud bank draws special attention among the twenty-mud bank locations reported along the Kerala coast by its remoteness from riverine sources. Among several hypotheses proposed for the formation of mud bank, the subterranean hypothesis was most accepted because of the occurrence of low salinity in the bottom layers. The present study provides evidence to show that occurrence of low salinity waters near the bottom in the mud bank region is an artifact of measuring technique employed for the measurement of salinity. The usual technique of conductivity based salinity determination completely fails in the presence of water laden with high amount of suspended sediment. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the response of electrode and conductivity cell sensor types to determine the salinity using a range of suspended sediment in the water column. Actual sediment samples from the mud bank region were utilized for the above studies. Based on field observations and experiments, we conclude that the low salinity was the manifestation of the presence highly turbid fluid mud formation in the mud bank region rather than the influence of fresh water.

  3. Influence of the drilling mud formulation process on the bacterial communities in thermogenic natural gas wells of the Barnett Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Davis, James P; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2011-07-01

    The Barnett Shale in north central Texas contains natural gas generated by high temperatures (120 to 150°C) during the Mississippian Period (300 to 350 million years ago). In spite of the thermogenic origin of this gas, biogenic sulfide production and microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed at several natural gas wells in this formation. It was hypothesized that microorganisms in drilling muds were responsible for these deleterious effects. Here we collected drilling water and drilling mud samples from seven wells in the Barnett Shale during the drilling process. Using quantitative real-time PCR and microbial enumerations, we show that the addition of mud components to drilling water increased total bacterial numbers, as well as the numbers of culturable aerobic heterotrophs, acid producers, and sulfate reducers. The addition of sterile drilling muds to microcosms that contained drilling water stimulated sulfide production. Pyrosequencing-based phylogenetic surveys of the microbial communities in drilling waters and drilling muds showed a marked transition from typical freshwater communities to less diverse communities dominated by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. The community shifts observed reflected changes in temperature, pH, oxygen availability, and concentrations of sulfate, sulfonate, and carbon additives associated with the mud formulation process. Finally, several of the phylotypes observed in drilling muds belonged to lineages that were thought to be indigenous to marine and terrestrial fossil fuel formations. Our results suggest a possible alternative exogenous origin of such phylotypes via enrichment and introduction to oil and natural gas reservoirs during the drilling process.

  4. Study of drilling muds on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier in directional drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-fu He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to some drawbacks of conventional drilling methods and drilling tools, the application of hydraulic hammers with a fluidic amplifier have been extensively popularized since its emergence in recent years. However, the performance life of a fluidic amplifier is still unsatisfactory in oil and gas wells drilling, especially the heavy wear or erosion of the fluidic amplifier leads to the reduction of service life time of hydraulic hammers, which is derived from the incision of drilling muds with high speed and pressure. In order to investigate the influence of drilling muds, such as particle size, solid content and jet velocity, on the antierosion property of a fluidic amplifier, several groups of drilling muds with different performance parameters have been utilized to numerical simulation on basis of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Simulation results have shown that the jet nozzle of fluidic amplifiers is primarily abraded, afterwards are the lateral plates and the wedge of the fluidic amplifier, which shows extraordinary agreement with the actual cases of fluidic amplifier in drilling process. It can be concluded that particle size, solid content and jet velocity have a great influence on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier, and the erosion rate linearly varies with the particle size of drilling muds, nevertheless exponentially varies with solid content and jet velocity of drilling muds. As to improve the service life time of a fluidic amplifier, the mud purification system or low solid clay-free mud system is suggested in the operation of directional well drilling

  5. Gas geochemistry and methane emission from Dushanzi mud volcanoes in the southern Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guodong; Ma, Xiangxian; Guo, Zhengfu; Hilton, David R.; Xu, Wang; Liang, Shouyun; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Wenxing

    2017-11-01

    There are many mud volcanoes in the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, northwest China, of which the Dushanzi area is the most typical and active one, emitting large amount of greenhouse gases associated with water and mud. The emitted gas is dominated by methane (average 90.1%), together with other gases, such as ethane (4.84-5.46%), propane (0.06-0.90%), CO2 (0.67-1.0%), and N2 (2.8-3.3%). The carbon (δ13C1) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic ratios of methane are in the ranges of -40.6‰ to -45.0‰ and -221‰ to -249‰, respectively, whereas carbon isotope ratios of ethane (δ13C2) are -25.2‰ to -27.6‰. Based on δ13C values, the released gas is characterized as a thermogenic coal-type and possibly originated from the middle-low Jurassic coal-bearing sequences according to the gas-source correlation and regional geology. Helium isotopes show a crustal source. The methane flux of Dushanzi mud volcanoes from both macro-seepage (craters/vents) and micro-seepage (ground soil exhalation) ranged over the orders of magnitude, from 0.4-2.7 kg d-1 and 4950 mg m-2 d-1 on average, respectively. Positive CH4 fluxes from dry soil were widespread throughout the investigated areas. The total CH4 emission from Dushanzi mud volcanoes is estimated to be at least 22.6 tons a-1, of which about 89% is from micro-seepage surrounding the mud volcano vents.

  6. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Mud Lake area, eastern Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater with elevated dissolved-solids concentrations—containing large concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium—is present in the Mud Lake area of Eastern Idaho. The source of these solutes is unknown; however, an understanding of the geochemical sources and processes controlling their presence in groundwater in the Mud Lake area is needed to better understand the geochemical sources and processes controlling the water quality of groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory. The geochemical sources and processes controlling the water quality of groundwater in the Mud Lake area were determined by investigating the geology, hydrology, land use, and groundwater geochemistry in the Mud Lake area, proposing sources for solutes, and testing the proposed sources through geochemical modeling with PHREEQC. Modeling indicated that sources of water to the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were groundwater from the Beaverhead Mountains and the Camas Creek drainage basin; surface water from Medicine Lodge and Camas Creeks, Mud Lake, and irrigation water; and upward flow of geothermal water from beneath the aquifer. Mixing of groundwater with surface water or other groundwater occurred throughout the aquifer. Carbonate reactions, silicate weathering, and dissolution of evaporite minerals and fertilizer explain most of the changes in chemistry in the aquifer. Redox reactions, cation exchange, and evaporation were locally important. The source of large concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium was evaporite deposits in the unsaturated zone associated with Pleistocene Lake Terreton. Large amounts of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium are added to groundwater from irrigation water infiltrating through lake bed sediments containing evaporite deposits and the resultant dissolution of gypsum, halite, sylvite, and bischofite.

  7. Long- and short-term triggering and modulation of mud volcano eruptions by earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Marco; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Earthquakes can trigger the eruption of mud. We use eruptions in Azerbaijan, Italy, Romania, Japan, Andaman Islands, Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia, and California to probe the nature of stress changes that induce new eruptions and modulate ongoing eruptions. Dynamic stresses produced by earthquakes are usually inferred to be the dominant triggering mechanism; however static stress changes acting on the feeder systems of mud volcanoes may also play a role. In Azerbaijan, eruptions within 2-10 fault lengths from the epicenter are favored in the year following earthquakes where the static stress changes cause compression of the mud source and unclamp feeder dikes. In Romania, Taiwan, and some Italian sites, increased activity is also favored where the static stress changes act to unclamp feeder dikes, but responses occur within days. The eruption in the Andaman Islands, and those of the Niikappu mud volcanoes, Japan are better correlated with amplitude of dynamic stresses produced by seismic waves. Similarly, a new island that emerged off the coast of Pakistan in 2013 was likely triggered by dynamic stresses, enhanced by directivity. At the southern end of the Salton Sea, California earthquakes increase the gas flux at small mud volcanoes. Responses are best correlated with dynamic stresses. The comparison of responses in these nine settings indicates that dynamic stresses are most often correlated with triggering, although permanent stress changes as small as, and possibly smaller than, 0.1 bar may be sufficient to also influence eruptions. Unclamping stresses with magnitude similar to Earth tides (0.01 bar) persist over time and may play a role in triggering delayed responses. Unclamping stresses may be important contributors to short-term triggering only if they exceed 0.1-1 bar.

  8. Early-age characteristics of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Henghu; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jixiu

    2009-08-15

    This experimental research was to investigate the possibility of incorporating red mud and coal gangue as raw materials for the production of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material, abbreviated as RGC, including analyses of its chemical composition, physical properties, mechanical properties and hydration products. The red mud and coal gangue (at a ratio of 3:2) were mixed together and shaped in small spheres with a water to solid ratio of 0.30 and then calcined at 600 degrees C for 2h. Subsequently, the RGC was prepared by blending 50% the resultant red mud-coal gangue mixtures, 24% blast-furnace slag, 20% clinker and 6% gypsum. The hydration products of RGC were characterized by XRD, TG-DTA and SEM-EDS. The results showed that it is feasible to use red mud and coal gangue to replace up to 50% of the raw materials to produce cementitious material, which can be called as silica-alumina based cementitious material. The hydration products of RGC are mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel. As the dominant products, C-S-H gel and ettringite are principally responsible for the strength development of RGC in early hydration process. The content of Ca(OH)(2) initially increased but later was depleted after reaching the peak value at 21 days. Moreover, it is found that the composition of the C-S-H gel shifted towards higher Si, Al and Na contents with the increase of hydration age, whereas that of Ca shifted towards lower content.

  9. Recovery of value-added products from red mud and foundry bag-house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Keegan

    "Waste is wasted if you waste it, otherwise it is a resource. Resource is wasted if you ignore it and do not conserve it with holistic best practices and reduce societal costs. Resource is for the transformation of people and society." Red mud is a worldwide problem with reserves in the hundreds of millions of tons and tens of millions of tons being added annually. Currently there is not an effective way to deal with this byproduct of the Bayer Process, the primary means of refining bauxite ore in order to provide alumina. This alumina is then treated by electrolysis using the Hall-Heroult process to produce elemental aluminum. The resulting mud is a mixture of solid and metallic oxides, and has proven to be a great disposal problem. This disposal problem is compounded by the fact that the typical bauxite processing plant produces up to three times as much red mud as alumina. Current practice of disposal is to store red mud in retention ponds until an economical fix can be discovered. The danger associated with this current method of storage is immense to the surrounding communities and environment, thus the interest from the Center for Resource Recovery and Recycling (CR3). The purpose of this document is to explain one way to remove the value added materials, primarily iron, from the Jamaican red mud using both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical approaches. In the beginning, soda ash and carbon roasting were completed simultaneously at 800°C. This type of roasting produced results that were unacceptable. After the soda ash roast was completed independently of carbon roasting, a water wash produced results that separations of alumina at 90%, Iron at 99%, calcium at 99%, titanium t 100%, and sodium by 74%. Smelting produced separations of 97% for alumina, 99% for iron, 87% for sodium, 94% for calcium and 72% for titanium.

  10. Physical properties and their relationship to sedimentary processes and texture in sediments from mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountains (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the mud volcanoes Amsterdam, Kazan and Kula located in the Anaximander Mountains (SW Turkey continental margin, which are characterized by the presence of sediments containing gas and gas hydrate. These mud volcanoes were sampled by recovering four gravity cores. For sediment located right on top (crater or active part of the summit of the mud volcanoes, the physical properties are controlled by lithology and mud volcanic processes rather than the degree of compaction. This could suggest the possibility of current mud volcanic activity. In contrast, the sediment located in the external flank of Kula mud volcano displays physical properties mostly related to consolidation effects and to the type of sediment at a detailed scale, as occurs typically in deep-sea fine grained sediments. This suggests a restricted influence of mud volcanic processes.

  11. A Study of Dissipation of Wind-Waves by Mud as Cassino Beach, Brazil: Prediction and Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    traditional rules of thumb regarding maximum height to depth ratios (e.g. Dean and Dalrymple , 1991). Thus, breaking is only relevant to the compar- isons...R.A.. Liu. P.L-F.. 1978. Waves over soft muds: a 2-layer fluid model. Journal of Physical Oceanography 8.1121-1131. Dean . R.G.. Dalrymple , R.A., 1991...the mud layer. Ng (2000) proposed a numerical simplification of the Dalrymple and Liu (1978) calculation, using an assumption of a thin mud layer

  12. Heterogeneous Catalysts for VOC Oxidation from Red Mud and Bagasse Ash Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Gaurav

    A range of VOC oxidation catalysts have been prepared in this study from agricultural and industrial waste as the starting point. The aim is to prepare catalysts with non-noble metal oxides as the active catalytic component (iron in red mud). The same active component was also supported on activated carbon obtained from unburned carbon in bagasse ash. Red mud which is an aluminum industry waste and rich in different phases of iron as oxide and hydroxide is used as the source for the catalytically active species. It is our aim to enhance the catalytic performance of red mud which though high in iron concentration has a low surface area and may not have the properties of an ideal catalyst by itself. In one of the attempts to enhance the catalytic performance, we have tried to leach red mud for which we have explored a range of leaching acids for effecting the leaching most efficiently and then precipitated the iron from the leachate as its hydroxide by precipitating with alkali solution followed by drying and calcination to give high surface area metal oxide material. Extensive surface characterization and VOC oxidation catalytic testing were performed for these solids. In a step to further enhance the catalytic activity towards oxidation, copper was introduced by taking another industrial waste from the copper tubing industry viz. the pickling acid. Copper has a more favourable redox potential making it catalytically more effective than iron. To make the mixed metal oxide, red mud leachate was mixed with the pickling acid in a pre-decided ratio before precipitating with alkali solution followed by drying and calcination as was done with the red mud leachate. The results from these experiments are encouraging. The temperature programmed reduction (TPR) of the solids show that the precipitate of red mud leachates show hydrogen uptake peak at a lower temperature than for just the calcined red mud. This could be due to the greatly enhanced surface area of the prepared

  13. Spatially limited mud turbidites on the Cascadia margin: segmented earthquake ruptures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Goldfinger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of 23 thin, mostly mud-silt turbidites are found interspersed between larger, well-dated and regionally correlated paleoseismic sandy turbidites that extend along most of the Cascadia margin, northwestern United States. Investigation of the structure, distribution, and sedimentology of these thin mud-silt units supports the interpretation of these units as turbidites originating on the continental slope. Interpretation of mud turbidites is inhibited by bioturbation and lower response to analytical and imaging techniques; nevertheless most of the 23 interpreted beds exhibit most of the characteristics of coarser turbidites. These characteristics include sharp bases, fining upward sequences, darker color, increased gamma and CT density and magnetic susceptibility relative to the hemipelagic background, sparse microfossils, high lithic content, and evidence of transport from marine sources on the continental slope. New core data from sites south of Rogue Apron indicate that sandy and muddy turbidites may be correlated at least 150 km south to Trinidad Plunge Pool for the period ~ 4800 yr BP to present. Many of the mud turbidites initially described at Rogue Apron coarsen southward, becoming sandy turbidites. High-resolution Chirp seismic profiles reveal that turbidite stratigraphy along the base of the southern Cascadia continental slope is continuous, with little variation for at least 240 km along strike. The Chirp data show that turbidites along the Cascadia base of slope are ubiquitous, and likely not sourced solely from submarine canyon mouths, but may also have been delivered to the proximal abyssal plain as sheet flows from the open continental slope and coalescing local sources. Regional stratigraphy reveals that hemipelagic sedimentation rates and total Holocene turbidite thickness and mass are similar at widely separated sites, yet the total thickness of the Holocene section is greater by a factor of two in southern Cascadia

  14. Speciation of mercury in a fluid mud profile of a highly turbid macrotidal estuary (Gironde, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C M; Amouroux, D; Abril, G; Tessier, E; Etcheber, H; Donard, O F

    2001-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) speciation and partitioning have been investigated in a fluid mud profile collected in the high turbidity zone of the Gironde estuary. The formation of the fluid lens generates local and transient oxic-anoxic oscillations following the sedimentation-resuspension tidal cycles under a specific hydrodynamic regime. The total Hg concentration, ranging from 5 to 190 nM, increases with SPM concentration (4-174 g L-1) to a maximum at bottom. Particulate Hg averages 99% of total Hg. Particulate inorganic Hg (IHg(II)P) and monomethyl Hg (MMHgP) exhibit a similar trend: the maximum concentration is observed within the upper layer above the depth of 7 m and the minimum at the bottom layers of the fluid mud. Significant levels of "dissolved" (i.e. filter passing) Hg species (IHg(II)D, HgoD, MMHgD, DMHgD) are observed within the redox transition interface. In the sub/anoxic fluid mud layer, increasing concentrations of IHg(II)D and MMHgD coincide with decreasing concentrations of IHg(II)P and MMHgP, respectively. The distribution coefficient (log Kd) between the "dissolved" and particulate fraction for IHg(II) averages 4.5 +/- 0.2. A Kd minimum for IHg(II) is observed in the surface layer and at the bottom of the fluid mud and coincides with the maximum levels of dissolved Mn and Fe. Log Kd for MMHg averages 3.3 +/- 0.9 and presents the highest values (4.3-4.6) in the surface and the lowest (approximately 2.2) at bottom, corresponding to the particulate carbon profile. These results demonstrate that the fate of IHg(II) and MMHg in the fluid mud system is influenced by the redox cycling of major species such as carbon, Fe, and Mn. It is therefore suggested that the redox oscillations generated by fluid mud formation in the high turbidity zone affect the distribution and transfer of Hg species in macrotidal estuaries.

  15. Use of red mud (bauxite residue) for the retention of aqueous inorganic mercury(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinos, David A; Barral, María Teresa

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of the oxide-rich residue from bauxite refining (red mud) to remove inorganic Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed. The aspects studied comprised the kinetics of the process (t = 1 min-24 h), the effect of pH (3.5-11.5), the interacting effect between salt concentration (0.01-1 M NaNO3) and pH and the Hg(II) sorption isotherm. Hg leaching from spent red mud was evaluated using the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) method. The sorption of Hg(II) onto red mud was very fast, with most of Hg(II) (97.0-99.7%) being removed from 0.5-50 μM Hg solutions in few minutes. The kinetic process was best described by Ho's pseudo-second order equation, pointing to chemisorption as the rate controlling step. Hg(II) sorption efficiency was very high (% removal between 93.9 and 99.8%) within all the studied pH range (3.5-11.5) and added Hg concentrations (5 and 50 μM), being optimal at pH 5-8 and decreasing slightly at both lowest and highest pH. The effect of background electrolyte concentration suggests specific sorption as the main interaction mechanism between Hg(II) and red mud, but the increasing non-sorbed Hg concentrations at low and high pH for higher electrolyte concentrations also revealed the contribution of an electrostatic component to the process. The sorption isotherm showed the characteristic shape of high affinity sorbents, and it was better described by the Redlich-Peterson and Freundlich equations, which are models that assume sorbent heterogeneity and involvement of more than one mechanism. The estimated Hg(II) sorption capacity from the Langmuir equation (q m ~9 mmol/kg) was comparable to those of some inorganic commercial sorbents but lower than most bio- or specifically designed sorbents. The leachability of retained Hg(II) from spent red mud (0.02, 0.25 and 2.42 mmol Hg/kg sorbed concentration) was low (0.28, 1.15 and 2.23 μmol/kg, respectively) and accounted for 1.2, 0.5 and 0.1% of previously sorbed Hg

  16. Influence of upwelling induced near shore hypoxia on the Alappuzha mud banks, South West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GireeshKumar, T.R; Mathew, D.; Pratihary, A; Naik, H.; Narvekar, K.U.; Araujo, J.; Balachandran, K.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Thorat, B.R.; Nair, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A

    The results of the first time-series measurements spanning 18-weeks (22 April to 20 September 2014) from a coastal environment (Alappuzha, southwest India), where two process of upwelling and mud banks are concurrent during summer monsoon...

  17. Formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes in an estuarine turbidity zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Marius; Schrottke, Kerstin; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes were investigated in the Weser Estuary, North Sea, Germany, based on hydroacoustic measurements. Near-bed suspension layers were found to consist of a suspension of large mud flocs of variable concentration, ranging from...... 25 g/L below the lutocline to 70 g/L at the river bed, whereas the gelling concentration was below 70 g/L. Sites of fluid mud formation coincided with the location of the estuarine turbidity zone during slack water. On average, near-bed density gradients were initially observed in dune troughs 1.2 h...... before slack water, and all fluid mud layers were entrained 2.3 h after slack water. No shear instabilities occurred until 1.8 h after slack water. While the flow was oriented in the dune direction, rapid entrainment was related to the development of the turbulent flow field behind dunes and is explained...

  18. Seismic and inter-seismic ground surface deformations of the Murono mud volcano (central Japan): a laser scanning approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S; Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Matta, Nobuhisa

    2017-01-01

    A small mud volcano in Murono, Niigata Prefecture, north-central Japan, shows active ground surface displacements, not only when large earthquakes occur in the region but also during quiescent periods...

  19. Historical evolution of mud deposition and erosion in intertidal areas of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium and SW Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Wang; Vanlede, J.; Vandenbruwaene, W.; Y. Plancke; Temmerman, S.

    2015-01-01

    The mud dynamics in an estuary are recognized as an important element of estuarine functioning, because increasing suspended sediment concentrations may be both harmful for ecological functions (e.g., biomass production by phytoplankton) and deteriorative for human functions (e.g., by siltation of shipping channels). Considering the potential risk of increase in suspended sediment concentration in the Schelde estuary, this study aims to quantify the mud deposition/erosion in different time pe...

  20. Assessing the legacy of red mud pollution in a shallow freshwater lake: arsenic accumulation and speciation in macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewska, Justyna P; Meharg, Andrew A.; Heal, Kate V.; Carey, Manus; Gunn, Iain D. M.; Searle, Kate R.; Winfield, Ian J.; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about long-term ecological responses in lakes following red mud pollution. Among red mud contaminants, arsenic (As) is of considerable concern. Determination of the species of As accumulated in aquatic organisms provides important information about the biogeochemical cycling of the element and transfer through the aquatic food-web to higher organisms. We used coupled ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess As speciation in tissues...

  1. Armoured mud balls as a result of ephemeral fluvial flood in a humid climate: Modern example from Guizhou Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard H. Bachmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Armoured mud balls were observed after rainfall and a short flood in the otherwise dry Xiaohe (small river valley of Guanling County, Guizhou Province, South China, approximately 30 km southwest of Guanling City. Armoured mud balls are most common in semiarid climates, but rather unusual in a humid climate as in Guizhou. A number of well-rounded mud balls, 2–20 cm in diameter, were found lying on the gravel of the Xiaohe gully floor. The mud balls consist of sticky, light brown and slightly mottled clay without carbonate content. The surfaces of the mud balls were studded with rims of sand- or gravel-size limestone clasts, collected during bedload transport, as is typical for armoured mud balls. The mud balls originated from alluvial mudstone deposits of the valley floor and cliff that are most likely derived from the weathering and karstification of bedrock limestones. Such mudstones with high clay content seem to be especially well suited for forming armoured mud balls. As flood events are rather common in the area, the formation of armoured mud balls should be very frequent in the Xiaohe valley and similar valleys nearby, giving the possibility for further and more detailed studies. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of armoured mud balls in China.

  2. THE PELLETS APPLICATION IN LABORATORY RESEARCHING OF INHIBITIVE MUD/SHALE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoje Pašić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability appears to be a serious problem during drilling process through shale. Shales instability cause basically comes out of its mineralogical composition (especially clay minerals content and physico-chemical properties. Many research activities about shale instability causes and shale properties (affecting shale behavior during interaction with water phase of different drilling muds definition have been carried out by now. In these laboratory tests were used original shales samples given by coring process or collecting shale cuttings from shale shakers, and different shale samples from outcrop. From this reason is very difficult compare laboratory tests results given by different authors. Possible solution is use artificial shale samples (pellets with exact mineralogical composition, enabling extensive laboratory tests and tests results comparison. In this paper presented laboratory tests of pellets swelling in inhibitive muds (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Study on Mud Pumping Mechanism of Subgrade Surface Layer in Slab Ballastless Track Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopei CAI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mud pumping has a significant impact on dynamic behavior of high-speed railway. An elaborate study focused on the structure characteristics of CRTS I (China Railway Track System slab ballastless track was made to explain the mechanism of mud pumping from the aspects of displacement between the base plate and subgrade, gap growing, disfunction of drainage system and dynamic load of the train. Finite element software ABAQUS was applied to simulate the dynamic responses between the base plate and the subgrade surface layer in different conditions of gap length and gap size. It has been found that the dynamic force between the base plate and the surface layer of subgrade is up to 4,576.29 kN. Suggestions have been given to the related department such as slip-casting, white-out, sealing plug to solve the problem.

  4. Mud volcanoes and microseepage: the forgotten geophysical components of atmospheric methane budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Etiope

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes and microseepage are two important natural sources of atmospheric methane, controlled by neotectonics and seismicity. Petroleum and gas reservoirs are the deep sources, and faults and fractured rocks serve as main pathways of degassing to the atmosphere. Violent gas emissions or eruptions are generally related to seismic activity. The global emission of methane from onshore mud volcanoes has recently been improved thanks to new experimental data sets acquired in Europe and Azerbaijan. The global estimate of microseepage can be now improved on the basis of new flux data and a more precise assessment of the global area in which microseepage may occur. Despite the uncertainty of the various source strengths, the global geological methane flux is clearly comparable to or higher than other sources or sinks considered in the tables of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Acholeplasma sp. from the Mud Crab, Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Gang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a mollicute-like organism (MLO was cultured from moribund mud crabs (Scylla serrata during an outbreak of clearwater disease in Zhejiang Province, China. The MLO displayed a fried-egg colony morphology in culture, did not possess a cell wall, and was not retained by 0.45 μm and 0.2 μm filters. It was able to ferment glucose, sucrose, lactose, and maltose, but it did not utilize arginine and urea. The MLO grew in the absence of bovine serum and was not susceptible to digitonin. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that this MLO had 99% identity with Acholeplasma laidlawii PG-8A, which indicates that the organism isolated from mud crabs is a member of the genus Acholeplasma.

  6. PET-modified red mud as catalysts for oxidative desulfurization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Nayara T; Heitmann, Ana P; Mansur, Herman S; Mansur, Alexandra A; Oliveira, Luiz C A; de Castro, Cinthia S

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of catalysts based on red mud/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composites and their subsequent heat treatment under N2 atmosphere. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and N2 adsorption/desorption. The catalysts were evaluated in the oxidative desulfurization reaction of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in a biphasic system. The results indicated that the PET impregnation on red mud increased the affinity of the catalyst with the nonpolar phase (fuel), in which the contaminant was dissolved, allowing a higher conversion (up to 80%) and selectivity to the corresponding dibenzothiophene sulfone. The sulfone compound is more polar than DBT and diffused into the polar solvent as indicated by the data obtained via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical...... and temperate coastal regions(5-7) and build burrows with a species-specific architecture, The deepest reported burrows reach down to 2.5 m sediment depth(8). It is difficult to study the activities of these secretive animals and their effect on sediment biogeochemistry without disturbing the sediment system(9......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  8. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  9. Iron speciation in bleached rocks by hydrocarbon leaching in Dushanzi Mud Volcano, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, G D [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fu, B H; Matsuo, M [Key Laboratory of Earth' s Deep Interior, Institute of Geology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Kuno, A, E-mail: gdzhuk@hotmail.co [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Mud volcano is a typical petroleum leaching system, which normally result in bleaching effect to surrounding rocks. The result of Moessbauer spectroscopy of rock samples collected from the Dushanzi mud volcano system revealed clear variations in iron species. Compared to the unbleached reddish sedimentary rocks, the bleached rocks are dominated by reducing iron species such as paramagnetic ferrous iron (para-Fe{sup 2+}), ferrous iron in siderite (sid-Fe{sup 2+}), sulphide and pyrite (pyr-Fe{sup 2+}) whereas the original reddish rock is enriched in ferric iron including iron in hematite (hem-Fe{sup 3+}) and paramagnetic ferric iron (para-Fe{sup 3+}). A reduction of ferric iron species and hydrolysis of iron along with oxidation of hydrocarbons should be one of the main processes along bleaching by hydrocarbons to rocks.

  10. Data processing techniques for a wireless data transmission application via mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qingjie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The data measured by well bottom sensors can be transmitted to the surface through the drilling mud during oil drilling operations. This article introduces a data processing scheme for a wireless data transmission application via mud. The detailed signal processing procedure is given, and several data processing techniques used are discussed, mainly including data encoding and signal integrating method, signal filtering, data storage and manage method, peak detection, signal recognition, and data decoding method. The article uses M pulses in N slots to encode the values of actual parameters. A two step filtering method and a dynamic data storing and managing method are proposed. A mix peak detection method is utilized to find the position of a pulse by combining threshold method and neighbor comparison method. These techniques have been successfully used in an oil well drilling operation.

  11. Mass transport in a thin layer of power-law mud under surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Bai, Yuchuan; Xu, Dong

    2017-02-01

    The mass transport velocity in a two-layer system is studied theoretically. The wave motion is driven by a periodic pressure load on the free water surface, and mud in the lower layer is described by a power-law rheological model. Perturbation analysis is performed to the second order to find the mean Eulerian velocity. A numerical iteration method is employed to solve the non-linear governing equation at the leading order. The influence of rheological properties on fluid motion characteristics including the flow field, the surface displacement, the mass transport velocity, and the net discharge rates are investigated based on theoretical results. Theoretical analysis shows that under the action of interfacial shearing, a recirculation structure may appear near the interface in the upper water layer. A higher mass transport velocity at the interface does not necessarily mean a higher discharge rate for a pseudo-plastic fluid mud.

  12. Arsenic(V) removal from underground water by magnetic nanoparticles synthesized from waste red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ilker; Arslan, Gulsin; Tor, Ali; Ersoz, Mustafa; Cengeloglu, Yunus

    2012-10-15

    In this study waste red mud (bauxite residue) sample obtained from Seydişehir (Konya, Turkey) was evaluated for the synthesis of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) in ammonia solution that can be used to remove As(V) from both synthetic and natural underground water samples. The synthesized Fe(3)O(4)-NPs were characterized by using TEM, VSM, XRD, SAXS, TGA and FT-IR spectroscopy. The Fe(3)O(4)-NPs assumed a near-sphere shape with an average size of 9 nm. The results showed that synthesized Fe(3)O(4)-NPs from waste red mud have satisfactory magnetic properties and As(V) sorption capacity, especially at low equilibrium arsenate concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DTM-based automatic mapping and fractal clustering of putative mud volcanoes in Arabia Terra craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, R. P.; Mazzarini, F. M.; Massironi, M. M.; Cremonese, G. C.; Rossi, A. P. R.; Pondrelli, M. P.; Marinangeli, L. M.

    2017-09-01

    Arabia Terra is a region of Mars where occurrence of past-water manifests at surface and subsurface. To date, several landforms associated with this activity were recognized and mapped, directly influencing the models of fluid circulation. In particular, within several craters such as Firsoff and an unnamed southern crater, putative mud volcanoes were described by several authors. In fact, numerous mounds (from 30 m of diameter in the case of monogenic cones, up to 3-400 m in the case of coalescing mounds) present an apical vent-like depression, resembling subaerial Azerbaijan mud volcanoes and gryphons. To this date, landform analysis through topographic position index and curvatures based on topography was never attempted. We hereby present a landform classification method suitable for mounds automatic mapping. Their resulting spatial distribution is then studied in terms of self-similar clustering.

  14. Utilization of Foaming Technology in Cemented Paste Backfill of High-Mud Superfine Unclassified Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wen Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high-mud content in superfine unclassified tailings (SUT, the viscosity of cemented paste backfill (CPB is high and its pipeline transportation properties are poor. Foaming technology was introduced to prepare a new three-phase flow backfill (TFB using a foaming machine. Then the rheological parameters of TFB with different bubble ratio were measured and their pipeline transportation properties were simulated by Fluent. Besides, the simulation results were further verified by a semi-industrial loop test. The results indicate that the optimum ratio of TFB is a cement-sand ratio of 1 : 8, mass concentration of 70%, and bubble ratio of 20%. Compared with CPB, the decrease of bleeding rate, viscosity, and resistance loss of TFB is 27%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. Therefore, foaming technology is an innovative and feasible solution for high-mud CPB in reducing viscosity, decreasing resistance loss, and improving pipeline transporting efficiency.

  15. Sulphur bath and mud pack treatment for rheumatoid arthritis at the Dead Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenik, S; Buskila, D; Neumann, L; Kleiner-Baumgarten, A; Zimlichman, S; Horowitz, J

    1990-02-01

    Forty patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis in a stage of active disease were treated for two weeks at a spa hotel. The patients were divided into four groups of 10. Group I was treated with daily mud packs, group II with daily hot sulphur baths, group III with a combination of mud packs and hot sulphur baths, and group IV served as a control group. The patients were assessed by a rheumatologist who was blinded to the treatment modalities. Statistically significant improvement for a period of up to three months was observed in the three treatment groups in most of the clinical indices. Improvement in the control group was minor in comparison and not statistically significant. No significant improvement was observed in any of the laboratory variables measured. Except for three mild cases of thermal reaction there were no side effects.

  16. Laboratory data on the effectivity of chemical ` breakers` in mud and filtercake; Untersuchungen zur Effektivitaet von Degradationsmitteln in Spuelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielewicz, D.; Kraj, L. [Berg- und Huettenakademie, Krakow (Poland)

    1998-02-01

    Muds and/or suspension containing natural and synthetic polymers are widely used in drilling and civil engineering. The decomposition of muds and mud cakes enhance the flow of reservoir fluids into water wells, oil wells and draining excavations. The presented paper provides the laboratory data on chemicals used to decompose the mud and enhance the inflow of reservoir fluids. The muds containing CMC, guar gum or partially hydrolized polyacrylamides were used to testing. Sodium hyperchlorite, sodium perchlorate, lithium perchlorate and enzyme were used as mud decomposing agents. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den letzten Jahren werden in grossem Umfang sowohl bei Tiefbohrungen als auch im Bauwesen Spuelungen oder Suspensionen mit Zugabe von natuerlichen und synthetischen Polymeren verwendet. Der Abbau der Spuelung bzw. des Filtrats ermoeglicht den Zufluss aus den Gesteinsformationen in hydrogeologische und Erdoelbohrungen oder Drainagegraeben. Der vorliegende Artikel stellt Ergebnisse von Untersuchungen vor, die Aufschluss ueber die Wirksamkeit von Degradationsmitteln in Spuelung geben sollten. Die untersuchten Spuelungen enthielten Carboxymethylocellulose, Gura-gum und teilweise hydrolisiertes Polyacrylamid. Als Degradationsmittel wurden Calciumhypochlorit, Natriumhypochlorit, Natriumperchlorat, Lithiumperchlorat und ein Enzym verwendet. (orig.)

  17. Methanogenic diversity and activity in hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Parkes, R John; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. The Napoli mud volcano, situated in the brine-impacted Olimpi Area of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, emits mainly biogenic methane particularly at the centre of the mud volcano. Temperature gradients support the suggestion that Napoli is a cold mud volcano with moderate fluid flow rates. Biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses were carried out to assess the methanogenic activity rates, pathways and diversity in the hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was the only significant methanogenic pathway in the shallow sediments (0-40 cm) but was also measured throughout the sediment core, confirming that methylotrophic methanogens could be well adapted to hypersaline environments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway below 50 cm; however, low rates of acetoclastic methanogenesis were also present, even in sediment layers with the highest salinity, showing that these methanogens can thrive in this extreme environment. PCR-DGGE and methyl coenzyme M reductase gene libraries detected sequences affiliated with anaerobic methanotrophs (mainly ANME-1) as well as Methanococcoides methanogens. Results show that the hypersaline conditions in the centre of the Napoli mud volcano influence active biogenic methane fluxes and methanogenic/methylotrophic diversity. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Influence of dust and mud on the optical, chemical, and mechanical properties of a pv protective glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Ali, Haider; Khaled, Mazen M; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-10-30

    Recent developments in climate change have increased the frequency of dust storms in the Middle East. Dust storms significantly influence the performances of solar energy harvesting systems, particularly (photovoltaic) PV systems. The characteristics of the dust and the mud formed from this dust are examined using various analytical tools, including optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adhesion, cohesion and frictional forces present during the removal of dry mud from the glass surface are determined using a microtribometer. Alkali and alkaline earth metal compounds in the dust dissolve in water to form a chemically active solution at the glass surface. This solution modifies the texture of the glass surface, thereby increasing the microhardness and decreasing the transmittance of the incident optical radiation. The force required to remove the dry mud from the glass surface is high due to the cohesive forces that result from the dried mud solution at the interface between the mud and the glass. The ability altering the characteristics of the glass surface could address the dust/mud-related limitations of protective surfaces and has implications for efficiency enhancements in solar energy systems.

  19. An Alternative to Clay in Building Materials: Red Mud Sintering Using Fly Ash via Taguchi’s Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available “Red mud” or “bauxite residue” is a highly alkaline waste generated from alumina refinery with a pH of 10.5–12.5 which poses serious environmental problems. Neutralization or its treatment by sintering in presence of additives is one of the methods for overcoming the caustic problem as it fixes nearly all the leachable free caustic soda present in red mud. In the present study, feasibility of reducing the alkaline nature of red mud by sintering using fly ash as an additive via Taguchi methodology and its use for brick production, as an alternative to clay, is investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that sintering temperature is the most significant parameter in the process. A pH of 8.9 was obtained at 25–50% of red mud and 50–75% fly ash with water and temperature of . Alternatively 50% of red mud can be mixed with 50% of fly ash with water at temperature of to get a pH of about 8.4. The mechanism of this process has been explained with also emphasis on chemical, mineralogical, and morphological analysis of the sintered red mud. The results would be extremely useful in utilization of red mud in building and construction industry.

  20. A Model for the Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves over Viscous Muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-05

    here that the linear long wave theory ( Dean and Dalrymple , 1991) the length of the domain, the water depth and the extent of the mud expected...herein. From Similar to the previous test, our next test involves the linear long wave theory ( Dean and Dalrymple , 1991) the transformation of waves of...diffraction on the dissertation, Delft University of Technology. lee side. Further downwave, the discontinuity in the wave crest Dean , R.G., Dalrymple , R.A

  1. Acoustic and Physical Properties of Mud Deposit in the Southern Continental Shelf of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, S.; Kim, D. C.; Lee, G.; Kim, G.; Seo, Y.; Çifci, G.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles and core sediment sampling have been conducted to investigate the acoustic characteristics and physical properties of shelf mud deposit in the southern continental shelf of Korea. The major sediment source is the Seomjin River. The sediments are transported through the Yeosu Sound. Approximately 1000 line-km data of Chirp subbottom profiling and sparker were used. Along with seismic profiling, 40 piston core samples were collected. High-resolution seismic profiles show the Holocene mud deposits dominated in the study area, ranging from 10 to 40 m in thickness, and gas-related acoustic anomalies were also recorded in the Yeosu Sound and the south of Oenaro Island. The late Quaternary deposits on the study area can be divided into three sequences (Unit Ι, Unit ΙΙ, Unit ΙΙΙ). The seismic units ΙΙ and ΙΙΙ are interpreted as the inner-shelf transgressive sand sheet and the deltaic-estuarine complex, respectively. The highstand systems tract (unit Ι) overlying the maximum flooding surface is recent mud deposits formed during recent highstand of sea level. Core samples were analyzed for sediment texture (grain size, sand, silt and clay contents), physical properties (porosity, water content, bulk density, grain density and shear strength), and acoustic properties (compressional wave velocity and attenuation). Thirty-nine piston core samples were employed for the measurement. The mud sediments in the study area is vertically homogenous in texture. The mean grain size decreases generally from the mouth of Yeosu Sound to seaward. The sound velocity decreases from 1505 to 1485 m/s then increases to 1520 m/s southeastward due to Pleistocene sand ridges. Kim et al. (1992) suggested the grading effect of the Seomjin River discharge transported through the Yeosu Peninsula and Namhae Island results in the physical and acoustic properties.

  2. Isolation of Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) growing on ferric hydroxide mud impregnated with gas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudin, C. (Lavera Refinery, France); Chater, K.W.A.

    1977-09-01

    In northern France, gas oil-impregnated ferric hydroxide mud was found to support fungal growth. The fungus was identified by the Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, with whom a reference culture has been registered. Experiments indicated that its growth resulted from the biodegradation of the gas oil. It is believed that, in this unusual situation, contaminating hydrocarbons may be removed from the environment by microbial activity.

  3. Use of a downhole mud motor as a pump for drillstem testing. [Navi-Drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, J.S.

    1982-04-01

    To drillstem test wells that do not flow to the surface, use has been made of the Christensen Inc. Navi-Drill, a downhole mud motor used for directional drilling, modified to act as a pump and run by the drilling rig. This method was used first on an exploration well in south Oman to produce oil from a zone that had shown only water in a conventional drillstem test.

  4. Cr(VI) Adsorption on Red Mud Modified by Lanthanum: Performance, Kinetics and Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, You-Wei; Li, Jie; Du, Zhao-Fu; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution caused by the highly toxic metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) creates significant human health and ecological risks. In this study, a novel adsorbent was used to treat Cr(VI)-containing wastewater; the adsorbent was prepared using red mud (RM) generated from the alumina production industry and the rare earth element lanthanum. This study explored adsorption performance, kinetics, and mechanisms. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics of the RM modified by lanthanum (La-RM...

  5. Structural architecture and glacitectonic evolution of the Mud Buttes cupola hill complex, southern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Emrys; Evans, David J. A.; Atkinson, Nigel; Kendall, Allison

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed multidisciplinary study of the deformed bedrock and overlying Quaternary sediments exposed at the Mud Buttes in southern Alberta, Canada. This large, arcuate cupola hill is composed of intensely folded and thrust sandstones, siltstones and mudstones of the Cretaceous Belly River Group. Glacitectonism responsible for the development of this internally complex landform occurred at the margin of the newly defined Prospect Valley lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Analysis of the deformation structures reveals that construction of this landform occurred in response to at least two phases of south-directed ice sheet advance separated by a period of retreat. The first phase led to the formation of a forward propagating imbricate thrust stack leading to polyphase deformation of the Belly River Group. D1 thrusting led to the detachment of thrust-bound slices of bedrock which were accreted to the base of the developing imbricate stack. This process resulted in the structurally higher and older thrust-slices being progressively ;back-rotated; (tilted), accompanied by D2 thrusting and folding. Further thrusting during D3 was restricted to the core of the Mud Buttes as the deforming sequence accommodated further compression imposed by the advancing ice. Minor oscillations of the ice margin led to localised brittle-ductile shearing (D4) of the bedrock immediately adjacent to the ice contact part of the thrust stack. The second phase of ice advance led to the accretion of a relatively simple thrust and folded sequence seen the northern side of Mud Buttes. The resulting composite thrust moraine was subsequently overridden by ice advancing from the NNW to form a dome-like cupola-hill. This readvance of the Prospect Valley lobe led to the formation of a thin carapace of Quaternary sediments mantling the Mud Buttes which include glacitectonite, till and an organic-rich clay-silt (?palaeosol).

  6. MAIN FEATURES OF BALNEOLOGICAL AND MUD RESORTS NETWORK OF THE BLACK SEA COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Молодецький, А. Е.; Пишна, Г. О.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the article is the characteristics of geographical (natural and socio-economic) prerequisites for the development of coastal resorts of Black Sea region countries, with emphasis on balneological and mud-bath of recreational resources systems. Six European and Asian countries – Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania have a diverse and significant resort and recreational resources of the Black Sea coast. However, for many decades the Black Sea resorts of thes...

  7. Modelling fluid flow in clastic eruptions: application to the Lusi mud eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel W.; Galerne, Christophe; Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Clastic eruptions involve the rapid ascension of clasts together with fluids, gas and/or liquid phases that may deform and brecciate the host rocks. These fluids transport the resulting mixture, called mud breccia, to the surface. Such eruptions are often associated with geological structures such as mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vent complexes and more generally piercement structures. They involve various processes, acting over a wide range of scales which makes them a complex and challenging, multi-phase system to model. Although piercement structures have been widely studied and discussed, only few attempts have been made to model the dynamics of such clastic eruptions. The ongoing Lusi mud eruption, in the East Java back-arc basin, which began in May 2006, is probably the most spectacular clastic eruption. Lusi's eruptive behaviour has been extensively studied over the past decade and thus represents a unique opportunity to better understand the dynamics driving clastic eruptions, including fossil clastic systems. We use both analytical formulations and numerical models to simulate Lusi's eruptive dynamics and to investigate simple relationships between the mud breccia properties (density, viscosity, gas and clast content) and the volumetric flow rate. Our results show that the conduit radius of such piercement system cannot exceeds a few meters at depth, and that clasts, if not densely packed, will not affect the flow rate when they are smaller than a fifth of the conduit size. Using published data for the annual gas fluxes at Lusi, we infer a maximal depth at which exsolution starts. This occurs between 1800 m and 3200 m deep for the methane and between 750 m and 1000 m for the carbon dioxide.

  8. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  9. Precipitation of heavy metals by lime mud waste of pulp and paper mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puek Tantriratna

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation of heavy metals in synthetic and actual wastewater with lime mud (solid waste generated from the pulp and paper production process was experimented using Jar-tests. Separate synthetic wastewater samples were prepared for each of the following heavy metals: lead (1,433.7 mgPb2+/L, chromium (506.7 mgCr3+/L, cadmium (1,095 mgCd2+/L and mercury (9.37 mgHg2+/L. The actual wastewater was tanning wastewater containing 74.49 mgCr3+/L and COD wastewater containing 683 mgHg2+/L. Adjustments of pH in the acidic range, pH 2-7, were made for each type of synthetic wastewater except for the Hg synthetic wastewater. The optimum conditions obtained from the tests of the synthetic wastewater were used for theactual wastewater samples. Precipitation of heavy metals with lime mud was effective as indicated by the removal efficiency as high as 90% up for Pb, Cd and Hg and 100% for Cr. However, the removal efficiency for the Hg-COD wastewater was only 67%. The precipitating pH was in the range of 10 up, which is the common pH range for metal carbonate precipitation. The optimum dosage of lime mud for Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg synthetic wastewater was 0.4-1.0 g/L, 2.0-4.0 g/L, 1.6-2.0g/L and 0.8 g/L, respectively. While the optimum dosage of lime mud for precipitating chromium in tanning wastewater was 3.8 g/L and 3.6 g/L for precipitating mercury in COD wastewater.

  10. The effects of oil-base drilling mud and crude oil on demersal fish eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Serigstad, Bjørn; Sværen, Ingrid; Føyn, Lars

    1988-01-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning herring and the Barents Sea capelin both with demersal eggs, spawn in relative small and concentrated areas on the Norwegian continental shelf. Besides potential impact on the fish resources from oil pollution, drilling of oil wells can in some cases, where oil-base drilling mud is used, have an impact on the development of demersal eggs. This paper presents the biotest setup at the Institute of Marine Research in Bergen for testing effects f...

  11. Improving the performance of clay from Gabal Um Qumar as drilling mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abdou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main component of water base drilling fluids to perform common properties that facilitate safe and satisfactory drilling is bentonite operations. This paper represents composition and treatment capability of clays collected from clayston quarries in Gabal um Qumar north Cairo-Ismailia Desert Road, Egypt for its application as water base drilling mud. Chemical analysis, XRD and particle size distribution showed that these clays consist of montmorillonite. The rheological properties of the prepared suspension from these clay samples and its activation products by using chemicals and polymers were investigated. Results of untreated samples indicate that they cannot be used as a drilling mud but after activation processes by soda ash, Carboxi Methyl Cellulose (CMC and Drispac Polymer significant changes were observed in yield and rheological properties. Accordingly this type of clay after activation by polymer can be classified as sub-bentonite and classified between bentonite grade and medium bentonite grade that can be used as drilling mud for medium depth wells.

  12. Effect of Fly Ash and Carbon Reinforcement on Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harekrushna Sutar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the sliding wear performance of red mud, fly ash, and carbon composite coating on mild steel. The complex mixture of red mud, fly ash, and carbon is plasma sprayed at 9 kW operating power level. The coatings are examined to study the coating morphology, XRD phase transformation, wear rate, and wear morphology. Wear rate (in terms of cumulative mass loss with sliding time has been demonstrated in the study. At first pure red mud is plasma coated to observe the coating characteristics and then compounded with 20% carbon, 30% carbon, and 20% carbon + 30% fly ash, separately by weight and sliding wear test conducted using pin on disc wear tester. The trial was performed at fixed track diameter of 100 mm and at sliding speed of 100 rpm (0.523 m/s at a load of 30 N. The results are compared. Declined cumulative mass loss by inclusion of fly ash and carbon is seen. This might be due to augmented interfacial tension and dense film build-up at boundary layer.

  13. Archaeal populations in hypersaline sediments underlying orange microbial mats in the Napoli mud volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the "active" archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano.

  14. Archaeal Populations in Hypersaline Sediments Underlying Orange Microbial Mats in the Napoli Mud Volcano▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the “active” archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano. PMID:21335391

  15. Adsorption Rate of 198 Reactive Red Dye from Aqueous Solutions by using Activated Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Zazouli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud and purpose: Dye is one of the problems of industrial effluent such as textile industries. The dyes can be removed by various methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation of adsorption rate of reactive red 198 from aqueous solution by activated red mud. Materials and methods: This research was a lab study. Activated red mud was used as an adsorbent to remove reactive red 198 dye. The effect of various parameters on performance of adsorbent was investigated and the isotherm of adsorption was determined. The dye concentration was measured in wavelength of 518 nm by spectrophotometer. Results: The results indicated that the adsorption efficiency reduced by increasing of initial dye concentration. Increasing of contact time and adsorbent dose can lead to increasing of the removal efficiency. The maximum removal efficiency was occurred pH between 2 to 3. The data was best fitted on Frandlich and Temkin isotherms. Conclusion: The red mud had a satisfactory quality in dye adsorption. It can be used as effective and inexpensive adsorbents for treatment of textile effluent.

  16. Canoe binds RanGTP to promote PinsTPR/Mud-mediated spindle orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Brett; Johnston, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Regulated spindle orientation maintains epithelial tissue integrity and stem cell asymmetric cell division. In Drosophila melanogaster neural stem cells (neuroblasts), the scaffolding protein Canoe (Afadin/Af-6 in mammals) regulates spindle orientation, but its protein interaction partners and mechanism of action are unknown. In this paper, we use our recently developed induced cell polarity system to dissect the molecular mechanism of Canoe-mediated spindle orientation. We show that a previously uncharacterized portion of Canoe directly binds the Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. The Canoe–PinsTPR interaction recruits Canoe to the cell cortex and is required for activation of the PinsTPR-Mud (nuclear mitotic apparatus in mammals) spindle orientation pathway. We show that the Canoe Ras-association (RA) domains directly bind RanGTP and that both the CanoeRA domains and RanGTP are required to recruit Mud to the cortex and activate the Pins/Mud/dynein spindle orientation pathway. PMID:22024168

  17. The Characteristics of Fluid Potential in Mud Diapirs Associated with Gas Hydrates in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mud diapirs have been identified in the southern Okinawa Trough from a seismic survey using R/V KEXUE I in 2001. The movement and accumulation of free gas related to mud diapirs are discussed in detail by an analysis of fluid potential which is based upon velocity data. It can be found that free gas moves from the higher fluid potential strata to the lower ones and the gas hydrate comes into being during free gas movement meeting the proper criteria of temperature and pressure. In fact, gas hydrates have been found in the upper layers above the mud diapirs and in host rocks exhibiting other geophysical characteristics. As the result of the formation of the gas hydrate, the free gas bearing strata are enclosed by the gas hydrate bearing strata. Due to the high pressure anomalies of the free gas bearing strata the fluid potential increases noticeably. It can then be concluded that the high fluid potential anomaly on the low fluid potential background may be caused by the presence of the free gas below the gas hydrate bearing strata.

  18. A Nanomesoporous Catalyst from Modified Red Mud and Its Application for Methane Decomposition to Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of nanomesoporous modified red mud (MRM catalyst was prepared and utilized for catalytic methane decomposition (CMD to produce hydrogen. The modification process significantly simplified the mineral composition of the red mud (RM; in the meantime, the physical and chemical structure of RM was changed. TEM images suggested that MRM was a kind of nanomesoporous material assembled by a number of uniformly nanoscale particles, BET results showed that the pore size distributions of MRM were ranged from 3 to 12 nm, and the specific surface area and total pore volumes of red mud improved from 8.00 m2/g and 0.08 cm3/g to 190.61 m2/g and 0.39 cm3/g, respectively. The catalytic performance of the catalysts has been tested at 800°C; the results showed that MRM exhibited much higher activity and stability than RM for CMD.

  19. Monitoring methane emission of mud volcanoes by seismic tremor measurements: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Albarello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for estimating methane emission at mud volcanoes is here proposed based on measurements of the seismic tremor on their surface. Data obtained at the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan reveal the presence of energy bursts characterized by well-determined features (i.e. waveforms, spectra and polarization properties that can be associated with bubbling at depth. Counting such events provides a possible tool for monitoring gas production in the reservoir, thus minimizing logistic troubles and representing a cheap and effective alternative to more complex approaches. Specifically, we model the energy bursts as the effect of resonant gas bubbles at depth. This modelling allows to estimate the dimension of the bubbles and, consequently, the gas outflow from the main conduit in the assumption that all emissions from depth occur by bubble uprising. The application of this model to seismic events detected at the Dashgil mud volcano during three sessions of measurements carried out in 2006 and 2007 provides gas flux estimates that are in line with those provided by independent measurements at the same structure. This encouraging result suggests that the one here proposed could be considered a new promising, cheap and easy to apply tool for gas flux measurements in bubbling gas seepage areas.

  20. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-02-15

    The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.